Anarchy is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a
single person that rejects hierarchy. Colloquially, it can also
refer to a society experiencing widespread turmoil and collapse. The
word originally meant leaderlessness, but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph
Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise
What Is Property? to refer
to a new political philosophy: anarchism, which advocates stateless
societies based on voluntary associations. In practical terms, anarchy
can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of
government and institutions. It can also designate a nation (or
anywhere on earth that is inhabited) that has no system of government
or central rule.
Anarchy is primarily advocated by anarchists, individuals who propose
replacing government with voluntary institutions.
2 Political philosophy
4 Examples of state-collapse anarchy
English Civil War
English Civil War (1642–1651)
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War (1917–1922)
4.6 Albania (1997)
5 Lists of ungoverned communities
5.1 Ungoverned communities
6 See also
8 External links
The word anarchy comes from the ancient Greek ἀναρχία
(anarchia), which combines ἀ (a), "not, without" and ἀρχή
(arkhi), "ruler, leader, authority." Thus, the term refers to a person
or society "without rulers" or "without leaders".
The German philosopher
Immanuel Kant treated anarchy in his
Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View as consisting of "Law and
Freedom without Force". Thus, for Kant, anarchy falls short of being a
true civil state because the law is only an "empty recommendation" if
force is not included to make this law efficacious ("legitimation",
etymologically fancifully from "legem timere" = "fearing the law").
For there to be such a state, force must be included while law and
freedom are maintained, a state which Kant calls a republic.
Kant identified four kinds of government:
law and freedom without force (anarchy)
law and force without freedom (despotism)
force without freedom and law (barbarism)
force with freedom and law (republic)
Main article: Anarchism
Anarchism as a political philosophy advocates self-governed societies
based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as
stateless societies, although several authors have
defined them more specifically as institutions based on
non-hierarchical free associations.
the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful. While
anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or
hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all human relations,
including, but not limited to, the state
There are many types and traditions of anarchism, not all of which are
Anarchist schools of thought
Anarchist schools of thought can differ
fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to
complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have been divided into
the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual
Anarchism is often considered to be a radical
left-wing ideology, and much of anarchist economics and
anarchist legal philosophy reflect anti-statist interpretations of
communism, collectivism, syndicalism or participatory economics. Some
individualist anarchists are also socialists or communists while some
anarcho-communists are also individualists or egoists.
Anarchism as a social movement has regularly endured fluctuations in
popularity. The central tendency of anarchism as a mass social
movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and
anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism being primarily a
literary phenomenon which nevertheless did influence the bigger
currents and individualists also participated in large anarchist
organizations. Some anarchists oppose all forms of aggression,
supporting self-defense or non-violence (anarcho-pacifism),
while others have supported the use of militant measures, including
revolution and propaganda of the deed, on the path to an anarchist
Since the 1890s, the term libertarianism has been used as a synonym
for anarchism and was used almost exclusively in this sense
until the 1950s in the United States. At this time, classical liberals
in the United States began to describe themselves as libertarians, and
it has since become necessary to distinguish their individualist and
capitalist philosophy from socialist anarchism. Thus, the former is
often referred to as right-wing libertarianism, or simply
right-libertarianism, whereas the latter is described by the terms
libertarian socialism, socialist libertarianism, left-libertarianism,
and left-anarchism. Right-libertarians are divided into
minarchists and anarcho-capitalists or voluntarists. Outside the
English-speaking world, libertarianism generally retains its
association with left-wing anarchism.
See also: Acephalous society, Stateless society, Primitive communism,
Although most known societies are characterized by the presence of
hierarchy or the state, anthropologists have studied many egalitarian
stateless societies, including most nomadic hunter-gatherer
societies and horticultural societies such as the Semai and
the Piaroa. Many of these societies can be considered to be anarchic
in the sense that they explicitly reject the idea of centralized
The egalitarianism typical of human hunter-gatherers is interesting
when viewed in an evolutionary context. One of humanity's two closest
primate relatives, the chimpanzee, is anything but egalitarian,
forming hierarchies that are dominated by alpha males. So great is the
contrast with human hunter-gatherers that it is widely argued by
palaeoanthropologists that resistance to being dominated was a key
factor driving the development of human consciousness, language,
kinship, and social organization.
Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology anarchist anthropologist
David Graeber attempts to outline areas of research that intellectuals
might explore in creating a cohesive body of anarchist social theory.
Graeber posits that anthropology is "particularly well positioned" as
an academic discipline that can look at the gamut of human societies
and organizations, to study, analyze and catalog alternative social
and economic structures around the world, and most importantly,
present these alternatives to the world.
Society Against the State
Pierre Clastres examines stateless
societies where certain cultural practices and attitudes avert the
development of hierarchy and the state. He dismisses the notion that
the state is the natural outcome of the evolution of human
The Art of Not Being Governed
James C. Scott
James C. Scott studies Zomia, a vast
stateless upland region on Southeast Asia. The hills of Zomia isolate
it from the lowland states and create a refuge for people to escape
to. Scott argues that the particular social and cultural
characteristics of the hill people were adapted to escape capture by
the lowland states and should not be viewed as relics of barbarism
abandoned by civilization.
Peter Leeson examines a variety of institutions of private law
enforcement developed in anarchic situations by eighteenth century
pirates, preliterate tribesmen, and Californian prison gangs. These
groups all adapted different methods of private law enforcement to
meet their specific needs and the particulars of their anarchic
Anarcho-primitivists base their critique of civilization partly on
anthropological studies of nomadic hunter-gatherers, noting that the
shift towards domestication has likely caused increases in disease,
labor, inequality, warfare, and psychological disorders.
Authors such as
John Zerzan have argued that negative stereotypes of
primitive societies (e.g. that they are typically extremely violent or
impoverished) are used to justify the values of modern industrial
society and to move individuals further away from more natural and
Examples of state-collapse anarchy
See also: Failed states
Mainland Europe experienced near-anarchy in the Thirty Years' War
English Civil War
English Civil War (1642–1651)
Main article: English Civil War
Anarchy was one of the issues at the
Putney Debates of 1647:
Thomas Rainsborough: I shall now be a little more free and open with
you than I was before. I wish we were all true-hearted, and that we
did all carry ourselves with integrity. If I did mistrust you I would
not use such asseverations. I think it doth go on mistrust, and things
are thought too readily matters of reflection, that were never
intended. For my part, as I think, you forgot something that was in my
speech, and you do not only yourselves believe that some men believe
that the government is never correct, but you hate all men that
believe that. And, sir, to say because a man pleads that every man
hath a voice by right of nature, that therefore it destroys by the
same argument all property – this is to forget the Law of God. That
there's a property, the Law of God says it; else why hath God made
that law, Thou shalt not steal? I am a poor man, therefore I must be
oppressed: if I have no interest in the kingdom, I must suffer by all
their laws be they right or wrong. Nay thus: a gentleman lives in a
country and hath three or four lordships, as some men have (God knows
how they got them); and when a Parliament is called he must be a
Parliament-man; and it may be he sees some poor men, they live near
this man, he can crush them – I have known an invasion to make sure
he hath turned the poor men out of doors; and I would fain know
whether the potency of rich men do not this, and so keep them under
the greatest tyranny that was ever thought of in the world. And
therefore I think that to that it is fully answered: God hath set down
that thing as to propriety with this law of his, Thou shalt not steal.
And for my part I am against any such thought, and, as for yourselves,
I wish you would not make the world believe that we are for anarchy.
Oliver Cromwell: I know nothing but this, that they that are the most
yielding have the greatest wisdom; but really, sir, this is not right
as it should be. No man says that you have a mind to anarchy, but that
the consequence of this rule tends to anarchy, must end in anarchy;
for where is there any bound or limit set if you take away this limit
, that men that have no interest but the interest of breathing shall
have no voice in elections? Therefore, I am confident on 't, we should
not be so hot one with another.
