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The NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION, doing business as AMTRAK /ˈæmtræk/ , is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States . Founded in 1971 to take over most of the remaining U.S. passenger rail services, it is partially government funded yet operated and managed as a for-profit corporation.

Amtrak
Amtrak
serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces , operating more than 300 trains each day over 21,300 miles (34,000 km) of track. Some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph (240 km/h). In fiscal year 2015, Amtrak
Amtrak
served 30.8 million passengers and had $2.185 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas; 83% of passengers travel on routes shorter than 400 miles (644 km). Its headquarters is at Union Station in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

The name "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "trak", the latter itself a sensational spelling of "track".

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Private passenger service * 1.2 Formation * 1.3 1970s: the Rainbow Era * 1.4 1980s and 1990s * 1.5 21st century

* 2 Operations

* 2.1 Routes * 2.2 Efficiency * 2.3 Intermodal connections * 2.4 On-time performance * 2.5 Ridership * 2.6 Guest Rewards * 2.7 Commuter services * 2.8 Lines * 2.9 Rolling stock

* 3 On-board services

* 3.1 Classes of service * 3.2 WiFi and electronic services * 3.3 Baggage

* 4 Company officers

* 4.1 Presidents * 4.2 Board of directors

* 5 Labor issues

* 6 Public funding

* 6.1 History of funding

* 6.1.1 1970s to 1990s * 6.1.2 2000s * 6.1.3 2010s

* 6.2 Controversy

* 7 Accidents and incidents * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

HISTORY

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See also: History of rail transport in the United States

PRIVATE PASSENGER SERVICE

_ The Pennsylvania Railroad
Pennsylvania Railroad
's Congressional_ in the 1960s _ The Illinois Central Railroad
Illinois Central Railroad
's Panama Limited
Panama Limited
_ long-distance diesel streamliner train

In 1916 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail; the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways . Passenger traffic on the railroads totaled 42 billion passenger-miles . Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same privately-owned companies that operated freight trains. Thereafter patronage declined in the face of competition from buses , air travel , and the automobile . New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the _ Pioneer Zephyr _ were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940 railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40% since 1916, from 42 billion to 25 billion.

Traffic surged during World War II
World War II
, aided by troop movements and gasoline rationing . Railroad's market share surged to 74% in 1945, with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners. These new trains brought only brief relief to the overall decline. Even as postwar travel exploded passenger travel's percentage of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, and 32% by 1957. The railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression
Great Depression
, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened their financial viability.

The causes of this decline were many and debated. The National Highway System and airports , both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads also faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile (160 to 240 km) work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours.

Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles (172,000 km) in 1958 to 49,000 miles (79,000 km) in 1970, the last full year of private operation. The diversion of most U.S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks, airplanes, and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly-needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending almost all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country. The equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II
World War II
was now twenty years old were worn out and in need of replacement.

FORMATION

See also: List of railroads eligible to participate in the formation of Amtrak
Amtrak
_ The Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad
Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad
's Rio Grande Zephyr_ at Denver\'s Union Station in April 1983 Penn Central Railroad 's employee publication announcing the inauguration of Amtrak
Amtrak
on May 1, 1971. Penn Central Amtrak
Amtrak
routes are shown.

As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it. The 1961 Doyle Report proposed that the private railroads pool their services into a single body. Similar proposals were made in 1965 and 1968, but failed to attract support. The federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor , but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, and, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains. Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central , the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains.

In October 1970, Congress passed, and President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers (NARP), sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains. They conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (NRPC), a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions:

* Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. * Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses. The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock; in exchange, the railroads received NRPC common stock. * Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation (DOT) as part of a "basic system" of service and paid for by NRPC using its federal funds. * Railroads that chose not to join the NRPC system were required to continue operating their existing passenger service until 1975 and thenceforth had to pursue the customary ICC approval process for any discontinuance or alteration to the service.

Of the 26 railroads still offering intercity passenger service in 1970, only six declined to join Amtrak. Nearly everyone involved expected the experiment to be short-lived. The Nixon administration and many Washington insiders viewed the NRPC as a politically expedient way for the President and Congress to give passenger trains a "last hurrah" as demanded by the public. They expected Amtrak
Amtrak
to quietly disappear as public interest waned. After _Fortune _ magazine exposed the manufactured mismanagement in 1974, Louis W. Menk , chairman of the Burlington Northern Railroad , remarked that the story was undermining the scheme to dismantle Amtrak. Proponents also hoped that government intervention would be brief, but their view was that Amtrak
Amtrak
would soon support itself. Neither view has proved correct. Popular support has allowed Amtrak
Amtrak
to continue in operation longer than critics imagined, while financial results have made a return to private operation infeasible.

1970S: THE RAINBOW ERA

_ A Burlington Northern EMD F3 leads the North Coast Hiawatha _ into Yakima, Washington in July 1971, an example of early Amtrak "rainbow" consists , made up of equipment still painted in the colors of various freight cars _ An Amtrak
Amtrak
EMD SDP40F with the San Francisco Zephyr _ in 1975. By the mid-1970s Amtrak
Amtrak
equipment was acquiring its own identity.

Amtrak
Amtrak
began operations on May 1, 1971. Amtrak
Amtrak
received no rail tracks or rights-of-way at its inception. All Amtrak's routes were continuations of prior service, although Amtrak
Amtrak
pruned about half the passenger rail network. Of the 364 trains operated previously, Amtrak only continued 182. On trains that continued, to the extent possible, schedules were retained with only minor changes from the _Official Guide of the Railways _, and under the same names. Several major corridors became freight-only, including the ex-New York Central Railroad 's Water Level Route across New York and Ohio and Grand Trunk Western Railroad 's Chicago to Detroit route. Reduced passenger train schedules created headaches. A 19-hour layover became necessary for eastbound travel on the _James Whitcomb Riley _ between Chicago and Newport News .

Amtrak
Amtrak
inherited problems with train stations, most notably deferred maintenance , and redundant facilities resulting from competing companies that served the same areas. On the day it started, Amtrak was given the responsibility of rerouting passenger trains from the seven train terminals in Chicago (LaSalle , Dearborn , Grand Central , Randolph , Chicago Northwestern Terminal , Central , and Union ) into just one, Union Station. In New York City
New York City
, Amtrak
Amtrak
had to pay to maintain both Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal
because of the lack of track connections to bring trains from upstate New York into Penn Station, a problem not rectified until the building of the Empire Connection in 1991. Amtrak
Amtrak
would abandon numerous large stations whose upkeep could no longer be justified. On the other hand, the creation of the Los Angeles– Seattle
Seattle
_ Coast Starlight _ from three formerly separate trains was an immediate success.

