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AMMAN (English: /ɑːˈmɑːn/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: عمّان‎ ʻammān pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan
Jordan
, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman
Amman
is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate . The city has a population of 4,007,526 and a land area of 1,680 square kilometres (648.7 square miles). Today, Amman
Amman
is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab and European tourists.

The earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic
Neolithic
site known as \ 'Ain Ghazal
'Ain Ghazal
. Its successor was known as "Rabbath Ammon", which was the capital of the Ammonites , then as "Philadelphia", and finally as Amman. It was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality
Greater Amman Municipality
headed by its mayor Yousef Al-Shawarbeh. Areas of Amman
Amman
have gained their names from either the hills (Jabal) or the valleys (Wadi) they occupy, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman
Amman
is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman
Amman
is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city.

Approximately two million visitors arrived in Amman
Amman
in 2014, which made it the 93rd most visited city in the world and the 5th most visited Arab city. Amman
Amman
has a relatively fast growing economy, and it is ranked Beta− on the global city index. Moreover, it was named one of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa's best cities according to economic, labor, environmental, and socio-cultural factors. The city is among the most popular locations in the Arab world
Arab world
for multinational corporations to set up their regional offices, alongside Doha
Doha
and only behind Dubai
Dubai
. It is expected that in the next 10 years these three cities will capture the largest share of multinational corporation activity in the region.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Ancient period * 2.2 Classical period * 2.3 Islamic era * 2.4 Modern era

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Local government

* 4.1 Administrative divisions

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Banking sector * 5.2 Tourism * 5.3 Business

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Religion

* 7 Cityscape

* 7.1 Architecture * 7.2 High-rise construction and towers

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Museums * 8.2 Lifestyle * 8.3 Cuisine * 8.4 Sports * 8.5 Media and music * 8.6 Events

* 9 Transportation

* 9.1 Airports * 9.2 Roads * 9.3 Bus and taxi * 9.4 Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit

* 10 Education * 11 Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 12 Gallery * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Bibliography * 16 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Amman
Amman
derives its name from the 13th century BC when the Ammonites named it "Rabbath Ammon", with the term Rabbath meaning the "Capital" or the "King's Quarters". Over time, the term "Rabbath" was no longer used and the city became known as "Ammon". The influence of new civilizations that conquered the city gradually changed its name to "Amman". In the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, it is referred to as "Rabbat ʿAmmon" ( Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
: רבת עמון‎, Tiberian Hebrew Rabbaṯ ʿAmmôn). However, Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
, the Macedonian ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
who reigned from 283 to 246 BC, renamed the city to "Philadelphia" (Ancient Greek : Φιλαδέλφεια; literally: "brotherly love ") after occupying it. The name was given as an adulation to his own nickname, Philadelphus.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Amman and Timeline of Amman

ANCIENT PERIOD

Main articles: \ 'Ain Ghazal
'Ain Ghazal
and Ammon
Ammon
\ 'Ain Ghazal
'Ain Ghazal
Statues are considered to be one of the oldest human statues ever found, on display at The Jordan
Jordan
Museum . Dating back to 7250 BC. Jabal Al-Qalaa

In the outskirts of Amman, one of the largest known ancient settlements in the Near East
Near East
was discovered. The site, known as \'Ain Ghazal which is situated on a valley-side, dates back to 7250 BC and spans an area of 15 hectares (37 acres). It was a typical average sized aceramic Neolithic
Neolithic
village that accommodated around 3,000 inhabitants. Its houses were rectangular mud-bricked buildings that included a main square living room, whose walls were made up of lime plaster. The site was discovered in 1974 as construction workers were working on a road crossing the area. By 1982 when the excavations started, around 600 meters (2,000 feet) of road ran through the site. Despite the damage brought by urban expansion, the remains of 'Ain Ghazal provided a wealth of information.

'Ain Ghazal
'Ain Ghazal
is well known for a set of small human statues found buried in pits which were discovered in 1983, when local archaeologists stumbled upon the edge of a large pit 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) containing plaster statues. These statues are human figures made with white plaster. The figures have painted clothes, hair, and in some cases ornamental tattoos. Thirty-two figures were found in two caches, fifteen of them full figures, fifteen busts, and two fragmentary heads. Three of the busts were two-headed, the significance of which is not clear. Rujm Al-Malfouf Ammonite watch tower built around 1000 BC.

In the 13th century BC Amman
Amman
was the capital of the Ammonites , and became known as "Rabbath Ammon". Ammon
Ammon
provided several natural resources to the region, including sandstone and limestone. Along with a productive agricultural sector, which made Ammon
Ammon
a vital location along the King\'s Highway , the ancient trade route connecting Egypt with Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, Syria
Syria
and Anatolia
Anatolia
. As with the Edomites
Edomites
and Moabites , trade along this route gave the Ammonites considerable revenue. Ammonites worshiped an ancient deity called Moloch
Moloch
. Excavations by archaeologists near Amman Civil Airport
Amman Civil Airport
uncovered a temple, which included an altar containing many human bone fragments. The bones showed evidence of burning, which led to the assumption that the altar functioned as a pyre .

Today, several Ammonite ruins across Amman
Amman
exist, such as Qasr Al-Abd , Rujm Al-Malfouf and some parts of the Amman Citadel
Amman Citadel
. The ruins of Rujm Al-Malfouf consist of a surveillance stone tower that was used to ensure protection of their capital and several store rooms east of it. The city was later conquered by the Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
, followed by the Persian Empire .

CLASSICAL PERIOD

View of Qasr Al-Abd .

Conquest of the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia
Central Asia
by Alexander the Great firmly consolidated the influence of Hellenistic culture . The Greeks founded new cities in the area of modern-day Jordan, including Umm Qays , Jerash
Jerash
and Amman. Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
, the Macedonian ruler of Egypt, who occupied and rebuilt the city, named it "Philadelphia", which means "brotherly love" in Greek . The name was given as an adulation to his own nickname, Philadelphus.

One of the most original monuments in Jordan, and perhaps in the Hellenistic period in the Near East, is the village of Iraq Al-Amir in the valley of Wadi
Wadi
Al-Sir , southwest of Amman, which is home to Qasr Al-Abd (Castle of the Slave). Other nearby ruins include a village, an isolated house and a fountain, all of which are barely visible today due to the damage brought by a major earthquake that hit the region in the year 362. Qasr Al-Abd is believed to have been built by Hyrcanus of Jerusalem, who was the head of the powerful Tobiad family. Shortly after he began the construction of that large building, in 170 BC upon returning from a military campaign in Egypt, Antiochus IV conquered Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, ransacked a temple where the treasure of Hyrcanus was kept and appeared determined to attack Hyrcanus. Upon hearing this, Hyrcanus committed suicide, leaving his palace in Philadelphia uncompleted. The Tobiads fought the Arab Nabateans
Nabateans
for twenty years until they lost the city to them. After losing Philadelphia, we no longer hear of the Tobiad family in written sources. The Roman Theatre built around 100 AD.