As people began to theorize about the English Civil War, "anarchy"
came to be more sharply defined, albeit from differing political
Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) describes the natural condition of
mankind as a war of all against all, where man lives a brutish
existence. "For the savage people in many places of America, except
the government of small families, the concord whereof dependeth on
natural lust, have no government at all, and live at this day in that
brutish manner." Hobbes finds three basic causes of the conflict
in this state of nature: competition, diffidence and glory, "The first
maketh men invade for gain; the second, for safety; and the third, for
reputation". His first law of nature is that "every man ought to
endeavour peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he
cannot obtain it, that he may seek and use all helps and advantages of
war". In the state of nature, "every man has a right to every thing,
even to then go for one another's body" but the second law is that, in
order to secure the advantages of peace, "that a man be willing, when
others are so too… to lay down this right to all things; and be
contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow
other men against himself". This is the beginning of
contracts/covenants; performing of which is the third law of nature.
"Injustice," therefore, is failure to perform in a covenant; all else
1656 – James Harrington (The
Commonwealth of Oceana) uses the term
to describe a situation where the people use force to impose a
government on an economic base composed of either solitary land
ownership (absolute monarchy), or land in the ownership of a few
(mixed monarchy). He distinguishes it from commonwealth, the situation
when both land ownership and governance shared by the population at
large, seeing it as a temporary situation arising from an imbalance
between the form of government and the form of property relations.
Main articles: French
Revolution and Reign of Terror
Heads of Aristocrats, on spikes
Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist of the Victorian era known foremost
for his widely influential work of history, The French Revolution,
wrote that the French
Revolution was a war against both aristocracy
Meanwhile, we will hate
Anarchy as Death, which it is; and the things
Anarchy shall be hated more! Surely Peace alone is
Anarchy is destruction: a burning up, say, of Shams and
Insupportabilities; but which leaves Vacancy behind. Know this also,
that out of a world of Unwise nothing but an Unwisdom can be made.
Arrange it, Constitution-build it, sift it through Ballot-Boxes as
thou wilt, it is and remains an Unwisdom,-- the new prey of new quacks
and unclean things, the latter end of it slightly better than the
beginning. Who can bring a wise thing out of men unwise? Not one. And
so Vacancy and general Abolition having come for this France, what can
Anarchy do more? Let there be Order, were it under the Soldier's
Sword; let there be Peace, that the bounty of the Heavens be not
spilt; that what of Wisdom they do send us bring fruit in its season!
– It remains to be seen how the quellers of Sansculottism were
themselves quelled, and sacred right of Insurrection was blown away by
gunpowder: wherewith this singular eventful History called French
Armand II, duke of Aiguillon came before the National Assembly in 1789
and shared his views on the anarchy:
I may be permitted here to express my personal opinion. I shall no
doubt not be accused of not loving liberty, but I know that not all
movements of peoples lead to liberty. But I know that great anarchy
quickly leads to great exhaustion and that despotism, which is a kind
of rest, has almost always been the necessary result of great anarchy.
It is therefore much more important than we think to end the disorder
under which we suffer. If we can achieve this only through the use of
force by authorities, then it would be thoughtless to keep refraining
from using such force.
Armand II was later exiled because he was viewed as being opposed to
the revolution's violent tactics.
Professor Chris Bossche commented on the role of anarchy in the
In The French Revolution, the narrative of increasing anarchy
undermined the narrative in which the revolutionaries were striving to
create a new social order by writing a constitution.
Sir Nicholas Lawes, Governor of Jamaica, wrote to John Robinson, the
Bishop of London, in 1720:
As to the Englishmen that came as mechanics hither, very young and
have now acquired good estates in Sugar Plantations and Indigo &
co., of course they know no better than what maxims they learn in the
Country. To be now short & plain Your Lordship will see that they
have no maxims of Church and State but what are absolutely anarchical.
In the letter, Lawes goes on to complain that these "estated men now
are like Jonah's gourd" and details the humble origins of the
"creolians" largely lacking an education and flouting the rules of
church and state. In particular, he cites their refusal to abide by
the Deficiency Act, which required slave owners to procure from
England one white person for every 40 enslaved Africans, thereby
hoping to expand their own estates and inhibit further English/Irish
immigration. Lawes describes the government as being "anarchical, but
nearest to any form of Aristocracy". "Must the King's good subjects at
home who are as capable to begin plantations, as their Fathers, and
themselves were, be excluded from their
Liberty of settling
Plantations in this noble Island, for ever and the King and Nation at
home be deprived of so much riches, to make a few upstart Gentlemen
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War (1917–1922)
Nestor Makhno (1918), the leader of the
Free Territory in
Ukraine during the Russian Civil War.