Amtrak's early years are often called the _Rainbow Era_, which refers to the ad hoc arrangement of the rolling stock and locomotives from a pool of equipment, acquired by Amtrak, at its formation, that consisted of a large mix of paint schemes from their former owners. This rolling stock, which for the most part still bore the pre-Amtrak colors and logos, formed the multi-colored consists of early Amtrak trains. By mid-1971, Amtrak
Amtrak
began purchasing some of the equipment it had leased, including 286 second-hand locomotives (of the EMD E and F types, 30 GG1 electric locomotives) and 1,290 passenger cars, and continued leasing even more motive power. By 1975, the official Amtrak color scheme was painted on most Amtrak
Amtrak
equipment and newly purchased locomotives and rolling stock began appearing.

Amtrak
Amtrak
soon had the opportunity to acquire rights-of-way . Following the bankruptcy of several northeastern railroads in the early 1970s, including Penn Central, which owned and operated the Northeast Corridor (NEC), Congress passed the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976. A large part of the legislation was directed to the creation of Conrail , but the law also enabled the transfer of the portions of the NEC not already owned by state authorities to Amtrak. Amtrak
Amtrak
acquired the majority of the NEC on April 1, 1976. (The portion in Massachusetts is owned by the Commonwealth and managed by Amtrak. The route from New Haven to New Rochelle is owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and the Connecticut Department of Transportation as the New Haven Line .) This main line became Amtrak's "jewel" asset, and helped the railroad generate revenue. While the NEC ridership and revenues were higher than any other segment of the system, the cost of operating and maintaining the corridor proved to be overwhelming. As a result, Amtrak's federal subsidy was increased dramatically. In subsequent years, other short route segments not needed for freight operations were transferred to Amtrak.

In its first decade, Amtrak
Amtrak
fell far short of financial independence, which continues today, but it did find modest success rebuilding trade. Outside factors discouraged competing transport, such as fuel shortages which increased costs of automobile and airline travel, and strikes which disrupted airline operations. Investments in Amtrak's track, equipment and information also made Amtrak
Amtrak
more relevant to America's transportation needs. Amtrak's ridership increased from 16.6 million in 1972 to 21 million in 1981.

1980S AND 1990S

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_ An EMD AEM-7
EMD AEM-7
with a Metroliner _ in 1987. The AEM-7 was Amtrak's workhorse on electrified routes for over 30 years. _ An EMD F40PH
EMD F40PH
leads the California Zephyr
California Zephyr
_ in 1995. The F40PH
F40PH
replaced the unreliable SDP40F.

In 1982 former Secretary of the Navy and retired Southern Railway head William Graham Claytor Jr. became president. Claytor came out of retirement to lead Amtrak
Amtrak
after the disastrous financial results during the Carter administration (1977–81). Despite frequent clashes with the Reagan administration over funding, Claytor enjoyed a good relationship with John H. Riley , the head of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), and with members of Congress. Limited funding led Claytor to use short-term debt to fund operations.

Ridership stagnated at roughly 20 million passengers per year amid uncertain government aid from 1981 to about 2000. Thomas Downs succeeded Claytor in 1993. Amtrak's stated goal remained "operational self-sufficiency." By this time, however, Amtrak
Amtrak
had a large overhang of debt from years of underfunding, and in the mid-1990s, Amtrak suffered through a serious cash crunch. Under Downs, Congress included a provision in the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 that resulted in Amtrak receiving a $2.3 billion tax refund that resolved their cash crisis. However, Congress also instituted a "glide-path" to financial self-sufficiency, excluding railroad retirement tax act payments.

George Warrington became president in 1998 with a mandate to make Amtrak
Amtrak
financially self-sufficient. Passengers became "guests" and there were expansions into express freight work, but the financial plans failed. Amtrak's inroads in express freight delivery created additional friction with competing freight operators, including the trucking industry . Delivery was delayed of much anticipated high-speed trainsets for the improved _ Acela Express _ service, which promised to be a strong source of income and favorable publicity along the Northeast Corridor between Boston
Boston
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

21ST CENTURY

_ An Acela Express _ at Old Saybrook, Connecticut , in 2011 _ In the 21st century Amtrak
Amtrak
replaced its F40PH
F40PH
units with the GE Genesis . Pictured are Amtrak
Amtrak
engines #1 and #56, both GE Genesis P42DC diesels, pulling the eastbound California Zephyr
California Zephyr
_ at Grand Junction, Colorado , April 2012 _ Talgo
Talgo
equipment on the state-funded Amtrak
Amtrak
Cascades_ in 2006. Amtrak
Amtrak
partnerships with state governments grew throughout the early 2000s

Ridership increased during the first decade of the 21st century after implementation of capital improvements in the NEC and rises in automobile fuel costs. The inauguration of the high-speed _Acela Express _ in late 2000 generated considerable publicity and led to major ridership gains. However, through the late 1990s and very early 21st century, Amtrak
Amtrak
could not add sufficient express freight revenue or cut sufficient other expenditures to break even. By 2002, it was clear that Amtrak
Amtrak
could not achieve self-sufficiency, but Congress continued to authorize funding and released Amtrak
Amtrak
from the requirement. In early 2002 David L. Gunn replaced Warrington as president. In a departure from his predecessors' promises to make Amtrak
Amtrak
self-sufficient in the short term, Gunn argued that no form of passenger transportation in the United States is self-sufficient as the economy is currently structured. Highways, airports, and air traffic control _all_ require large government expenditures to build and operate, coming from the Highway Trust Fund and Aviation Trust Fund paid for by user fees, highway fuel and road taxes, and, in the case of the General Fund, from general taxation. Gunn dropped most freight express business and worked to eliminate deferred maintenance .

A plan by the Bush administration "to privatize parts of the national passenger rail system and spin off other parts to partial state ownership" provoked disagreement within Amtrak's board of directors. Late in 2005 Gunn was fired. Gunn's replacement, Alexander Kummant (2006–08), was committed to operating a national rail network, and, like Gunn, opposed the notion of putting the Northeast Corridor under separate ownership, He said that shedding the system's long-distance routes would amount to selling national assets that are on par with national parks, and that Amtrak's abandonment of these routes would be irreversible. In late 2006, Amtrak
Amtrak
unsuccessfully sought annual congressional funding of $1 billion for ten years. In early 2007, Amtrak
Amtrak
employed 20,000 people in 46 states and served 25 million passengers a year, its highest amount since its founding in 1970. _ Politico
Politico
_ noted a key problem: "the rail system chronically operates in the red. A pattern has emerged: Congress overrides cutbacks demanded by the White House and appropriates enough funds to keep Amtrak
Amtrak
from plunging into insolvency. But, Amtrak
Amtrak
advocates say, that is not enough to fix the system's woes."

