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Amnesty International
Amnesty International
(commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights. The organization claims to have over 7 million members and supporters around the world. The stated objective of the organization is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated. "[3] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was founded in London
London
in 1961, following the publication of the article "The Forgotten Prisoners" in The Observer on 28 May 1961,[4] by the lawyer Peter Benenson. Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards. It works to mobilize public opinion to put pressure on governments that let abuse take place.[3] Amnesty considers capital punishment to be "the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights".[5] The organization was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its "defence of human dignity against torture",[6] and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights
United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights
in 1978.[7] In the field of international human rights organizations, Amnesty has the third longest history, after the International Federation for Human Rights and broadest name recognition, and is believed by many to set standards for the movement as a whole.[8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 1960s 1.2 1970s 1.3 1980s 1.4 1990s 1.5 2000s 1.6 2010s

2 Structure

2.1 Artists For Amnesty 2.2 Charitable status

3 Principles 4 Objectives

4.1 Country focus

5 Funding 6 Criticism and controversies

6.1 CAGE controversy 6.2 Pay controversy

7 Awards and honours 8 National sections 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] 1960s[edit]

Peter Benenson, the founder of Amnesty International. He worked for Britain's GC&CS at Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
during World War II.

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was founded in London
London
in July 1961 by English labour lawyer Peter Benenson.[9] According to his own account, he was travelling in the London
London
Underground on 19 November 1960 when he read that two Portuguese students from Coimbra
Coimbra
had been sentenced to seven years of imprisonment in Portugal for allegedly "having drunk a toast to liberty".[a][10] Researchers have never traced the alleged newspaper article in question.[a] In 1960, Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of António de Oliveira Salazar.[11] The government was authoritarian in nature and strongly anti-communist, suppressing enemies of the state as anti-Portuguese. In his significant newspaper article "The Forgotten Prisoners", Benenson later described his reaction as follows:

Open your newspaper any day of the week and you will find a story from somewhere of someone being imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government ... The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, something effective could be done.[4]