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War – which initially started as a
confrontation between the
Communists and Monarchists – on the
territory of today's Ukraine, a new force emerged, namely the
Anarchist Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of
Ukraine led by Nestor
Makhno. The Ukrainian
Anarchist during the
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War (also
called the "Black Army") organized the
Free Territory of Ukraine, an
anarchist society, committed to resisting state authority, whether
capitalist or communist. This project was cut short by the
consolidation of Bolshevik power. Makhno was described by anarchist
Emma Goldman as "an extraordinary figure" leading a
revolutionary peasants' movement.
During 1918, most of
Ukraine was controlled by the forces of the
Central Powers, which were unpopular among the people. In March 1918,
the young anarchist Makhno's forces and allied anarchist and guerrilla
groups won victories against German, Austrian, and Ukrainian
nationalist (the army of Symon Petlura) forces, and units of the White
Army, capturing a lot of German and Austro-Hungarian arms. These
victories over much larger enemy forces established Makhno's
reputation as a military tactician; he became known as Batko
('Father') to his admirers.
Makhno called the Bolsheviks dictators and opposed the "
police]... and similar compulsory authoritative and disciplinary
institutions" and called for "[f]reedom of speech, press, assembly,
unions and the like". The Bolsheviks accused the Makhnovists of
imposing a formal government over the area they controlled, and also
said that Makhnovists used forced conscription, committed summary
executions, and had two military and counter-intelligence forces: the
Razvedka and the Kommissiya Protivmakhnovskikh Del (patterned after
Cheka and the GRU). However, later historians have dismissed
these claims as fraudulent propaganda.
Anarchism in Spain
Francisco Franco, a fascist Spanish general staged a military
rebellion which attempted overthrew the Popular Front (the established
Spanish government), in 1936. Following Franco's rebellion, anarchist,
communist and what remained of Popular Front joined forces against
Franco. This was seen as a social revolution as much as a political
revolution to some. Throughout the war and shortly after, many Spanish
working-class citizens lived in anarchist communities, many of which
thrived during this time. With major support of Germany and Italy the
nationalists won the war, and set up a fascist dictatorship lead by
Franco, effectively ending much of the anarchism in Spain.
Main article: 1997 rebellion in Albania
In 1997, Albania fell into a state of anarchy, mainly due to the heavy
losses of money caused by the collapse of pyramid firms. As a result
of the societal collapse, heavily armed criminals roamed freely with
near total impunity. There were often 3–4 gangs per city, especially
in the south, where the police did not have sufficient resources to
deal with gang-related crime.
Main article: History of
Somalia showing the major self-declared states and areas of
factional control in 2006.
Following the outbreak of the civil war in
Somalia and the ensuing
collapse of the central government, residents reverted to local forms
of conflict resolution; either secular, traditional or Islamic law,
with a provision for appeal of all sentences. The legal structure in
the country was thus divided along three lines: civil law, religious
law and customary law (xeer).
While Somalia's formal judicial system was largely destroyed after the
fall of the
Siad Barre regime, it was later gradually rebuilt and
administered under different regional governments, such as the
Somaliland macro-regions. In the case of the
Government and its successor the Transitional
Federal Government, new interim judicial structures were formed
through various international conferences.
Despite some significant political differences between them, all of
these administrations shared similar legal structures, much of which
were predicated on the judicial systems of previous Somali
administrations. These similarities in civil law included: a) a
charter which affirms the primacy of Muslim shari'a or religious law,
although in practice shari'a is applied mainly to matters such as
marriage, divorce, inheritance, and civil issues. The charter assured
the independence of the judiciary, which in turn was protected by a
judicial committee; b) a three-tier judicial system including a
supreme court, a court of appeals, and courts of first instance
(either divided between district and regional courts, or a single
court per region); and c) the laws of the civilian government which
were in effect prior to the military coup d'état that saw the Barre
regime into power remain in forced until the laws are amended.