Joseph H. Boardman replaced Kummant as President and CEO in late 2008. In 2011, Amtrak
Amtrak
announced its intention to build a small segment of a high-speed rail corridor from Penn Station in NYC, under the Hudson River in new tunnels, and double-tracking the line to Newark, NJ called the Gateway Project , estimated to cost $13.5 billion. After years of almost revolving-door CEOs at Amtrak, in December 2013, Boardman was named "Railroader of the Year" by _Railway Age_ magazine, which noted that with over five years in the job, he is the second-longest serving head of Amtrak
Amtrak
since it was formed more than 40 years ago.

From May 2011 to May 2012, Amtrak
Amtrak
celebrated its 40th anniversary with festivities across the country that started on National Train Day (May 7, 2011). A commemorative book entitled _Amtrak: An American Story_ was published, and a documentary was created. Four commemorative Heritage units a 40th Anniversary Exhibit Train toured the country. The Exhibit Train visited 45 communities and welcomed more than 85,000 visitors. It was an entirely rebuilt train powered by GE Genesis locomotives and included three refurbished ex-Santa Fe baggage cars and a food service car. Four Genesis locomotives were painted into retired Amtrak
Amtrak
paint schemes: No. 156 was in Phase 1 colors, No. 66 was in Phase 2 colors, No. 145 and No. 822 were in Phase 3 colors (822 pulled the Exhibit train), and No. 184 was in Phase 4 colors. In 2014 Amtrak
Amtrak
began offering a "residency " program for writers.

On December 9, 2015, Boardman announced in a letter to employees that he would be leaving Amtrak
Amtrak
in September 2016. He had advised the Amtrak
Amtrak
Board of Directors of his decision the previous week. On August 19, 2016, the Amtrak
Amtrak
Board of Directors named former Norfolk Southern Railway President for the rest of the system, diesel locomotives are used. Routes vary widely in frequency of service, from three-days-a-week trains on the _ Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
_ to weekday service several times per hour on the Northeast Corridor (NEC). Amtrak
Amtrak
also operates a captive bus service, Thruway Motorcoach , which provides connections to train routes.

The most popular and heavily used services are those running on the NEC, including the _ Acela Express _ and _ Northeast Regional
Northeast Regional
_. The NEC runs from Boston
Boston
to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
via New York City
New York City
and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. Some services continue into Virginia
Virginia
. The NEC services accounted for 11.4 million of Amtrak's 31.6 million passengers in fiscal year 2013. Outside the NEC the most popular services are the short-haul corridors in California. These include the _Pacific Surfliner _, _ Capitol Corridor _, and _San Joaquin _, supplemented by an extensive network of connecting buses. Together the California corridor trains accounted for a combined 5,627,000 passengers in fiscal year 2013. Other popular corridors include the _Empire Service _, which operates between New York City
New York City
and Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
via Albany and Buffalo , New York and carried about 1,538,000 passengers in 2015, and the _ Keystone Service _ from New York City
New York City
to Harrisburg , Pennsylvania via Philadelphia
Philadelphia
that carried 1,343,000 passengers in 2015.

Four of the six stations busiest by boardings are on the NEC: New York (Penn Station) (first), Washington (Union Station) (second), Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(30th Street Station) (third), and Boston
Boston
(South Station) (sixth). The other two are Chicago (Union Station) (fourth) and Los Angeles (Union Station) (fifth).

EFFICIENCY

Per passenger mile, Amtrak
Amtrak
is 30–40 percent more energy-efficient than commercial airlines and automobiles overall, though the exact figures for particular routes depend on load factor along with other variables. The electrified trains in the NEC are considerably more efficient than Amtrak's diesels and can feed energy captured from regenerative braking back to the electrical grid. Passenger rail is also very competitive with other modes in terms of safety per mile.

MODE Revenue per passenger mile Energy consumption per passenger mile Deaths per 100 million passenger miles RELIABILITY

Domestic airlines 13.0¢ 2,931 BTU/mi (1,922 kJ/km) less than 0.01 deaths 81.9%

Transit buses 12.9¢ 2,656 BTU/mi (1,741 kJ/km) 0.06 deaths N/A

Amtrak 30.7¢ 1,745 BTU/mi (1,144 kJ/km) 0.03 deaths 83%

Autos N/A 3,501 BTU/mi (2,295 kJ/km) 0.48 deaths N/A

On-time performance is calculated differently for airlines than for Amtrak. A plane is considered on-time if it arrives within 15 minutes of the schedule. Amtrak
Amtrak
uses a sliding scale, with trips under 250 miles (400 km) considered late if they are more than 10 minutes behind schedule, up to 30 minutes for trips over 551 miles (887 km) in length.

In 2005, Amtrak's carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per passenger kilometre were 0.116 kg. For comparison, this is similar to a car with two people, about twice as high as the UK rail average (where much more of the system is electrified), about four times the average US motorcoach, and about eight times a Finnish electric intercity train or fully loaded fifty-seat coach. It is, however, about two thirds of the raw CO2-equivalent emissions of a long-distance domestic flight.

INTERMODAL CONNECTIONS

Intermodal connections between Amtrak
Amtrak
trains and other transportation are available at many stations. Most Amtrak
Amtrak
rail stations in downtown areas have connections to local public transport. Amtrak
Amtrak
also code shares with United Airlines , providing service between Newark Liberty International Airport
Airport
(via its Amtrak
Amtrak
station and AirTrain Newark
AirTrain Newark
) and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
30th St , Wilmington , Stamford , and New Haven . Special
Special
codes are used to designate these intermodal routes, such as "ZVE" to designate the combination of New Haven's Union Station and Newark International Airport
Airport
and the Amtrak
Amtrak
connection between them. Amtrak
Amtrak
also serves airport stations at Milwaukee , Oakland , Burbank , and Baltimore
Baltimore
.

Amtrak
Amtrak
coordinates Thruway Motorcoach service to extend many of its routes, especially in California.