Benenson worked with friend Eric Baker. Baker was a member of the Religious Society of Friends
Religious Society of Friends
who had been involved in funding the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
as well as becoming head of Quaker Peace and Social Witness, and in his memoirs Benenson described him as "a partner in the launching of the project".[12] In consultation with other writers, academics and lawyers and, in particular, Alec Digges, they wrote via Louis Blom-Cooper
Louis Blom-Cooper
to David Astor, editor of The Observer newspaper, who, on 28 May 1961, published Benenson's article "The Forgotten Prisoners". The article brought the reader's attention to those "imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government"[4] or, put another way, to violations, by governments, of articles 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The article described these violations occurring, on a global scale, in the context of restrictions to press freedom, to political oppositions, to timely public trial before impartial courts, and to asylum. It marked the launch of "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961", the aim of which was to mobilize public opinion, quickly and widely, in defence of these individuals, whom Benenson named "Prisoners of Conscience". The "Appeal for Amnesty" was reprinted by a large number of international newspapers. In the same year, Benenson had a book published, Persecution 1961, which detailed the cases of nine prisoners of conscience investigated and compiled by Benenson and Baker (Maurice Adin, Ashton Jones, Agostinho Neto, Patrick Duncan, Olga Ivinskaya, Luis Taruc, Constantin Noica, Antonio Amat and Hu Feng).[13] In July 1961 the leadership had decided that the appeal would form the basis of a permanent organization, Amnesty, with the first meeting taking place in London. Benenson ensured that all three major political parties were represented, enlisting members of parliament from the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Party.[14] On 30 September 1962, it was officially named "Amnesty International". Between the "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961" and September 1962 the organization had been known simply as "Amnesty".[15] What started as a short appeal soon became a permanent international movement working to protect those imprisoned for non-violent expression of their views and to secure worldwide recognition of Articles 18 and 19 of the UDHR. From the very beginning, research and campaigning were present in Amnesty International's work. A library was established for information about prisoners of conscience and a network of local groups, called "THREES" groups, was started. Each group worked on behalf of three prisoners, one from each of the then three main ideological regions of the world: communist, capitalist, and developing. By the mid-1960s Amnesty International's global presence was growing and an International Secretariat and International Executive Committee were established to manage Amnesty International's national organizations, called "Sections", which had appeared in several countries. The international movement was starting to agree on its core principles and techniques. For example, the issue of whether or not to adopt prisoners who had advocated violence, like Nelson Mandela, brought unanimous agreement that it could not give the name of "Prisoner of Conscience" to such prisoners. Aside from the work of the library and groups, Amnesty International's activities were expanding to helping prisoners' families, sending observers to trials, making representations to governments, and finding asylum or overseas employment for prisoners. Its activity and influence were also increasing within intergovernmental organizations; it would be awarded consultative status by the United Nations, the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and UNESCO
UNESCO
before the decade ended. In 1967 Peter Benenson resigned after an independent inquiry did not support his claims that AI had been infiltrated by British agents.[16] Later he claimed that the Central Intelligence Agency had become involved in Amnesty. 1970s[edit] Leading Amnesty International
Amnesty International
in the 1970s were key figures Seán MacBride and Martin Ennals. While continuing to work for prisoners of conscience, Amnesty International's purview widened to include "fair trial" and opposition to long detention without trial (UDHR Article 9), and especially to the torture of prisoners (UDHR Article 5). Amnesty International
Amnesty International
believed that the reasons underlying torture of prisoners by governments, were either to acquire and obtain information or to quell opposition by the use of terror, or both. Also of concern was the export of more sophisticated torture methods, equipment and teaching by the superpowers to "client states", for example by the United States
United States
through some activities of the CIA. Amnesty International
Amnesty International
drew together reports from countries where torture allegations seemed most persistent and organized an international conference on torture. It sought to influence public opinion to put pressure on national governments by organizing a campaign for the "Abolition of Torture" which ran for several years. Amnesty International's membership increased from 15,000 in 1969[17] to 200,000 by 1979.[18] This growth in resources enabled an expansion of its program, "outside of the prison walls", to include work on "disappearances", the death penalty and the rights of refugees. A new technique, the "Urgent Action", aimed at mobilizing the membership into action rapidly was pioneered. The first was issued on 19 March 1973, on behalf of Luiz Basilio Rossi, a Brazilian academic, arrested for political reasons. At the intergovernmental level Amnesty International
Amnesty International
pressed for application of the UN's Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners and of existing humanitarian conventions; to secure ratifications of the two UN Covenants on Human Rights in 1976; and was instrumental in obtaining additional instruments and provisions forbidding its practice. Consultative status was granted at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
in 1972. In 1976 Amnesty's British Section started a series of fund-raising events that came to be known as The Secret Policeman's Balls
The Secret Policeman's Balls
series. They were staged in London
London
initially as comedy galas featuring what the Daily Telegraph called "the crème de la crème of the British comedy world"[19] including members of comedy troupe Monty Python, and later expanded to also include performances by leading rock musicians. The series was created and developed by Monty Python
Monty Python
alumnus John Cleese and entertainment industry executive Martin Lewis working closely with Amnesty staff members Peter Luff (Assistant Director of Amnesty 1974–78) and subsequently with Peter Walker (Amnesty Fund-Raising Officer 1978–82). Cleese, Lewis and Luff worked together on the first two shows (1976 and 1977). Cleese, Lewis and Walker worked together on the 1979 and 1981 shows, the first to carry what the Daily Telegraph described as the "rather brilliantly re-christened" Secret Policeman's Ball title.[19] The organization was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for its "defence of human dignity against torture"[6] and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978.[7] 1980s[edit] By 1980 Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was drawing more criticism from governments. The USSR alleged that Amnesty International
Amnesty International
conducted espionage, the Moroccan government
Moroccan government
denounced it as a defender of lawbreakers, and the Argentinian government banned Amnesty International's 1983 annual report.[20] Throughout the 1980s, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
continued to campaign against torture, and on behalf of prisoners of conscience. New issues emerged, including extrajudicial killings, military, security and police transfers, political killings, and disappearances. Towards the end of the decade, the growing number of refugees worldwide was a very visible area of Amnesty International's concern. While many of the world's refugees of the time had been displaced by war and famine, in adherence to its mandate, Amnesty International concentrated on those forced to flee because of the human rights violations it was seeking to prevent. It argued that rather than focusing on new restrictions on entry for asylum-seekers, governments were to address the human rights violations which were forcing people into exile. Apart from a second campaign on torture during the first half of the decade, two major musical events occurred, designed to increase awareness of Amnesty and of human rights (particularly among younger generations) during the mid- to late-1980s. The 1986 Conspiracy of Hope tour, which played five concerts in the US, and culminated in a daylong show, featuring some thirty-odd acts at Giants Stadium, and the 1988 Human Rights Now!
Human Rights Now!
world tour. Human Rights Now!, which was timed to coincide with the 40th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR), played a series of concerts on five continents over six weeks. Both tours featured some of the most famous musicians and bands of the day. 1990s[edit] Throughout the 1990s, Amnesty continued to grow, to a membership of over 7 million in over 150 countries and territories,[2] led by Senegalese Secretary General Pierre Sané. Amnesty continued to work on a wide range of issues and world events. For example, South African groups joined in 1992 and hosted a visit by Pierre Sané
Pierre Sané
to meet with the apartheid government to press for an investigation into allegations of police abuse, an end to arms sales to the African Great Lakes region and the abolition of the death penalty. In particular, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
brought attention to violations committed on specific groups, including refugees, racial/ethnic/religious minorities, women and those executed or on Death Row. The death penalty report When the State Kills[21] and the "Human Rights are Women's Rights" campaign were key actions for the latter two issues. During the 1990s, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was forced to react to human rights violations occurring in the context of a proliferation of armed conflict in Angola, East Timor, the Persian Gulf, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia. Amnesty International
Amnesty International
took no position on whether to support or oppose external military interventions in these armed conflicts. It did not reject the use of force, even lethal force, or ask those engaged to lay down their arms. Instead, it questioned the motives behind external intervention and selectivity of international action in relation to the strategic interests of those who sent troops. It argued that action should be taken to prevent human-rights problems from becoming human-rights catastrophes, and that both intervention and inaction represented a failure of the international community. In 1995, when AI wanted to promote how Shell Oil Company
Shell Oil Company
was involved with the execution of an environmental and human-rights activist Ken Saro-Wiwa in Nigeria, it was stopped. Newspapers and advertising companies refused to run AI's ads because Shell Oil was a customer of theirs as well. Shell's main argument was that it was drilling oil in a country that already violated human rights and had no way to enforce human-rights policies. To combat the buzz that AI was trying to create, it immediately publicized how Shell was helping to improve overall life in Nigeria. Salil Shetty, the director of Amnesty, said, "Social media re-energises the idea of the global citizen".[14] James M. Russell notes how the drive for profit from private media sources conflicts with the stories that AI wants to be heard.[22] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was proactive in pushing for recognition of the universality of human rights. The campaign 'Get Up, Sign Up' marked 50 years of the UDHR. Thirteen million pledges were collected in support, and the Decl music concert was held in Paris on 10 December 1998 (Human Rights Day). At the intergovernmental level, Amnesty International argued in favour of creating a United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights (established 1993) and an International Criminal Court (established 2002). After his arrest in London
London
in 1998 by the Metropolitan Police, Amnesty International became involved in the legal battle of Senator Augusto Pinochet, former Chilean dictator, who sought to avoid extradition to Spain to face charges. Lord Hoffman
Lord Hoffman
had an indirect connection with Amnesty International, and this led to an important test for the appearance of bias in legal proceedings in UK law. There was a suit[23] against the decision to release Senator Pinochet, taken by the then British Home Secretary
Home Secretary
Mr Jack Straw, before that decision had actually been taken, in an attempt to prevent the release of Senator Pinochet. The English High Court refused[24] the application, and Senator Pinochet was released and returned to Chile. 2000s[edit] After 2000, Amnesty International's agenda turned to the challenges arising from globalization and the reaction to the 11 September 2001 attacks in the United States. The issue of globalization provoked a major shift in Amnesty International
Amnesty International
policy, as the scope of its work was widened to include economic, social and cultural rights, an area that it had declined to work on in the past. Amnesty International felt this shift was important, not just to give credence to its principle of the indivisibility of rights, but because of what it saw as the growing power of companies and the undermining of many nation states as a result of globalization.[25] In the aftermath of 11 September attacks, the new Amnesty International Secretary General, Irene Khan, reported that a senior government official had said to Amnesty International
Amnesty International
delegates: "Your role collapsed with the collapse of the Twin Towers in New York".[26] In the years following the attacks, some[who?] believe that the gains made by human rights organizations over previous decades had possibly been eroded.[27] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
argued that human rights were the basis for the security of all, not a barrier to it. Criticism came directly from the Bush administration and The Washington Post, when Khan, in 2005, likened the US government's detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to a Soviet Gulag.[28][29] During the first half of the new decade, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
turned its attention to violence against women, controls on the world arms trade, concerns surrounding the effectiveness of the UN, and ending torture.[30] With its membership close to two million by 2005,[31] Amnesty continued to work for prisoners of conscience. In 2007, AI's executive committee decided to support access to abortion "within reasonable gestational limits...for women in cases of rape, incest or violence, or where the pregnancy jeopardizes a mother's life or health".[32][33] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
reported, concerning the Iraq War, on 17 March 2008, that despite claims the security situation in Iraq has improved in recent months, the human rights situation is disastrous, after the start of the war five years earlier in 2003.[34] In 2009 Amnesty International
Amnesty International
accused Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian Hamas movement of committing war crimes during Israel's January offensive in Gaza, called Operation Cast Lead, that resulted in the deaths of more than 1,400 Palestinians and 13 Israelis.[35] The 117-page Amnesty report charged Israeli forces with killing hundreds of civilians and wanton destruction of thousands of homes. Amnesty found evidence of Israeli soldiers using Palestinian civilians as human shields. A subsequent United Nations
United Nations
Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict was carried out; Amnesty stated that its findings were consistent with those of Amnesty's own field investigation, and called on the UN to act promptly to implement the mission's recommendations.[36][37] 2010s[edit]