Lists of ungoverned communities
The entrance of Freetown Christiania, a Danish neighborhood autonomous
from local government controls.
Zomia, Southeast Asian highlands beyond control of governments
Republic of Cospaia (1440–1826)
Anarchy in the United States
Anarchy in the United States (19th century)
Diggers (England, 1649–1651)
Libertatia (late 17th century)
Neutral Moresnet (June 26, 1816 – June 28, 1919)
Kibbutz, a community movement in Israel initially influenced by
anarchist philosophy (Palestine, 1909–1948)
Kowloon Walled City
Kowloon Walled City was a largely ungoverned squatter settlement from
the mid 1940s until the early 1970s
Drop City, the first rural hippie commune (Colorado 1965–1977)
Comunidad de Población en Resistencia (CPR), indigenous movement
Slab City, squatted RV desert community (California 1965–present)
Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities
Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities (January 1,
Abahlali baseMjondolo, a South African social movement (2005–)
Main article: List of anarchist communities
Anarchists have been involved in a wide variety of communities. While
there are only a few instances of mass society "anarchies" that have
come about from explicitly anarchist revolutions, there are also
examples of intentional communities founded by anarchists.
Utopia, Ohio (1847)
Whiteway Colony (1898)
Life and Labor
Freetown Christiania (September 26, 1971)
Free Territory (Ukraine, November 1918 – 1921)
Revolutionary Catalonia (July 21, 1936 – May 1939)
Shinmin Prefecture (1929–1931)
Outline of anarchism
List of anarchist organizations
Criticisms of electoral politics
^ "Decentralism: Where It Came From-Where Is It Going?". Amazon.com.
Anarchy is the condition of existence of adult society, as
hierarchy is the condition of primitive society. There is a continual
progress in human society from hierarchy to anarchy."The State: Its
Nature, Object, and Destiny by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
^ "anarchy, n.". OED Online. December 2011. Oxford University Press.
Accessed January 17, 2013.
^ Compare Harper, Douglas. "legitimate". Online Etymology
^ Kant, Immanuel (1798). "Grundzüge der Schilderung des Charakters
der Menschengattung". In Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht. AA:
^ Louden, Robert B., ed. (2006). Kant: Anthropology from a Pragmatic
Point of View. Cambridge University Press. p. 235.
^ "ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian
government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited
to express man's natural social tendencies." George Woodcock.
"Anarchism" in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
^ "In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations
which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity
would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves
for the state in all its functions." Peter Kropotkin. "Anarchism" from
the Encyclopædia Britannica
^ "Anarchism." The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005.
p. 14 "
Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or
government, is both possible and desirable."
^ Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. p. 85
^ "as many anarchists have stressed, it is not government as such that
they find objectionable, but the hierarchical forms of government
associated with the nation state". Judith Suissa.
Education: a Philosophical Perspective. Routledge. New York. 2006. p.
^ a b "IAF principles". International of
Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. The IAF–IFA fights
for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical,
political, social, religious, cultural or sexual.
^ "That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its
aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of
the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all
hierarchical organisation and preaches free agreement – at the same
time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social
customs without which no human or animal society can exist." Peter
Kropotkin. Anarchism: its philosophy and ideal
^ "anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate)
authority, in other words, hierarchy – hierarchy being the
institutionalisation of authority within a society." "B.1 Why are
anarchists against authority and hierarchy?" in An
^ Malatesta, Errico. "Towards Anarchism". MAN!. Los Angeles:
International Group of San Francisco. OCLC 3930443. Archived from
the original on 7 November 2012. Agrell, Siri (14 May 2007).
"Working for The Man". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original
on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2008. "Anarchism".
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
2006. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006. Retrieved 29
August 2006. "Anarchism". The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of
Philosophy: 14. 2005.
Anarchism is the view that a society without the
state, or government, is both possible and desirable. The
following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy:
Mclaughlin, Paul (2007).
Anarchism and Authority. Aldershot: Ashgate.
p. 59. ISBN 978-0754661962. Johnston, R. (2000). The
Dictionary of Human Geography. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.
p. 24. ISBN 0-631-20561-6.