ON-TIME PERFORMANCE

Outside the Northeast Corridor and stretches of track in Southern California and Michigan, most Amtrak
Amtrak
trains run on tracks owned and operated by privately owned freight railroads. Freight rail operators are required under federal law to give dispatching preference to Amtrak
Amtrak
trains. Some freight railroads have been accused of violating or skirting these regulations, allegedly resulting in passenger trains waiting in sidings for an hour or longer while waiting for freight traffic to clear the track. The railroads' dispatching practices were investigated in 2008, resulting in stricter laws about train priority. Subsequently, Amtrak's overall on-time performance went up from 74.7% in fiscal 2008 to 84.7% in 2009, with long-distance trains and others outside the NEC seeing the greatest benefit. The _Missouri River Runner _ jumped from 11% to 95%, becoming one of Amtrak's best performers. The _ Texas Eagle _ went from 22.4% to 96.7%, and the _ California Zephyr
California Zephyr
_, with a 5% on-time record in 2008, went up to 78.3%. This improved performance coincided with a general economic downturn, resulting in the lowest freight-rail traffic volumes since at least 1988, meaning less freight traffic to impede passenger traffic.

RIDERSHIP

Annual ridership by fiscal year 1971–2012

Amtrak
Amtrak
carried 15,848,327 passengers in 1972, its first full year of operation. Ridership peaked in 2016 with a record 31,272,790 passengers, double the total in 1972.

GUEST REWARDS

Amtrak's loyalty program , Guest Rewards, is similar to the frequent-flyer programs of many airlines. Guest Rewards members accumulate points by riding Amtrak
Amtrak
and through other activities, and can redeem these points for free or discounted Amtrak
Amtrak
tickets and other rewards.

COMMUTER SERVICES

Main article: Commuter rail in North America

Through various commuter services, Amtrak
Amtrak
serves an additional 61.1 million passengers per year in conjunction with state and regional authorities in California (through Amtrak California and Metrolink
Metrolink
), Connecticut (through Shore Line East ), and Maryland (through MARC
MARC
).

LINES

An Amtrak
Amtrak
catenary maintenance vehicle on the Northeast Corridor in Guilford, Connecticut
Guilford, Connecticut
An electric Amtrak
Amtrak
train with two AEM-7 locomotives running through New Jersey
New Jersey
on the Northeast Corridor

Along the NEC and in several other areas, Amtrak
Amtrak
owns 730 miles (1,170 km) including 17 tunnels consisting of 29.7 miles (47.8 km) of track, and 1,186 bridges (including the famous Hell Gate Bridge
Hell Gate Bridge
) consisting of 42.5 miles (68.4 km) of track. In several places, primarily in New England, Amtrak
Amtrak
leases tracks, providing track maintenance and controlling train movements. Most often, these tracks are leased from state, regional, or local governments. Amtrak
Amtrak
owns and operates the following lines:

* Northeast Corridor : the Northeast Corridor between Washington, D.C. and Boston
Boston
via Baltimore
Baltimore
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Newark , New York and Providence is largely owned by Amtrak, working cooperatively with several state and regional commuter agencies. Amtrak
Amtrak
owns the majority of the corridor. Between New Haven, Connecticut, and New Rochelle, New York, Northeast Corridor trains travel on the Metro-North Railroad
Metro-North Railroad
's New Haven Line , which is owned and operated by the Connecticut Department of Transportation and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority . * Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line : the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to Harrisburg Main Line runs from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania . As a result of an investment partnership with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania , signal and track improvements were completed in October 2006 that allow all-electric service with a top speed of 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) to run along the corridor. * Empire Corridor : Amtrak
Amtrak
owns the 11 miles (18 km) between New York Penn Station and Spuyten Duyvil, New York . In 2012, Amtrak leased the 94 miles (151 km) between Poughkeepsie, New York , and Schenectady, New York from owner CSX . In addition, Amtrak
Amtrak
owns the tracks across the Whirlpool Rapids Bridge and short approach sections near it. * New Haven-Springfield Line : Amtrak
Amtrak
owns the 60.5 miles (97.4 km) line between New Haven and Springfield . * Chicago–Detroit Line : Amtrak
Amtrak
acquired the west end of the former Michigan Central main line from Conrail in 1976. * Post Road Branch : 12.42 miles (19.99 km), Post Road Junction to Rensselaer, New York

In addition to these lines Amtrak
Amtrak
owns station and yard tracks in Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York City, Oakland (Kirkham Street Yard), Orlando , Portland, Oregon , Saint Paul , Seattle
Seattle
, and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Amtrak
Amtrak
leases station and yard tracks in Hialeah , near Miami, Florida, from the State of Florida.

Amtrak
Amtrak
owns the Chicago Union Station Company (Chicago Union Station ) and New York Penn Station . It has a 99.7% interest in the Washington Terminal Company (tracks around Washington Union Station ) and 99% of 30th Street Limited ( Philadelphia
Philadelphia
30th Street Station ). Also owned by Amtrak
Amtrak
is Passenger Railroad Insurance.

ROLLING STOCK

Main article: List of Amtrak rolling stock

Amtrak
Amtrak
owns 2,142 railway cars and 425 locomotives for revenue runs and service. Examples include the GE P42DC , the Siemens ACS-64 , the Amfleet car, and the Superliner car. Occasionally private cars, or loaned locomotives from other railroads can be found on Amtrak
Amtrak
trains.

ON-BOARD SERVICES

CLASSES OF SERVICE

The interior of a Viewliner sleeping car bedroom with the lower bed down The interior of a long-distance Amfleet II coach

As of 2015 Amtrak
Amtrak
offers four classes of service: First Class, Sleeper Service, Business Class, and Coach Class:

* FIRST CLASS: First Class service is currently offered only on the _ Acela Express _. Seats are larger than those of Business Class and come in a variety of seating styles (single, facing singles with table, double, facing doubles with table and wheelchair accessible). First Class is located in a separate car from business class and is located at the end of the train (to reduce the number of passengers walking in the aisles). A car attendant provides passengers with hot towel service, a complimentary meal and alcoholic beverages. First Class passengers have access to ClubAcela lounges located at select stations. * SLEEPER SERVICE: Sleeper Service comprises private room accommodations on long-distance trains. Rooms are classified into roomettes, bedrooms, accessible bedrooms, and family bedrooms (on some trains). Included in the price of a room are full meals and attendant service. At night, attendants convert rooms into sleeping areas with fold-down beds and fresh linens. Shower facilities with towels and bar soap are available. Complimentary juice, coffee and bottled water are included as well. Sleeper car passengers have access to all passenger facilities aboard the train. Sleeper passengers have access to ClubAcela lounges, Metropolitan Lounges, and unattended First Class Lounges located at select stations. * BUSINESS CLASS: Business Class seating is offered on the _Acela Express_, _Northeast Regional_, many short-haul corridor trains and some long-distance trains. Business Class is located in a dedicated car or section of the train. While the specific features vary by route, many include extra legroom and complimentary non-alcoholic drinks. Seats in business class recline, are typically appointed in leather and feature a fold-down tray table, foot rest, individual reading light, power outlet. Business Class passengers have access to Metropolitan Lounges located at select stations and may purchase a daily access pass to select ClubAcela locations. * COACH CLASS: Coach Class is the standard class of service on all Amtrak
Amtrak
trains except the _Acela Express_. Seats in coach recline and feature a fold-down tray table, foot rest, individual reading light, and power outlet. Coach cars on long-distance trains are configured with fewer seats per car so that passengers have additional legroom and seats are equipped with leg rests.