Stockholm Pride 2015 Parade

In February 2010, Amnesty suspended Gita Sahgal, its gender unit head, after she criticized Amnesty for its links with Moazzam Begg, director of Cageprisoners. She said it was "a gross error of judgment" to work with "Britain's most famous supporter of the Taliban".[38][39][40] Amnesty responded that Sahgal was not suspended "for raising these issues internally... [Begg] speaks about his own views ..., not Amnesty International's."[41] Among those who spoke up for Saghal were Salman Rushdie,[42] Member of Parliament Denis MacShane, Joan Smith, Christopher Hitchens, Martin Bright, Melanie Phillips, and Nick Cohen.[40][43][44][45][46][47][48] In February 2011, Amnesty requested that Swiss authorities start a criminal investigation of former US President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and arrest him.[49] In July 2011, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
celebrated its 50 years with an animated short film directed by Carlos Lascano, produced by Eallin Motion Art and Dreamlife Studio, with music by Academy Award-winner Hans Zimmer
Hans Zimmer
and nominee Lorne Balfe. The film shows that the fight for humanity is not yet over.[50] In August 2012, Amnesty International's chief executive in India sought an impartial investigation, led by the United Nations, to render justice to those affected by war crimes in Sri Lanka.[51] On 18 August 2014, in the wake of demonstrations sparked by people protesting the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown, an unarmed 18-year-old man, and subsequent acquittal of Darren Wilson, the officer who shot him, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
sent a 13-person contingent of human rights activists to seek meetings with officials as well as to train local activists in non-violent protest methods.[52] This was the first time that the organization has deployed such a team to the United States.[53][54][55] In a press release, AI USA director Steven W. Hawkins said, "The U.S. cannot continue to allow those obligated and duty-bound to protect to become those who their community fears most."[56] In June 2016, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
has called on the United Nations General Assembly to "immediately suspend" Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
from the UN Human Rights Council."[57][58] Richard Bennett, head of Amnesty's UN Office, said: "The credibility of the U.N. Human Rights Council is at stake. Since joining the council, Saudi Arabia’s dire human rights record at home has continued to deteriorate and the coalition it leads has unlawfully killed and injured thousands of civilians in the conflict in Yemen."[59] In December 2016, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
revealed that Voiceless Victims, a fake non-profit organization which claims to raise awareness for migrant workers who are victims of human rights abuses in Qatar, had been trying to spy on their staff.[60][61] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
published its annual report for the year 2016–2017 on 21 February 2017. Secretary General Salil Shetty's opening statement in the report highlighted many ongoing international abuses as well as emerging threats. Shetty drew attention, among many issues, to the Syrian Civil War, the use of chemical weapons in the War in Darfur, outgoing United States
United States
President Barack Obama's expansion of drone warfare, and the successful 2016 presidential election campaign of Obama's successor Donald Trump, which, as Shetty put it, was characterized by "poisonous" discourse in which "he frequently made deeply divisive statements marked by misogyny and xenophobia, and pledged to roll back established civil liberties and introduce policies which would be profoundly inimical to human rights." In his opening summary, Shetty stated that "the world in 2016 became a darker and more unstable place."[62] 2016: In February, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
launches its annual report of human rights around the world titled " The State of the World’s Human Rights". It warns from the consequences of "us vs them" speech which divided human beings into two camps. It says that this speech enhances a global pushback against human rights and makes the world more divided and more dangerous. It states that in 2016, governments turned a blind eye to war crimes and passed laws that violate free expression. Recently, Trump signed an executive order in an attempt to prevent refugees from seeking resettlement in the United States. Elsewhere, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Thailand and Turkey carried out massive crackdowns, while authorities in other countries continued to implement security measures represent an infringement on rights.[63] 2017: In July 2017 Turkish police detained 10 human rights activists during a workshop on digital security at a hotel near Istanbul. Eight people, including Idil Eser, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
director in Turkey, as well as German Peter Steudtner and Swede Ali Gharavi, were arrested. Two others were detained but released pending trial. They were accused of aiding armed terror organizations in alleged communications with suspects linked to Kurdish and left-wing militants, as well as the movement led by US-based Muslim cleric Fethullah Gulen.[64] Structure[edit]