The Romans conquered much of the Levant
Levant
in 63 BC, inaugurating a period of Roman rule that lasted for four centuries. In the northern modern-day Jordan, the Greek cities of Philadelphia (Amman), Gerasa , Gedara , Pella
Pella
and Arbila joined with other cities in Palestine and Syria
Syria
; Scythopolis , Hippos
Hippos
, Capitolias
Capitolias
, Canatha and Damascus
Damascus
to form the Decapolis
Decapolis
League , a fabled confederation linked by bonds of economic and cultural interest. Philadelphia became a point along a road stretching from Ailah to Damascus
Damascus
that was built by Emperor Trajan
Trajan
in 106 AD. This provided an economic boost for the city in a short period of time. During the late Byzantine era in the seventh century, several bishops and churches were based in the city.

Roman rule in Jordan
Jordan
left several ruins across the country, some of which exist in Amman, such as the Temple of Hercules at the Amman Citadel , the Roman Theatre , the Odeon , and the Nymphaeum . The two theatres and the Nymphaeum fountain were built during the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius
around AD 161. The theatre was the larger venue of the two and had a capacity for 6,000 attendees. It was oriented north and built into the hillside, to protect the audience from the sun. To the northeast of the theatre was a small odeon . Built at roughly the same time as the theatre, the Odeon had 500 seats and is still in use today for music concerts. Archaeologists speculate that the structure was originally covered with a wooden roof to shield the audience from the weather. The Nymphaeum is situated southwest of the Odeon and served as Philadelphia's chief fountain. The Nymphaeum is believed to have contained a 600 square meters (6,500 sq ft) pool which was 3 meters (9.8 ft) deep and was continuously refilled with water.

ISLAMIC ERA

See also: Desert castles

In the 630s, the Rashidun army conquered the region from the Byzantines , beginning the Islamic era in the Levant. Philadelphia was renamed "Amman" by the Muslims and became part of the district of Jund al-Urdunn . A large part of the population already spoke Arabic
Arabic
, which facilitated integration into the caliphate , as well as several conversions to Islam
Islam
. Under the Umayyad caliphs who began their rule in 661 AD, numerous desert castles were established as a means to govern the desert area of modern-day Jordan, several of which are still well-preserved. Amman
Amman
had already been functioning as an administrative centre. The Umayyads built a large palace on the Amman Citadel hill, known today as the Umayyad Palace
Umayyad Palace
. Amman
Amman
was later destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters, including a particularly severe earthquake in 747. The Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasids three years later. The Umayyad Palace
Umayyad Palace
on top of the Amman Citadel
Amman Citadel
built around 800 AD.

Amman's importance declined by the mid-8th century after damage caused by several earthquakes rendered it uninhabitable. Excavations among the collapsed layer of the Umayyad Palace
Umayyad Palace
have revealed remains of kilns from the time of the Abbasids (750-696) and the Fatimids (969-1099). In the late 9th century, Amman
Amman
was noted as the "capital" of the Balqa by geographer al-Yaqubi . Likewise, in 985, the Jerusalemite historian al-Muqaddasi described Amman
Amman
as the capital of Balqa, and that it was a town in the desert fringe of Syria surrounded by villages and cornfields and was a regional source of lambs, grain and honey. Furthermore, al-Muqaddasi describes Amman
Amman
as a "harbor of the desert" where Arab Bedouin
Bedouin
would take refuge, and that its citadel, which overlooked the town, contained a small mosque.

The occupation of the Citadel Hill by the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is so far based only on interpretations of Crusader sources. William of Tyre
William of Tyre
writes in his Historia that in 1161 Philip of Milly received the castle of "Ahamant", which is seen to refer to Amman, as part of the Lordship of Oultrejordain
Oultrejordain
. In 1166 Philip joined the military order of the Knights Templar
Knights Templar
, passing on to them a significant part of his fief including the castle of Ahamant or "Haman", as it is named in the deed of confirmation issued by King Amalric . By 1170, Amman
Amman
was in Ayyubid hands. The remains of a watch tower on Citadel Hill, first attributed to the Crusaders, now are preferentially dated to the Ayyubid period, leaving it to further research to find the location of the Crusader castle. During the Ayyubid period, the Damascene geographer al-Dimashqi wrote that Amman was part of the province of al-Karak , although "only ruins" remained of the town.

During the Mamluk era (late 13th–early 16th centuries), the region of Amman
Amman
was a part of Wilayat Balqa, the southernmost district of Mamlakat Dimashq ( Damascus
Damascus
Province). The capital of the district in the first half of the 14th century was the minor administrative post of Hisban , which had a considerably smaller garrison than the other administrative centers in Transjordan, namely Ajlun and al-Karak. In 1321, the geographer Abu\'l Fida , recorded that Amman
Amman
was "a very ancient town" with fertile soil and surrounded by agricultural fields. For unclear, though likely financial reasons, in 1356, the capital of Balqa was transferred from Hisban to Amman, which was considered a madina (city). In 1357, Emir Sirghitmish
Sirghitmish
bought Amman
Amman
in its entirety, most likely to use revenues from the city to help fund the Madrasa of Sirghitmish
Sirghitmish
, which he built in Cairo
Cairo
that same year. After his purchase of the city, Sirghitmish
Sirghitmish
transferred the courts, administrative bureaucracy, markets and most of the inhabitants of Hisban to Amman. Moreover, he financed new building works in the city. Ottoman railway ten arches bridge, built in 1910 in Amman
Amman

Ownership of Amman
Amman
following Sirghitmish's death in 1358 passed to successive generations of his descendants until 1395, when his descendants sold it to Emir Baydamur al-Khwarazmi, the na'ib as-saltana (viceroy) of Damascus. Afterward, part of Amman's cultivable lands were sold to Emir Sudun al-Shaykhuni (died 1396), the na'ib as-saltana of Egypt. The increasingly frequent division and sale of the city and lands of Amman
Amman
to different owners signaled declining revenues coming from Amman, while at the same time, Hisban was restored as the major city of the Balqa in the 15th century. From then until 1878, Amman
Amman
was an abandoned site periodically used to shelter seasonal farmers who cultivated arable lands in its vicinity and by Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes who used its pastures and water.