^ a b Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of
Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University
Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that
this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism
Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to
Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 28
^ "My use of the word hierarchy in the subtitle of this work is meant
to be provocative. There is a strong theoretical need to contrast
hierarchy with the more widespread use of the words class and State;
careless use of these terms can produce a dangerous simplification of
social reality. To use the words hierarchy, class, and State
interchangeably, as many social theorists do, is insidious and
obscurantist. This practice, in the name of a "classless" or
"libertarian" society, could easily conceal the existence of
hierarchical relationships and a hierarchical sensibility, both of
which-even in the absence of economic exploitation or political
coercion-would serve to perpetuate unfreedom." Murray Bookchin. The
Ecology of Freedom: the emergence and dissolution of Hierarchy.
Cheshire Books, Palo Alto. 1982. p. 3
Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social
control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative
duty to obey (as explored in the "philosophy of practical reason").
Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards
such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for
such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those
"authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are
therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation."Anarchism
and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical
Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 1
^ "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind
from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from
the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint
Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free
grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social
wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access
to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according
to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." Emma Goldman. "What
it Really Stands for Anarchy" in
Anarchism and Other Essays.
^ Individualist anarchist
Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as
opposition to authority, as follows: "They found that they must turn
either to the right or to the left, – follow either the path of
Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and
Proudhon the other. Thus were born State
Anarchism ... Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly
speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first,
those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress,
opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally;
second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress,
but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their
own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of
the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress,
believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling
upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition
Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human
activity. representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church
and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and
the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third,
in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx." Benjamin
Tucker. Individual Liberty.
^ Ward, Colin (1966). "
Anarchism as a Theory of Organization".
Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 1 March
George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin's
anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state
forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of
them fight against it." (p. 9) ... Bakunin did not convert the
League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade
them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne
Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly
attacking authority in both Church and State."
^ Brown, L. Susan (2002). "
Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of
Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism". The Politics of
Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism. Black Rose
Books Ltd. Publishing. p. 106.
^ Sylvan, Richard (1995). "Anarchism". In Goodwin, Robert E. and
Pettit. A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy. Philip.
Blackwell Publishing. p. 231. CS1 maint: Uses editors
^ Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". The Blackwell Dictionary of
Modern Social Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 14.
^ Kropotkin, Peter (2002). Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary
Writings. Courier Dover Publications. p. 5.
ISBN 0-486-41955-X. R.B. Fowler (1972). "The Anarchist
Tradition of Political Thought". Western Political Quarterly.
University of Utah. 25 (4): 738–52. doi:10.2307/446800.
^ Brooks, Frank H. (1994). The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology
Liberty (1881–1908). Transaction Publishers. p. xi.
ISBN 1-56000-132-1. Usually considered to be an extreme left-wing
ideology, anarchism has always included a significant strain of
radical individualism, from the hyperrationalism of Godwin, to the
egoism of Stirner, to the libertarians and anarcho-capitalists of
^ Joseph Kahn (2000). "Anarchism, the Creed That Won't Stay Dead; The
Spread of World Capitalism Resurrects a Long-Dormant Movement". The
New York Times (5 August). Colin Moynihan (2007). "Book Fair
Unites Anarchists. In Spirit, Anyway". New York Times (16
^ Post-left anarcho-communist
Bob Black after analysing
insurrectionary anarcho-communist Luigi Galleani's view on
anarcho-communism went as far as saying that "communism is the final
fulfillment of individualism.... The apparent contradiction between
individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both....
Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective.
It is nonsense to speak of 'emphatically prioritizing the social over
the individual'.... You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken
over the egg.
Anarchy is a 'method of individualization'. It aims to
combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal
unity."Bob Black. Nightmares of Reason.
Communists are more individualistic than Stirner. To them,
not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but
property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is
enslaved – and how enslaved!...
Communism thus creates a basis for
the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a
I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the
Communists concur with
Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand – that leads
to the dissolution of property, to expropriation.
