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AMERICANS are citizens of the United States of America . The country is home to people of many different national origins. As a result, Americans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity , but with citizenship and allegiance . Although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may also claim an American identity.

English-speakers, and even speakers of many other languages, typically use the term "American" to exclusively mean people of the United States; this developed from its original use to differentiate English people of the American colonies from English people of England. The word "American " can also refer to people from the Americas in general. See Names for United States citizens .

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 2 Racial and ethnic groups

* 2.1 White and European Americans * 2.2 Hispanic and Latino Americans * 2.3 Black and African Americans * 2.4 Asian Americans * 2.5 Middle Easterners and North Africans * 2.6 American Indians and Alaska Natives * 2.7 Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders * 2.8 Two or more races * 2.9 Some other race

* 3 National personification * 4 Language * 5 Religion * 6 Culture * 7 Diaspora * 8 See also * 9 Footnotes * 10 References

OVERVIEW

Main articles: Race and ethnicity in the United States , Colonial United States , and Immigration to the United States

The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii , Puerto Rico , Guam , and the Philippine Islands who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, and American Samoa , the U.S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.

Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can also be referred to as mainstream American culture , a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists, settlers, and immigrants. It also includes influences of African-American culture . Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico . Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia , Africa , and Latin America has also had impact. A cultural melting pot , or pluralistic salad bowl , describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics.

In addition to the United States, Americans and people of American descent can be found internationally. As many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, and make up the American diaspora .

RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS

Main article: Race and ethnicity in the United States See also: Demographics of the United States

2010 U.S. CENSUS TABLE 1

SELF-IDENTIFIED RACE

PERCENT OF POPULATION

White alone   72.4%

Black or African American   12.6%

Asian   4.8%

American Indians and Alaska Natives   0.9%

Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders   0.2%

Two or more races   2.9%

Some other race   6.2%

TOTAL   100.0%

Hispanic and Latino Americans (of any race): 16.3%

The United States of America is a diverse country, racially , and ethnically . Six races are officially recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races. "Some other race" is also an option in the census and other surveys.

The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse _ethnicity _ that comprises the largest minority group in the nation.

WHITE AND EUROPEAN AMERICANS

Main articles: European Americans , White Americans , and White Hispanic and Latino Americans

People of European descent, or White Americans (also referred to as Caucasian Americans), constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census . They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial; with largest combination being white and black. Additionally, there are 29,184,290 White Hispanics or Latinos. Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states : California , Texas , New Mexico , and Hawaii . In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority. The state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine .

The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe . This includes people via African , North American , Caribbean , Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European diaspora .

The Spanish were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida , was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina , was the first child born in the Thirteen Colonies to English parents.

In the 2014 American Community Survey , German Americans (14.4%), Irish Americans (10.4%), English Americans (7.6%) and Italian Americans (5.4%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 37.8% of the total population. However, the English- Americans and British- Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply ' Americans ' due to the length of time they have inhabited America.

Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income , and median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation.

WHITE AND EUROPEAN AMERICAN POPULATION BY ANCESTRY GROUP

RANK ANCESTRY GROUP % OF TOTAL POPULATION POP. ESTIMATES R.

1 German 14.4% 46,047,113

2 Irish 10.4% 33,147,639

3 English 7.6% 24,382,182

4 American 6.9% 22,097,012

5 Italian 5.4% 17,220,604

6 Mexican 5.4% 16,794,111

7 Polish 2.9% 9,249,392

8 French (except Basque ) French Canadian 2.6% 0.7% 8,153,515 2,099,430

9 Scottish 1.7% 5,365,154

10 Norwegian 1.4% 4,444,566

11 Dutch 1.3% 4,243,067

Total White and European American

231,040,398

2010 United States Census compared to the 2000 Census, there has also been a decrease of African Americans in the Northeast and Midwest .

Most African Americans are the direct descendants of captives from West Africa , who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States. As an adjective, the term is usually spelled _African-American_. The first West African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean . All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves); by the beginning of the American Revolutionary War 1/5th of the total population was enslaved. During the revolution, some would serve in the Continental Army or Continental Navy , while others would serve the British Empire in Lord Dunmore\'s Ethiopian Regiment , and other units. By 1804, the northern states (north of the Mason–Dixon line ) had abolished slavery. However, slavery would persist in the southern states until the end of the American Civil War and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment . Following the end of the Reconstruction Era , which saw the first African American representation in Congress , African Americans became disenfranchised and subject to Jim Crow laws , legislation that would persist until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act due to the Civil Rights Movement .

According to US Census Bureau data, very few African immigrants self-identify as African American. On average, less than 5% of African residents self-reported as "African American" or "Afro-American" on the 2000 US Census. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants (~95%) identified instead with their own respective ethnicities. Self-designation as "African American" or "Afro-American" was highest among individuals from West Africa (4%-9%), and lowest among individuals from Cape Verde, East Africa and Southern Africa (0%-4%). African immigrants may also experience conflict with African Americans.

BLACK AND AFRICAN AMERICAN POPULATION BY ANCESTRY GROUP

RANK ANCESTRY GROUP Percentage of total est. population POP. ESTIMATES

1 Jamaican 0.31% 986,897

2 Haitian 0.28% 873,003

3 Nigerian 0.08% 259,934

4 Trinidadian and Tobagonian 0.06% 193,233

5 Ghanaian 0.03% 94,405

6 Barbadian 0.01% 59,236

Sub-Saharan African (total) 0.92% 2,864,067

West Indian (total) (except Hispanic groups) 0.85% 2,633,149

Black and African Americans (total) 13.6% 42,020,743 2010 United States Census

2009–2011 American Community Survey

ASIAN AMERICANS

Main articles: Asian Americans and Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans

Another significant population is the Asian American population, comprising 17.3 million in 2010, or 5.6% of the U.S. population. California is home to 5.6 million Asian Americans, the greatest number in any state. In Hawaii, Asian Americans make up the highest proportion of the population (57 percent). Asian Americans live across the country, yet are heavily urbanized, with significant populations in the Greater Los Angeles Area , New York metropolitan area , and the San Francisco Bay Area .

They are by no means a monolithic group. The largest sub-groups are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from Cambodia, Mainland China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Asians overall have higher income levels than all other racial groups in the United States, including whites, and the trend appears to be increasing in relation to those groups. Additionally, Asians have a higher education attainment level than all other racial groups in the United States. For better or worse, the group has been called a model minority .

While Asian Americans have been in what is now the United States since before the Revolutionary War , relatively large waves of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese immigration did not begin until the mid-to-late 19th century. Immigration and significant population growth continue to this day. Due to a number of factors, Asian Americans have been stereotyped as "perpetual foreigners ".

ASIAN AMERICAN ANCESTRIES

RANK ANCESTRY Percentage of total population POP.

1 Chinese 1.2% 3,797,379

2 Filipino 1.1% 3,417,285

3 Indian 1.0% 3,183,063

4 Vietnamese 0.5% 1,737,665

5 Korean 0.5% 1,707,027

6 Japanese 0.4% 1,304,599

Other Asian 0.9% 2,799,448

Asian American (total) 5.6% 17,320,856

2010 United States Census

MIDDLE EASTERNERS AND NORTH AFRICANS

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Main articles: Middle Eastern Americans , North Africans in the United States , Iranian Americans , Arab Americans , and Jewish Americans

According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum , some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans (viz. Jews and Berbers ) arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition , and a few were also taken to the Americas as slaves.

According to the Arab American Institute (AAI), countries of origin for Arab Americans include Algeria , Bahrain , Comoros , Djibouti , Egypt , Iraq , Jordan , Kuwait , Lebanon , Libya , Mauritania , Morocco , Oman , Qatar , Palestine , Saudi Arabia , Somalia , Sudan , Syria , Tunisia , United Arab Emirates and Yemen .

In 1909, the Superior Court and the Department of Justice in Washington D.C. ruled on a case that redefined Middle Easterners and their racial distinction. According to the Arab American Historical Foundation and the Los Angeles Herald, a case in which George Shishim, a Lebanese policeman, arrested a "white" man, who claimed that because Shishim was Lebanese, he must not be racially "white", but rather "Chinese-Mongolian". Shishim, his attorneys, and the Syrian-Lebanese and Arab American communities rallied to prove that Lebanese, Syrians, and all Arabs and Middle Easterners were in fact "white" to both gain official citizenship in the United States, as well as avoid other exclusive and restrictive penalties of being labeled as Asian. One of Shishim's arguments appealed to the white justices' desire to connect to their revered religious figure, Jesus . Shishim said: "If I am a Mongolian, then so was Jesus, because we came from the same land." As noted in the 1909 publication of the "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League", the presiding Judge Hutton concluded that Syrians had descended from Hebrews, who descended from "the Semitic family of the 'Indo-Aryan race '", but because the Mongol conquerors had killed the Syrian men, and interbred with the Syrian women, "western nations have been unable to restore original characteristics" (6). Shishim won and was granted citizenship, and Middle Easterners were thereafter legally considered "white" in the United States.

However, in 1910, Congress passed a bill that defined " Armenians , Assyrians , and Jews " as "Asiatics ", while still approving their claims to citizenship. This declaration, while not taking away their citizenship, affirmed the ethnic origins and identities of Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews as "non-white".

Over the decades of the 20th century, as more Arab Americans, Jewish Americans and other ethnic groups settled in the United States, the racial discrimination they faced also increased. Due to the ruling in Shishim's case and the interpretation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, United States citizens could not sue one another for discrimination if they belonged to "the same race". However, in 1987, after an Iraqi-American associate professor was refused tenure due to his Arab origins and a synagogue was spray-painted with anti-Semitic insignia, the Supreme Court ruled "unanimously today that Arabs, Jews and members of other ethnic groups may sue under a post-Civil War law's broad prohibition against discrimination." Parallel with this ruling, many members of these groups, from Jews to North Africans to Arab Americans , did not consider themselves "white".

Additionally, as modern scientific data improved, more information on the true origins and ethnic distinctions emerged. For example, studies have shown that Jews share more genetic relativity to other Jews around the world than to the surrounding non- Jewish ethnic groups. Some studies have also suggested that other Middle Eastern (non-Jewish) ethnic groups remain one of the closest relations to Jews.

The United States Census Bureau is presently finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. In 2012, prompted in part by post-9/11 discrimination, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee petitioned the Department of Commerce's Minority Business Development Agency to designate the MENA populations as a minority/disadvantaged community. Following consultations with MENA organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East , North Africa and the Arab world , separate from the "white" classification that these populations had previously sought in 1909. The expert groups, including some Jewish organizations, felt that the earlier "white" designation no longer accurately represents MENA identity, so they successfully lobbied for a distinct categorization. This process does not currently include ethnoreligious groups such as Jews or Sikhs , as the Bureau only tabulates these groups as followers of religions rather than members of ethnic groups.

As of December 2015, the sampling strata for the new MENA category includes the Census Bureau's working classification of 19 MENA groups, as well as Turkish , Sudanese , Djiboutian , Somali , Mauritanian , Armenian , Cypriot , Afghan , Azerbaijani and Georgian groups.

MIDDLE EASTERN AMERICANS IN THE 2000 - 2010 U.S. CENSUS , THE MANDELL L. BERMAN INSTITUTE, AND THE NORTH AMERICAN JEWISH DATA BANK

ANCESTRY 2000 2000 (% OF US POPULATION) 2010 2010 (% OF US POPULATION)

Afghan 53,709 0.0191% 79,775 0.0258%

Arab 1,160,729 0.4125% 1,697,570 0.5498%

Armenian 385,488 0.1370% 474,559 0.1537%

Assyrian / Chaldo-Assyrian 81,749 0.0290% 106,821 0.0346%

Azerbaijani 14,205 0.0050%

%

Cypriot 7,643 0.0027%

%

Georgian 6,298 0.0022%

%

Iranian 338,266 0.1202% 463,552 0.1501%

Israeli 106,839 0.0380% 129,359 0.0419%

Jewish 6,155,000 2.1810% 6,543,820 2.1157%

Kurdish 9,423 0.0033%

%

Syriac 606 0.0002%

%

Tajik 905 0.0003%

%

Turkish 117,575 0.0418% 195,283 0.0633%

"Middle Eastern" 28,400 0.0101%

%

"North Caucasian" 596 0.0002%

%

"North Caucasian Turkic" 1,347 0.0005% 290,893 0.0942%

TOTAL 8,568,772 3.036418% 9,981,332 3.227071%

Although tabulated, "religious responses" were reported as a single total and not differentiated, despite totaling 1,089,597 in 2000.

Independent organizations provide improved estimates of the total populations of races and ethnicities in the US using the raw data from the US Census and other surveys.

For example, although any respondents who self-identified as Jewish were included under the religious responses in the census, as Jews are an ethnoreligious group with culture and ethnicity intertwined, estimates from the Mandell L. Berman Institute and the North American Jewish Data Bank put the total population of Jews between 5.34 and 6.16 million in 2000 and around 6.54 million in 2010. Similarly, the Arab-American Institute estimated the population of Arab Americans at 3.7 million in 2012.

The majority of Arab Americans are Christian. Most Maronites tend to be of Lebanese, Syrian, or Cypriot extraction; the majority of Christians of Cypriot and Palestinian background are often Eastern Orthodox .

Estimated African MENA populations in the United States:

* Algerian American : 8,752 (2000 Census ) * Canarian American : 45,000-75,000 (2000 statistics) * Djiboutian American: 300 (2000 Census ) * Egyptian American : 190,078 (2010 census. In 2008 them were estimated in 800,000 - 2,000,000 ) * Libyan American : 9,000 (2010 Census) * Mauritanian American : 992 (2000 Census) * Moroccan American : 82,073 (2010 Census) * Somali American : 85,700 (2012 ACS) * Sudanese American : 42,249 (2010 Census) * Tunisian American : 4,735 (2000 Census)

AMERICAN INDIANS AND ALASKA NATIVES

Main article: Native Americans in the United States See also: Blood quantum laws and Bureau of Indian Affairs

According to the 2010 Census, there are 5.2 million people who are Native Americans or Alaska Native alone, or in combination with one or more races; they make up 1.7% of the total population. According to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), an "American Indian or Alaska Native" is a person whose ancestry have origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central, or South America. 2.3 million individuals who are American Indian or Alaskan Native are multiracial; additionally the plurality of American Indians reside in the Western United States (40.7%). Collectively and historically this race has been known by several names ; as of 1995, 50% of those who fall within the OMB definition prefer the term "American Indian", 37% prefer "Native American" and the remainder have no preference or prefer a different term altogether.

Native Americans, whose ancestry is indigenous to the Americas , originally migrated to the two continents between 10,000-45,000 years ago. These Paleoamericans spread throughout the two continents and evolved into hundreds of distinct cultures during the pre-Columbian era . Following the first voyage of Christopher Columbus , the European colonization of the Americas began, with St. Augustine , Florida becoming the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States . From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans declined in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe; genocide and warfare at the hands of European explorers and colonists, as well as between tribes; displacement from their lands; internal warfare, enslavement ; and intermarriage .

AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE POPULATION BY SELECTED TRIBAL GROUPS

RANK NATIONAL ORIGIN Percentage of total population POP.

1 Cherokee 0.26% 819,105

2 Navajo 0.1% 332,129

3 Choctaw 0.06% 195,764

4 Mexican American Indian 0.05% 175,494

5 Chippewa 0.05% 170,742

6 Sioux 0.05% 170,110

All other 1.08% 3,357,235

American Indian (total) 1.69% 5,220,579

2010 United States Census

NATIVE HAWAIIANS AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDERS

Main article: Pacific Islands Americans

As defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders are "persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii , Guam , Samoa , or other Pacific Islands ". Previously called Asian Pacific American , along with Asian Americans beginning in 1976, this was changed in 1997. As of the 2010 United States Census there are 1.2 million who reside in the United States, and make up 0.4% of the nation's total population, of whom 56% are multiracial . 14% of the population have at least a bachelor\'s degree , and 15.1% live in poverty , below the poverty threshold . As compared to the 2000 United States Census this population grew by 40%; and 71% live in the West ; of those over half (52%) live in either Hawaii or California , with no other states having populations greater than 100,000. The largest concentration of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, is Honolulu County in Hawaii, and Los Angeles County in the continental United States .

NATIVE HAWAIIAN AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER BY ANCESTRIES

RANK ANCESTRY PERCENTAGE POP.

1 Hawaiian 0.17% 527,077

2 Samoan 0.05% 184,440

3 Chamorro 0.04% 147,798

4 Tongan 0.01% 57,183

Other Pacific Islanders 0.09% 308,697

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (total) 0.39% 1,225,195

2010 United States Census

TWO OR MORE RACES

Main article: Multiracial American

The United States has a growing multiracial identity movement. Multiracial Americans numbered 7.0 million in 2008, or 2.3% of the population; by the 2010 census the Multiracial increased to 9,009,073, or 2.9% of the total population. They can be any combination of races (White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, "some other race") and ethnicities. The largest population of Multiracial Americans were those of White and African American descent, with a total of 1,834,212 self-identifying individuals. Barack Obama , 44th President of the United States, is biracial with his mother being of English and Irish descent and his father being of Kenyan birth; however, Obama only self-identifies as being African American.

POPULATION BY SELECTED TWO OR MORE RACES POPULATION

RANK SPECIFIC COMBINATIONS Percentage of total population POP.

1 White; Black 0.59% 1,834,212

2 White; Some Other Race 0.56% 1,740,924

3 White; Asian 0.52% 1,623,234

4 White; Native American 0.46% 1,432,309

5 African American; Some Other Race 0.1% 314,571

6 African American; Native American 0.08% 269,421

All other specific combinations 0.58% 1,794,402

Multiracial Americans (Total) 2.9% 9,009,073

2010 United States Census

SOME OTHER RACE

Main article: Multiracial American

According to the 2010 United States Census , 6.2% or 19,107,368 Americans chose to self-identify with the "some other race" category, the third most popular option. Also, 36.7% or 18,503,103 Hispanic/Latino Americans chose to identify as some other race as these Hispanic/Latinos may feel the U.S. Census does not describe their European and American Indian ancestry as they understand it to be. A significant portion of the Hispanic and Latino population self-identifies as Mestizo , particularly the Mexican and Central American community. Mestizo is not a racial category in the U.S. Census , but signifies someone who has both European and American Indian ancestry.

NATIONAL PERSONIFICATION

" Uncle Sam " is a national personification of the United States. The image bears resemblance to the real Samuel Wilson . The female personification, primarily popular during the 18th and 19th centuries, is "Columbia ".

A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people; it can appear in both editorial cartoons and propaganda.

Uncle Sam is a national personification of the United States and sometimes more specifically of the American government , with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812 . He is depicted as a stern elderly white man with white hair and a goatee beard, and dressed in clothing that recalls the design elements of the flag of the United States – for example, typically a top hat with red and white stripes and white stars on a blue band, and red and white striped trousers.

Columbia is a poetic name for the Americas and the feminine personification of the United States of America, made famous by African-American poet Phillis Wheatley during the American Revolutionary War in 1776. It has inspired the names of many persons, places, objects, institutions, and companies in the Western Hemisphere and beyond, including the District of Columbia , the seat of government of the United States.

LANGUAGE

Main articles: Languages of the United States , English language , American English , and English-only

LANGUAGES SPOKEN AT HOME BY MORE THAN 1 MILLION PERSONS IN 2010 LANGUAGE Percent of population Number of speakers

English 80% 233,780,338

Combined total of all languages other than English _20%_ _57,048,617_

Spanish (excluding Puerto Rico and Spanish Creole ) 12% 35,437,985

Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin ) 0.9% 2,567,779

Tagalog 0.5% 1,542,118

Vietnamese 0.4% 1,292,448

French 0.4% 1,288,833

Korean 0.4% 1,108,408

German 0.4% 1,107,869

English is the de facto national language . Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements —standardize English. In 2007, about 226 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish , spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language. Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in at least twenty-eight states. Both English and Hawaiian are official languages in Hawaii by state law.

While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French. Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents. The latter include court forms. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by American Samoa and Guam , respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands; Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico.

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in the United States

Religious affiliation in the U.S. (2014) AFFILIATION % OF U.S. POPULATION

Christian 70.6 70.6

Protestant 46.5 46.5

Evangelical Protestant 25.4 25.4

Mainline Protestant 14.7 14.7

Black church 6.5 6.5

Catholic 20.8 20.8

Mormon 1.6 1.6

Jehovah\'s Witnesses 0.8 0.8

Eastern Orthodox 0.5 0.5

Other Christian 0.4 0.4

Non-Christian faiths 5.9 5.9

Jewish 1.9 1.9

Muslim 0.9 0.9

Buddhist 0.7 0.7

Hindu 0.7 0.7

Other Non-Christian faiths 1.8 1.8

Unaffiliated 22.8 22.8

Nothing in particular 15.8 15.8

Agnostic 4.0 4

Atheist 3.1 3.1

Don't know/refused answer 0.6 0.6

TOTAL 100 100

Religion in the United States has a high adherence level compared to other developed countries, as well as a diversity in beliefs. The First Amendment to the country's Constitution prevents the Federal government from making any "law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof". The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted this as preventing the government from having any authority in religion. A majority of Americans report that religion plays a "very important" role in their lives, a proportion unusual among developed countries , although similar to the other nations of the Americas. Many faiths have flourished in the United States, including both later imports spanning the country's multicultural immigrant heritage, as well as those founded within the country; these have led the United States to become the most religiously diverse country in the world .

The majority of Americans (76%) are Christians , mostly within Protestant and Catholic denominations; these adherents constitute 51% and 25% of the population, respectively. Other religions include Buddhism , Hinduism , Islam , and Judaism , which collectively make up about 4% to 5% of the adult population. Another 15% of the adult population identifies as having no religious belief or no religious affiliation. According to the American Religious Identification Survey , religious belief varies considerably across the country: 59% of Americans living in Western states (the " Unchurched Belt ") report a belief in God, yet in the South (the " Bible Belt ") the figure is as high as 86%.

Several of the original Thirteen Colonies were established by settlers who wished to practice their own religion without discrimination: the Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by English Puritans , Pennsylvania by Irish and English Quakers , Maryland by English and Irish Catholics, and Virginia by English Anglicans . Although some individual states retained established religious confessions well into the 19th century, the United States was the first nation to have no official state-endorsed religion. Modeling the provisions concerning religion within the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom , the framers of the Constitution rejected any religious test for office, and the First Amendment specifically denied the federal government any power to enact any law respecting either an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise, thus protecting any religious organization, institution, or denomination from government interference. The decision was mainly influenced by European Rationalist and Protestant ideals, but was also a consequence of the pragmatic concerns of minority religious groups and small states that did not want to be under the power or influence of a national religion that did not represent them.

*

The First Baptist Church in America in Providence , Rhode Island .

*

The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. is the largest Catholic church in the United States . *

Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral in Chicago 's Ukrainian Village *

Unity Temple Unitarian Universalist church in Oak Park, Illinois *

Touro Synagogue in Newport , Rhode Island is America's oldest surviving synagogue. *

The Islamic Center of America in Dearborn , Michigan is the largest mosque in North America . *

Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights , California is one of the largest Buddhist temples in the Western Hemisphere . *

Hindu Temple in Malibu , California . *

The Bahá\'í House of Worship , Wilmette, Illinois . *

The Jain Center of Greater Phoenix (JCGP)

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of the United States Apple pie and baseball are icons of American culture.

The American culture is primarily a Western culture , but is influenced by Native American , West African , Asian , Polynesian , and Latino cultures.

The United States of America has its own unique social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect , music , arts , social habits , cuisine and folklore .

Its chief early European influences came from English , Scottish , Welsh , and Irish settlers of colonial America during British rule . British culture , due to colonial ties with Britain that spread the English language, legal system and other cultural inheritances, had a formative influence. Other important influences came from other parts of Europe, especially Germany , France , and Italy .

Original elements also play a strong role, such as Jeffersonian democracy . Thomas Jefferson's _ Notes on the State of Virginia _ was perhaps the first influential domestic cultural critique by an American and a reactionary piece to the prevailing European consensus that America's domestic originality was degenerate . Prevalent ideas and ideals that evolved domestically, such as national holidays , uniquely American sports , military tradition, and innovations in the arts and entertainment give a strong sense of national pride among the population as a whole.

American culture includes both conservative and liberal elements, scientific and religious competitiveness, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements. Despite certain consistent ideological principles (e.g. individualism , egalitarianism , faith in freedom and democracy ), the American culture has a variety of expressions due to its geographical scale and demographic diversity.

DIASPORA

Americans have migrated to many places around the world, including Australia , Britain , Brazil , Canada , Chile , France , Japan , Mexico , New Zealand and the Philippines .

A person born in Asia to one American and one Asian parent is called an Amerasian .

* v * t * e

Americans abroad and their descendants

AFRICA

* Gambia * Ghana * Liberia * Sierra Leone

AMERICAS

LATIN AMERICA

* Argentina

* Brazil

* Confederados * New Texas

* Chile * Costa Rica * Cuba * Dominican Republic (African Americans) * Ecuador * Guatemala

* Haiti

* Free Blacks

* Mexico

* Cherokee * Kickapoo * Mormons

* Uruguay

ELSEWHERE

* Canada

* Black Nova Scotians * New England Planters * Six Nations * United Empire Loyalists

ASIA

* China

* Hong Kong

* India

* Israel

* Black Hebrew Israelites

* Japan * North Korea * Pakistan * Philippines * Qatar * United Arab Emirates

EUROPE

* France

* African Americans

* Ireland * United Kingdom

OCEANIA

* Australia * New Zealand

SEE ALSO

* United States portal

* American ethnicity * Americans and Canadians in Chile * American studies * Ancestry of the people of the United States * Emigration from the United States * Hispanic and Latino Americans * Hyphenated American * Immigration to the United States * Making North America (2015 PBS film) * Names for United States citizens * Race and ethnicity in the United States * Stereotypes of Americans

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Of the foreign-born population from Europe (4,817 thousand), in 2010, 61.8% were naturalized. * ^ Of the foreign-born population from Latin America and the Caribbean (21,224 thousand), in 2010, 32.1% were naturalized. * ^ Of the foreign-born population from Africa (1,607 thousand), in 2010, 46.1% were naturalized. * ^ Of the foreign-born population from Asia (11,284 thousand), in 2010, 57.7% were naturalized. * ^ Of the foreign-born population from Northern America (807 thousand), in 2010, 44.3% were naturalized. * ^ Of the foreign-born population from Oceania (217 thousand), in 2010, 36.9% were naturalized.

REFERENCES

* ^ " U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President" (Press release). United States Census Bureau . December 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2012. * ^ "U.S. and World Population Clock". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 22, 2015. * ^ People live in Mexico, INEGI, 2010 * ^ Smith, Dr. Claire M. (August 2010). "These are our Numbers: Civilian Americans Overseas and Voter Turnout" (PDF). _OVF Research Newsletter_. Overseas Vote Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Previous research indicates that the number of U.S. Americans living in Mexico is around 1 million, with 600,000 of those living in Mexico City. * ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data". _Statistics Canada_. Government of Canada. June 10, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2013. Ethnic origins Americans Total responses 316,350 * ^ Barrie McKenna (June 27, 2012). "Tax amnesty offered to Americans in Canada". _The Globe and Mail_. Ottawa. Retrieved December 17, 2012. There are roughly a million Americans in Canada – many with little or no ties to the United States.

* ^ Evan S. Medeiros; Keith Crane; Eric Heginbotham; Norman D. Levin; Julia F. Lowell (7 November 2008). _Pacific Currents: The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to Chinaâ€TMs Rise_. Rand Corporation. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8330-4708-3 . An estimated 4 million Filipino-Americans, most of whom are U.S. citizens or dual citizens, live in the United States, and over 250,000 U.S. citizes live in the Philippines. "New U.S. ambassador to PH aims to \'strengthen\' ties". _CNN Philippines_. Metro Manila. 2 December 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2017. According to his figures, there are about 4 million Filipino-Americans residing in the U.S., and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines. Lozada, Aaron (2 December 2016). "New U.S. envoy: Relationship with PH \'most important\'". _ABS-CBN News_. Manila. Retrieved 20 March 2017. According to Kim, the special relations between the U.S. and the Philippines is evident in the "four million Filipino- Americans who are residing in the United States and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines." * ^ International Business Publications, USA (1 August 2013). _ Philippines Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws_. Int'l Business Publications. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4387-7078-9 . An estimated 600,000 Americans visit the Philippines each year, while an estimated 300,000 reside in-country. * ^ Cooper, Matthew (15 November 2013). "Why the Philippines Is America\'s Forgotten Colony". _National Journal_. Retrieved 28 January 2015. c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief. * ^ http://www.bib-demografie.de/DE/Aktuelles/Presse/Archiv/2017/2017-03-01-zuwanderung-aussereuropaeische-Laender-fast-verdoppelt.html * ^ Daphna Berman (January 23, 2008). "Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!". _Haaretz_. Retrieved December 11, 2012. According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories. * ^ Michele Chabin (March 19, 2012). "In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship". _USA Today_. Jerusalem. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free. * ^ "Population by Country of Birth and Nationality Report, August 2012" (PDF). Office for National Statistics . August 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. * ^ Simon Rogers (May 26, 2011). "The UK\'s foreign-born population: see where people live and where they\'re from". _The Guardian _. Retrieved February 17, 2013. County of birth and county of nationality. United States of America 197 143

* ^ "U.S. Citizen Services". _Embassy of the United States Seoul, Korea _. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. This website is updated daily and should be your primary resource when applying for a passport, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, notarization, or any of the other services we offer to the estimated 120,000 U.S. citizens traveling, living, and working in Korea. "North Korea propganda video depicts invasion of South Korea, US hostage taking". _Advertiser _. Agence France-Presse. March 22, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013. According to official immigration figures, South Korea has an American population of more than 130,000 civilians and 28,000 troops. * ^ "Background Note: Costa Rica". _Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs_. United States Department of State. April 9, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Over 130,000 private American citizens, including many retirees, reside in the country and more than 700,000 American citizens visit Costa Rica annually. * ^ " Americans in France". _ Embassy of the United States, Paris _. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on April 18, 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2015. Today, although no official figure is available it is estimated that over 100,000 American citizens reside in France, making France one of the top 10 destinations for American expatriates. * ^ "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011. * ^ "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". _Migration Policy Institute_. 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2017. Migrants from the United States in Brazil Number of migrants: 28,000 horizontal tab character in quote= at position 62 (help ) * ^ " Brazil (11/30/11)". _Previous Editions of Brazil Background Note_. United States Department of State. November 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. The consular section of the embassy, the consulates, and the consular agents provide vital services to the estimated 70,000 U.S. citizens residing in Brazil. * ^ " Colombia (03/28/13)". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2014. Based on Colombian statistics, an estimated 60,000 U.S. citizens reside in Colombia and 280,000 U.S. citizens travel, study and do business in Colombia each year. * ^ " Hong Kong (10/11/11)". _Previous Editions of Hong Kong Background Note_. United States Department of State. October 11, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2012. There are some 1,400 U.S. firms, including 817 regional operations (288 regional headquarters and 529 regional offices), and over 60,000 American residents in Hong Kong. * ^ Barry Bearak; Seth Mydans (June 8, 2002). "Many Americans, Unfazed, Go On Doing Business in India". _New York Times_. Retrieved December 17, 2012. The number of Americans living in India is often estimated at 60,000. * ^ "ibid, