HOME
The Info List - Amoraim


--- Advertisement ---



_AMORAIM_ (Aramaic : plural אמוראים‎ ʔamoraˈʔim, singular _AMORA_ אמורא‎ ʔamoˈʁa; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah . They were concentrated in Babylonia and the Land of Israel . Their legal discussions and debates were eventually codified in the Gemara . The _Amoraim_ followed the _ Tannaim _ in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars. The _Tannaim_ were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition; the _Amoraim_ expounded upon and clarified the oral law after its initial codification.

CONTENTS

* 1 The Amoraic era

* 2 Prominent Amoraim

* 2.1 First generation (approx. 230–250 CE) * 2.2 Second generation (approx. 250–290 CE) * 2.3 Third generation (approx. 290–320 CE) * 2.4 Fourth generation (approx. 320–350 CE) * 2.5 Fifth generation (approx. 350–371 CE) * 2.6 Sixth generation (approx. 371–427 CE) * 2.7 Seventh generation (approx. 425–460 CE) * 2.8 Eighth generation (approx. 460–500 CE)

* 3 Stammaim * 4 References * 5 External links

THE AMORAIC ERA

The first Babylonian _Amoraim_ were Abba Arika , respectfully referred to as _Rav_, and his contemporary and frequent debate partner, Shmuel . Among the earliest _Amoraim_ in Israel were Johanan bar Nappaha and Shimon ben Lakish . Traditionally, the Amoraic period is reckoned as seven or eight generations (depending on where one begins and ends). The last _Amoraim_ are generally considered to be Ravina I and Rav Ashi , and Ravina II , nephew of Ravina I, who codified the Babylonian Talmud around 500 CE. In total, 761 amoraim are mentioned by name in the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds. 367 of them were active in the land of Israel from around 200-350 CE, while the other 394 lived in Babylonia during 200-500 CE.

In the Talmud itself, the singular _amora_ generally refers to a lecturer's assistant; the lecturer would state his thoughts briefly, and the _amora_ would then repeat them aloud for the public's benefit, adding translation and clarification where needed.

PROMINENT AMORAIM

The following is an abbreviated listing of the most prominent of the (hundreds of) _Amoraim_ mentioned in the Talmud. More complete listings may be provided by some of the external links below. _See also List of rabbis ._

FIRST GENERATION (APPROX. 230–250 CE)

* Abba Arika (d. 247), known as RAV, last _Tanna_, first _Amora_. Disciple of Judah haNasi . Moved from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia (219). Founder and Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura . * Shmuel (d. 254), disciple of Judah haNasi's students and others. Dean of the Yeshiva at Nehardea . * Joshua ben Levi (early 3rd century), headed the school of Lod . * Bar Kappara

SECOND GENERATION (APPROX. 250–290 CE)

_ Tomb of the Amoraim in Tiberias

* Rav Huna (d. 297), disciple of Rav and Shmuel . Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. * Rav Yehudah (d. 299), disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. * Adda bar Ahavah , (3rd and 4th centuries), disciple of Rav. * Hillel, son of Gamaliel III (fl. early 3rd century), disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, and younger brother of Judah II (Judah Nesiah). * Judah II (fl. early 3rd century), disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, and son and successor of Gamaliel III as Nasi . Sometimes called Rabbi Judah Nesi'ah_, and occasionally _Rebbi_ like his grandfather. * Resh Lakish (d. late 3rd century), disciple of Judah haNasi, Rabbi Yannai and others, and colleague of Rabbi Yochanan . * Rabbi Yochanan (d. 279 or 289), disciple of Judah haNasi and Rabbi Yannai. Dean of the Yeshiva at Tiberias . Primary author of the Jerusalem Talmud . * Samuel ben Nahman * Shila of Kefar Tamarta * Isaac Nappaha

THIRD GENERATION (APPROX. 290–320 CE)

* Rabbah (d. 320), disciple of Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah . Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. * Rav Yosef (d. 323), disciple of Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. * Rav Zeira (Israel) * Rav Chisda (d. 309), disciple of Rav, Shmuel, and Rav Huna. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. * Simon (Shimeon) ben Pazzi * Rav Sheshes * Rav Nachman (d. 320), disciple of Rav, Shmuel, and Rabbah bar Avuha . Did not head his own yeshiva, but was a regular participant in the discussions at the Yeshivot of Sura and Mahuza . * Rabbi Abbahu (d. early 4th century), disciple of Rabbi Yochanan . Dean of the Yeshiva in Caesarea . * Hamnuna — Several rabbis in the Talmud bore this name, the most well-known being a disciple of Shmuel (fl. late 3rd century). * Judah III (d. early 4th century), disciple of Rabbi Johanan bar Nappaha. Son and successor of Gamaliel IV as NASI, and grandson of Judah II. * Rabbi Ammi * Rabbi Assi * Hanina ben Pappa * Rabbah bar Rav Huna * Rami bar Hama * Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah

FOURTH GENERATION (APPROX. 320–350 CE)

* Abaye (d. 339), disciple of Rabbah , Rav Yosef , and Rav Nachman . Dean of the Yeshiva in Pumbedita. * Rava (d. 352), disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, and Rav Nachman, and possibly Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva at Mahuza. * Hillel II (fl. c. 360). Creator of the present-day Hebrew calendar . Son and successor as Nasi of Judah Nesiah, grandson of Gamaliel IV. * Abba the Surgeon * Bebai ben Abaye (fl. c. 4th century)

FIFTH GENERATION (APPROX. 350–371 CE)

* Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak (d. 356), disciple of Abaye and Rava . Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. * Rav Papa (d. 371 or 375), disciple of Abaye and Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva at Naresh . * Rav Kahana , teacher of Rav Ashi * Rav Hama * Rav Huna berai d'Rav Yehoshua

SIXTH GENERATION (APPROX. 371–427 CE)

* Rav Ashi (d. 427), disciple of Rav Kahana . Dean of the Yeshiva in Mata Mehasia . Primary redactor of the Babylonian Talmud. * Ravina I (d. 421), disciple of Abaye and Rava. Colleague of Rav Ashi in the Yeshiva at Mata Mehasia, where he assisted in the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud.

SEVENTH GENERATION (APPROX. 425–460 CE)

* Mar bar Rav Ashi .

EIGHTH GENERATION (APPROX. 460–500 CE)

* Ravina II (d. 475 or 500), disciple of Ravina I and Rav Ashi. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Completed the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud.

STAMMAIM

The "Stammaim" is a term used by some modern scholars, such as Halivni , for the rabbis who composed the anonymous (_stam_) statements and arguments in the Talmud, some of whom may have worked during the period of the _Amoraim_, but who mostly made their contributions after the amoraic period. See also _ Savoraim _.

REFERENCES

* ^ Gideon Golany _Babylonian Jewish neighborhood and home design_- 1999 38 " Amoraim (from the Aramaic word amora meaning "spokesman")" * ^ Judith R. Baskin ; Kenneth Seeskin (31 July 2010). _The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture_. Cambridge University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-521-68974-8 . Retrieved 16 September 2011. * ^ David Guttmann (2006-03-21). "Believing is Knowing: Professor Halivni and the Sealing of the Gemara - a new chronology". Yediah.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2013-04-11.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Gemara in the Talmud Map –

.