Communism go hand in hand." Max Baginski. "Stirner: The Ego and His
Own" on Mother Earth. Vol. 2. No. 3 May 1907
^ "This stance puts him squarely in the libertarian socialist
tradition and, unsurprisingly, (Benjamin) Tucker referred to himself
many times as a socialist and considered his philosophy to be
"Anarchistic socialism." "An
Anarchist FAQby Various Authors
^ "Because revolution is the fire of our will and a need of our
solitary minds; it is an obligation of the libertarian aristocracy. To
create new ethical values. To create new aesthetic values. To
communalize material wealth. To individualize spiritual wealth." Renzo
Novatore. Toward the Creative Nothing
^ Skirda, Alexandre. Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist
Organization from Proudhon to May 1968. AK Press, 2002, p. 191.
^ Catalan historian Xavier Diez reports that the Spanish individualist
anarchist press was widely read by members of anarcho-communist groups
and by members of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT. There were
also the cases of prominent individualist anarchists such as Federico
Miguel Gimenez Igualada who were members of the CNT and J.
Elizalde who was a founding member and first secretary of the Iberian
Anarchist Federation. Xavier Diez. El anarquismo individualista en
España: 1923–1938. ISBN 978-84-96044-87-6
^ Within the synthesist anarchist organization, the Fédération
Anarchiste, there existed an individualist anarchist tendency
alongside anarcho-communist and anarchosyndicalist currents.
Individualist anarchists participating inside the Fédération
Anarchiste included Charles-Auguste Bontemps, Georges Vincey and
André Arru. "Pensée et action des anarchistes en France :
1950–1970" by Cédric GUÉRIN
^ In Italy in 1945, during the Founding Congress of the Italian
Anarchist Federation, there was a group of individualist anarchists
led by Cesare Zaccaria who was an important anarchist of the
time.Cesare Zaccaria (19 August 1897 – October 1961) by Pier Carlo
Masini and Paul Sharkey
^ ""Resiting the Nation State, the pacifist and anarchist tradition"
by Geoffrey Ostergaard". Ppu.org.uk. 1945-08-06. Retrieved
^ George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and
^ Fowler, R.B. "The
Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought." The
Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4. (December 1972), pp.
^ Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press.
p. 162. ISBN 0-900384-89-1.
^ Daniel Guérin. Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. "At the end of
the century in France, Sebastien Faure took up a word originated in
1858 by one Joseph Déjacque to make it the title of a journal, Le
Libertaire. Today the terms 'anarchist' and 'libertarian' have become
^ Perlin, Terry M. (1979). Contemporary Anarchism. Transaction
Publishers. p. 40. ISBN 0-87855-097-6.
^ Noam Chomsky; Carlos Peregrín Otero (2004). Language and Politics.
AK Press. p. 739.
Ward, Colin. Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University
Press 2004 p. 62
Anarchists Seed Beneath the Snow. Liverpool Press.
2006, p. 4
MacDonald, Dwight & Wreszin, Michael. Interviews with Dwight
Macdonald. University Press of Mississippi, 2003. p. 82
Bufe, Charles. The Heretic's Handbook of Quotations. See Sharp Press,
1992. p. iv
Gay, Kathlyn. Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy. ABC-CLIO / University
of Michigan, 2006, p. 126
Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and
Movements. Broadview Press, 2004. (Uses the terms interchangeably,
such as on p. 10)
Skirda, Alexandre. Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist
Organization from Proudhon to May 1968.
AK Press 2002. p. 183.
Fernandez, Frank. Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement. See
Sharp Press, 2001, p. 9.
^ Gowdy, John M. (1998). Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on
Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment. St Louis: Island Press.
p. 342. ISBN 1-55963-555-X.
^ Dahlberg, Frances (1975). Woman the Gatherer. London: Yale
University Press. ISBN 0-300-02989-6.
^ Graeber, David (2004).
Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology (PDF).
Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. ISBN 0-9728196-4-9. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2008-11-18.
^ Erdal, D.; Whiten, A. (1994). "On human egalitarianism: an
evolutionary product of Machiavellian status escalation?". Current
Anthropology. 35 (2): 175–183. doi:10.1086/204255.