The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
annexed the region of Amman
Amman
in 1516, but for much of the Ottoman period, al-Salt functioned as the virtual political centre of Transjordan. Amman
Amman
began to be resettled in 1878, when hundreds of Circassians
Circassians
arrived following their exodus from the Caucasus
Caucasus
; between 1872–1910, tens of thousands of Circassians
Circassians
had relocated to Ottoman Syria
Syria
after being displaced by the Russian Empire during the events of the Russo-Circassian War
Russo-Circassian War
. In 1879, English traveller Laurence Oliphant wrote of his visit to Amman
Amman
in The Land of Gilead.

MODERN ERA

Amman
Amman
in 1940

Ottoman records from 1906 show around 5,000 Circassians
Circassians
living in Amman
Amman
and virtually no inhabitants who spoke Arabic. The city's demographics changed dramatically after the Ottoman government's decision to construct the Hejaz Railway
Hejaz Railway
, which linked Damascus
Damascus
and Medina
Medina
, and facilitated the annual Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage and trade. Because of its location along the railway, Amman
Amman
was transformed from a small village into a major commercial hub in the region.

The First and Second Battle of Amman
Second Battle of Amman
were part of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I
World War I
and the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
, taking place in 1918. Amman
Amman
had a strategic location along the Hejaz Railway; its capture by British forces and the Hashemite Arab army facilitated the British advance towards Damascus
Damascus
. The second battle was won by the British, resulting in the establishment of the British Mandate . Amman
Amman
in 1985

In 1921, the Hashemite emir and later king, Abdullah I , designated Amman
Amman
instead of al-Salt to be the capital of the newly created state, the Emirate of Transjordan
Emirate of Transjordan
, which became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Jordan
in 1950. Its function as the capital of the country attracted immigrants from different Levantine areas, particularly from al-Salt, a nearby city that had been the largest urban settlement east of the Jordan
Jordan
River at the time. The early settlers who came from Palestine were overwhelmingly from Nablus
Nablus
, from which many of al-Salt's inhabitants had originated. They were joined by other immigrants from Damascus. Amman
Amman
later attracted people from the southern part of the country, particularly Al Karak
Al Karak
and Madaba
Madaba
. The city's population was around 10,000 in the 1930s.

Jordan
Jordan
gained its independence in 1946 and Amman
Amman
was designated the country's capital. Amman
Amman
received many refugees during wartime events in nearby countries, beginning with the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
1948 Arab–Israeli War
. A second wave arrived after the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967. In 1970, Amman
Amman
was a battlefield during the conflict between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Jordanian Army known as Black September . The Jordanian Army defeated the PLO in 1971, and the latter were expelled to Lebanon
Lebanon
. A neighbourhood in Al Ashrafiya in 1997.

The first wave of Iraqi and Kuwaiti refugees settled in the city after the 1991 Gulf War
Gulf War
, with a second wave occurring in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
. Most recently a wave of Syrian refugees have arrived in the city during the ongoing Syrian Civil War which began in 2011. Amman
Amman
was a principal destination for refugees for the security and prosperity it offered. Amman
Amman
in 2013

On 9 November 2005, Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
under Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
's leadership launched coordinated explosions in three hotel lobbies in Amman, resulting in 60 deaths and 115 injured. The bombings, which targeted civilians, caused widespread outrage among Jordanians. Jordan's security as a whole was dramatically improved after the attack, and no major terrorist attacks have been reported since then.

During the last ten years the city has experienced an economic, cultural and urban boom. The large growth in population has significantly increased the need for new accommodation, and new districts of the city were established at a quick pace. This strained Jordan's scarce water supply and exposed Amman
Amman
to the dangers of quick expansion without careful municipal planning. Today, Amman
Amman
is known as a modern, liberal and westernized Arab city, with major mega projects such as the Abdali Urban Regeneration Project and the Jordan
Jordan
Gate Towers . The city contains several high-end hotel franchises including the Four Seasons Hotel Amman
Amman
, Sheraton Hotel Amman
Amman
, Fairmont Amman
Amman
, St. Regis Hotel
St. Regis Hotel
Amman
Amman
, Le Royal Hotel and others.

GEOGRAPHY

A Greek Orthodox church seen with snow in Amman
Amman

Amman
Amman
is situated on the East Bank
Bank
Plateau , an upland characterized by three major wadis which run through it. Originally, the city had been built on seven hills . Amman's terrain is typified by its mountains. The most important areas in the city are named after the hills or mountains they lie on. The area's elevation ranges from 700 to 1,100 m (2,300 to 3,600 ft). Al-Salt
Al-Salt
and al- Zarqa
Zarqa
are located to the northwest and northeast, respectively, Madaba
Madaba
is located to the west and al-Karak and Ma\'an are to Amman's southwest and southeast, respectively. One of the only remaining springs in Amman
Amman
now supplies the Zarqa River
Zarqa River
with water.

CLIMATE

Spring in an affluent neighbourhood in the city

Amman's position on the mountains near the Mediterranean climate zone places it under the semi-arid climate classification (Köppen climate : BSh). Summers are mildly hot and breezy, however, one or two heat waves may occur during summer. Spring is brief and warm, where highs reach 28 °C (82 °F). Spring usually starts between April and May, and last about a month. Around the end of November is the period in which winter usually starts and continues from early to mid March. Temperatures are usually near or below 17 °C (63 °F), with snow occasionally falling once or twice a year. Rain averages about 300 mm (12 in) a year and periodic droughts are common, where most rain fall between October and April. At least 120 days of heavy fog per year is usual. Difference in elevation plays a major role in the different weather conditions experienced in the city, snow may accumulate in the western and northern parts of Amman
Amman
(an average altitude of 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above sea level) while at the same time it could be raining at the city centre (elevation of 776 m (2,546 ft)). (900 to 1,100 metres (3,000 to 3,600 ft)).

Amman
Amman
has extreme examples of microclimate , and almost every district exhibits its own weather. It is known among locals that some boroughs such as the northern suburb of Abu Nser are among the coldest in the city, and can be experiencing frost while other warmer districts such as Marka can be providing much warmer temperatures to its inhabitants at the same time.