WIFI AND ELECTRONIC SERVICES

Amtrak
Amtrak
launched an e-ticketing system on the _Downeaster _ in November 2011, and rolled it out nationwide on July 30, 2012. Amtrak officials said the system gives "more accurate knowledge in realtime of who is on the train which greatly improves the safety and security of passengers; en route reporting of onboard equipment problems to mechanical crews which may result in faster resolution of the issue; and more efficient financial reporting."

Amtrak
Amtrak
first offered free Wi-Fi service to passengers aboard the _Downeaster_ in 2008, the _ Acela Express _ and the _Northeast Regional _ trains on the NEC in 2010, and the _ Amtrak Cascades _ in 2011. In February 2014, Amtrak
Amtrak
rolled out Wi-Fi on corridor trains out of Chicago. When all the Midwest cars offer the AmtrakConnect service, about 85% of all Amtrak
Amtrak
passengers nationwide will have Wi-Fi access. As of 2014 , most Amtrak
Amtrak
passengers have access to free Wi-Fi. The service has developed a reputation for being unreliable and slow.

BAGGAGE

A Viewliner baggage car at New London in 2016

Amtrak
Amtrak
allows carry-on baggage on all routes; services with baggage cars allow checked baggage at selected stations. With the passage of the Wicker Amendment in 2010 passengers are allowed to put lawfully owned, unloaded firearms in checked Amtrak
Amtrak
baggage, reversing a decade-long ban on such carriage. Amtrak Express (reporting marks AMTK, AMTZ) provides small-package and less-than-truckload shipping among more than 100 cities. Amtrak Express also offers station-to-station shipment of human remains to many express cities. At smaller stations, funeral directors must load and unload the shipment onto and off the train. Amtrak
Amtrak
hauled mail for the United States Postal Service and time-sensitive freight, but canceled these services in October 2004 due to minuscule profits. On most parts of the few lines that Amtrak
Amtrak
owns, trackage-rights agreements allow freight railroads to use its trackage.

COMPANY OFFICERS

William Graham Claytor Jr , president 1982–93

PRESIDENTS

NAME TENURE

Lewis, Roger Roger Lewis 1971–74

Reistrup, PaulPaul Reistrup 1974–78

Boyd, Alan Stephenson Alan Stephenson Boyd 1978–82

Claytor, Jr., W. Graham W. Graham Claytor, Jr. 1982–93

Downs, ThomasThomas Downs 1993–98

Warrington, George George Warrington 1998–2002

Gunn, David L. David L. Gunn 2002–05

Hughes, DavidDavid Hughes (interim) 2005–06

Kummant, Alexander Alexander Kummant 2006–08

Crosbie, WilliamWilliam Crosbie (interim) 2008

Boardman, Joseph H. Joseph H. Boardman 2008–16

Moorman IV, Charles W. "Wick"Charles W. "Wick" Moorman IV 2016–17

Anderson, RichardRichard Anderson (future) 2017–

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

* Anthony Coscia, chairman * Jeffrey Moreland, vice-chairman * Charles "Wick" Moorman , CEO and president * Thomas C. Carper * Albert DiClemente * Elaine Chao , United States Secretary of Transportation * Yvonne Brathwaite Burke * Christopher R. Beall * Derek Kan

LABOR ISSUES

In the modern era, Amtrak
Amtrak
faces a number of important labor issues. In the area of pension funding, because of limitations originally imposed by Congress, most Amtrak
Amtrak
workers were traditionally classified as "railroad employees" and contributions to the Railroad Retirement system have been made for those employees. However, because the size of the contributions is determined on an industry-wide basis rather than with reference to the employer for whom the employees work, some critics, such as the National Association of Railroad Passengers , maintain that Amtrak
Amtrak
is subsidizing freight railroad pensions by as much as US$150 million/year.

In recent times, efforts at reforming passenger rail have addressed labor issues. In 1997 Congress released Amtrak
Amtrak
from a prohibition on contracting for labor outside the corporation (and outside its unions), opening the door to privatization. Since that time, many of Amtrak's employees have been working without a contract. The most recent contract, signed in 1999, was mainly retroactive.

Because of the fragmentation of railroad unions by job, as of 2009 Amtrak
Amtrak
has 14 separate unions to negotiate with. Plus, it has 24 separate contracts with those unions. This makes it difficult to make substantial changes, in contrast to a situation where one union negotiates with one employer. Former Amtrak
Amtrak
president Kummant followed a cooperative posture with Amtrak's trade unions, ruling out plans to privatize large parts of Amtrak's unionized workforce.

PUBLIC FUNDING

Amtrak
Amtrak
receives annual appropriations from federal and state governments to supplement operating and capital programs.

Total federal grant appropriations per year (billions) FY 2009 FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015

$1.488 $1.565 $1.484 $1.418 $1.374 $1.37 $1.375

HISTORY OF FUNDING

1970s To 1990s

Amtrak
Amtrak
commenced operations in 1971 with $40 million in direct federal aid, $100 million in federally insured loans, and a somewhat larger private contribution. Officials expected that Amtrak
Amtrak
would break even by 1974, but those expectations proved unrealistic and annual direct federal aid reached a 17-year high in 1981 of $1.25 billion. During the Reagan administration , appropriations were halved and by 1986, federal support fell to a decade low of $601 million, almost none of which were capital appropriations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Congress continued the reductionist trend even while Amtrak
Amtrak
expenses held steady or rose. Amtrak
Amtrak
was forced to borrow to meet short-term operating needs, and by 1995 Amtrak
Amtrak
was on the brink of a cash crisis and was unable to continue to service its debts. In response, in 1997 Congress authorized $5.2 billion for Amtrak
Amtrak
over the next five years – largely to complete the _Acela_ capital project – on the condition that Amtrak
Amtrak
submit to the ultimatum of self-sufficiency by 2003 or liquidation. While Amtrak made financial improvements during this period, it did not achieve self-sufficiency.

