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Amoraim
Amoraim
(Aramaic: plural אמוראים‬ ʔamoraˈʔim, singular Amora אמורא‬ ʔamoˈʁa; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen")[1] refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah. They were concentrated in Babylonia
Babylonia
and the Land of Israel. Their legal discussions and debates were eventually codified in the Gemara. The Amoraim
Amoraim
followed the Tannaim in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars. The Tannaim were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition; the Amoraim
Amoraim
expounded upon and clarified the oral law after its initial codification.

Contents

1 The Amoraic era 2 Prominent Amoraim

2.1 First generation (approx. 230–250 CE) 2.2 Second generation (approx. 250–290 CE) 2.3 Third generation (approx. 290–320 CE) 2.4 Fourth generation (approx. 320–350 CE) 2.5 Fifth generation (approx. 350–371 CE) 2.6 Sixth generation (approx. 371–427 CE) 2.7 Seventh generation (approx. 425–460 CE) 2.8 Eighth generation (approx. 460–500 CE)

3 Stammaim 4 References 5 External links

The Amoraic era[edit] The first Babylonian Amoraim
Amoraim
were Abba Arika, respectfully referred to as Rav, and his contemporary and frequent debate partner, Shmuel. Among the earliest Amoraim
Amoraim
in Israel were Johanan bar Nappaha
Johanan bar Nappaha
and Shimon ben Lakish. Traditionally, the Amoraic period is reckoned as seven or eight generations (depending on where one begins and ends). The last Amoraim
Amoraim
are generally considered to be Ravina I and Rav Ashi, and Ravina II, nephew of Ravina I, who codified the Babylonian Talmud around 500 CE. In total, 761 amoraim are mentioned by name in the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds. 367 of them were active in the land of Israel from around 200-350 CE, while the other 394 lived in Babylonia
Babylonia
during 200-500 CE.[2] In the Talmud
Talmud
itself, the singular amora generally refers to a lecturer's assistant; the lecturer would state his thoughts briefly, and the amora would then repeat them aloud for the public's benefit, adding translation and clarification where needed. Prominent Amoraim[edit] The following is an abbreviated listing of the most prominent of the (hundreds of) Amoraim
Amoraim
mentioned in the Talmud. More complete listings may be provided by some of the external links below. See also List of rabbis. First generation (approx. 230–250 CE)[edit]

Abba Arika (d. 247), known as Rav, last Tanna, first Amora. Disciple of Judah haNasi. Moved from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia
Babylonia
(219). Founder and Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Sura. Shmuel (d. 254), disciple of Judah haNasi's students and others. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Nehardea. Joshua ben Levi (early 3rd century), headed the school of Lod. Bar Kappara

Second generation (approx. 250–290 CE)[edit]

Tomb of the Amoraim
Amoraim
in Tiberias

Rav Huna
Rav Huna
(d. 297), disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Sura. Rav Yehudah (d. 299), disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Adda bar Ahavah, (3rd and 4th centuries), disciple of Rav. Hillel, son of Gamaliel III (fl. early 3rd century), disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, and younger brother of Judah II
Judah II
(Judah Nesiah). Judah II
Judah II
(fl. early 3rd century), disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, and son and successor of Gamaliel III as Nasi. Sometimes called Rabbi Judah Nesi'ah, and occasionally Rebbi like his grandfather. Resh Lakish (d. late 3rd century), disciple of Judah haNasi, Rabbi Yannai and others, and colleague of Rabbi Yochanan. Rabbi Yochanan (d. 279 or 289), disciple of Judah haNasi
Judah haNasi
and Rabbi Yannai. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Tiberias. Primary author of the Jerusalem Talmud. Samuel ben Nahman Shila of Kefar Tamarta Isaac Nappaha Anani ben Sason

Third generation (approx. 290–320 CE)[edit]

Rabbah (d. 320), disciple of Rav Huna
Rav Huna
and Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Pumbedita. Rav Yosef (d. 323), disciple of Rav Huna
Rav Huna
and Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Pumbedita. Rav Zeira (Israel) Rav Chisda (d. 309), disciple of Rav, Shmuel, and Rav Huna. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Sura. Simon (Shimeon) ben Pazzi Rav Sheshes Rav Nachman (d. 320), disciple of Rav, Shmuel, and Rabbah bar Avuha. Did not head his own yeshiva, but was a regular participant in the discussions at the Yeshivot of Sura and Mahuza. Rabbi Abbahu (d. early 4th century), disciple of Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
in Caesarea. Hamnuna — Several rabbis in the Talmud
Talmud
bore this name, the most well-known being a disciple of Shmuel (fl. late 3rd century). Judah III (d. early 4th century), disciple of Rabbi Johanan bar Nappaha. Son and successor of Gamaliel IV as NASI, and grandson of Judah II. Rabbi Ammi Rabbi Assi Hanina ben Pappa Rabbah bar Rav Huna Rami bar Hama Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah

Fourth generation (approx. 320–350 CE)[edit]

Abaye (d. 339), disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, and Rav Nachman. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
in Pumbedita. Rava (d. 352), disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, and Rav Nachman, and possibly Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Mahuza. Hillel II (fl. c. 360). Creator of the present-day Hebrew calendar. Son and successor as Nasi of Judah Nesiah, grandson of Gamaliel IV. Abba the Surgeon Bebai ben Abaye (fl. c. 4th century)