The temperatures listed below are taken from the weather station at the centre of the city which is at an elevation of 767 m (2,516 ft) above sea level . At higher elevations, the temperatures will be lower during winter and higher during summer. For example, in areas such as al-Jubaiha, Sweileh, Khalda, Abu Nser which are at/higher than 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above sea level have average temperatures of 7 to 9 °C (45 to 48 °F) in the day and 1 to 3 °C (34 to 37 °F) at night in January. In August, the average high temperatures in these areas are 25 to 28 °C (77 to 82 °F) in the day and 14 to 16 °C (57 to 61 °F) at night.

CLIMATE DATA FOR AMMAN

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 23.0 (73.4) 27.3 (81.1) 32.6 (90.7) 37.0 (98.6) 38.7 (101.7) 40.6 (105.1) 43.4 (110.1) 43.2 (109.8) 40.0 (104) 37.6 (99.7) 31.0 (87.8) 27.5 (81.5) 43.4 (110.1)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 12.7 (54.9) 13.9 (57) 17.6 (63.7) 23.3 (73.9) 27.9 (82.2) 30.9 (87.6) 32.5 (90.5) 32.7 (90.9) 30.8 (87.4) 26.8 (80.2) 20.1 (68.2) 14.6 (58.3) 23.7 (74.66)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 8.5 (47.3) 9.4 (48.9) 12.4 (54.3) 17.1 (62.8) 21.4 (70.5) 24.6 (76.3) 26.5 (79.7) 26.6 (79.9) 24.6 (76.3) 21.0 (69.8) 15.0 (59) 10.2 (50.4) 18.11 (64.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 4.2 (39.6) 4.8 (40.6) 7.2 (45) 10.9 (51.6) 14.8 (58.6) 18.3 (64.9) 20.5 (68.9) 20.4 (68.7) 18.3 (64.9) 15.1 (59.2) 9.8 (49.6) 5.8 (42.4) 12.5 (54.5)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −4.5 (23.9) −4.4 (24.1) −3.0 (26.6) −3.0 (26.6) 3.9 (39) 8.9 (48) 11.0 (51.8) 11.0 (51.8) 10.0 (50) 5.0 (41) 0.0 (32) −2.6 (27.3) −4.5 (23.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 60.6 (2.386) 62.8 (2.472) 34.1 (1.343) 7.1 (0.28) 3.2 (0.126) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.1 (0.004) 7.1 (0.28) 23.7 (0.933) 46.3 (1.823) 245.0 (9.646)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 11.0 10.9 8.0 4.0 1.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.3 5.3 8.4 51.7

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 179.8 182.0 226.3 266.6 328.6 369.0 387.5 365.8 312.0 275.9 225.0 179.8 3,289.7

Source #1: Jordan
Jordan
Meteorological Department

Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990), Pogoda.ru.net (records)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Main article: Greater Amman Municipality
Greater Amman Municipality

Amman
Amman
is governed by a 41-member city council elected in five-year term direct elections. All Jordanian citizens above 18 years old are eligible to vote in the municipal elections. However, the mayor is appointed by the king and not through elections. In 1909 a city council was established in Amman
Amman
by Circassian Ismael Babouk who became the first ever Mayor
Mayor
of the capital, and in 1914 Amman's first city district centre was founded.

The Greater Amman Municipality
Greater Amman Municipality
has been investing towards making the city a better place, through a number of initiatives. 'Green Amman 2020' was initiated in 2014, aiming to turn the city to a green metropolis by 2020. According to official statistics, only 2.5% of Amman
Amman
is green space . In 2015, (GAM) and Zain Jordan
Jordan
started operating free-of-charge Wi-Fi services at 15 different locations, including Wakalat Street , Rainbow Street , The Hashemite Plaza , Ashrafieh Cultural Complex, Zaha Cultural Centre, Al Hussein Cultural Center, Al Hussein Public Parks and others.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

See also: List of districts of Amman and List of mayors of Amman

Jordan
Jordan
is divided into twelve administrative divisions, each called a governorate. Amman Governorate
Amman Governorate
divides into nine nahias , five of which are divided into districts and are further divided into neighborhoods. The other four nahias lying in the suburbs are either divided into villages or towns.

The city is administered as the Greater Amman Municipality
Greater Amman Municipality
(GAM) and covers 27 districts which include:

NUMBER DISTRICT AREA (KM2) POPULATION (2015) NUMBER DISTRICT AREA (KM2) POPULATION (2015)

1 Al-Madinah 3.1 34,988 15 Badr Al-Jadeedah 19 17,891

2 Basman 13.4 373,981 16 Sweileh
Sweileh
20 151,016

3 Marka 23 148,100 17 Tla' Al-Ali 19.8 251,000

4 Al-Nasr 28.4 258,829 18 Jubeiha 25.9 197,160

5 Al-Yarmouk 5.5 180,773 19 Shafa Badran 45 72,315

6 Ras Al-Ein 0.68 138,024 20 Abu Nseir 50 72,489

7 Bader 0.01 229,308 21 Uhod 250 40,000

8 Zahran 13.8 107,529 22 Al-Jeezah 558 95,045

9 Al-Abdali 15 165,333 23 Sahab 12 169,434

10 Tareq 25 175,194 24 Al-Muwaqqar 250 47,753

11 Qweismeh 45.9 296,763 25 Husban Al-Jadeedah 55 31,141

12 Kherbet Al-Souk 0.5 186,158 26 Na\'our 87 78,992

13 Al-Mgablein 23 99,738 27 Marj Al-Hamam 53 82,788

14 Wadi Al-Seer 80 241,830

ECONOMY

BANKING SECTOR

The banking sector is one of the principal foundations of Jordan's economy. Despite the unrest and economic difficulties in the Arab world resulting from the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
uprisings, Jordan's banking sector maintained its growth in 2014. The sector currently consists of 25 banks, 15 of which are listed on the Amman Stock Exchange . Amman is the base city for the international Arab Bank
Bank
, one of the largest financial institutions in the Middle East, serving clients in more than 600 branches in 30 countries on five continents. Arab Bank represents 28% of the Amman Stock Exchange and is the highest-ranked institution by market capitalization on the exchange.

TOURISM

Royal Jordanian Airlines
Royal Jordanian Airlines
headquarters in Amman
Amman

Amman
Amman
is the 4th most visited Arab city and the ninth highest recipient of international visitor spending. Roughly 1.8 million tourists visited Amman
Amman
in 2011 and spent over $1.3 billion in the city. The expansion of Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport
is an example of the Greater Amman
Amman
Municipality's heavy investment in the city's infrastructure. The recent construction of a public transportation system and a national railway, and the expansion of roads, are intended to ease the traffic generated by the millions of annual visitors to the city.

