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Americans
Americans
are citizens of the United States
United States
of America.[47] The country is home to people of many different national origins. As a result, many Americans
Americans
do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance.[47] Although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may also claim an American identity.[48] English-speakers, and even speakers of many other languages, typically use the term "American" to exclusively mean people of the United States; this developed from its original use to differentiate English people of the American colonies from English people of England.[49] The word "American" can also refer to people from the Americas
Americas
in general[50] (see Names for United States
United States
citizens).

Contents

1 Overview 2 Racial and ethnic groups

2.1 White and European Americans 2.2 Hispanic and Latino Americans 2.3 Black and African Americans 2.4 Asian Americans 2.5 Middle Easterners and North Africans 2.6 American Indians and Alaska Natives 2.7 Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
and other Pacific Islanders 2.8 Two or more races 2.9 Some other race

3 National personification 4 Language 5 Religion 6 Culture 7 Diaspora 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References

Overview[edit] Main articles: Race and ethnicity in the United States, Colonial United States, and Immigration to the United States The majority of Americans
Americans
or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century,[51] and American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.[52] Despite its multi-ethnic composition,[53][54] the culture of the United States
United States
held in common by most Americans
Americans
can also be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture
Western culture
largely derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists, settlers, and immigrants.[53] It also includes influences of African-American culture.[55] Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana
Louisiana
and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia, Africa, and Latin America has also had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans
Americans
have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics.[53] In addition to the United States, Americans
Americans
and people of American descent can be found internationally. As many as seven million Americans
Americans
are estimated to be living abroad, and make up the American diaspora.[56][57][58] Racial and ethnic groups[edit] Main article: Race and ethnicity in the United States See also: Demographics of the United States

2010 U.S. Census [59]Table 1[60]

Self-identified race

Percent of population

White alone

72.4%

Black or African American

12.6%

Asian

4.8%

American Indians and Alaska Natives

0.9%

Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
and Other Pacific Islanders

0.2%

Two or more races

2.9%

Some other race

6.2%

Total

100.0%

The United States
United States
of America is a diverse country, racially, and ethnically.[61] Six races are officially recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races. "Some other race" is also an option in the census and other surveys.[62][63][64] The United States
United States
Census Bureau also classifies Americans
Americans
as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans
Americans
as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation.[62][63][65] White and European Americans[edit] Main articles: European Americans, White Americans, and White Hispanic and Latino Americans People of European descent, or White Americans
White Americans
(also referred to as Caucasian Americans), constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[a][59][67] They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.[59] Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial; with largest combination being white and black.[67] Additionally, there are 29,184,290 White Hispanics or Latinos.[67] Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites
are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, Texas, New Mexico, and Hawaii.[59] In addition, the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
has a non-white majority.[59] The state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans
White Americans
is Maine.[68] The largest continental ancestral group of Americans
Americans
are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe. This includes people via African, North American, Caribbean, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European diaspora.[69] The Spanish were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States
United States
in 1565.[70] Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States.[71] Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare
Virginia Dare
born 1587 Roanoke Island
Roanoke Island
in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2014 American Community Survey, German Americans
German Americans
(14.4%), Irish Americans
Americans
(10.4%), English Americans
English Americans
(7.6%) and Italian Americans (5.4%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States
United States
forming 37.8% of the total population.[72] However, the English Americans
English Americans
and British Americans
British Americans
demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply 'Americans' due to the length of time they have inhabited America.[73][74][75][76] Overall, as the largest group, European Americans
European Americans
have the lowest poverty rate[77] and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income,[78] and median personal income[79] of any racial demographic in the nation.

White and European American population by ancestry group[80][81]

Rank Ancestry group % of total population Pop. estimates R.

1 German 14.4% 46,047,113 [72]

2 Irish 10.4% 33,147,639 [72]

3 English 7.6% 24,382,182 [72]

4 American 6.9% 22,097,012 [72]

5 Italian 5.4% 17,220,604 [72]

6 Mexican 5.4% 16,794,111 [82]

7 Polish 2.9% 9,249,392 [72]

8 French (except Basque) French Canadian 2.6% 0.7% 8,153,515 2,099,430 [72]

9 Scottish 1.7% 5,365,154 [72]

10 Norwegian 1.4% 4,444,566 [72]

11 Dutch 1.3% 4,243,067 [72]

Total White and European American 59.34% 231,040,398 [67]

2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
& 2014 American Community Survey

Hispanic and Latino Americans[edit] Main article: Hispanic and Latino Americans Hispanic or Latino Americans
Americans
(of any race) constitute the largest ethnic minority in the United States. They form the second largest group after non-Hispanic Whites in the United States, comprising 16.3% of the population according to the 2010 United States Census.[b][83][84] Hispanic/Latino Americans
Americans
are very racially diverse, and as a result form an ethnic category, rather than a race.[85][86][87][88] People of Spanish or Hispanic descent have lived in what is now the United States
United States
since the founding of St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida
in 1565 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. In the State of Texas, Spaniards
Spaniards
first settled the region in the late 1600s and formed a unique cultural group known as Tejanos (Texanos).

Hispanic and Latino American
Hispanic and Latino American
population by national origin[89][90]

Rank National origin % of total population Pop.

1 Mexican 10.29% 31,798,258

2 Puerto Rican 1.49% 4,623,716

3 Cuban 0.57% 1,785,547

4 Salvadoran 0.53% 1,648,968

5 Dominican 0.45% 1,414,703

6 Guatemalan 0.33% 1,044,209

7 Colombian 0.3% 908,734

8 Spanish 0.2% 635,253

9 Honduran 0.2% 633,401

10 Ecuadorian 0.1% 564,631

All other 2.64% 8,162,193

Hispanic and Latino American
Hispanic and Latino American
(total) 16.34% 50,477,594

2010 United States
United States
Census

Black and African Americans[edit] Main articles: African Americans
African Americans
and Black Hispanic and Latino Americans Black and African Americans
African Americans
are citizens and residents of the United States with origins in Sub-Saharan Africa.[91] According to the Office of Management and Budget, the grouping includes individuals who self-identify as African American, as well as persons who emigrated from nations in the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Sub-Saharan Africa.[92] The grouping is thus based on geography, and may contradict or misrepresent an individual's self-identification since not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
are "Black". Among these racial outliers are persons from Cape Verde, Madagascar, various Arab states
Arab states
and Hamito-Semitic populations in East Africa
Africa
and the Sahel, and the Afrikaners
Afrikaners
of Southern Africa.[91] African Americans
African Americans
(also referred to as Black Americans
Americans
or Afro-Americans, and formerly as American Negroes) are citizens or residents of the United States
United States
who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa.[93] According to the 2009 American Community Survey, there were 38,093,725 Black and African Americans
African Americans
in the United States, representing 12.4% of the population. In addition, there were 37,144,530 non-Hispanic blacks, which comprised 12.1% of the population.[94] This number increased to 42 million according to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, when including Multiracial
Multiracial
African Americans,[92] making up 14% of the total U.S. population.[c][95] Black and African Americans
African Americans
make up the second largest group in the United States, but the third largest group after White Americans
White Americans
and Hispanic or Latino Americans
Americans
(of any race).[83] The majority of the population (55%) lives in the South; compared to the 2000 Census, there has also been a decrease of African Americans
African Americans
in the Northeast and Midwest.[95] Most African Americans
African Americans
are the direct descendants of captives from West Africa, who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States.[96] As an adjective, the term is usually spelled African-American.[97] The first West African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
in 1619. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean.[98] All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves);[99] by the beginning of the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
1/5th of the total population was enslaved.[100] During the revolution, some would serve in the Continental Army
Continental Army
or Continental Navy,[101][102] while others would serve the British Empire
British Empire
in Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment, and other units.[103] By 1804, the northern states (north of the Mason–Dixon line) had abolished slavery.[104] However, slavery would persist in the southern states until the end of the American Civil War and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.[105] Following the end of the Reconstruction Era, which saw the first African American representation in Congress,[106] African Americans
African Americans
became disenfranchised and subject to Jim Crow laws,[107] legislation that would persist until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
and Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
due to the Civil Rights Movement.[108] According to US Census Bureau data, very few African immigrants self-identify as African American. On average, less than 5% of African residents self-reported as "African American" or "Afro-American" on the 2000 US Census. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants (~95%) identified instead with their own respective ethnicities. Self-designation as "African American" or "Afro-American" was highest among individuals from West Africa
Africa
(4%-9%), and lowest among individuals from Cape Verde, East Africa
Africa
and Southern Africa (0%-4%).[109] African immigrants may also experience conflict with African Americans.[110]