2000s

In 2004, a stalemate in federal support of Amtrak
Amtrak
forced cutbacks in services and routes as well as resumption of deferred maintenance. In fiscal 2004 and 2005, Congress appropriated about $1.2 billion for Amtrak, $300 million more than President George W. Bush had requested. However, the company's board requested $1.8 billion through fiscal 2006, the majority of which (about $1.3 billion) would be used to bring infrastructure, rolling stock, and motive power back to a state of good repair. In Congressional testimony, the DOT Inspector General confirmed that Amtrak
Amtrak
would need at least $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion in fiscal 2006 and $2 billion in fiscal 2007 just to maintain the status quo. In 2006, Amtrak
Amtrak
received just under $1.4 billion, with the condition that Amtrak
Amtrak
would reduce (but not eliminate) food and sleeper service losses. Thus, dining service was simplified and now requires two fewer on-board service workers. Only _ Auto Train _ and _ Empire Builder _ services continue regular made-on-board meal service. In 2010 the Senate approved a bill to provide $1.96 billion to Amtrak, but cut the approval for high-speed rail to a $1 billion appropriation. _ Amtrak Cascades _ service with tilting Talgo trainsets in Seattle, Washington _ Amtrak's Piedmont _ near Charlotte, North Carolina with a state-owned locomotive. This route is run under a partnership with the North Carolina Department of Transportation .

State governments have partially filled the breach left by reductions in federal aid. Several states have entered into operating partnerships with Amtrak, notably California, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Oregon, Missouri, Washington , North Carolina, Oklahoma, Texas, Wisconsin, Vermont, Maine, and New York, as well as the Canadian province of British Columbia
British Columbia
, which provides some of the resources for the operation of the _Cascades _ route.

With the dramatic rise in gasoline prices during 2007–08, Amtrak has seen record ridership. Capping a steady five-year increase in ridership overall, regional lines saw 12% year-over-year growth in May 2008. In October 2007, the Senate passed S-294, _Passenger Rail Improvement and Investment Act of 2007_ (70–22) sponsored by Senators Frank Lautenberg
Frank Lautenberg
and Trent Lott . Despite a veto threat by President Bush, a similar bill passed the House on June 11, 2008, with a veto-proof margin (311–104). The final bill, spurred on by the September 12 Metrolink
Metrolink
collision in California and retitled _Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 _, was signed into law by President Bush on October 16, 2008. The bill appropriates $2.6 billion a year in Amtrak
Amtrak
funding through 2013.

2010s

Amtrak
Amtrak
points out that in 2010, its farebox recovery (percentage of operating costs covered by revenues generated by passenger fares) was 79%, the highest reported for any U.S. passenger railroad.

Amtrak
Amtrak
has argued that it needs to increase capital program costs in 2013 in order to replace old train equipment because the multi-year maintenance costs for those trains exceeds what it would cost to simply buy new equipment that would not need to be repaired for several years. However, despite an initial request for more than $2.1 billion in funding for the year, the company had to deal with a year-over-year cut in 2013 federal appropriations, dropping to under $1.4 billion for the first time in several years. Amtrak
Amtrak
stated in 2010 that the backlog of needed repairs of the track it owns on the Northeast Corridor included over 200 bridges, most dating to the 19th century, tunnels under Baltimore
Baltimore
dating to the American Civil War Era and functionally obsolete track switches which would cost $5.2 billion to repair (more than triple Amtrak's total annual budget). Amtrak's budget is only allocated on a yearly basis, and it has been argued by Joseph Vranich that this makes multi-year development programs and long-term fiscal planning difficult if not impossible.

In Fiscal Year 2011, the U.S. Congress granted Amtrak
Amtrak
$563 million for operating and $922 million for capital programs.

CONTROVERSY

Government aid to Amtrak
Amtrak
was controversial from the beginning. The formation of Amtrak
Amtrak
in 1971 was criticized as a bailout serving corporate rail interests and union railroaders, not the traveling public. Critics have asserted that Amtrak
Amtrak
has proven incapable of operating as a business and that it does not provide valuable transportation services meriting public support, a "mobile money-burning machine." Many argued that subsidies should be ended, national rail service terminated, and the NEC turned over to private interests. "To fund a _Nostalgia Limited_ is not in the public interest." Critics also question Amtrak's energy efficiency, though the U.S. Department of Energy considers Amtrak
Amtrak
among the most energy-efficient forms of transportation.

The Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970, which established Amtrak, specifically states that, "The Corporation will not be an agency or establishment of the United States Government". Then common stock was issued in 1971 to railroads that contributed capital and equipment; these shares convey almost no benefits, but their current holders declined a 2002 buy-out offer by Amtrak. There are currently 109,396,994 shares of preferred stock, at a par value of $100 per share, all held by the US government. There are currently 9,385,694 shares of common stock, with a par value of $10 per share, held by four other railroad companies: APU (formerly Penn Central) 53%, BNSF (35%), Canadian Pacific
Canadian Pacific
(7%), and Canadian National
Canadian National
(5%).

ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS

Main article: List of accidents on Amtrak Chase, Maryland.

The following are major accidents and incidents that involved Amtrak trains.

EVENT TRAIN DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION DEATHS INJURIES

1971 Salem, Illinois, derailment _City of New Orleans _ June 10, 1971 Salem, Illinois The _City of New Orleans_ derails to due a broken locomotive axle. 11 163

1987 Maryland train collision _Colonial _ January 4, 1987 Chase, Maryland The _Colonial_ collides with three Conrail locomotives which had overrun signals. 16 164

1990 Back Bay, Massachusetts train collision _Night Owl _ December 12, 1990 Back Bay, Boston, Massachusetts The _Night Owl_ collides with a Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority commuter train. 0 453

1993 Big Bayou Canot train wreck _ Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
_ September 22, 1993 Mobile, Alabama The _Sunset Limited_ derails on a bridge which had been damaged by a barge. 47 103

1995 Palo Verde, Arizona derailment _ Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
_ October 9, 1995 Palo Verde, Arizona The _Sunset Limited_ derails because of track sabotage. 1 78

1996 Maryland train collision _Capitol Limited _ February 16, 1996 Silver Spring, Maryland
Silver Spring, Maryland
The _Capitol Limited_ collides with a Maryland Area Regional Commuter train which had overrun signals. 11 26