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Sections, 2012

The Amnesty Canadian headquarters in Ottawa.

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
is largely made up of voluntary members, but retains a small number of paid professionals. In countries in which Amnesty International
Amnesty International
has a strong presence, members are organized as "sections". Sections co-ordinate basic Amnesty International activities normally with a significant number of members, some of whom will form into "groups", and a professional staff. Each have a board of directors. In 2005 there were 52 sections worldwide. "Structures" are aspiring sections. They also co-ordinate basic activities but have a smaller membership and a limited staff. In countries where no section or structure exists, people can become "international members". Two other organizational models exist: "international networks", which promote specific themes or have a specific identity, and "affiliated groups", which do the same work as section groups, but in isolation.[65] The organizations outlined above are represented by the International Council (IC) which is led by the IC Chairperson. Members of sections and structures have the right to appoint one or more representatives to the Council according to the size of their membership. The IC may invite representatives from International Networks and other individuals to meetings, but only representatives from sections and structures have voting rights. The function of the IC is to appoint and hold accountable internal governing bodies and to determine the direction of the movement. The IC convenes every two years. The International Board (formerly known as the International Executive Committee [IEC]), led by the International Board Chairperson, consists of eight members and the International Treasurer. It is elected by, and accountable to, the IC, and meets at least two times during any one year and in practice meets at least four times a year. The role of the International Board is to take decisions on behalf of Amnesty International, implement the strategy laid out by the IC, and ensure compliance with the organization's statutes. The International Secretariat (IS) is responsible for the conduct and daily affairs of Amnesty International
Amnesty International
under direction from the International Board.[66] It is run by approximately 500 professional staff members and is headed by a Secretary General. The Secretariat operates several work programmes; International Law and Organizations; Research; Campaigns; Mobilization; and Communications. Its offices have been located in London
London
since its establishment in the mid-1960s.

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Sections, 2005 Algeria; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Belgium (Dutch-speaking); Belgium (French-speaking); Benin; Bermuda; Canada (English-speaking); Canada (French-speaking); Chile; Côte d'Ivoire; Denmark; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Guyana; Hong Kong; Iceland; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Korea (Republic of); Luxembourg; Mauritius; Mexico; Morocco; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan; Togo; Tunisia; United Kingdom; United States
United States
of America; Uruguay; Venezuela Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Structures, 2005 Belarus; Bolivia; Burkina Faso; Croatia; Curaçao; Czech Republic; Gambia; Hungary; Malaysia; Mali; Moldova; Mongolia; Pakistan; Paraguay; Slovakia; South Africa; Thailand; Turkey; Ukraine; Zambia; Zimbabwe International Board (formerly known as "IEC") Chairpersons Seán MacBride, 1965–74; Dirk Börner, 1974–17; Thomas Hammarberg, 1977–79; José Zalaquett, 1979–82; Suriya Wickremasinghe, 1982–85; Wolfgang Heinz, 1985–96; Franca Sciuto, 1986–89; Peter Duffy, 1989–91; Annette Fischer, 1991–92; Ross Daniels, 1993–19; Susan Waltz, 1996–98; Mahmoud Ben Romdhane, 1999–2000; Colm O Cuanachain, 2001–02; Paul Hoffman, 2003–04; Jaap Jacobson, 2005; Hanna Roberts, 2005–06; Lilian Gonçalves-Ho Kang You, 2006–07; Peter Pack, 2007–11; Pietro Antonioli, 2011–13; and Nicole Bieske, 2013–present. Secretaries General