^ Erdal, D. and A. Whiten 1996. Egalitarianism and Machiavellian
intelligence in human evolution. In P. Mellars and K. Gibson (eds),
Modelling the early human mind. Cambridge: McDonald Institute
^ Christopher Boehm (2001),
Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of
Egalitarian Behavior, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
^ Graeber, David (2004). Fragments of an anarchist anthropology (2nd
pr. ed.). Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press.
^ Clastres, Pierre (1989).
Society Against the State: Essays in
Political Anthropology. Robert Hurley; Abe Stein (translators). New
York: Zone Books. ISBN 0-942299-01-9.
^ Scott, James (2010). The Art of Not Being Governed. Yale University
Press. ISBN 0300169175.
^ Leeson, Peter (2014). "Pirates, Prisoners, and Preliterates:
Anarchic Context and the Private Enforcement of Law" (PDF). European
Journal of Law and Economics. 37(3): 365–379.
^ Zerzan, John (2002). Running on Emptiness: The Pathology of
Civilization. Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-75-X.
^ Shepard, Paul (1996). Traces of an Omnivore. Island Press.
^ "The Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism by Emily Schultz,
et al". Primitivism.com. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
^ "Seven Lies About Civilization, Ran Prieur". Greenanarchy.org.
Society and Its Future, Theodore Kaczynski
^ "The Putney Debates, The Forum at the Online Library of
Liberty". Source: Sir William Clarke, Puritanism and Liberty,
being the Army Debates (1647–9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with
Supplementary Documents, selected and edited with an Introduction
A.S.P. Woodhouse, foreword by A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago
^ "Chapter XIII". Oregonstate.edu. Archived from the original on
2010-05-28. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
^ Thomas Carlyle. The French Revolution.
^ "Duke d'Aiguillon". Justice.gc.ca. 2007-11-14. Retrieved
Revolution in Search of Authority". Victorianweb.org. 2001-10-26.
^ Jamaica: Description of the Principal Persons there (about 1720, Sir
Nicholas Lawes, Governor) in Caribbeana Vol. III (1911), edited by
Vere Langford Oliver
^ Yekelchyk 2007, p 80.
^ Charles Townshend; John Bourne; Jeremy Black (1997). The Oxford
Illustrated History of Modern War. Oxford University Press.
Emma Goldman (2003). My Disillusionment in Russia. Courier Dover
Publications. p. 61. ISBN 0-486-43270-X.
^ Edward R. Kantowicz (1999). The Rage of Nations. Wm. B. Eerdmans
Publishing. p. 173. ISBN 0-8028-4455-3.
^ Declaration Of The Revolutionary Insurgent Army Of The Ukraine
(Makhnovist). Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement
(1918–1921), 1923. Black & Red, 1974
^ Footman, David. Civil War In Russia Frederick A.Praeger 1961, p287
^ Guerin, Daniel. Anarchism: Theory and Practice
^ Dolgoff, Sam (1974). The
Anarchist Collectives: Workers'
Self-management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936-1939. Black Rose Books
Ltd. ISBN 9780919618206.
^ Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook.
Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved
^ Andre Le Sage (2005-06-01). "Stateless Justice in Somalia" (PDF).
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. Archived from the original (PDF) on
2012-01-18. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
^ Milani, Giuseppe; Selvi, Giovanna (1996). Tra Rio e Riascolo:
piccola storia del territorio libero di Cospaia. Lama di San Giustino:
Associazione genitori oggi. p. 18. OCLC 848645655.
^ Earle, Peter C. (August 4, 2012). "
Anarchy in the Aachen". Mises
Institute. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
The dictionary definition of anarchy at Wiktionary
Anarchism and Other Essays
On the Steppes of Central Asia, by Matt Stone. Online version of book,
hosted by Anarchism.net.
Who Needs Government? Pirates, Collapsed States, and the Possibility
of Anarchy, August 2007 issue of
Cato Unbound focusing on Somali
"Historical Examples of
Anarchy without Chaos", a list of essays
hosted by royhalliday.home.mingspring.com.
"www.anarchyisorder.org, online @n@rchive" Principles, propositions
& discussions for Land and Freedom
Anarchy Page, classic essays and modern discussions. Online
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