Fifth generation (approx. 350–371 CE)[edit]

Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak (d. 356), disciple of Abaye and Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Pumbedita. Rav Papa (d. 371 or 375), disciple of Abaye and Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Naresh. Rav Kahana, teacher of Rav Ashi Rav Hama Rav Huna
Rav Huna
berai d'Rav Yehoshua

Sixth generation (approx. 371–427 CE)[edit]

Rav Ashi
Rav Ashi
(d. 427), disciple of Rav Kahana. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
in Mata Mehasia. Primary redactor of the Babylonian Talmud. Ravina I (d. 421), disciple of Abaye and Rava. Colleague of Rav Ashi in the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Mata Mehasia, where he assisted in the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud.

Seventh generation (approx. 425–460 CE)[edit]

Mar bar Rav Ashi.

Eighth generation (approx. 460–500 CE)[edit]

Ravina II (d. 475 or 500), disciple of Ravina I and Rav Ashi. Dean of the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
at Sura. Completed the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud.

Stammaim[edit] The "Stammaim" is a term used by some modern scholars, such as Halivni, for the rabbis who composed the anonymous (stam) statements and arguments in the Talmud, some of whom may have worked during the period of the Amoraim, but who mostly made their contributions after the amoraic period.[3] See also Savoraim. References[edit]

^ Gideon Golany Babylonian Jewish neighborhood and home design- 1999 38 " Amoraim
Amoraim
(from the Aramaic word amora meaning "spokesman")" ^ Judith R. Baskin; Kenneth Seeskin (31 July 2010). The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-521-68974-8. Retrieved 16 September 2011.  ^ David Guttmann (2006-03-21). "Believing is Knowing: Professor Halivni and the Sealing of the Gemara
Gemara
- a new chronology". Yediah.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2013-04-11. 

External links[edit]

Gemara
Gemara
in the Talmud
Talmud
Map – University of Calgary Jewish Encyclopedia article for Amora

v t e

Amoraim

Amoraim
Amoraim
of Eretz Israel

First Generation (until 250 CE):

Gamaliel III R. Hiyya Rabbi Yannai Hoshaiah
Hoshaiah
Rabbah Epes the Southerner Joshua ben Levi Hanina bar Hama Levi ben Sisi Bar Kappara Jeremiah (I)

Second Generation (until 280 CE):

Judah II
Judah II
(Nesi'ah I) Johanan bar Nappaha Shimon ben Lakish Eleazar ben Pedat Isaac Nappaha Jose b. Hanina Rav Kahana II Jacob b. Idi Hezekiah Judah b. Hiyya Abba of Jaffa

Third Generation (until 310 CE):

Gamaliel IV Rabbi Ammi Rabbi Assi Abbahu Abin I Hiyya bar Abba Ulla Rav Zeira Rabbah bar bar Hana Rabbi Ilai II Rab 'Awira Hanina b. Papi Jose of Yokereth Jeremiah (II) Hoshaiah Hanina Abba bar Memel Tachlifa of the West Avdimi of Haifa

Fourth Generation (until 340 CE):

Hasa of Eshtemoa Judah III (Nesi'ah II) Jeremiah (III) Rabbi Aha Rabbi Berekiah Jose b. Zevida Rav Jonah Rabbi Hilkiah Zerika Isaac b. Eliashib

Fifth Generation (until 380 CE):

Hillel II Gamaliel V Jose ben Abin Rabbi Mana II

Sixth Generation (until 410 CE):

Judah IV (Nesi'ah III) Tanhuma bar Abba Hanina of Sepphoris Samuel b. Jose b. Boon

Amoraim
Amoraim
of Babylon

First Generation (until 250 CE):

Abba Arika Samuel of Nehardea Mar Ukva Karna Rav Shela Rav Assi

Second Generation (until 280 CE):

Rav Huna Judah bar Ezekiel Rabbah b. Abuha Jeremiah b. Abba Rav Kahana II Rav Berona Hiyya b. Joseph Rav Giddel Hiyya b. Ashi Raba Bar Jeremiah (Abba) Adda bar Ahavah

Third Generation (until 310 CE):

Rav Nachman Sheshet Rav Chisda Rabbah bar Nahmani Rav Yosef b. Hiyya Raba bar Rav Huna Joseph b. Hama Ammi b. Abba Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah

Fourth Generation (until 340 CE):

Abaye Rava Rami bar Hama Aha b. Jacob Rav Safra Rav Kahana III Idi b. Abin Naggara Hiyya b. Abin Naggara Rav Shizbi Isaac b. Judah Rabbah b. Shela

Fifth Generation (until 380 CE):

Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak Rav Papa Huna ben Joshua Rav Zevid Rav Papi Amemar Mar Zutra Rav Mesharshiya

Sixth Generation (until 430 CE):

Ravina I Rami b. Abba Rav Ashi Huna ben Joshua Rav Kahana IV

Seventh Generation (until 465 CE):

Rav Yemar Mar bar Rav Ashi Rafram II Aha b. Raba Judah b. Meremar

Eighth Generation (until 500 CE):

Rabbah Tosafa'ah Rav

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