Secretary General Office Origin

Peter Benenson Peter Benenson 1961–66 Britain

Eric Baker Eric Baker 1966–68 Britain

Martin Ennals Martin Ennals 1968–80 Britain

Thomas Hammarberg
Thomas Hammarberg
Thomas Hammarberg 1980–86 Sweden

Avery Brundage
Avery Brundage
Ian Martin 1986–92 Britain

Pierre Sané
Pierre Sané
Pierre Sané 1992–2001 Senegal

Irene Zubaida Khan Irene Khan 2001–10 Bangladesh

Salil Shetty
Salil Shetty
Salil Shetty 2010 – 2018 India

Kumi Naidoo
Kumi Naidoo
Kumi Naidoo 2018 – in charge South Africa

Artists For Amnesty[edit] Amnesty International, through its "Artists For Amnesty" programme has also endorsed various cultural media works for what its leadership often consider accurate or educational treatments of real-world topics that fall within the range of Amnesty's concern:

A is for Auschwitz At the Death House Door Blood Diamond[67] Bordertown Catch a Fire In Prison My Whole Life Invictus Lord of War Rendition The Constant Gardener Tibet: Beyond Fear Trouble the Water 12 Years a Slave Django Unchained The Help

Charitable status[edit] In the UK Amnesty International
Amnesty International
has two principal arms, Amnesty International UK and Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Charity Ltd. Both are UK-based organizations but only the latter is a charity.[68] Principles[edit] The core principle of Amnesty International
Amnesty International
is a focus on prisoners of conscience, those persons imprisoned or prevented from expressing any opinion other than violence. Along with this commitment to opposing repression of freedom of expression, Amnesty International's founding principles included non-intervention on political questions, a robust commitment to gathering facts about the various cases and promoting human rights.[69] One key issue in the principles is in regards to those individuals who may advocate or tacitly support resorting to violence in struggles against repression. AI does not judge whether recourse to violence is justified or not. However, AI does not oppose the political use of violence in itself since The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in its preamble, foresees situations in which people could "be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression". If a prisoner is serving a sentence imposed, after a fair trial, for activities involving violence, AI will not ask the government to release the prisoner. AI neither supports nor condemns the resort to violence by political opposition groups in itself, just as AI neither supports nor condemns a government policy of using military force in fighting against armed opposition movements. However, AI supports minimum humane standards that should be respected by governments and armed opposition groups alike. When an opposition group tortures or kills its captives, takes hostages, or commits deliberate and arbitrary killings, AI condemns these abuses.[70][dubious – discuss] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
opposes capital punishment in all cases, regardless of the crime committed, the circumstances surrounding the individual or the method of execution.[71] Objectives[edit]

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Amnesty International's vision is of a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards.

In pursuit of this vision, Amnesty International's mission is to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from discrimination, within the context of its work to promote all human rights.

-Statute of Amnesty International, 27th International Council meeting, 2005

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
primarily targets governments, but also reports on non-governmental bodies and private individuals ("non-state actors"). There are six key areas which Amnesty deals with:

Women's, children's, minorities' and indigenous rights Ending torture Abolition of the death penalty Rights of refugees Rights of prisoners of conscience Protection of human dignity.

Some specific aims are to: abolish the death penalty, end extra judicial executions and "disappearances," ensure prison conditions meet international human rights standards, ensure prompt and fair trial for all political prisoners, ensure free education to all children worldwide, decriminalize abortion,[72] fight impunity from systems of justice, end the recruitment and use of child soldiers, free all prisoners of conscience, promote economic, social and cultural rights for marginalized communities, protect human rights defenders, promote religious tolerance, protect LGBT rights,[73] stop torture and ill-treatment, stop unlawful killings in armed conflict, uphold the rights of refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers, and protect human dignity.

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
at the 2009 Marcha Gay in Mexico City, 20 June 2009

To further these aims, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
has developed several techniques to publicize information and mobilize public opinion. The organization considers as one of its strengths the publication of impartial and accurate reports. Reports are researched by: interviewing victims and officials, observing trials, working with local human rights activists, and monitoring the media. It aims to issue timely press releases and publishes information in newsletters and on web sites. It also sends official missions to countries to make courteous but insistent inquiries. Campaigns to mobilize public opinion can take the form of individual, country, or thematic campaigns. Many techniques are deployed, such as direct appeals (for example, letter writing), media and publicity work, and public demonstrations. Often, fund-raising is integrated with campaigning. In situations which require immediate attention, Amnesty International calls on existing urgent action networks or crisis response networks; for all other matters, it calls on its membership. It considers the large size of its human resources to be another of its key strengths. The role of Amnesty International
Amnesty International
has an immense impact on getting citizens onboard(sic) with focusing on human rights issues. These groups influence countries and governments to give their people justice with pressure and in human resources. An example of Amnesty International's work, which began in the 1960s, is writing letters to free imprisoned people that were put there for non-violent expressions. The group now has power, attends sessions, and became a source of information for the UN. The increase in participation of non-governmental organizations changes how we live today. Felix Dodds states in a recent document: "In 1972 there were 39 democratic countries in the world; by 2002, there were 139."[citation needed] This shows that non-governmental organizations make enormous leaps within a short period of time for human rights. Country focus[edit]