1999 Bourbonnais, Illinois, train crash _City of New Orleans _ March 15, 1999 Bourbonnais, Illinois The _City of New Orleans_ collides with a semi-truck on a grade crossing. 11 122

2015 Philadelphia
Philadelphia
train derailment _ Northeast Regional
Northeast Regional
_ May 12, 2015 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania A _Northeast Regional_ derails due to excessive speed on a curve. 8 200+

SEE ALSO

* Trains portal * Companies portal * Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
portal

TOPICS DEALING WITH AMTRAK

* Amtrak Arrow Reservation System

* Amtrak California , partnership with

* California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)

* Amtrak Cascades , partnership with

* Oregon Department of Transportation * Washington State Department of Transportation

* Amtrak paint schemes * Amtrak Police * List of Amtrak station codes – alphabetical by three-letter ticketing code * List of Amtrak stations – alphabetical by city name * Beech Grove Shops * Positive train control * Railway Museum of Greater Cincinnati * Thruway Motorcoach * Visible Intermodal Prevention and Response team (VIPR) – TSA 's rail security operations

RAIL COMPANIES OF INTEREST

* Amtrak Express Parcels (UK)

* Auto-Train Corporation – Pioneer of car-on-train service.

* Amtrak\'s Auto Train .

* Mid America Railcar Leasing

RAIL DISASTERS

* 1987 Maryland train collision * 1990 Back Bay rail accident * 1993 Big Bayou Canot train wreck * 1995 Palo Verde, Arizona derailment * 1996 Maryland train collision * 1999 Bourbonnais, Illinois, train accident * 2015 Philadelphia
Philadelphia
train derailment

OTHER NATIONAL RAILROADS

* Via Rail
Via Rail
(Canada) * National Rail
National Rail
(United Kingdom) * Deutsche Bahn (Germany) * Austrian Federal Railways (Austria) * Swiss Federal Railways (Switzerland) * Trenitalia (Italy)

NOTES

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Amtrak
Fact Sheet". Web.archive.org. January 20, 2008. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2013. * ^ " Amtrak
Amtrak
Ridership and Ticket Revenue Steady in Fiscal Year 2015" (PDF) (Press release). Amtrak.com. December 2, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2016. * ^ " Amtrak
Amtrak
National Facts". Amtrak. Retrieved February 12, 2012. * ^ Puentes, Robert; Adie Tomer; and Joseph Kane (March 2013). "A New Alignment: Strengthening America\'s Commitment to Passenger Rail". The Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2015. * ^ " Amtrak
Amtrak
Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2008 District of Columbia" (PDF). Amtrak
Amtrak
Government Affairs. November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011. * ^ Amtrak
Amtrak
History and Archives. Accessed March 6, 2013. * ^ " Amtrak
Amtrak
National Facts". Amtrak. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Stover 1997 , p. 219 * ^ Carper 1968 , pp. 112–113 * ^ Solomon 2015 , pp. 49–56 * ^ Stover 1997 , pp. 219–220 * ^ Solomon 2015 , p. 154 * ^ Solomon 2015 , p. 161 * ^ Stover 1997 , p. 220 * ^ Saunders 2001 , pp. 106–107 * ^ Saunders 2001 , pp. 32–33 * ^ Stover 1997 , p. 222 * ^ Stover 1997 , p. 228 * ^ McCommons 2009 , pp. 150–151 * ^ Glischinski 1997 , p. 96 * ^ Saunders 2003 , p. 55 * ^ Saunders 2001 , p. 124 * ^ Sanders 2006 , pp. 1–3 * ^ Thoms 1973 , pp. 38–39 * ^ Thoms 1973 , p. 51 * ^ Thoms 1973 , pp. 39–42 * ^ Sanders 2006 , pp. 7–8 * ^ Luberoff, David (November 1996). " Amtrak
Amtrak
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Amtrak
is Keeping Riders Won in Gas Pinch". _Christian Science Monitor_. p. 4. Retrieved June 12, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Nice, David C. (1998). _Amtrak: The History and Politics of a National Railroad_. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-55587-734-7 . * ^ Wilner 1994 * ^ "Fortune : Still chugging. (W. Graham Claytor Jr.) (Fortune People) (column) @ HighBeam Research". Archived from the original on April 22, 2005. Retrieved November 23, 2005. * ^ _1999 Annual Report_. Amtrak. * ^ Washington Post, March 18, 1998 * ^ Scheinberg, Phyllis F. (October 28, 1999). _Intercity Passenger Rail; Amtrak
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Amtrak
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Amtrak
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Amtrak
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Amtrak
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Amtrak
President and CEO Joe Boardman named Railroader of the Year. Railway Age. Retrieved on April 12, 2014. * ^ National Railroad. "Bulletin Board (40th Anniversary Train Ends U.S.)" (PDF). _ Amtrak
Amtrak
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Amtrak
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Amtrak
officially rolls out writers\' residency". _CNN_. * ^ " Amtrak
Amtrak
Names Industry Veteran Wick Moorman President and Chief Executive Officer - Amtrak
Amtrak
Media". August 19, 2016. * ^ McGeehan, Patrick (June 26, 2017). " Amtrak
Amtrak
Picks Delta’s Former Chief to Lead It Through Challenging Time". New York Times
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Amtrak
names new chief executive". Washington Post . Retrieved June 27, 2017. * ^ Ganther, Lyle (March 28, 2017). "Trump wants to cut Amtrak\'s long-distance routes". Bureau County Republican. Retrieved July 15, 2017. * ^ "What to know about Penn Station\'s summer repairs". _am New York_. Retrieved 2017-06-19. * ^ "AmtrakPennPlan ny-mta". _nymta.civicconnect.com_. Retrieved 2017-06-19. * ^ ":: A Message To Our Customers". _njtransit-theupdate.com_. Retrieved 2017-06-19. * ^ _ Amtrak
Amtrak
Reform and Accountability Act of 1997._ 105th Cong., Senate Report 105-85 (September 24, 1997). * ^ " Amtrak
Amtrak
Train Schedules, Timetables". Amtrak.com. Retrieved November 23, 2012. * ^ https://www.amtrak.com/thruway-connecting-services-multiply-your-travel-destinations * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ National Railroad Passenger Corporation. "Basic Amtrak
Amtrak
Facts". _ Amtrak
Amtrak
National Facts, FY 2011_. National Railroad Passenger Corporation. Retrieved July 30, 2012. * ^ "NARP 2015 ridership statistics" (PDF). National Association of Railroad Passengers. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 24, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017. * ^ Amtrak
Amtrak
National Facts Archived May 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine .. Accessed July 2, 2008. Amtrak's 2007 fiscal year ran from October 2006 to September 2007. Does not include Canada. * ^ _A_ _B_ Figures are from 2008. "Table 4-20: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes". _Bureau of Transportation Statistics_. Archived from the original on October 7, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2010. * ^ Except where noted, figures are from 2007. "Table 3-16: Average Passenger Revenue per Passenger-Mile". _Bureau of Transportation Statistics_. Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved November 17, 2006. * ^ Figures are from 2011. "Injury Facts". National Safety Council. 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Figures from 2012. "Table 1-73: Amtrak
Amtrak
On-Time Performance Trends and Hours of Delay by Cause". _Bureau of Transportation Statistics_. Retrieved March 30, 2014. ; "Table 1-66: Flight Operations Arriving On Time by the Largest U.S. Air Carriers". _Bureau of Transportation Statistics_. Retrieved March 30, 2014. * ^ Figures from 2001, latest available * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2013. Retrieved 2012-11-23. table 1.1, figures from 2005. Cf. http://docs.wri.org/wri_co2comm_2002_commuting_protected.xls, sheet 8, cell C33 (figures from 2002). * ^ respectively http://docs.wri.org/wri_co2comm_2002_commuting_protected.xls, sheet 8, cell C36 (figures from 2002); "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2013. Retrieved 2012-11-23. table 1.1, figures from 2007. * ^ "figures from 2008–9." (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2009. Retrieved November 23, 2012. * ^ "Figures from 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2012. * ^ Respectively http://lipasto.vtt.fi/yksikkopaastot/henkiloliikennee/raideliikennee/junat_henkiloe.htm, figures for 2007; http://www.lipasto.vtt.fi/yksikkopaastot/henkiloliikennee/tieliikennee/linja-autote/latiee.htm, figures for 2010. * ^ Based on the 2008 Finnish data at http://lipasto.vtt.fi/yksikkopaastot/henkiloliikennee/ilmaliikennee/ilmae.htm. * ^ "Root Causes of Amtrak
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- Plan - Onboard - Seating Accommodations". _Amtrak Official Website_. Retrieved January 6, 2014. * ^ "First Class Seat". _www.amtrak.com_. Amtrak. Retrieved January 17, 2017. * ^ "Sleeping Accommodations". _www.amtrak.com_. Amtrak. Retrieved January 17, 2017. * ^ "Business Class Seat". _www.amtrak.com_. Amtrak. Retrieved January 17, 2017. * ^ "Reserved Coach Class Seat". _www.amtrak.com_. Amtrak. Retrieved January 17, 2017. * ^ Billings, Randy (November 11, 2011). " Amtrak
Amtrak
Downeaster rolls out electronic tickets, improved Wi-Fi". _Sun Journal_. Retrieved November 12, 2011. * ^ National Railroad Passenger Corporation. "eTICKETS NOW ACCEPTED ON EVERY AMTRAK TRAIN" (PDF). _ Amtrak
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REFERENCES

