The AMIDAH (Hebrew : תפילת העמידה, _TEFILAT HAAMIDAH_, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the _SHMONEH ESREH_ (שמנה עשרה, "The Eighteen", in reference to the original number of constituent blessings : there are now nineteen), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy . This prayer, among others, is found in the siddur , the traditional Jewish prayer book. As Judaism's central prayer, surpassed only by the Birkat Hamazon , the Amidah is the only prayer that is designated simply as _tefila_ (תפילה, "prayer") in rabbinic literature . The short version of the _Amidah_, designated for persons in a rush or under pressure, is called _Havineinu_. It consist of only seven _brachot_ ("blessings"). To recite the _Amidah_ is a _mitzvah de-rabbanan _ (Aramaic: דרבנן) for, according to legend, it was first composed by the Anshei Knesset HaGedolah ("Men of the Great Assembly").
The language of the
Amidah most likely dates from the mishnaic
period, both before and after the destruction of the Temple (70 CE) at
which time it was considered unnecessary to prescribe its text and
Talmud indicates that when
The prayer is recited standing with feet firmly together, and
preferably while facing
* 1 Origin * 2 When the Amidah is recited
* 3 Structure of the weekday Amidah
* 3.1 Final benedictions * 3.2 Concluding meditation
* 3.3 Mode of prayer
* 3.3.1 Concentration
* 3.3.2 Interruptions
* 3.3.3 Silent prayer
* 3.3.4 Standing
* 3.3.5 Facing
* 3.4 The repetition
* 5 Occasional changes to the Amidah
* 5.1 Prayers for rain in winter and dew in summer
* 5.1.1 "Mentioning the power" of rain (הזכרת גבורות גשמים) * 5.1.2 Requesting (praying for) rain (שאלת גשמים) * 5.1.3 Extended prayers for rain and dew
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 7.1 Citations * 7.2 Sources
* 8 External links
The language of the Amidah most likely comes from the mishnaic period, both before and after the destruction of the Temple (70 CE) as the probable time of its composition and compilation. In the time of the Mishnah , it was considered unnecessary to prescribe its text and content. This may have been simply because the language was well known to the Mishnah's authors. The Mishnah may also not have recorded a specific text because of an aversion to making prayer a matter of rigor and fixed formula, an aversion that continued at least to some extent throughout the Talmudic period, as evidenced by the opinions of R. Eliezer ( Talmud Ber. 29b) and R. Simeon ben Yohai (Ab. ii. 13). R. Jose held that one should include something new in one's prayer every day ( Talmud Yerushalmi Ber. 8b), a principle said to have been carried into practice by R. Eleazar and R. Abbahu (ib.). Prayer was not to be read as one would read a letter (ib.).
However, even the talmudic sources reflect such diverse opinions
including the one attributing the formulation of the
Amidah to the
"men of the Great
The Talmud names Simeon ha-Pakuli as the editor of the collection in the academy of R. Gamaliel II. at Yavneh . (Ber. 28b). But this can not mean that the benedictions were unknown before that date; for in other passages the "Shemoneh 'Esreh" is traced to the "first wise men" (Sifre, Deut. 343), and again to "120 elders and among these a number of prophets" (Meg. 17b). In order to remove the discrepancies between the latter and the former assignment of editorship, the Talmud takes refuge in the explanation that the prayers had fallen into disuse, and that Gamaliel reinstituted them (Meg. 18a).
The historical kernel in these conflicting reports seems to be that
the benedictions date from the earliest days of the Pharisaic
Synagogue. They were at first spontaneous outgrowths of the efforts to
establish the Pharisaic
R. Gamaliel II . undertook finally both to fix definitely the public service and to regulate private devotion. He directed Simeon ha-Pakoli to edit the benedictions-probably in the order they had already acquired-and made it a duty, incumbent on every one, to recite the prayer three times daily.
According to the Talmud Gamaliel directed Samuel ha-Katan to write another paragraph against informers and heretics making the number nineteen (Ber. iv. 3; see Grätz, "Gesch." 3d ed., iv. 30 et seq.). This addition is the 12th prayer in the modern sequence.
WHEN THE AMIDAH IS RECITED
On regular weekdays, the Amidah is prayed three times, once each during the morning, afternoon, and evening services that are known respectively as _Shacharit_, _Minchah_, and _Ma'ariv_.
One opinion in the
Talmud claims, with support from Biblical verses,
that the concept for each of the three services was founded
respectively by each of the three biblical patriarchs . The
prescribed times for reciting the
Amidah thus may come from the times
of the public _tamid_ ("eternal") sacrifices that took place in the
Rosh Chodesh , and other
Jewish holidays there is a
Amidah to replace the additional communal
sacrifices of these days. On
STRUCTURE OF THE WEEKDAY AMIDAH
The weekday Amidah contains nineteen blessings. Each blessing ends with the signature "Blessed are you, O Lord..." and the opening blessing begins with this signature as well. The first three blessings as a section are known as the _shevach_ ("praise"), and serve to inspire the worshipper and invoke God's mercy. The middle thirteen blessings compose the _bakashah_ ("request"), with six personal requests, six communal requests, and a final request that God accept the prayers. The final three blessings, known as the _hoda'ah_ ("gratitude"), thank God for the opportunity to serve the Lord. The _shevach_ and _hoda'ah_ are standard for every Amidah, with some changes on certain occasions.
The nineteen blessings are as follows:
* Known as _Gevurot_ ("powers"), this offers praise of God for His power and might. This prayer includes a mention of God's healing of the sick and resurrection of the dead. It is called also _Tehiyyat ha-Metim_ = "the resurrection of the dead."
* Rain is considered as great a manifestation of power as the resurrection of the dead; hence in winter a line recognizing God's bestowal of rain is inserted in this benediction. Except for many Ashkenazim, most communities also insert a line recognizing dew in the summer.
* Known as _Kedushat ha-Shem_ ("the sanctification of the Name") this offers praise of God's holiness.
* Known as _Binah_ ("understanding") this is a petition to God to
grant wisdom and understanding.
* Known as _Teshuvah_ ("return", "repentance") this prayer asks God
* Known as _Birkat HaShanim_ ("blessing for years "), this prayer asks God to bless the produce of the earth.
* A prayer for rain is included in this blessing during the rainy season.
* Known as _Galuyot_ ("diasporas"), this prayer asks God to allow
the ingathering of the Jewish exiles back to the land of
* Known as _Hoda'ah_ ("thanksgiving") this is a prayer of thanksgiving, thanking God for our lives, for our souls, and for God's miracles that are with us every day. The text can be found in the next section.
* When the chazzan reaches this blessing during the repetition, the congregation recites a prayer called _Modim deRabbanan_ ("the thanksgiving of the Rabbis").
* Known as Sim Shalom ("Grant Peace"); the last prayer is the one for peace , goodness, blessings, kindness and compassion. Ashkenazim generally say a shorter version of this blessing at Minchah and Maariv, called Shalom Rav .
Prior to the final blessing for peace, the following is said: _We acknowledge to You, O Lord, that You are our God, as You were the God of our ancestors, forever and ever. Rock of our life, Shield of our help, You are immutable from age to age. We thank You and utter Your praise, for our lives that are delivered into Your hands, and for our souls that are entrusted to You; and for Your miracles that are with us every day and for your marvelously kind deeds that are of every time; evening and morning and noon-tide. Thou art good, for Thy mercies are endless: Thou art merciful, for Thy kindnesses never are complete: from everlasting we have hoped in You. And for all these things may Thy name be blessed and exalted always and forevermore. And all the living will give thanks unto Thee and praise Thy great name in truth, God, our salvation and help. Selah. Blessed be Thou, O Lord, Thy name is good, and to Thee it is meet to give thanks._
The priestly blessing is said in the reader's repetition of the
Shacharit Amidah, and at the
Shabbat and Jewish
Holidays . On public fast days it is also said at
Mincha ; and on Yom
Kippur , at Neilah. It is not said in a House of Mourning . In
Orthodox and some Conservative congregations, this blessing is chanted
by _kohanim_ (direct descendants of the Aaronic priestly clan) on
certain occasions. In Ashkenazic practice, the priestly blessing is
chanted by _kohanim_ on
Jewish Holidays in the Diaspora , and daily in
the Land of
The custom has gradually developed of reciting, at the conclusion of the latter, the supplication with which Mar, the son of Rabina, used to conclude his prayer:
My God, keep my tongue and my lips from speaking deceit, and to them that curse me let my soul be silent, and like dust to all. Open my heart in Your Torah, and after Thy commandments let me pursue. As for those that think evil of me speedily thwart their counsel and destroy their plots. Do for Thy name's sake, do this for Thy right hand's sake, do this for the sake of Thy holiness, do this for the sake of Thy Torah. That Thy beloved ones may rejoice, let Thy right hand bring on help and answer me... May the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be acceptable in Thy sight, O Eternal, my rock and my redeemer.
May it be your will, O my God and God of my fathers, that the Temple
be rebuilt speedily in our days, and give us our portion in your Torah
, and there we will worship you with reverence as in ancient days and
former years. And may the
Mincha offering of Judah and
It is also customary to add individual personal prayers as part of
silent recitation of the Amidah.
MODE OF PRAYER
The many laws concerning the Amidah's mode of prayer are designed to focus one's concentration as one beseeches God.
Also, according to Halakhah , the first blessing of the Amidah must be said with intention; if said by rote alone, the worshipper must go back and repeat it with intention. The Rema wrote that this is no longer necessary, because "modern" (he lived in the 16th century) attention spans are so short, one would not have intention the second time either. The second to last blessing of _Hoda'ah_ also has high priority for _kavanah_.
Interrupting the Amidah is forbidden. The only exceptions are in cases of danger or for one who needs to relieve oneself, though this rule may depend on the movement of Judaism. There are also _halakhot_ to prevent interrupting the Amidah of others; for example, it is forbidden to sit next to someone praying or to walk within four _amot_ (cubits ) of someone praying.
The guideline of silent prayer comes from Hannah 's behavior during prayer, when she prayed in the Temple to bear a child. She prayed "speaking upon her heart," so that no one else could hear, yet her lips were moving. Therefore, when saying the Amidah one's voice should be audible to oneself, but not loud enough for others to hear.
The name "Amidah," which literally is the Hebrew gerund of
"standing," comes from the fact that the worshipper recites the prayer
while standing with feet firmly together. This is done to imitate the
The Talmud says that one who is riding an animal or sitting in a boat (or by modern extension, flying in an airplane) may recite the Amidah while seated, as the precarity of standing would disturb one's focus.
Amidah is preferably said facing
A blind man, or one who cannot orient himself, should direct his
heart toward his Father in Heaven, as it is said, "They shall pray to
the Lord" (I Kings 8). One who stands in the diaspora should face the
Land of Israel, as it is said, "They shall pray to You by way of their
Land" (ibid). One who stands in the Land of
There is a dispute regarding how one measures direction for this purpose. Some say one should face the direction which would be the shortest distance to Jerusalem, i.e. the arc of a great circle , as defined in elliptic geometry . Thus in New York one would face north-northeast. Others say one should face the direction along a rhumb line path to Jerusalem, which would not require an alteration of compass direction. This would be represented by a straight line on a Mercator projection , which would be east-southeast from New York. In practice, many individuals in the Western Hemisphere simply face due east, regardless of location. In the presence of an ark that does not face Jerusalem, one should pray toward the ark instead.
The Babylonian Talmud relates that the practice of stepping backward after the Amidah is a reminder of the practice in the Temple in Jerusalem, when those offering the daily sacrifices would walk backward from the altar after finishing. It is also compared to a student who respectfully backs away from his teacher.
The Talmud therefore states:
In following this discussion, the worshipper takes three steps back at the end of the final meditation, and says while bowing left, right, and forward, "He who makes peace in the heavens, may He make peace for us and all Israel, and let us say, Amen." Many have the custom to remain standing in place until immediately before the chazzan reaches the Kedusha , and then take three steps forward.
The worshipper bows at four points in the Amidah: at the beginning and end of both the first blessing of _Avot_ and the second to last blessing of _Hoda'ah_. At the opening words of _Avot_ and at the conclusion of both these blessings, when the one says "Blessed are You, O Lord," one bends one's knees at "Blessed," then bows at "are You," and straightens while saying "O Lord." The reason for this procedure is that the Hebrew word for "blessed" (_baruch_) is related to "knee" (_berech_); while the verse in Psalms states, "The Lord straightens the bent." At the beginning of _Hoda'ah_, one bows while saying the opening words "We are grateful to You" without bending the knees. At each of these bows, one must bend over until the vertebrae protrude from one's back; one physically unable to do so suffices by nodding the head.
During certain parts of the
Amidah said on
Rosh Hashana and Yom
In Orthodox and Conservative (Masorti) public worship, the Shemoneh Esrei is first prayed silently by the congregation; it is then repeated aloud by the chazzan (reader), except for the evening Amidah or when a minyan is not present. The congregation responds " Amen " to each blessing, and "_Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo_" ("blessed is He and blessed is His Name") when the chazzan invokes God's name in the signature "Blessed are You, O Lord..." If there are not six members of the minyan responding "Amen," the chazzan's blessing is considered in vain.
The repetition's original purpose was to give illiterate members of the congregation a chance to be included in the chazzan's Amidah by answering "Amen."
Conservative and Reform congregations sometimes abbreviate the public
recitation of the
Amidah by saying it once, with the first three
blessings said out loud and the remainder silently. This abridged
style, commonly referred to as (Yiddish : הויכע קדושה)
"heikhe kedusha," is also performed within Orthodox
AMIDOT FOR SHABBAT
The Shabbat _Ma'ariv_ (evening), _Shacharit_ (morning), _Mussaf_ (additional), and _Mincha_ (afternoon) Amidah prayers all have special forms in which the middle 13 benedictions are replaced by one, known as _Kedushat haYom_ ("sanctity of the day"), so that each Shabbat Amidah is composed of seven benedictions. The _Kedushat haYom_ has an introductory portion, which on Sabbath is varied for each of the four services, and short concluding portion, which is constant:
Our God and God of our Ancestors! Be pleased with our rest; sanctify us with Your commandments, give us a share in Your Torah, satiate us with Your bounty, and gladden us in Your salvation. Cleanse our hearts to serve You in truth: let us inherit, O Lord our God, in love and favor, Your holy Sabbath, and may Israel, who loves Your name, rest thereon. Praised are You, O Lord, who sanctifies the Sabbath.
On Sabbath eve, after the congregation has read the Amidah silently, the reader repeats aloud the _Me'En Sheva'_, or summary of the seven blessings. The congregation then continues:
Shield of the fathers by His word, reviving the dead by His command, the holy God to whom none is like; who causeth His people to rest on His holy Sabbath-day, for in them He took delight to cause them to rest. Before Him we shall worship in reverence and fear. We shall render thanks to His name on every day constantly in the manner of the benedictions. God of the 'acknowledgments,' Lord of 'Peace,' who sanctifieth the Sabbath and blesseth the seventh and causeth the people who are filled with Sabbath delight to rest as a memorial of the work in the beginning of Creation.
AMIDAH FOR FESTIVALS
On festivals a special "Sanctification of the Day" prayer, made up of several sections, replaces the intermediate 13 blessings in the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers. The first section is constant:
Thou hast chosen us from all the nations, hast loved us and wast pleased with us; Thou hast lifted us above all tongues, and hast hallowed us by Thy commandments, and hast brought us, O our King, to Thy service, and hast pronounced over us Thy great and holy name.
A paragraph naming the special festival and its special character follow.
If the Sabbath coincides with it, special sections are added mentioning both the Shabbat and the festival.
Shabbat , festivals (i.e., on Yom Tov and on
Chol HaMoed ),
Rosh Chodesh (new month in the Jewish Calendar), a Mussaf
Amidah is said, both silently and repeated by the Reader.
Mussaf service is technically a separate, free-standing service
which could potentially be said any time between the _shacharit_
(morning) and _mincha_ (afternoon) services, but today is normally
recited immediately after the regular morning service as part of
single, but extended, worship session. The
Amidah begins with
the same first three and concludes with the same last three blessings
as the regular Amidah. However, in place of the 13 intermediate
blessings of the daily service, special prayers are added for the
holiday. In Orthodox Services, these prayers recount the special
Mussaf sacrifice that was offered in the Temple in
Rosh Hashanah is unique in that apart from the
first and last 3 blessings, it contains 3 central blessings making a
total of 9, compared to the normal 19 in a weekday
Amidah or 7 in a
Shabbat or Festival Amidah. These 3 blessings each end a section of
Amidah – which are "Malchuyot" (Kingship, and also includes the
blessing for the holiness of the day as is in a normal Mussaf),
"Zichronot" (Remembrance) and "Shofrot" (concerning the Shofar). Each
section contains an introductory paragraph followed by selections of
verses about the "topic". The verses are 3 from the
Rabbinical Assembly of Conservative
OCCASIONAL CHANGES TO THE AMIDAH
PRAYERS FOR RAIN IN WINTER AND DEW IN SUMMER
"Mentioning The Power" Of Rain (הזכרת גבורות גשמים)
The phrase "הזכרת גבורות גשמים" ("He causes the wind to blow and the rain to fall") is inserted in the second benediction of the Amidah, known as גבורות (Powers), throughout the rainy half of the year (ימות הגשמים, _yemot hageshamim_, _i.e.,_ between Sukkot and Passover). The most prominent of God's powers mentioned in this benediction is the resurrection of the dead. Rain is mentioned here because God's provision of rain is considered to be as great a manifestation of His power as the resurrection of the dead. At the same time, because rain out of season can be more harmful than helpful, Jewish tradition strongly avoids any hint of invoking rain outside the rainy season.
A passage about rain is not considered appropriate to (Northern Hemisphere) spring and summer, when rain does not fall in Israel. Nevertheless, given the importance of moisture during the dry summer of Israel, many (though not all) versions of the liturgy insert the phrase "מוריד הטל," "He causes the dew to fall," during every Amidah of the dry half of the year. The "mention" of rain (or dew) starts and ends on major festivals ( Shemini Atzeret and Passover) because they are days of great joy, and because they are days of heavy attendance at public prayers. Therefore, the seasonal change in the language of the prayers is immediately and widely disseminated.
Requesting (praying For) Rain (שאלת גשמים)
In the ninth blessing of the weekday Amidah, the words "dew and rain"
are inserted during the winter season in the Land of Israel. This
season is defined as beginning on the 60th day after the autumnal
equinox (usually 4 December) and ending on Passover. In the Land of
Israel, however, the season begins on the 7th of
Cheshvan . The
Bless us, our Father, in all the work of our hands, and bless our year with gracious, blessed, and kindly dews: be its outcome life, plenty, and peace as in the good years, for Thou, O Eternal, are good and does good and blesses the years. Blessed be Thou, O Eternal, who blesses the years.
In the rainy season, the phraseology is changed to read:
Bless upon us, O Eternal our God, this year and all kinds of its produce for goodness, and bestow dew and rain for blessing on all the face of the earth; and make abundant the face of the world and fulfil the whole of Thy goodness. Fill our hands with Thy blessings and the richness of the gifts of Thy hands. Preserve and save this year from all evil and from all kinds of destroyers and from all sorts of punishments: and establish for it good hope and as its outcome peace. Spare it and have mercy upon it and all of its harvest and its fruits, and bless it with rains of favor, blessing, and generosity; and let its issue be life, plenty, and peace as in the blessed good years; for Thou, O Eternal, are good and does good and blesses the years. Blessed be Thou, O Eternal, who blesses the years.
Extended Prayers For Rain And Dew
Shemini Atzeret , the traditional beginning of the rainy season in
CONCLUSION OF SHABBAT AND FESTIVALS
At the Maariv Amidah following the conclusion of a Shabbat or Yom Tov , a paragraph beginning _Atah Chonantanu_ ("You have granted us...") is inserted into the weekday Amidah's fourth blessing of _Binah_. The paragraph thanks God for the ability to separate between the holy and mundane, paraphrasing the concepts found in the Havdalah ceremony. In fact, the Talmud teaches that if this paragraph is forgotten, the Amidah need not be repeated, because Havdalah will be said later over wine. Once _Atah Chonantanu_ is said, work prohibited on the holy day becomes permitted because the separation from the holy day has been established.
THE TEN DAYS OF REPENTANCE
Ten Days of Repentance between
Rosh Hashanah and Yom
Kippur , additional lines are inserted in the first, second, second to
last, and last blessings of all Amidot. These lines invoke God's mercy
and pray for inscription in the
Book of Life . In many communities,
when the chazzan reaches these lines during his repetition, he pauses
and the congregation recites the lines before him. During the final
recitation of the
Moreover, the signatures of two blessings are changed to reflect the days' heightened recognition of God's sovereignty. In the third blessing, the signature _"Blessed are You, O Lord, the Holy God"_ is replaced with _"Blessed are You, O Lord, the Holy King."_ On weekdays, the signature of the eleventh blessing is changed from _"Blessed are You, O Lord, King who loves justice and judgement"_ to _"Blessed are You, O Lord, the King of judgement."_
On public fast days , special prayers for mercy are added to the Amidah. At Shacharit, no changes are made in the silent Amidah, but the chazzan adds an additional blessing in his repetition right after the blessing of _Geulah_, known by its first word _ Aneinu _ ("Answer us"). The blessing concludes with the signature _"Blessed are You, O Lord, Who responds_ (some say: _to His nation Israel_) _in time of trouble."_
At Minchah, the chazzan adds _Aneinu_ in his repetition again, as at Shacharit. In addition, during the silent Amidah, all fasting congregatants recite the text of _Aneinu_ without its signature in the blessing of _Tefillah_. In addition, communities that say the shortened version of the _Shalom_ blessing at Minchah and Maariv say the complete version at this Minchah. The chazzan also says the priestly blessing before _Shalom_ as he would at Shacharit, unlike the usual weekday Minchah when the priestly blessing is not said.
On Tisha B\'Av at Minchah, Ashkenazim add a prayer that begins
_Nachem_ ("Console...") to the conclusion of the blessing _Binyan
Yerushalayim_, elaborating on the mournful state of the Temple in
On Chol HaMoed (Intermediate Days of Festivals) and Rosh Chodesh (New Months), the prayer _Ya'aleh Veyavo_ ("May rise and be seen...") is inserted in the blessing of _Avodah_. _Ya'aleh Veyavo_ is also said in the _Kedushat HaYom_ blessing of the Festival Amidah, and at Birkat HaMazon . One phrase of the prayer varies according to the day's holiday, mentioning it by name. Traditionally, the first line is uttered aloud so that others will take notice.
On Hanukkah and Purim , the weekday Amidot are recited, but a special paragraph is inserted into the blessing of _Hoda'ah_. Each holiday's paragraph recounts the historical background of that holiday, thanking God for his salvation. Both paragraphs are prefaced by the same opening line, "We thank You for the miraculous deeds (_Al HaNissim_) and for the redemption and for the mighty deeds and the saving acts wrought by You, as well as for the wars which You waged for our ancestors in ancient days at this season."
MODERN CHANGES BY LIBERAL DENOMINATIONS
The most recent known change to the text of the standard daily
_Amidah_ by an authority accepted by Orthodox
Conservative and Reform
Liberal branches of
Prayer 17, _Avodah_. asks God to restore the Temple services , build
Third Temple , and restore sacrificial worship. The concluding
meditation ends with an additional prayer for the restoration of
Temple worship. Both prayers have been modified within the siddur of
Many Reform congregations will often conclude with either Sim Shalom or Shalom Rav . Once either of those prayers are chanted or sung, many congregations proceed to a variation on the Mi Shebeirach (typically the version popularized by Debbie Friedman ), the traditional prayer for healing, followed by silent prayer, and then a resumption of the service.
* ^ Student, Gil. "Innovation in Jewish Law: A Case Study of
Chiddush in Havineinu". Orthodox Union. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
* ^ Machon Shilo; Bar-Hayim, David. "The Havinenu Prayer: Lost in
the Shuffle?". Machon Shilo. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
* ^ Abramowitz, Jack. "Shemoneh Esrei #1 – Avos (Fathers)".
Orthodox Union. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
* ^ Adler, Cyrus; Hirsch, Emil G. "SHEMONEH \'ESREH".
JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
* Elbogen, Ismar ; Scheindlin, Raymond P (1993), _Jewish Liturgy: A
Comprehensive History_, JPS
* Feuer, Avrohom Chaim (1990), _Shemoneh Esrei_, New York: Mesorah .
* Finkelstein, Louis (1925–26), "The Amidah", _Jewish Quarterly
Review_, new, 16: 1–43 .
* Harlow, Jules (Winter 1997), "Feminist Linguistics and Jewish
Liturgy", _Conservative Judaism_, XLIX (2): 3–25 .
* Joseph Heinemann "Prayer in the Talmud", Gruyter, New York, 1977
* ——— (1981), _'Iyyunei Tefilla" Magnes_,