Protesting Israel's policy against African refugees, Tel Aviv, 9 December 2011

Amnesty reports disproportionately on relatively more democratic and open countries,[74] arguing that its intention is not to produce a range of reports which statistically represents the world's human rights abuses, but rather to apply the pressure of public opinion to encourage improvements. The demonstration effect of the behaviour of both key Western governments and major non-Western states is an important factor: as one former Amnesty Secretary-General pointed out, "for many countries and a large number of people, the United States
United States
is a model," and according to one Amnesty manager, "large countries influence small countries."[8] In addition, with the end of the Cold War, Amnesty felt that a greater emphasis on human rights in the North was needed to improve its credibility with its Southern critics by demonstrating its willingness to report on human rights issues in a truly global manner.[8] According to one academic study, as a result of these considerations the frequency of Amnesty's reports is influenced by a number of factors, besides the frequency and severity of human rights abuses. For example, Amnesty reports significantly more (than predicted by human rights abuses) on more economically powerful states; and on countries which receive US military aid, on the basis that this Western complicity in abuses increases the likelihood of public pressure being able to make a difference.[8] In addition, around 1993–94, Amnesty consciously developed its media relations, producing fewer background reports and more press releases, to increase the impact of its reports. Press releases are partly driven by news coverage, to use existing news coverage as leverage to discuss Amnesty's human rights concerns. This increases Amnesty's focus on the countries the media is more interested in.[8] In 2012, Kristyan Benedict, Amnesty UK's campaign manager whose main focus is Syria, listed several countries as "regimes who abuse peoples' basic universal rights": Burma, Iran, Israel, North Korea and Sudan. By including Israel
Israel
in that short list Mr. Benedict was reprimanded; his opinion was garnered solely from "his own visits" with no other objective sources.[75][76] Amnesty's country focus is similar to that of some other comparable NGOs, notably Human Rights Watch: between 1991 and 2000, Amnesty and HRW shared eight of ten countries in their "top ten" (by Amnesty press releases; 7 for Amnesty reports).[8] In addition, six of the 10 countries most reported on by Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
in the 1990s also made The Economist's and Newsweek's "most covered" lists during that time.[8] Funding[edit] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
is financed largely by fees and donations from its worldwide membership. It says that it does not accept donations from governments or governmental organizations. According to the AI website, "these personal and unaffiliated donations allow AI to maintain full independence from any and all governments, political ideologies, economic interests or religions. We neither seek nor accept any funds for human rights research from governments or political parties and we accept support only from businesses that have been carefully vetted. By way of ethical fundraising leading to donations from individuals, we are able to stand firm and unwavering in our defence of universal and indivisible human rights."[77] However, AI did receive grants from the UK Department for International Development,[78] the European Commission,[79] the United States State Department[80][81] and other governments.[82][83] AI(USA) was also funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.[84] However, this funds are only used "in support of its human rights education work.[85]" Criticism and controversies[edit] Main article: Criticism of Amnesty International Criticism of Amnesty International
Criticism of Amnesty International
includes claims of excessive pay for management, underprotection of overseas staff, associating with organizations with a dubious record on human rights protection, selection bias, ideological/foreign policy bias against either non-Western countries[86] or Western-supported countries, and criticism of Amnesty's policies relating to abortion.[87][88] Governments and their supporters have criticized Amnesty's criticism of their policies, including those of Australia,[89] Czech Republic,[90] China,[91] Democratic Republic of the Congo,[92] India, Iran, Israel,[76] Qatar,[93] Saudi Arabia,[94] Vietnam,[95] Russia[96] and the United States,[97] for what they assert is one-sided reporting or a failure to treat threats to security as a mitigating factor. The actions of these governments, and of other governments critical of Amnesty International, have been the subject of human rights concerns voiced by Amnesty. The Sudan
Sudan
Vision Daily, a daily newspaper in Sudan, compared Amnesty to the National Endowment for Democracy, saying "it is, in essence, a British intelligence
British intelligence
organization which is a part of the Government decision making system."[98] CAGE controversy[edit] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
suspended Gita Sahgal, its gender unit head, after she criticized Amnesty for its high-profile associations with Moazzam Begg, the director of Cageprisoners, representing men in extrajudicial detention.[99][100] "To be appearing on platforms with Britain’s most famous supporter of the Taliban, Begg, whom we treat as a human rights defender, is a gross error of judgment," she said.[99][101] Sahgal argued that by associating with Begg and Cageprisoners, Amnesty was risking its reputation on human rights.[99][102][103][104] "As a former Guantanamo detainee, it was legitimate to hear his experiences, but as a supporter of the Taliban it was absolutely wrong to legitimise him as a partner", Sahgal said.[99] She said she repeatedly brought the matter up with Amnesty for two years, to no avail.[105] A few hours after the article was published, Saghal was suspended from her position.[106] Amnesty's Senior Director of Law and Policy, Widney Brown, later said Sahgal raised concerns about Begg and Cageprisoners
Cageprisoners
to her personally for the first time a few days before sharing them with the Sunday Times.[105] Sahgal issued a statement saying she felt that Amnesty was risking its reputation by associating with and thereby politically legitimizing Begg, because Cageprisoners
Cageprisoners
"actively promotes Islamic Right ideas and individuals".[106] She said the issue was not about Begg's "freedom of opinion, nor about his right to propound his views: he already exercises these rights fully as he should. The issue is ... the importance of the human rights movement maintaining an objective distance from groups and ideas that are committed to systematic discrimination and fundamentally undermine the universality of human rights."[106] The controversy prompted responses by politicians, the writer Salman Rushdie, and journalist Christopher Hitchens, among others who criticized Amnesty's association with Begg. After her suspension and the controversy, Saghal was interviewed by numerous media and attracted international supporters. She was interviewed on National Public Radio
National Public Radio
(NPR) on 27 February, where she discussed the activities of Cageprisoners
Cageprisoners
and why she deemed it inappropriate for Amnesty to associate with Begg.[107] She said that Cageprisoners' Asim Qureshi spoke supporting global jihad at a Hizb ut-Tahrir rally.[107] She noted that a best seller at Begg's bookshop was a book by Abdullah Azzam, a mentor of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and a founder of the terrorist organization Lashkar-e-Taiba.[105][107] In a separate interview for the Indian Daily News & Analysis, Saghal said that, as Quereshi affirmed Begg's support for global jihad on a BBC World Service
BBC World Service
programme, "these things could have been stated in his [Begg's] introduction" with Amnesty.[108] She said that Begg's bookshop had published The Army of Madinah, which she characterized as a jihad manual by Dhiren Barot.[109] Pay controversy[edit] In February 2011, newspaper stories in the UK revealed that Irene Khan had received a payment of £533,103 from Amnesty International following her resignation from the organization on 31 December 2009,[110] a fact pointed to from Amnesty's records for the 2009–2010 financial year. The sum paid to her was in excess of four times her annual salary of £132,490.[110] The deputy secretary general, Kate Gilmore, who also resigned in December 2009, received an ex-gratia payment of £320,000.[110][111] Peter Pack, the chairman of Amnesty's International Executive Committee (IEC), initially stated on 19 February 2011: "The payments to outgoing secretary general Irene Khan shown in the accounts of AI (Amnesty International) Ltd for the year ending 31 March 2010 include payments made as part of a confidential agreement between AI Ltd and Irene Khan"[111] and that "It is a term of this agreement that no further comment on it will be made by either party."[110] The payment and AI's initial response to its leakage to the press led to considerable outcry. Philip Davies, the Conservative MP for Shipley, decried the payment, telling the Daily Express: "I am sure people making donations to Amnesty, in the belief they are alleviating poverty, never dreamed they were subsidising a fat cat payout. This will disillusion many benefactors."[111] On 21 February Peter Pack issued a further statement, in which he said that the payment was a "unique situation" that was "in the best interest of Amnesty's work" and that there would be no repetition of it.[110] He stated that "the new secretary general, with the full support of the IEC, has initiated a process to review our employment policies and procedures to ensure that such a situation does not happen again."[110] Pack also stated that Amnesty was "fully committed to applying all the resources that we receive from our millions of supporters to the fight for human rights".[110] On 25 February, Pack issued a letter to Amnesty members and staff. In summary, it states that the IEC in 2008 had decided not to prolong Khan's contract for a third term. In the following months, IEC discovered that due to British employment law, it had to choose between the three options of either offering Khan a third term, discontinuing her post and, in their judgement, risking legal consequences, or signing a confidential agreement and issuing a pay compensation.[112] Awards and honours[edit] In 1984 Amnesty International
Amnesty International
received the Four Freedom award for the Freedom of Speech[113]In 1977, Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for "having contributed to securing the ground for freedom, for justice, and thereby also for peace in the world".[114] National sections[edit]