Amman, and Jordan
Jordan
in general, is the Middle East's hub for medical tourism . Jordan
Jordan
receives the most medical tourists in the region and the fifth highest in the world. Amman
Amman
receives 250,000 foreign patients a year and over $1 billion annually.

BUSINESS

Amman
Amman
is introducing itself as a business hub. The city's skyline is being continuously transformed through the emergence of new projects. A significant portion of business flowed into Amman
Amman
following the 2003 Iraq
Iraq
War . Jordan's main airport, Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport
, is located south of Amman
Amman
and is the hub for the country's national carrier Royal Jordanian
Royal Jordanian
, a major airline in the region. The airline is headquartered in Zahran district . Rubicon Group Holding
Rubicon Group Holding
and Maktoob
Maktoob
, two major regional information technology companies, are based in Amman, along with major international corporations such as Hikma Pharmaceuticals , one of the Middle East's largest pharmaceutical companies, and Aramex , the Middle East's largest logistics and transportation company.

In a report by Dunia Frontier Consultants, Amman, along with Doha
Doha
, Qatar
Qatar
and Dubai
Dubai
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, are the favored hubs for multinational corporations operating in the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa region. In FDI magazine, Amman
Amman
was chosen as the Middle Eastern city with the most potential to be a leader in foreign direct investment in the region. Furthermore, several of the world's largest investment banks have offices in Amman
Amman
including Standard Chartered
Standard Chartered
, Société Générale
Société Générale
, and Citibank
Citibank
.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION OF AMMAN

YEAR HISTORICAL POPULATION ±%

7250 BC 3,000 —

1879 500 −83.3%

1906 5,000 +900.0%

1930 10,000 +100.0%

1940 20,000 +100.0%

1952 108,000 +440.0%

1979 848,587 +685.7%

1999 1,864,500 +119.7%

2004 2,315,600 +24.2%

2010 2,842,629 +22.8%

2015 4,007,526 +41.0%

In 1947 following independence, several inhabitants in areas all across Jordan
Jordan
had moved in into the newly established capital Source:

LARGEST GROUPS OF ARAB FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2015)

Syria
Syria
435,578

Egypt
Egypt
390,631

Palestine 308,091

Iraq
Iraq
121,893

Yemen
Yemen
27,109

Libya
Libya
21,649

Other 147,742

Population of city reached 4,007,526 in 2015, Amman
Amman
contains about 42% of Jordan's entire population. It has a land area of 1,680 km2 (648.7 sq mi) which yields a population density of about 2,380 inhabitants per square kilometre (6,200/sq mi). The population of Amman
Amman
has risen exponentially with the successive waves of immigrants and refugees arriving throughout the 20th century. From a population of roughly 1,000 in 1890, Amman
Amman
grew to around 1,000,000 inhabitants in 1990, primarily as a result of immigration, but also due to the high birthrate in the city. Amman
Amman
had been abandoned for centuries until hundreds of Circassians
Circassians
settled it in the 19th century. Today, about 40,000 Circassians
Circassians
live in Amman
Amman
and its vicinity. After Amman became a major hub along the Hejaz Railway
Hejaz Railway
in 1914, many Muslim and Christian merchant families from al-Salt immigrated to the city. A large proportion of Amman's inhabitants have Palestinian roots (urban or rural origin), and the two main demographic groups in the city today are Arabs of Palestinian or Jordanian descent. Circassians comprise about 2% of the population. There are no official statistics about the proportion of people of Palestinian or Jordanian descent.

New arrivals consisting of Jordanians from the north and south of the country and immigrants from Palestine had increased the city's population from 30,000 in 1930 to 60,000 in 1947. About 10,000 Palestinians, mostly from Safad
Safad
, Haifa
Haifa
and Acre , migrated to the city for economic opportunities before the 1948 war . Many of the immigrants from al-Salt from that time were originally from Nablus
Nablus
. The 1948 war caused an exodus of urban Muslim and Christian Palestinian refugees, mostly from Jaffa
Jaffa
, Ramla
Ramla
and Lydda , to Amman, whose population swelled to 110,000. With Jordan's capture of the West Bank
Bank
during the war, many Palestinians
Palestinians
from that area steadily migrated to Amman
Amman
between 1950 and 1966, before another mass wave of Palestinian refugees from the West Bank
Bank
moved to the city during the 1967 War . By 1970, the population had swelled to an estimated 550,000. A further 200,000 Palestinians
Palestinians
arrived after their expulsion from Kuwait
Kuwait
during the 1991 Gulf War
Gulf War
. Several large Palestinian refugee camps exist around the centre of Amman.

Because Amman
Amman
lacks a deep-rooted native population, the city does not have a distinct Arabic
Arabic
dialect , although recently such a dialect utilizing the various Jordanian and Palestinian dialects, has been forming. The children of immigrants in the city are also increasingly referring to themselves as "Ammani", unlike much of the first-generation inhabitants who identify more with their respective places of origin.

RELIGION

Amman
Amman
has a mostly Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
population, and the city contains numerous mosques . Among the main mosques is the large King Abdullah I Mosque
Mosque
, built between 1982 and 1989. It is capped by a blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer. The Abu Darweesh Mosque, noted for its checkered black-and-white pattern, has an architectural style that is unique to Jordan. The mosque is situated on Jabal Ashrafieh, the highest point in the city. The mosque's interior is marked by light-coloured walls and Persian carpets. It was built by a Circassian resident of Amman. During the 2004 Amman Message conference, edicts from various clergy-members afforded the following schools of thought as garnering collective recognition: Hanafi
Hanafi
, Hanbali
Hanbali
, Maliki
Maliki
, Shafi'i, Ja'fari, Zahiri, Zaydi, Ibadi
Ibadi
, tassawuf-related Sufism
Sufism
, Muwahhidism and Salafism
Salafism
. Amman
Amman
also has a small Druze
Druze
community.

Large numbers of Christians from throughout Jordan, particularly from al-Salt, have moved to Amman. Nearby Fuheis
Fuheis
is a predominantly Christian town located to the northwest of the city. A small Armenian Catholic community of around 70 families is present in the city. Ecclesiastical courts for matters of personal status are also located in Amman. A total of 16 historic churches are located in Umm ar-Rasas ruins in Al-Jeezah district; the site is believed to have initially served as Roman fortified military camps which gradually became a town around the 5th century AD. It has not been completely excavated. It was influenced by several civilizations including the Romans, Byzantines and Muslims. The site contains some well-preserved mosaic floors, particularly the mosaic floor of the Church of Saint Stephen.