* Carper, Robert S. (1968). _American Railroads in Transition; The Passing of the Steam Locomotives_. A. S. Barnes. ISBN 978-0-498-06678-8 . * Edmonson, Harold A. (2000). _Journey to Amtrak: The year history rode the passenger train_. Kalmbach Books. ISBN 978-0-89024-023-6 . * Glischinski, Steve (1997). _Santa Fe Railway_. Osceola, Wisconsin: Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-7603-0380-1 . * Government Accountability Office (October 2005). "Amtrak Management: Systemic Problems Require Actions to Improve Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Accountability" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 25, 2005. Retrieved November 23, 2005. * Hosmer, Howard; et al. (1958). Railroad Passenger Train Deficit (Report). Interstate Commerce Commission. 31954. * McCommons, James (2009). _Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service_. White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green. ISBN 978-1-60358-064-9 . * McKinney, Kevin (June 1991). "At the dawn of Amtrak". _Trains _. * Office of Inspector General for the Department of Transportation (July 10, 2012). "Analysis of the Causes of AMTRAK Train Delays" (PDF). United States Department of Transportation . OCLC
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862979061 . * Sanders, Craig (2006). _ Amtrak
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in the Heartland_. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press . ISBN 0-253-34705-X . * Saunders, Richard (2001) . _Merging Lines: American Railroads 1900–1970_ (Revised ed.). DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press . ISBN 978-0-87580-265-7 . * Saunders, Richard (2003). _Main Lines: Rebirth of the North American Railroads, 1970–2002_. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press . ISBN 0-87580-316-4 . * Schafer, Mike ; Welsh, Joe; Holland, Kevin J. (2001). _The American Passenger Train_. Saint Paul, MN: MBI. ISBN 0-7603-0896-9 . * Schafer, Mike (June 1991). "Amtrak's Atlas: 1971–1991". _Trains _. * Solomon, Brian (2004). _Amtrak_. Saint Paul, MN: MBI. ISBN 0-760-31765-8 . * Stover, John F. (1997). _American Railroads_ (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press . ISBN 0-226-77657-3 . * Thoms, William E. (1973). _Reprieve for the Iron Horse: The AMTRAK Experiment–Its Predecessors and Prospects_. Baton Rouge, LA: Claitor's Publishing Division. OCLC
OCLC
1094744 . * Vranich, Joseph (1997). _Derailed: What Went Wrong and What to Do about America's Passenger Trains_. New York: St. Martin\'s Press . ISBN 0-3121-7182-X . * Vranich, Joseph (2004). _End of the Line: The Failure of Amtrak Reform and the Future of America's Passenger Trains_. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press . ISBN 0-8447-4203-1 . * Wilner, Frank N. (1994). _The Amtrak
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Story_. Omaha, NE: Simmons-Boardman. ISBN 0-9113-8216-X . * Zimmermann, Karl R. (1981). _ Amtrak
Amtrak
at Milepost 10_ (10 years)format= requires url= (help ). PTJ Publishing. ISBN 0-937658-06-5 .

FURTHER READING

* Baron, David P. (August 1990). "Distributive Politics and the Persistence of Amtrak". _ The Journal of Politics _. 52 (3): 883–913.

* Hanus, Chris; Shaske, John (2009). _USA West by Train: The Complete Amtrak
Amtrak
Travel Guide_. Way of the Rail Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9730897-6-9 . * Pitt, John (2008). _USA by Rail_. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-255-2 . * Wilner, Frank N. (2013). _Amtrak: Past, Present, Future_. Simmons-Boardman Books. ISBN 978-0-911-382600 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to AMTRAK _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for RAIL