Country/Territory Local website

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Algeria www.amnestyalgerie.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Ghana www.amnestyghana.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Argentina www.amnistia.org.ar

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Australia www.amnesty.org.au

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Austria www.amnesty.at

( Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Belgium) Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Flanders Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Francophone Belgium

www.aivl.be www.amnestyinternational.be

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Benin www.aibenin.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Bermuda www.amnestybermuda.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Brazil www.anistia.org.br

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Burkina Faso www.amnestyburkina.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Canada (English) Amnistie internationale Canada (Francophone) www.amnesty.ca www.amnistie.ca

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Chile www.amnistia.cl

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Czech Republic www.amnesty.cz

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Denmark www.amnesty.dk

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Faroe Islands www.amnesty.fo

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Finland www.amnesty.fi

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
France www.amnesty.fr

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Germany www.amnesty.de

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Greece www.amnesty.org.gr

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Hong Kong www.amnesty.org.hk

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Hungary www.amnesty.hu

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Iceland www.amnesty.is

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
India www.amnesty.org.in

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Ireland www.amnesty.ie

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Israel www.amnesty.org.il

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Italy www.amnesty.it

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Japan www.amnesty.or.jp

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Jersey www.amnesty.org.je

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Luxembourg www.amnesty.lu

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Malaysia amnesty.my

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Mauritius www.amnestymauritius.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Mexico www.amnistia.org.mx

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Moldova www.amnesty.md

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Mongolia www.amnesty.mn

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Morocco www.amnesty.ma

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Nepal www.amnestynepal.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Netherlands www.amnesty.nl

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
New Zealand www.amnesty.org.nz

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Norway www.amnesty.no

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Paraguay www.amnistia.org.py

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Peru www.amnistia.org.pe

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Philippines www.amnesty.org.ph

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Poland www.amnesty.org.pl

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Portugal www.amnistia.pt

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Puerto Rico www.amnistiapr.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Russia www.amnesty.org.ru

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Senegal www.amnesty.sn

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Slovak Republic www.amnesty.sk

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Slovenia www.amnesty.si

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
South Africa www.amnesty.org.za

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
South Korea www.amnesty.or.kr

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Spain www.es.amnesty.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Sweden www.amnesty.se

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Switzerland www.amnesty.ch

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Taiwan www.amnesty.tw

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Thailand www.amnesty.or.th

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Togo www.amnesty.tg

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Tunisia www.amnesty-tunisie.org/

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Turkey www.amnesty.org.tr

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
UK www.amnesty.org.uk

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Ukraine www.amnesty.org.ua

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Uruguay www.amnistia.org.uy

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
USA www.amnestyusa.org

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Venezuela www.amnistia.me

See also[edit]

Human rights
Human rights
portal

100 Days Campaign Amnesty International
Amnesty International
UK Media Awards List of Amnesty International UK Media Awards winners List of peace activists

Notes[edit]

^ a b The anthropologist Linda Rabben refers to the origin of Amnesty as a "creation myth" with a "kernel of truth": "The immediate impetus to form Amnesty did come from Peter Benenson's righteous indignation while reading a newspaper in the London
London
tube on 19 November 1960."[115] The historian Tom Buchanan traced the origins story to a radio broadcast by Peter Benenson in 1962. The 4 March 1962 BBC news story did not refer to a "toast to liberty", but Benenson said his tube ride was on 19 December 1960. Buchanan was unable to find the newspaper article about the Portuguese students in The Daily Telegraph for either month. Buchanan found many news stories reporting on the repressive Portuguese political arrests in The Times
The Times
for November 1960.[116]

References[edit]

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1977". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 29 March 2018.  ^ Rabben, Linda (2001). "Amnesty International: Myth and Reality". AGNI. Boston, Massachusetts: Boston University
Boston University
(54). Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008.  ^ Buchanan, Tom (October 2002). "'The Truth Will Set You Free': The Making of Amnesty International". Journal of Contemporary History. 37 (4): 575–597. doi:10.1177/00220094020370040501. JSTOR 3180761.  Retrieved 25 September 2008

Further reading[edit]

Girot, Marc (2011). Amnesty International, Enquête sur une organisation génétiquement modifiée. Editions du Cygne. ISBN 9782849242469.  Clark, Anne Marie (2001). Diplomacy of Conscience: Amnesty International and Changing Human Rights Norms. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-05743-9.  Hopgood, Stephen (2006). Keepers of the Flame: Understanding Amnesty International. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4402-9.  Power, Jonathan (1981). Amnesty International: The Human Rights Story. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-08-028902-1.  Sellars, Kirsten (April 2002). The Rise and Rise of Human Rights. Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7509-2755-0. 

External links[edit]

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Amnesty International
Amnesty International
official site Is Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Biased?, 2002 discussion by Dennis Bernstein and Dr. Francis Boyle Catalogue of the Amnesty International
Amnesty International
archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Head Irene Khan
Irene Khan
on The Unheard Truth: Poverty and Human Rights – video by Democracy Now! Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Promotion to Eliminate the Death Penalty – video by TBWA/Paris and Pleix for Amnesty International
Amnesty International
France

v t e

International human rights organisations and institutions

Types

Human rights
Human rights
group Human rights
Human rights
commission Human rights
Human rights
institutions Truth and reconciliation commission

International institutions

Committee on the Rights of the Child Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities International Criminal Court Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights UN Human Rights Committee UN Human Rights Council UN Security Council

Regional bodies

African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights African Court of Justice European Court of Human Rights European Committee for the Prevention of Torture Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Multi-lateral bodies

European Union Council of Europe Organisation of American States (OAS) UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Refugees
(UNHCR) UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(UNOCHA) International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) UN Population Fund (UNFPA) UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) UN Development Programme (UNDP) Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the UN (FAO) UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)

Major NGOs

Amnesty International FIDH Human Rights Watch International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) Emergency NGO Human Rights First

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Olof Palme Prize laureates

Cyril Ramaphosa
Cyril Ramaphosa
(1987) UN Peace Keeping Operation (1988) Václav Havel
Václav Havel
(1989) Harlem Désir, SOS Racisme (1990) Amnesty International
Amnesty International
(1991) Arzu Abdullayeva, Anahit Bayandour (1992) Students for Sarajevo (1993) Wei Jingsheng
Wei Jingsheng
(1994) Fatah Youth, Israeli Labor Young Leadership, Peace Now
Peace Now
(1995) Casa Alianza, Bruce C. Harris (1996) Salima Ghezali
Salima Ghezali
(1997) Veran Matić, Senad Pećanin, Viktor Ivančić
Viktor Ivančić
(1998) Kurdo Baksi, Björn Fries, Klippan Parent Group (1999) Bryan Stevenson
Bryan Stevenson
(2000) Fazle Hasan Abed
Fazle Hasan Abed
(2001) Hanan Ashrawi
Hanan Ashrawi
(2002) Hans Blix
Hans Blix
(2003) Lyudmila Alexeyeva, Sergei Kovalev, Anna Politkovskaya
Anna Politkovskaya
(2004) Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi
(2005) Kofi Annan, Mossaad Mohamed Ali (2006) Parvin Ardalan (2007) Denis Mukwege
Denis Mukwege
(2008) Carsten Jensen
Carsten Jensen
(2009) Eyad al-Sarraj (2010) Lydia Cacho, Roberto Saviano
Roberto Saviano
(2011) Radhia Nasraoui, Waleed Sami Abulkhair (2012) Rosa Taikon
Rosa Taikon
(2013) Xu Youyu (2014) Gideon Levy, Mitri Raheb
Mitri Raheb
(2015) Spyridon Galinos, Giusi Nicolini (2016)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141290649 LCCN: n79055337 ISNI: 0000 0001 2170 8241 GND: 2003911-6 SUDOC: 026463857 BNF: cb11870755b (data) BIBSYS: 90070681 HDS: 25823 NLA: 35006075 NDL: 00268326 NKC: ko2002102002 BNE: XX139396

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