Black and African American
African American
population by ancestry group[80]

Rank Ancestry group Percentage of total est. population Pop. estimates

1 Jamaican 0.31% 986,897

2 Haitian 0.28% 873,003

3 Nigerian 0.08% 259,934

4 Trinidadian and Tobagonian 0.06% 193,233

5 Ghanaian 0.03% 94,405

6 Barbadian 0.01% 59,236

Sub-Saharan African (total) 0.92% 2,864,067

West Indian (total) (except Hispanic groups) 0.85% 2,633,149

Black and African Americans
African Americans
(total) 13.6% 42,020,743 2010 United States
United States
Census[92]

2009–2011 American Community Survey

Asian Americans[edit] Main articles: Asian Americans
Asian Americans
and Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans Another significant population is the Asian American
Asian American
population, comprising 17.3 million in 2010, or 5.6% of the U.S. population.[d][111][112] California
California
is home to 5.6 million Asian Americans, the greatest number in any state.[113] In Hawaii, Asian Americans
Americans
make up the highest proportion of the population (57 percent).[113] Asian Americans
Asian Americans
live across the country, yet are heavily urbanized, with significant populations in the Greater Los Angeles Area, New York metropolitan area, and the San Francisco Bay Area.[114] They are by no means a monolithic group. The largest sub-groups are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from Cambodia, Mainland China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Asians overall have higher income levels than all other racial groups in the United States, including whites, and the trend appears to be increasing in relation to those groups.[115] Additionally, Asians have a higher education attainment level than all other racial groups in the United States.[116][117] For better or worse, the group has been called a model minority.[118][119][120] While Asian Americans
Asian Americans
have been in what is now the United States
United States
since before the Revolutionary War,[121][122][123] relatively large waves of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese immigration did not begin until the mid-to-late 19th century.[123] Immigration and significant population growth continue to this day.[124] Due to a number of factors, Asian Americans
Americans
have been stereotyped as "perpetual foreigners".[125][126]

Asian American
Asian American
ancestries[111]

Rank Ancestry Percentage of total population Pop.

1 Chinese 1.2% 3,797,379

2 Filipino 1.1% 3,417,285

3 Indian 1.0% 3,183,063

4 Vietnamese 0.5% 1,737,665

5 Korean 0.5% 1,707,027

6 Japanese 0.4% 1,304,599

Other Asian 0.9% 2,799,448

Asian American
Asian American
(total) 5.6% 17,320,856

2010 United States
United States
Census

Middle Easterners and North Africans[edit]

This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings. (March 2017)

Main articles: Middle Eastern Americans, North Africans in the United States, Iranian Americans, Arab Americans, and Jewish
Jewish
Americans According to the American Jewish
Jewish
Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans (viz. Jews
Jews
and Berbers) arrived in the Americas
Americas
between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries.[127][128][129][130] Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition,[131][132] and a few were also taken to the Americas
Americas
as slaves.[128] In 1909, the Superior Court and the Department of Justice in Washington D.C. ruled on a case that redefined Middle Eastern Americans
Americans
and their racial distinction. According to the Arab American Historical Foundation and the Los Angeles Herald, a case in which George Shishim, a Lebanese policeman, arrested a "white" man, who claimed that because Shishim was Lebanese, he must not be racially "white", but rather "Chinese-Mongolian".[133] Shishim, his attorneys, and the Syrian-Lebanese and Arab American
Arab American
communities rallied to prove that Lebanese, Syrians, and all Arabs and Middle Easterners were in fact "white" to both gain official citizenship in the United States, as well as avoid other exclusive and restrictive penalties of being labeled as Asian.[134] One of Shishim's arguments appealed to the white justices' desire to connect to their revered religious figure, Jesus. Shishim said: "If I am a Mongolian, then so was Jesus, because we came from the same land."[133] As noted in the 1909 publication of the "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League", the presiding Judge Hutton concluded that Syrians had descended from Hebrews, who descended from "the Semitic family of the 'Indo-Aryan race'", but because the Mongol conquerors had killed the Syrian men, and interbred with the Syrian women, "western nations have been unable to restore [the Syrians'] original characteristics" (6).[135][unreliable source] Shishim won and was granted citizenship, and Middle Easterners were thereafter legally considered "white" in the United States. However, in 1910, Congress passed a bill that defined "Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews" as "Asiatics", while still approving their claims to citizenship.[136][unreliable source] This declaration, while not taking away their citizenship, affirmed the ethnic origins and identities of Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews
Jews
as "non-white". Over the decades of the 20th century, as more Arab Americans, Jewish Americans
Americans
and other Middle Eastern ethnic groups settled in the United States, the racial discrimination they faced also increased.[137][138] Due to the ruling in Shishim's case and the interpretation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, United States
United States
citizens could not sue one another for discrimination if they belonged to "the same race".[139] However, in 1987, after an Iraqi-American associate professor was refused tenure due to his Arab origins and a synagogue was spray-painted with anti-Semitic insignia, the Supreme Court ruled "unanimously today that Arabs, Jews
Jews
and members of other ethnic groups may sue under a post-Civil War law's broad prohibition against discrimination."[140] According to the Pew Research Center's Portrait of Jewish
Jewish
Americans, more than 90% of Jews
Jews
who responded to their survey described themselves as non-Hispanic whites, 2% as black, 3% as Hispanic, and 2% of other racial or ethnic backgrounds.[141] Additionally, as modern scientific data improved, more information on the true origins and ethnic distinctions emerged. For example, studies have shown that Jews
Jews
share more genetic relativity to other Jews around the world than to the surrounding non- Jewish
Jewish
ethnic groups.[142] Some studies have also suggested that other Middle Eastern (non-Jewish) ethnic groups remain one of the closest relations to Jews.[143] The United States
United States
Census Bureau is presently finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. In 2012, prompted in part by post-9/11 discrimination, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee petitioned the Department of Commerce's Minority Business Development Agency to designate the MENA populations as a minority/disadvantaged community.[134] Following consultations with MENA organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East, North Africa
Africa
and the Arab world, separate from the "white" classification that these populations had previously sought in 1909. The expert groups, felt that the earlier "white" designation no longer accurately represents MENA identity, so they successfully lobbied for a distinct categorization.[144] This process does not currently include Sikhs, as the Bureau only tabulates them as followers of a religion rather than members of ethnic groups.[145] As of December 2015, the sampling strata for the new MENA category includes the Census Bureau's working classification of 19 MENA groups, as well as Turkish, Sudanese, Djiboutian, Somali, Mauritanian, Armenian, Cypriot, Afghan, Azerbaijani and Georgian groups.[146]

Middle Eastern Americans
Middle Eastern Americans
in the 2000[147] - 2010 U.S. Census,[148] the Mandell L. Berman Institute, and the North American Jewish
Jewish
Data Bank[149]

Ancestry 2000 2000 (% of US population) 2010 2010 (% of US population)

Afghan 53,709 0.0191% 79,775 0.0258%

Arab 1,160,729 0.4125% 1,697,570 0.5498%

Armenian 385,488 0.1370% 474,559 0.1537%

Assyrian/Chaldo-Assyrian 81,749 0.0290% 106,821 0.0346%

Azerbaijani 14,205 0.0050%

%

Cypriot 7,643 0.0027%

%

Georgian 6,298 0.0022%

%

Iranian 338,266 0.1202% 463,552 0.1501%

Israeli 106,839 0.0380% 129,359 0.0419%

Jewish 6,155,000 2.1810% 6,543,820 2.1157%

Kurdish 9,423 0.0033%

%

Syriac 606 0.0002%

%

Tajik 905 0.0003%

%

Turkish 117,575 0.0418% 195,283 0.0633%

"Middle Eastern" 28,400 0.0101%

%

"North Caucasian" 596 0.0002%

%

"North Caucasian Turkic" 1,347 0.0005% 290,893 0.0942%

Total 8,568,772 3.036418% 9,981,332 3.227071%

Although tabulated, "religious responses" were reported as a single total and not differentiated, despite totaling 1,089,597 in 2000.[147] Independent organizations provide improved estimates of the total populations of races and ethnicities in the US using the raw data from the US Census and other surveys. For example, although any respondents who self-identified as Jewish were included under the religious responses in the census, as Jews
Jews
are an ethnoreligious group with culture and ethnicity intertwined, estimates from the Mandell L. Berman Institute and the North American Jewish
Jewish
Data Bank put the total population of Jews
Jews
between 5.34 and 6.16 million in 2000 and around 6.54 million in 2010.[149] Similarly, the Arab-American Institute estimated the population of Arab Americans
Arab Americans
at 3.7 million in 2012.[150] According to the Arab American
Arab American
Institute (AAI), countries of origin for Arab Americans
Arab Americans
include Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.[151] The majority of Arab Americans
Arab Americans
are Christian.[152][153] Most Maronites
Maronites
tend to be of Lebanese, Syrian, or Cypriot extraction; the majority of Christians
Christians
of Cypriot and Palestinian background are often Eastern Orthodox. Estimated African MENA populations in the United States:

Algerian American: 8,752 (2000 Census[147]) Canarian American: 45,000-75,000 (2000 statistics) Djiboutian American: 300 (2000 Census[154]) Egyptian American: 190,078 (2010 census.[155] In 2008 them were estimated in 800,000 - 2,000,000[156]) Libyan American: 9,000 (2010 Census) Mauritanian American: 992 (2000 Census) Moroccan American: 82,073 (2010 Census) Somali American: 85,700 (2012 ACS) Sudanese American: 42,249 (2010 Census) Tunisian American: 4,735 (2000 Census)

American Indians and Alaska Natives[edit] Main article: Native Americans
Americans
in the United States See also: Blood quantum laws
Blood quantum laws
and Bureau of Indian Affairs According to the 2010 Census, there are 5.2 million people who are Native Americans
Americans
or Alaska Native
Alaska Native
alone, or in combination with one or more races; they make up 1.7% of the total population.[e][157] According to the Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
(OMB), an "American Indian or Alaska Native" is a person whose ancestry have origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central, or South America.[157] 2.3 million individuals who are American Indian or Alaskan Native are multiracial;[157] additionally the plurality of American Indians reside in the Western United States
United States
(40.7%).[157] Collectively and historically this race has been known by several names;[158] as of 1995, 50% of those who fall within the OMB definition prefer the term "American Indian", 37% prefer "Native American" and the remainder have no preference or prefer a different term altogether.[159] Native Americans, whose ancestry is indigenous to the Americas, originally migrated to the two continents between 10,000-45,000 years ago.[160] These Paleoamericans
Paleoamericans
spread throughout the two continents and evolved into hundreds of distinct cultures during the pre-Columbian era.[161] Following the first voyage of Christopher Columbus,[162] the European colonization of the Americas
Americas
began, with St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida
becoming the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States.[163] From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans declined in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe;[164] genocide and warfare at the hands of European explorers and colonists,[165][166] as well as between tribes;[167][168] displacement from their lands;[169] internal warfare,[170] enslavement;[171] and intermarriage.[172][173]

American Indian and Alaska Native
Alaska Native
population by selected tribal groups[157][174]

Rank National origin Percentage of total population Pop.

1 Cherokee 0.26% 819,105

2 Navajo 0.1% 332,129

3 Choctaw 0.06% 195,764

4 Mexican American
Mexican American
Indian 0.05% 175,494

5 Chippewa 0.05% 170,742

6 Sioux 0.05% 170,110

All other 1.08% 3,357,235

American Indian (total) 1.69% 5,220,579

2010 United States
United States
Census

Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
and other Pacific Islanders[edit] Main article: Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
Americans As defined by the United States
United States
Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget, Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
and other Pacific Islanders are "persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands".[175] Previously called Asian Pacific American, along with Asian Americans
Asian Americans
beginning in 1976, this was changed in 1997.[176] As of the 2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
there are 1.2 million who reside in the United States, and make up 0.4% of the nation's total population, of whom 56% are multiracial.[f][177] 14% of the population have at least a bachelor's degree,[177] and 15.1% live in poverty, below the poverty threshold.[177] As compared to the 2000 United States
United States
Census this population grew by 40%;[175] and 71% live in the West; of those over half (52%) live in either Hawaii or California, with no other states having populations greater than 100,000.[175] The largest concentration of Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
and other Pacific Islanders, is Honolulu County
Honolulu County
in Hawaii,[177] and Los Angeles County in the continental United States.[175]

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander by ancestries[175]

Rank Ancestry Percentage Pop.

1 Hawaiian 0.17% 527,077

2 Samoan 0.05% 184,440

3 Chamorro 0.04% 147,798

4 Tongan 0.01% 57,183

Other Pacific Islanders 0.09% 308,697

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander (total) 0.39% 1,225,195

2010 United States
United States
Census

Two or more races[edit] Main article: Multiracial
Multiracial
Americans The United States
United States
has a growing multiracial identity movement. Multiracial Americans
Multiracial Americans
numbered 7.0 million in 2008, or 2.3% of the population;[112] by the 2010 census the Multiracial
Multiracial
increased to 9,009,073, or 2.9% of the total population.[178] They can be any combination of races (White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
or other Pacific Islander, "some other race") and ethnicities.[179] The largest population of Multiracial Americans
Multiracial Americans
were those of White and African American descent, with a total of 1,834,212 self-identifying individuals.[178] Barack Obama, 44th President of the United States, is biracial with his mother being of English and Irish descent and his father being of Kenyan birth;[180][181] however, Obama only self-identifies as being African American.[182][183]

Population by selected Two or More Races Population[184]

Rank Specific Combinations Percentage of total population Pop.

1 White; Black 0.59% 1,834,212

2 White; Some Other Race 0.56% 1,740,924

3 White; Asian 0.52% 1,623,234

4 White; Native American 0.46% 1,432,309

5 African American; Some Other Race 0.1% 314,571

6 African American; Native American 0.08% 269,421

All other specific combinations 0.58% 1,794,402

Multiracial Americans
Multiracial Americans
(total) 2.9% 9,009,073

2010 United States
United States
Census

Some other race[edit] See also: Multiracial
Multiracial
Americans According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, 6.2% or 19,107,368 Americans
Americans
chose to self-identify with the "some other race" category, the third most popular option. Also, 36.7% or 18,503,103 Hispanic/Latino Americans
Americans
chose to identify as some other race as these Hispanic/Latinos may feel the U.S. Census does not describe their European and American Indian ancestry as they understand it to be.[185] A significant portion of the Hispanic and Latino population self-identifies as Mestizo, particularly the Mexican and Central American community. Mestizo
Mestizo
is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who has both European and American Indian ancestry. National personification[edit]

"Uncle Sam" is a national personification of the United States. The image bears resemblance to the real Samuel Wilson. The female personification, primarily popular during the 18th and 19th centuries, is "Columbia".

A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people; it can appear in both editorial cartoons and propaganda. Uncle Sam
Uncle Sam
is a national personification of the United States
United States
and sometimes more specifically of the American government, with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812. He is depicted as a stern elderly white man with white hair and a goatee beard, and dressed in clothing that recalls the design elements of the flag of the United States
United States
– for example, typically a top hat with red and white stripes and white stars on a blue band, and red and white striped trousers. Columbia is a poetic name for the Americas
Americas
and the feminine personification of the United States
United States
of America, made famous by African-American poet Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley
during the American Revolutionary War in 1776. It has inspired the names of many persons, places, objects, institutions, and companies in the Western Hemisphere and beyond, including the District of Columbia, the seat of government of the United States.

Language[edit] Main articles: Languages of the United States, English language, American English, and English-only

Languages spoken at home by more than 1 million persons in 2010[186]

Language Percent of population Number of speakers

English 80.38% 233,780,338

Combined total of all languages other than English 19.62% 57,048,617

Spanish (excluding Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and Spanish Creole) 12.19% 35,437,985

Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin) 0.9% 2,567,779

Tagalog 0.53% 1,542,118

Vietnamese 0.44% 1,292,448

French 0.44% 1,288,833

Korean 0.38% 1,108,408

German 0.38% 1,107,869

Hindustani (includes Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu) 0.32% 942,794

English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2007, about 226 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language.[187][188] Some Americans
Americans
advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in at least twenty-eight states.[189] Both English and Hawaiian are official languages in Hawaii
Hawaii
by state law.[190] While neither has an official language, New Mexico
Mexico
has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana
Louisiana
does for English and French.[191] Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents. The latter include court forms.[192] Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by American Samoa
American Samoa
and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands; Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico.

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in the United States

Religious affiliation in the U.S. (2014)[193]

Affiliation % of U.S. population

Christian 70.6 70.6  

Protestant 46.5 46.5  

Evangelical Protestant 25.4 25.4  

Mainline Protestant 14.7 14.7  

Black church 6.5 6.5  

Catholic 20.8 20.8  

Mormon 1.6 1.6  

Jehovah's Witnesses 0.8 0.8  

Eastern Orthodox 0.5 0.5  

Other Christian 0.4 0.4  

Non-Christian faiths 5.9 5.9  

Jewish 1.9 1.9  

Muslim 0.9 0.9  

Buddhist 0.7 0.7  

Hindu 0.7 0.7  

Other Non-Christian faiths 1.8 1.8  

Unaffiliated 22.8 22.8  

Nothing in particular 15.8 15.8  

Agnostic 4.0 4  

Atheist 3.1 3.1  

Don't know/refused answer 0.6 0.6  

Total 100 100  

Religion in the United States
United States
has a high adherence level compared to other developed countries, as well as a diversity in beliefs. The First Amendment to the country's Constitution prevents the Federal government from making any "law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof". The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted this as preventing the government from having any authority in religion. A majority of Americans
Americans
report that religion plays a "very important" role in their lives, a proportion unusual among developed countries, although similar to the other nations of the Americas.[194] Many faiths have flourished in the United States, including both later imports spanning the country's multicultural immigrant heritage, as well as those founded within the country; these have led the United States
United States
to become the most religiously diverse country in the world.[195] The majority of Americans
Americans
(76%) are Christians, mostly within Protestant
Protestant
and Catholic
Catholic
denominations; these adherents constitute 51% and 25% of the population, respectively.[196] Other religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism, which collectively make up about 4% to 5% of the adult population.[196][197][198] Another 15% of the adult population identifies as having no religious belief or no religious affiliation.[196] According to the American Religious Identification Survey, religious belief varies considerably across the country: 59% of Americans
Americans
living in Western states (the "Unchurched Belt") report a belief in God, yet in the South (the "Bible Belt") the figure is as high as 86%.[196][199] Several of the original Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
were established by settlers who wished to practice their own religion without discrimination: the Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by English Puritans, Pennsylvania by Irish and English Quakers, Maryland by English and Irish Catholics, and Virginia by English Anglicans. Although some individual states retained established religious confessions well into the 19th century, the United States
United States
was the first nation to have no official state-endorsed religion.[200] Modeling the provisions concerning religion within the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, the framers of the Constitution rejected any religious test for office, and the First Amendment specifically denied the federal government any power to enact any law respecting either an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise, thus protecting any religious organization, institution, or denomination from government interference. The decision was mainly influenced by European Rationalist and Protestant
Protestant
ideals, but was also a consequence of the pragmatic concerns of minority religious groups and small states that did not want to be under the power or influence of a national religion that did not represent them.[201]

The First Baptist Church in America
First Baptist Church in America
in Providence, Rhode Island.

The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception
Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception
in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
is the largest Catholic
Catholic
church in the United States.

Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral in Chicago's Ukrainian Village

Unity Temple
Unity Temple
Unitarian Universalist church in Oak Park, Illinois

Touro Synagogue
Touro Synagogue
in Newport, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
is America's oldest surviving synagogue.

The Islamic Center of America
Islamic Center of America
in Dearborn, Michigan
Dearborn, Michigan
is the largest mosque in North America.

Hsi Lai Temple
Hsi Lai Temple
in Hacienda Heights, California
California
is one of the largest Buddhist
Buddhist
temples in the Western Hemisphere.

Hindu
Hindu
Temple in Malibu, California.

The Bahá'í House of Worship, Wilmette, Illinois.

The Jain Center of Greater Phoenix
Jain Center of Greater Phoenix
(JCGP)

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of the United States

Apple pie
Apple pie
and baseball are icons of American culture.

The American culture is primarily a Western culture, but is influenced by Native American, West African, Asian, Polynesian, and Latino cultures. The United States
United States
of America has its own unique social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine and folklore.[54] Its chief early European influences came from English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers of colonial America during British rule. British culture, due to colonial ties with Britain that spread the English language, legal system and other cultural inheritances, had a formative influence.[202] Other important influences came from other parts of Europe, especially Germany,[203] France,[204] and Italy.[205] Original elements also play a strong role, such as Jeffersonian democracy.[206] Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia
Notes on the State of Virginia
was perhaps the first influential domestic cultural critique by an American and a reactionary piece to the prevailing European consensus that America's domestic originality was degenerate.[206] Prevalent ideas and ideals that evolved domestically, such as national holidays, uniquely American sports, military tradition,[207] and innovations in the arts and entertainment give a strong sense of national pride among the population as a whole.[208] American culture includes both conservative and liberal elements, scientific and religious competitiveness, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements. Despite certain consistent ideological principles (e.g. individualism, egalitarianism, faith in freedom and democracy), the American culture has a variety of expressions due to its geographical scale and demographic diversity. Diaspora[edit] Americans
Americans
have migrated to many places around the world, including Australia, Britain, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and the Philippines. A person born in Asia
Asia
to one American and one Asian parent is called an Amerasian.

v t e

Americans
Americans
abroad and their descendants

Africa

Gambia Ghana Liberia Sierra Leone

Americas

Latin America

Argentina Brazil

Confederados New Texas

Chile Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic (African Americans) Ecuador Guatemala Haiti

Free Blacks

Mexico

Cherokee Kickapoo Mascogo Mormons New Virginia

Uruguay

Elsewhere

Canada

Black Nova Scotians New England Planters Six Nations United Empire Loyalists

Asia

China

Hong Kong

India Israel

Black Hebrew Israelites

Japan North Korea Pakistan Philippines Qatar United Arab Emirates

Europe

France

African Americans

Germany Ireland United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal

American ethnicity Americans
Americans
and Canadians in Chile American studies Ancestry of the people of the United States Emigration from the United States Hispanic and Latino Americans Hyphenated American Immigration to the United States Making North America
North America
(2015 PBS film) Names for United States
United States
citizens Race and ethnicity in the United States Stereotypes of Americans

Footnotes[edit]

^ Of the foreign-born population from Europe
Europe
(4,817 thousand), in 2010, 61.8% were naturalized.[66] ^ Of the foreign-born population from Latin America
Latin America
and the Caribbean (21,224 thousand), in 2010, 32.1% were naturalized.[66] ^ Of the foreign-born population from Africa
Africa
(1,607 thousand), in 2010, 46.1% were naturalized.[66] ^ Of the foreign-born population from Asia
Asia
(11,284 thousand), in 2010, 57.7% were naturalized.[66] ^ Of the foreign-born population from Northern America
Northern America
(807 thousand), in 2010, 44.3% were naturalized.[66] ^ Of the foreign-born population from Oceania
Oceania
(217 thousand), in 2010, 36.9% were naturalized.[66]

References[edit]

^ " U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President" (Press release). United States Census Bureau. December 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2012.  ^ "U.S. and World
World
Population Clock". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 22, 2015.  ^ "People live in Mexico, INEGI, 2010".  ^ Smith, Dr. Claire M. (August 2010). "These are our Numbers: Civilian Americans
Americans
Overseas and Voter Turnout" (PDF). OVF Research Newsletter. Overseas Vote Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Previous research indicates that the number of U.S. Americans
Americans
living in Mexico is around 1 million, with 600,000 of those living in Mexico City.  ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. June 10, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2013. Ethnic origins Americans
Americans
Total responses 316,350  ^ Barrie McKenna (June 27, 2012). "Tax amnesty offered to Americans
Americans
in Canada". The Globe and Mail. Ottawa. Retrieved December 17, 2012. There are roughly a million Americans
Americans
in Canada
Canada
– many with little or no ties to the United States.  ^ Evan S. Medeiros; Keith Crane; Eric Heginbotham; Norman D. Levin; Julia F. Lowell (November 7, 2008). Pacific Currents: The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia
Asia
to Chinaâ€TMs Rise. Rand Corporation. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8330-4708-3. An estimated 4 million Filipino-Americans, most of whom are U.S. citizens or dual citizens, live in the United States, and over 250,000 U.S. citizens live in the Philippines.  "New U.S. ambassador to PH aims to 'strengthen' ties". CNN Philippines. Metro Manila. December 2, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2017. According to his figures, there are about 4 million Filipino-Americans residing in the U.S., and 250,000 Americans
Americans
living and working in the Philippines.  Lozada, Aaron (December 2, 2016). "New U.S. envoy: Relationship with PH 'most important'". ABS-CBN News. Manila. Retrieved March 20, 2017. According to Kim, the special relations between the U.S. and the Philippines
Philippines
is evident in the "four million Filipino- Americans
Americans
who are residing in the United States
United States
and 250,000 Americans
Americans
living and working in the Philippines."  ^ International Business Publications, USA (August 1, 2013). Philippines
Philippines
Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. Int'l Business Publications. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4387-7078-9. An estimated 600,000 Americans
Americans
visit the Philippines
Philippines
each year, while an estimated 300,000 reside in-country.  ^ Cooper, Matthew (November 15, 2013). "Why the Philippines
Philippines
Is America's Forgotten Colony". National Journal. Retrieved January 28, 2015. c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans
Americans
live in the Philippines
Philippines
and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief.  ^ "BiB - Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung - Pressemitteilungen - Zuwanderung aus außereuropäischen Ländern fast verdoppelt". www.bib-demografie.de.  ^ Daphna Berman (January 23, 2008). "Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!". Haaretz. Retrieved December 11, 2012. According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories.  ^ Michele Chabin (March 19, 2012). "In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship". USA Today. Jerusalem. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel
Israel
have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free.  ^ "Population by Country of Birth and Nationality
Nationality
Report, August 2012" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. August 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012.  ^ Simon Rogers (May 26, 2011). "The UK's foreign-born population: see where people live and where they're from". The Guardian. Retrieved February 17, 2013. County of birth and county of nationality. United States of America 197 143  ^ "U.S. Citizen Services". Embassy of the United States
United States
Seoul, Korea. United States
United States
Department of State. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. This website is updated daily and should be your primary resource when applying for a passport, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, notarization, or any of the other services we offer to the estimated 120,000 U.S. citizens traveling, living, and working in Korea.  "North Korea propganda video depicts invasion of South Korea, US hostage taking". Advertiser. Agence France-Presse. March 22, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013. According to official immigration figures, South Korea
South Korea
has an American population of more than 130,000 civilians and 28,000 troops.  ^ "Background Note: Costa Rica". Bureau of Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
Affairs. United States
United States
Department of State. April 9, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Over 130,000 private American citizens, including many retirees, reside in the country and more than 700,000 American citizens visit Costa Rica
Costa Rica
annually.  ^ " Americans
Americans
in France". Embassy of the United States, Paris. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on April 18, 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2015. Today, although no official figure is available it is estimated that over 100,000 American citizens reside in France, making France
France
one of the top 10 destinations for American expatriates.  ^ "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan
Taiwan
and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.  ^ "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". Migration Policy Institute. 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2017. Migrants from the United States
United States
in Brazil
Brazil
Number of migrants: 28,000  ^ " Brazil
Brazil
(11/30/11)". Previous Editions of Brazil
Brazil
Background Note. United States
United States
Department of State. November 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. The consular section of the embassy, the consulates, and the consular agents provide vital services to the estimated 70,000 U.S. citizens residing in Brazil.  ^ " Colombia
Colombia
(03/28/13)". United States
United States
Department of State. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2014. Based on Colombian statistics, an estimated 60,000 U.S. citizens reside in Colombia
Colombia
and 280,000 U.S. citizens travel, study and do business in Colombia
Colombia
each year.  ^ " Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(10/11/11)". Previous Editions of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Background Note. United States
United States
Department of State. October 11, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2012. There are some 1,400 U.S. firms, including 817 regional operations (288 regional headquarters and 529 regional offices), and over 60,000 American residents in Hong Kong.  ^ Barry Bearak; Seth Mydans (June 8, 2002). "Many Americans, Unfazed, Go On Doing Business in India". New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012. The number of Americans
Americans
living in India
India
is often estimated at 60,000.  ^ "ibid, Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia". Retrieved October 19, 2014.  ^ Gishkori, Zahid (July 30, 2015). "Karachi has witnessed 43% decrease in target killing: Nisar". The Express Tribune. Retrieved August 3, 2017. As many as 116,308 Afghan nationals are living as immigrants in the country, higher than any other country,” Nisar told the House. Besides Afghans, 52,486 Americans, 79,447 British citizens and 17,320 Canadians are residing in the country, the interior minister added.  ^ "Table 10.1 Registered Foreigners by Nationality: 1950-2006" (PDF). Ministry of Justice, . Annual Report of Statistics on Legal Migrants. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2012.  ^ Kelly Carter (May 17, 2005). "High cost of living crush Americans' dreams of Italian living". USA Today. Positano, Italy. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Nearly 50,000 Americans
Americans
lived in Italy
Italy
at the end of 2003, according to Italy's immigration office.  ^ "UAE´s population – by nationality". BQ Magazine. April 12, 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2015.  ^ McKinley Jr.; James C. (January 17, 2010). "For 45,000 Americans
Americans
in Haiti, the Quake Was 'a Nightmare That's Not Ending'". New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2015.  ^ "SAUDI-U.S. TRADE". Commerce Office. Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington D.C. Retrieved February 14, 2012. Furthermore, there are approximately 40,000 Americans
Americans
living and working in the Kingdom.  ^ " Argentina
Argentina
(03/12/12)". Previous Editions of Argentina
Argentina
Background Note. United States
United States
Department of State. March 12, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012. The Embassy's Consular Section monitors the welfare and whereabouts of some 37,000 U.S. citizen residents of Argentina
Argentina
and more than 500,000 U.S. tourists each year.  ^ "Statistics Norway
Norway
– Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background. January 1, 2010". Retrieved October 19, 2014.  ^ "Bahamas, The (01/25/12)". Previous Editions of Panama
Panama
Background Note. United States
United States
Department of State. January 25, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2012. The countries share ethnic and cultural ties, especially in education, and The Bahamas
Bahamas
is home to approximately 30,000 American residents.  ^ Bertrand, Eva (December 20, 2012). "US citizens moving to Russia". Voice of Russia. Russia. Retrieved May 7, 2017. There are about 6.32 million American citizens living abroad, of those about 30,000 chose Russia, according to the Association of Americans
Americans
Resident Overseas.  ^ Kate King (July 18, 2006). "U.S. family: Get us out of Lebanon". CNN. Retrieved February 14, 2012. About 350 of the estimated 25,000 American citizens in Lebanon
Lebanon
had been flown to Cyprus from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut by nightfall Tuesday, Maura Harty, the assistant secretary of state for consular affairs, told reporters.  ^ " Panama
Panama
(03/09)". Previous Editions of Panama
Panama
Background Note. United States
United States
Department of State. March 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama
Panama
Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality.  ^ " El Salvador
El Salvador
(01/10)". United States
United States
Department of State. Retrieved April 11, 2014. More than 19,000 American citizens live and work full-time in El Salvador  ^ "North Americans: Facts and figures". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.  ^ " Honduras
Honduras
(11/23/09)". Previous Editions of Honduras
Honduras
Background Note. United States
United States
Department of State. November 23, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012. U.S.-Honduran ties are further strengthened by numerous private sector contacts, with an average of between 80,000 and 110,000 U.S. citizens visiting Honduras
Honduras
annually and about 15,000 Americans
Americans
residing there.  ^ " Chile
Chile
(07/08)". Previous Editions of Chile
Chile
Background Note. United States Department of State. July 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2012. The Consular Section of the Embassy provides vital services to the more than 12,000 U.S. citizens residing in Chile.  ^ "06-08 外僑居留人數 Foreign Residents". National Immigration Agency, MOI. Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interior. 2011. Archived from the original on January 6, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2012.  ^ "STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Retrieved October 19, 2014.  ^ "Sttistics". czso.cz.  ^ " Bermuda
Bermuda
(12/09/11)". Previous Editions of Bermuda
Bermuda
Background Note. United States
United States
Department of State. December 9, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2012. An estimated 8,000 registered U.S. citizens live in Bermuda, many of them employed in the international business community.  ^ Tatiana Morales (August 2, 2009). " Americans
Americans
in Kuwait: When To Go?". CBS News. Retrieved December 17, 2012. There are about 8,000 Americans
Americans
who live in Kuwait.  ^ a b Luis Lug; Sandra Stencel; John Green; Gregory Smith; Dan Cox; Allison Pond; Tracy Miller; Elixabeth Podrebarac; Michelle Ralston (February 2008). "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 12, 2012.  ^ a b Christine Barbour; Gerald C Wright (January 15, 2013). Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship
Citizenship
in American Politics, 6th Edition The Essentials. CQ Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-4522-4003-9. Retrieved January 6, 2015. Who Is An American? Native-born and naturalized citizens  Shklar, Judith N. (1991). American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9780674022164. Retrieved December 17, 2012.  Slotkin, Richard (2001). "Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality". American Literary History. Oxford University Press. 13 (3): 469–498. doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. Retrieved December 17, 2012. But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging.  Eder, Klaus; Giesen, Bernhard (2001). European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. Oxford University Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 9780199241200. Retrieved February 1, 2013. In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior.  Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. Retrieved February 1, 2013. To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.  Charles Hirschman; Philip Kasinitz; Josh Dewind (November 4, 1999). The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. Russell Sage Foundation. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-61044-289-3.  David Halle (July 15, 1987). America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics Among Blue Collar Property Owners. University of Chicago Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-226-31366-5. The first, and central, way involves the view that Americans
Americans
are all those persons born within the boundaries of the United States
United States
or admitted to citizenship by the government.  ^ Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. Retrieved February 1, 2013. ...from Thomas Paine's plea in 1783...to Henry Clay's remark in 1815... "It is hard for us to believe ... how conscious these early Americans
Americans
were of the job of developing American character out of the regional and generational polaritities and contradictions of a nation of immigrants and migrants." ... To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.  ^ (subscription required) "American". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved November 27, 2008.  ^ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, p. 87. Retrieved November 28, 2008. ^ Fiorina, Morris P., and Paul E. Peterson (2000). The New American Democracy. London: Longman, p. 97. ISBN 0-321-07058-5. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Foreign-Born Population Frequently asked Questions viewed January 19, 2015. The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
uses the terms native and native born to refer to anyone born in Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. ^ a b c Adams, J.Q., and Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-8145-X. ^ a b Thompson, William, and Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-X. ^ Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American Culture, 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 18–38. ISBN 0-253-34479-4. Johnson, Fern L. (1999). Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States. Thousand Oaks, California, London, and New Delhi: Sage, p. 116. ISBN 0-8039-5912-5. ^ Jay Tolson (July 28, 2008). "A Growing Trend of Leaving America". U.S. News & World
World
Report. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Estimates made by organizations such as the Association of Americans
Americans
Resident Overseas put the number of nongovernment-employed Americans
Americans
living abroad anywhere between 4 million and 7 million, a range whose low end is based loosely on the government's trial count in 1999.  ^ "6.32 million Americans
Americans
(excluding military) live in 160-plus countries". Association of Americans
Americans
Resident Overseas. Retrieved December 17, 2012. The total is the highest released to date: close to 6.32 million.  ^ "The American Diaspora". Esquire. Hurst Communications, Inc. Retrieved December 17, 2012. he most frequently cited estimate of nonmilitary U. S. citizens living overseas is between three and six million, based on a very rough State Department calculation in 1999--and never updated.  ^ a b c d e Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2015.  ^ "Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2010". 2010 Census Summary File
File
1. United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2015.  ^ "Our Diverse Population: Race and Hispanic Origin, 2000" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved April 24, 2008.  ^ a b "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". Office of Management and Budget. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ a b Grieco, Elizabeth M; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2015.  ^ "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder; T3-2008. Race [7]". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.  ^ "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder; T4-2008. Hispanic or Latino By Race [15]". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Acosta, Yesenia D.; de la Cruz, G. Patricia; Gamino, Christina; Gryn, Thomas; Larsen, Luke J.; Trevelyan, Edward N.; Walters, Nathan P. (May 2012). "The Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2010" (PDF). American Community Survey
American Community Survey
Reports. United States
United States
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v t e

Demographics of the United States

Demographic history

By economic and social

Affluence Educational attainment Emigration Home-ownership Household income Immigration Income inequality Language LGBT Middle classes Personal income Poverty Social class Unemployment by state Wealth

By religion

Baha'is Buddhists Christians

Catholics Coptics Protestants

Hindus Jains Jews Muslims

Ahmadiyyas

Neopagans Non-religious Rastafaris Scientologists Sikhs Zoroastrians

By continent and ethnicity

Africa

African diaspora in the Americas

Afro- Caribbean
Caribbean
/ West Indian Americans

Bahamian Americans Belizean Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Jamaican Americans Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans

Black Hispanic and Latino Americans

African immigrants to the United States

Central Africans in the United States Horn Africans in the United States North Africans in the United States Southeast Africans in the United States Southern Africans in the United States West Africans in the United States

Asia

Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans

East Asia

Chinese Americans

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Americans Tibetan Americans

Japanese Americans Korean Americans Mongolian Americans Taiwanese Americans

South Asia

Bangladeshi Americans Bhutanese Americans Indian Americans Nepalese Americans Pakistani Americans Romani Americans Sri Lankan Americans

Southeast Asia

Burmese Americans Cambodian Americans Filipino Americans Hmong Americans Indonesian Americans Laotian Americans Malaysian Americans Singaporean Americans Thai Americans Vietnamese Americans

West Asia

Arab Americans Assyrian Americans Iranian Americans Israeli Americans Jewish
Jewish
Americans

Europe

White Americans

English Americans French Americans German Americans Irish Americans Italian Americans Scandinavian Americans Slavic Americans Spanish Americans

Non-Hispanic whites White Hispanic and Latino Americans

Oceania

Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
Americans

Chamorro Americans Native Hawaiians Samoan Americans Tongan Americans

Americans
Americans
of Euro Oceanic origin

Australian Americans New Zealand
New Zealand
Americans

North America

Native Americans
Americans
and Alaska Natives Canadian Americans Cuban Americans Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans (Stateside)

South America

Hispanic and Latino Americans Brazilian Americans Colombian Americans Ecuadorian Americans

Multiethnic

Melungeon

People of the United States
United States
/ Americans American ancestry Maps of American ancestries 2010 Census Race and ethnicity in the Census Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Racism

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European Americans

Central Europe

Austrian1, Czech German1,

Amish German Texan Pennsylvania Dutch German Mennonites from Russia

Hungarian

Hungarian Ohioans

Kashubian Liechtensteiner Luxembourgian Polish1, Slovak Slovene Sorbian Swiss

Eastern Europe

Azerbaijani5 Belarusian Chechen Georgian5 Kazakh6 Russian1, 2

Cossack Kalmyk

Ukrainian

Cossack Rusyn

Northern Europe

Danish Estonian Faroese Finnish Icelandic Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian

Norwegian Dakotan Norwegian Minnesotan

Sami Swedish

Southeast Europe3

Albanian Bosnian Bulgarian Cypriot Croatian Greek Macedonian Moldovan Montenegrin Romanian Serbian

Alaskan Serbs

Turkish4

Southern Europe

Italian

Sicilian

Maltese Monacan Portuguese Sanmarinese Spanish

Asturian Basque Canarian Catalan Galician Hispano

Western Europe

Belgian

Flemish

British

Cornish English Manx Scots-Irish/Ulster Scots Scottish Welsh

Dutch French

Basque Breton Cajun Corsican

Frisian Irish

Other Europeans

Non-Hispanic whites Métis Roma

Hungarian Slovak Romanies7

Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole

Cajun Isleños

By region

California Hawaii White Southerners

1 Poles came to the United States
United States
legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia
Russia
until Poland regained its sovereignty in the wake of World
World
War I. 2 Russia
Russia
is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia
Russia
as a whole is included as a European country here. 3 Yugoslav Americans are the American people from the former Yugoslavia. 4 Turkey
Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe
Europe
called Turkish Thrace. 5 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 6 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands. 7 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.

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African American
African American
topics

History

Atlantic slave trade Maafa Slavery in the United States Partus sequitur ventrem Free negro Reconstruction era Military history of African Americans Jim Crow laws Nadir of American race relations Redlining Great Migration Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–68 Black Power
Black Power
movement Second Great Migration Afrocentrism New Great Migration Post–civil rights era Inauguration of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
2009 / Inauguration of Barack Obama 2013 Black Lives Matter

Culture

Art African-American names Afrofuturism Black mecca Dance Film Juneteenth Kwanzaa Literature Music Musical theater Neighborhoods Sexual orientation Soul food

Education, science and technology

Black schools Black colleges and universities Museums African-American studies Inventors and scientists Women

in computer science in medicine in STEM fields

Religion

Black church Black theology Doctrine of Father Divine American Society of Muslims Nation of Islam Black Hebrew Israelites

Political movements

Pan-Africanism Self-determination

Nationalism

Black Power Black fist Anarchism Capitalism Conservatism Populism Leftism Garveyism Back-to- Africa
Africa
movement

Civic and economic groups

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) Black Panther Party National Urban League
National Urban League
(NUL) Rights organizations Association for the Study of African American
African American
Life and History (ASALH) Thurgood Marshall College Fund United Negro
Negro
College Fund (UNCF) National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC) National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) National Council of Negro
Negro
Women (NCNW)

Sports

Negro
Negro
league baseball

Baseball
Baseball
color line

Black players in professional American football African Americans
African Americans
in the Canadian Football League Black players in ice hockey

Athletic associations and conferences

Central (CIAA) Southern (SIAC) Mid-Eastern (MEAC) Southwestern (SWAC)

Ethnic subdivisions

Black Indians Gullah Fula Igbo Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole (of color) Melungeon Yoruba

Demographics

Neighborhoods

list

U.S. cities with large populations

2000 majorities 2010 majorities

Metropolitan areas Black Belt

Languages

English

American English African-American English

Gullah Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole French

By state/city

Alabama Florida Georgia (Atlanta) Illinois (Chicago) Iowa (Davenport) Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts (Boston) Michigan
Michigan
(Detroit) Mississippi Nebraska (Omaha) New York

New York City

Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) Puerto Rico Tennessee Texas
Texas
(Houston)

Diaspora

Africa

Gambia Ghana Liberia Sierra Leone Back-to- Africa
Africa
movement

Americas

Caribbean
Caribbean
history Canada

Nova Scotia

Dominican Republic Haiti Mexico Trinidad and Tobago

Other

France Israel

Lists

African Americans

visual artists Republicans US senators

African-American firsts

mayors US state firsts

Neighborhoods Landmark African-American legislation African American-related articles Topics related to the African diaspora

Category Portal

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Asian Americans1, 2

Central Asian3

Mongolian Uzbek

East Asian

Chinese

Hong Kong Tibetan4 Fuzhou/Hokchiu Hakka

Japanese

Hawaii

Korean Taiwanese

South Asian5

Bangladeshi

Bengali

Bhutanese Indian

Indo-Caribbean Bengali Punjabi Sindhi Tamil

Nepalese Pakistani

Baloch Pashtun Punjabi Sindhi

Sri Lankan

Tamil

Southeast Asian

Burmese Cambodian Filipino Hmong Indonesian Laotian Malaysian Mien Singaporean Thai Vietnamese

Other

Asian Hispanic and Latino

Punjabi Mexican

Multiracial
Multiracial
Americans

Afro-Asian Amerasian Eurasian

History

General Immigration Military

Topics

Arts and Entertainment Demographics Politics Stereotypes

Religion

Buddhists Christians

Catholics Protestants

Hindus Jainism Muslims Sikhs

Regions

California Hawaii Maryland New York City Puerto Rico Washington

Notes

1 The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. [1][2] 2 The United States
United States
Government classified Kalmyks as Asian until 1951, when Kalmyk Americans were reclassified as White Americans.[3] 3 The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
considers Mongolians and Uzbeks as Central Asians,[4] but a specific Central Asian American
Asian American
group similar to Middle Eastern American does not yet exist.[5] 4 The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
reclassifies anyone identifying as "Tibetan American" as "Chinese American".[6] 5 Bengali Americans
Bengali Americans
may be classified as Bangladeshi or Indian.[7] Punjabi Americans
Punjabi Americans
may be classified as Indian or Pakistani.[8] Tamil Americans
Americans
may be classified as Indian or Sri Lankan.

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Rights of Native Americans
Americans
in the United States

Case law

Johnson v. M'Intosh
Johnson v. M'Intosh
(1823) Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation v. Georgia (1831) Worcester v. Georgia
Worcester v. Georgia
(1832) Fellows v. Blacksmith
Fellows v. Blacksmith
(1857) New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble
New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble
(1858) Standing Bear v. Crook
Standing Bear v. Crook
(D. Neb. 1879) Ex parte Crow Dog
Ex parte Crow Dog
(1883) Elk v. Wilkins
Elk v. Wilkins
(1884) Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy
Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy
(1896) Talton v. Mayes
Talton v. Mayes
(1896) Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
(1903) United States
United States
v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co. (1941) Tee-Hit-Ton Indians v. United States
United States
(1955) Williams v. Lee
Williams v. Lee
(1959) Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation
Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation
(1960) Menominee Tribe v. United States
United States
(1968) McClanahan v. Arizona State Tax Commission
McClanahan v. Arizona State Tax Commission
(1973) Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida
Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida
(1974) Bryan v. Itasca County
Bryan v. Itasca County
(1976) United States
United States
v. Antelope (1977) Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez
Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez
(1978) Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe
Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe
(1982) Solem v. Bartlett
Solem v. Bartlett
(1984) County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State
County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State
(1985) South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe, Inc.
South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe, Inc.
(1986) Hodel v. Irving
Hodel v. Irving
(1987) Mississippi Band of Choctaw
Choctaw
Indians v. Holyfield (1989) South Dakota v. Bourland
South Dakota v. Bourland
(1993) Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
(1997) Idaho v. United States
United States
(2001) United States
United States
v. Lara (2004) City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York
City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York
(2005) Cobell v. Salazar
Cobell v. Salazar
(D.C. Cir. 2009) Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl
Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl
(2013)

Legislation

Alaska Native
Alaska Native
Claims Settlement Act American Indian Religious Freedom Act Burke Act Civilization Act Curtis Act Dawes Act Diminishment Indian Arts and Crafts Act Indian Child Welfare Act Indian Citizenship
Citizenship
Act Indian Civil Rights Act Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Indian Removal Act Indian Reorganization Act Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act Nationality
Nationality
Act Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Native American Languages Act Nonintercourse Act Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act

Related

Aboriginal title Bureau of Indian Affairs Cherokee
Cherokee
Commission Dawes Rolls Eagle feather law

Eagle-bone whistle

Federal recognition of Native Hawaiians

Legal status of Hawaii

Hunting license In the Courts of the Conqueror National Indian Gaming Commission Native American gaming Native American Rights Fund Public Law 280 Recognition of sacred sites State recognized tribes Treaty rights Tribal sovereignty

Federally recognized tribes Self-determination

v t e

Middle Eastern Americans

Afghan1

Pashtun

Arab

Emirati Egyptian Iraqi Jordanian Kuwaiti Lebanese Omani Palestinian Saudi Syrian Yemeni

Armenian Assyrian Azerbaijani Coptic Georgian Iranian Israeli Jewish

Syrian Jews

Kurdish

Yazidis

Turkish

By location

Detroit

Notes 1 The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
considers Afghanistan
Afghanistan
a South Asian country, but does not classify Afghan Americans
Afghan Americans
as Asian,[9] but as Middle Eastern American.[10]

v t e

Central Asian Americans

Afghan

Pashtun

Kazakh Mongolian Tajik Uzbek

v t e

Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
Americans

Micronesians

Chamorros Marshallese Micronesian Palauan

Polynesians

French Polynesian Māori Native Hawaiians Samoan Tongan

Melanesians

Fijian

Related topics

Asian Pacific American Oceanian Americans Pacific Island migration and Pacific Island American identities Pacific Islanders

v t e

Hispanic and Latino American
Hispanic and Latino American
groups in the United States

Caribbean

Cuban Dominican Puerto Rican

Nuyorican

North American

Hispano

Californio Nuevomexicano Tejano

Creoles of Louisiana

Isleño

Mexican

Chicano Indigenous Mexican Punjabi

Central American

Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Panamanian Salvadoran

South American

Argentine Bolivian Brazilian Chilean Colombian Ecuadorian Paraguayan Peruvian Uruguayan Venezuelan

European

Spanish

Asturian Basque Catalan Canarian Galician Jews

Racial groups

All groups Amerindian Asian

Punjabi

Black White Multiracial

Quadroon Castizo "Cholo" Mestizo Mulatto Pardo Zambo

Languages

Chicano
Chicano
English New York Latino English New Mexican Spanish Spanglish Spanish Portuguese

Ethnic and religious groups

Christians Garifuna Jews Muslims

Related ethnic groups

Belizean Filipino Guyanese Haitian Por

.