CITYSCAPE

A panoramic view of east Amman
Amman
from atop the Amman
Amman
Citadel overlooking the Roman amphitheater.

Downtown Amman , the city centre area (known in Arabic
Arabic
as Al-Balad), has been dwarfed by the sprawling urban area that surrounds it. Despite the changes, much remains of its old character. Jabal Amman
Jabal Amman
is a well-known touristic attraction in old Amman, where the city's greatest souks, fine museums, ancient constructions, monuments, and cultural sites are found. Jabal Amman
Jabal Amman
also contains the famous Rainbow Street and the cultural Souk Jara
Souk Jara
market.

ARCHITECTURE

Progress at Abdali Project
Abdali Project
as of 2015

Residential buildings are limited to four stories above street level and if possible another four stories below, according to the Greater Amman
Amman
Municipality regulations. The buildings are covered with thick white limestone or sandstone. The buildings usually have balconies on each floor, with the exception of the ground floor, which has a front and back yard. Some buildings make use of Mangalore tiles on the roofs or on the roof of covered porches. Hotels, towers and commercial buildings are either covered by stone, plastic or glass.

HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION AND TOWERS

See also: List of tallest buildings in Amman Jordan
Jordan
Gate Towers as seen from the west

Zahran district in west Amman
Amman
is the location of the Jordan
Jordan
Gate Towers , the first high-rise towers in the city. It is a high-class commercial and residential project currently under construction, close to the 6th Circle . The towers are one of the best known skyscrapers in the city. The southern tower will host a Hilton Hotel, while the northern tower will host offices. The towers are separated by a podium that is planned to become a mall. It also contains bars, swimming pools and conference halls. The developers are Bahrain's Gulf Finance House , the Kuwait
Kuwait
Investment and Finance Company (KIFC). The project is expected to be opened by 2018.

Abdali Urban Regeneration Project in Abdali district will host a mall, a boulevard along with several hotels, commercial and residential towers. Valued at more than US $5 billion, the Abdali project will create a new visible centre for Amman
Amman
and act as the major business district for the city. The first phase contains about ten towers, five of which are under construction to be completed by 2016. Abdali is being developed as a smart city centre that enables the deliverance of state-of-the-art technologies to every home, office and outlet, while offering district energy solutions and central gas systems to guarantee a safe and friendly environment in addition to the large savings in energy cost. Across 30,000 square meters of land, a central dynamic park is the main feature of phase II which will serve as a focal theme for mainly residential, office, hotel and retail developments over 800,000 square meters.

The towers in the first phase include Rotana Hotel Amman , W Hotel Amman
Amman
, The Heights Tower
The Heights Tower
, Clemenceau Medical Center tower, Abdali mall tower, Abdali Gateway tower, K tower, Vertex Tower , Capital tower, Saraya headquarters tower and Hamad tower.

CULTURE

MUSEUMS

See also: Category:Museums in Amman
Amman
View of The Jordan
Jordan
Museum located near the downtown.

The largest museum in Jordan
Jordan
is The Jordan
Jordan
Museum . It contains much of the valuable archaeological findings in the country, including some of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
limestone statues of \ 'Ain Ghazal
'Ain Ghazal
, and a copy of the Mesha Stele
Mesha Stele
. Other museums include the Jordan
Jordan
National Gallery of Fine Arts , Jordan
Jordan
Archaeological Museum , The Children\'s Museum Jordan
Jordan
, The Martyrs\' Memorial and Museum , the Royal Automobile Museum
Royal Automobile Museum
, the Prophet Mohammad Museum , the Museum of Parliamentary Life , the Jordan
Jordan
Folklore Museum , and museums at the University of Jordan
Jordan
.

LIFESTYLE

Amman
Amman
is considered one of the most liberal and westernized cities in the Arab world
Arab world
. The city has become one of the most popular destinations for Western expatriates and college students who seek to live, study, or work in the Middle East
Middle East
or the Arab world
Arab world
in general. The city's culinary scene has changed from its shawerma stands and falafel joints to embrace many popular western restaurants and fast-food outlets such as Asian fusion restaurants, French bistros and Italian trattorias . The city has become famous for its fine dining scene among Western expatriates and Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
tourists. Souk Jara is one of the most famous outdoor markets managed by the Jabal Amman
Amman
Residents Association (JARA)

Large shopping malls were built during the 2000s in Amman, including the Mecca Mall , Abdoun Mall, City Mall , Al-Baraka Mall, Taj Mall, Zara Shopping Center, Avenue Mall, and Abdali Mall in Al Abdali (under construction). Wakalat Street ("Agencies Street") is Amman's first pedestrian-only street and carries a lot of name-label clothes. The Sweifieh
Sweifieh
area is considered to be the main shopping district of Amman.

Nightclubs, music bars and shisha lounges are present across Amman, changing the city's old image as the conservative capital of the kingdom. This burgeoning new nightlife scene is shaped by Jordan's young population. In addition to the wide range of drinking and dancing venues on the social circuit of the city's affluent crowd, Amman
Amman
hosts cultural entertainment events, including the annual Amman Summer Festival. Souk Jara
Souk Jara
is a Jordanian annual weekly flea market event that occurs every Friday throughout the summer. Abdoun Circle is a major centre of the city's nightlife where clubs maintain a strict "couples only" policy. Sweifieh
Sweifieh
is considered to be the unofficial red-light district of Amman
Amman
as it holds most of the city's nightclubs, bars, strip-clubs, massage parlors, and other adult entertainment venues. Jabal Amman
Jabal Amman
and Jabal al-Weibdeh are home to many pubs and bars as well, making the area popular among bar hoppers.

Alcohol is widely available in restaurants, bars, nightclubs, and supermarkets. There are numerous nightclubs and bars across the city, especially in West Amman. As of 2011 , there were 77 registered nightclubs in Jordan
Jordan
(excluding bars and pubs), overwhelmingly located in the capital city. In 2009, there were 222 registered liquor stores in Amman.

CUISINE

See also: Jordanian cuisine

Danielle Pergament of The New York Times
The New York Times
described Ammani cuisine as a product of several cuisines in the region, writing that it combines "the bright vegetables from Lebanon, crunchy falafels from Syria, juicy kebabs from Egypt
Egypt
and, most recently, spicy meat dishes from Jordan's neighbor, Iraq. It's known as the food of the Levant
Levant
— an ancient word for the area bounded by the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian peninsula. But the food here isn't just the sum of its calories. In this politically, religiously and ethnically fraught corner of the world, it is a symbol of bloodlines and identity." However, the city's streetfood scene makes the Ammani cuisine distinctive.

SPORTS

A panoramic view of Amman International Stadium in the Sport City

Amman-based football clubs Al-Wehdat and Al-Faisaly , both former league champions, share one of the most popular rivalries in the local football scene. Amman
Amman
hosted the 2016 FIFA
FIFA
U-17 Women\'s World Cup along with Irbid
Irbid
and Zarqa
Zarqa
.

The 2007 Asian Athletics Championships and more than one edition of the IAAF World Cross Country Championships
IAAF World Cross Country Championships
were held in the city. Amman
Amman
also hosts the Jordan
Jordan
Rally , which form part of the FIA
FIA
World Rally Championship , becoming one of the largest sporting events ever held in Jordan.

Amman
Amman
is home to a growing number of foreign sports such as skateboarding and rugby ; the latter has two teams based in the city: Amman Citadel
Amman Citadel
Rugby Club and Nomads Rugby Club. In 2014, German non-profit organization Make Life Skate Life completed construction of the 7Hills Skatepark , a 650 square meter concrete skatepark located at Samir Rifai
Samir Rifai
park in Downtown Amman .

MEDIA AND MUSIC

The majority of Jordan's radio stations are based in Amman. The first radio station to originate in the city was Hunna Amman
Amman
in 1959; it mainly broadcast traditional Bedouin
Bedouin
music. In 2000, Amman
Amman
Net became the first de facto private radio station to be established in the country, despite private ownership of radio stations being illegal at the time. After private ownership was legalized in 2002, several more radio stations were created. There were eight registered radio stations broadcasting from Amman
Amman
by 2007. Most English language stations play pop music targeted towards young audiences.

Most Jordanian newspapers and news stations are situated in Amman. Daily newspapers published in Amman
Amman
include Alghad , Ad-Dustour , The Jordan
Jordan
Times , and Al Ra\'i , the most circulated newspaper in the country. In 2011, Al Ra'i was ranked the 5th most popular newspaper in the Arab world
Arab world
by Forbes Middle-East report. Al-Arab Al-Yawm is the only daily pan-Arab newspaper in Jordan. The two most popular Jordanian TV channels, Ro\'ya TV and JRTV
JRTV
, are based in Amman. Celebrations of Amman's centennial in 2009

Aside from mainstream Arabic
Arabic
pop , there is a growing independent music scene in the city which includes many bands that have sizable audiences across the Arab world
Arab world
. Local Ammani bands along with other bands in the Middle East
Middle East
gather in the Roman Theatre during the Al-Balad Music Festival held annually in August. Music genres of the local bands are diverse, ranging from heavy metal to Arabic
Arabic
rock , jazz and rap . Performers include JadaL
JadaL
, Torabyeh , Bilocate , Akher Zapheer , Autostrad and El Morabba3 .

EVENTS

Many events take place in Amman, including Redbull
Redbull
sponsored events, soundclash and soapbox race, the second part of Jerash
Jerash
Festival , Al-Balad Music Festival, Amman Marathon , Made in Jordan
Jordan
Festival, Amman
Amman
Book Festival and New Think Festival . The New Think Festival is a yearly weekend event that is part of NewThink, a non-profit initiative that aims to inspire youth to think about the world in an innovative way. The festival is one of the many events throughout the year to get youth involved. In 2015 the festival hosted 40 different organizations at King Hussein Business Park in Amman
Amman
that inspired their audience to be visionary and think differently about the world through presentations and workshops. The variety of organizations included business, environmental, medical and educational groups.

TRANSPORTATION

With the exception of a functioning railway system, Amman
Amman
has a railway station as part of the Hejaz Railway
Hejaz Railway
. Amman
Amman
has a developed public and private transportation system. There are two international airports in Amman.

AIRPORTS

Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport

The main airport serving Amman
Amman
is Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport
, situated about 30 km (18.64 mi) south of Amman. Much smaller is Amman Civil Airport , a one-terminal airport that serves primarily domestic and nearby international routes and the army. Queen Alia International Airport is the major international airport in Jordan
Jordan
and the hub for Royal Jordanian
Royal Jordanian
, the flag carrier . Its expansion was recently done and modified, including the decommissioning of the old terminals and the commissioning of new terminals costing $700M, to handle over 16 million passengers annually. It is now considered a state-of-the-art airport and was rewarded 'the best airport in the Middle East
Middle East
' for 2014 and 2015 and 'the best improvement in the Middle East' for 2014 by Airport Service Quality Survey, the world's leading airport passenger satisfaction benchmark program.

ROADS

See also: List of roads in Amman

Amman
Amman
has an extensive road network, although the mountainous terrain of the area has prevented the connection of some main roads, which are instead connected by bridges and tunnels. The Abdoun Bridge
Abdoun Bridge
spans Wadi Abdoun and connects the 4th Circle to Abdoun Circle . It is considered one of Amman's many landmarks and is the first curved suspended bridge to be built in the country. Abdoun Bridge
Abdoun Bridge
, considered one of Amman's landmarks

There are eight circles, or roundabouts , that span and connect west Amman. Successive waves of immigrants to the city has led to the rapid construction of new neighborhoods, but Amman's capacity for new or widened roads remains limited despite the influx. This has resulted in increasing traffic jams, particularly during summer when there are large numbers of tourists and Jordanian expatriates visiting. The municipality began construction on a bus rapid transit (BRT) system as a solution in 2015. In 2015, a ring road encompassing the city was constructed, which aims to connect the northern and southern parts of the city in order for traffic to be diverted outside Amman
Amman
and to improve the environmental conditions in the city.

BUS AND TAXI

Public transport buses in Amman
Amman

The city has frequent bus connections to other cities in Jordan, as well as to major cities in neighboring countries; the latter are also served by service taxis. Internal transport is served by a number of bus routes and taxis. Service taxis, which most often operate on fixed routes, are readily available and inexpensive. The two main bus and taxi stations are Abdali (near the King Abdullah Mosque
Mosque
, the Parliament and Palace of Justice) and the Raghadan Central Bus Station near the Roman theatre in the city centre. Popular Jordanian bus company services include JETT and Al-Mahatta. Taxis are the most common way to get around in Amman
Amman
due their high availability and inexpensiveness.

BUS RAPID TRANSIT

Main article: Amman Bus Rapid Transit

Currently under construction are dedicated lanes for bus services which will operate as part of the new urban rapid transit network (bus rapid transit ). The system includes high-quality stations and stops; express buses that can carry more than 120 passengers and will run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman's busiest corridors; terminals and park-n-ride facilities; and an integrated fare collection system allowing passengers to pay the fare at stations before embarking on the bus. The BRT is planned to run along three major corridors. The first one connects Sweileh
Sweileh
with Mahatta via Sport City, with a major underground station at the University of Jordan
Jordan
. The second corridor connects Sport City with Downtown Amman at Ras El-Ain. The third corridor connects Customs Square with Mahatta.

EDUCATION

Al-Isra University in Amman
Amman

According to Jordan
Jordan
Department of Statistics, Amman
Amman
has the highest literacy percentage in Jordan: 95.2% (97.3% among males and 93.1% among females). There are 20 universities in Amman. The University of Jordan
Jordan
is the largest public university in the city. There are 448 private schools in the city attended by 90,000 students, including Amman Baccalaureate School , Amman Academy
Amman Academy
, Amman National School , Modern American School , International School of Choueifat
International School of Choueifat
, American Community School in Amman
Amman
and National Orthodox School . University of Jordan
Jordan
library

SEE ALSO: LIST OF UNIVERSITIES IN JORDAN

* Al-Ahliyya Amman University
Al-Ahliyya Amman University
* Al-Isra University * Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan
Jordan
* Amman Arab University * Applied Science University * Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences * Arab Open University
Arab Open University
* Columbia University
Columbia University
: Amman
Amman
Branch * German-Jordanian University
German-Jordanian University
: Amman
Amman
Branch

* Jordan
Jordan
Academy for Maritime Studies * Jordan
Jordan
Academy of Music * Jordan
Jordan
Institute of Banking Studies * Jordan
Jordan
Media Institute * Middle East
Middle East
University * Petra University
Petra University
* Philadelphia University * Princess Sumaya University for Technology * Queen Noor Civil Aviation Technical College * World Islamic Sciences and Education University
World Islamic Sciences and Education University
* University of Jordan
Jordan

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Jordan
Jordan

Amman
Amman
is twinned with:

* Muscat
Muscat
, Oman
Oman
(1986) * Baku
Baku
, Azerbaijan * Jeddah
Jeddah
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(1988) * Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt
(1988) * Rabat
Rabat
, Morocco
Morocco
(1988) * Sana\'a , Yemen
Yemen
(1989) * Islamabad
Islamabad
, Pakistan
Pakistan
(1989) * Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
(1990) * Ankara
Ankara
, Turkey
Turkey
(1992) * Khartoum
Khartoum
, Sudan
Sudan
(1993) * Doha
Doha
, Qatar
Qatar
(1995)

* Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
(1997) * São Paulo
São Paulo
, Brazil, (1997) * Algiers
Algiers
, Algeria
Algeria
(1998) * Bucharest
Bucharest
, Romania
Romania
(1999) * Nouakchott
Nouakchott
, Mauritania
Mauritania
(1999) * Tunis
Tunis
, Tunisia
Tunisia
(1999) * Sofia
Sofia
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2000) * Beirut
Beirut
, Lebanon
Lebanon
(2000) * Pretoria
Pretoria
, South Africa
South Africa
(2002) * Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
, Honduras
Honduras
(2002) * Chicago
Chicago
, United States
United States
(2004)

* Calabria
Calabria
, Italy
Italy
(2005) * Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(2005) * Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
(2005) * Mostar
Mostar
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(2006) * Central Governorate , Bahrain
Bahrain
(2006) * Bishkek
Bishkek
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(2006) * San Francisco
San Francisco
, United States
United States
(2010) * Tokyo
Tokyo
, Japan
Japan
(2011) * Singapore
Singapore
, Singapore
Singapore
(2014) * Yerevan
Yerevan
, Armenia
Armenia
(2015) * Cincinnati
Cincinnati
, United States
United States
(2015)

GALLERY

*

Le Royal Hotel *

Downtown Amman *

Aerial view

SEE ALSO

* Jordan
Jordan
portal * Archaeology portal * Ancient Near East
Near East
portal

* Disi Water Conveyance Project * List of tallest buildings in Amman * Category:People from Amman
Amman

REFERENCES

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Lonely Planet
Publications. Retrieved 2015-10-01. * ^ A B "Amman\'s Street Food". BeAmman.com. BeAmman.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-26. Retrieved 2015-09-26. * ^ Shawarbeh elected deputy mayor of Amman
Amman
Jordan
Jordan
Embassy - US * ^ "Revealed: the 20 cities UAE residents visit most". Arabian Business Publishing Ltd. 2015-05-01. Retrieved 2015-09-21. * ^ A B "Population stands at around 9.5 million, including 2.9 million guests". The Jordan
Jordan
Times. The Jordan
Jordan
News. 2016-01-22. Retrieved 2016-01-22. * ^ A B C "Westernized media in Jordan
Jordan
breaking old taboos — RT". Rt.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. * ^ "Number of tourists dropped by 14% in 2013 — official report". The Jordan
Jordan
Times . The Jordan
Jordan
News. 2014-02-08. Retrieved 2015-09-21. * ^ A B C Michael Dumper; Bruce E. Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-04. * ^ "Aqel Biltaji appointed as Amman
Amman
mayor". The Jordan
Jordan
Times. The Jordan
Jordan
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Jordan
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Jordan
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Favored by MNCs as New Regional Hubs". Duniafrontier.com. 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-11-28. * ^ "About GAM => History". Greater Amman
Amman
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Belmont, California
: Wadsworth Publishing. pp. 11–2. ISBN 0-495-00479-0 . * ^ Scarre, Chris, ed. (2005). The Human Past. Thames & Hudson. p. 222. * ^ "The Old Testament Kingdoms of Jordan". kinghussein.gov.jo. kinghussein.gov.jo. Retrieved 2015-10-10. * ^ "Temple of Human Sacrifice: Amman
Amman
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to AMMAN .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for AMMAN .

* Amman
Amman
Street Food documentary on Youtube * Amman
Amman
Digital Community Facebook page * Greater Amman Municipality
Greater Amman Municipality
Facebook page * Amman
Amman
public transportation map

LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

Governorates of Jordan
Jordan

NORTH REGION

* Ajloun
Ajloun
* Irbid
Irbid
* Jerash
Jerash
* Mafraq

CENTRAL REGION

* Amman
Amman
* Balqa * Madaba
Madaba
*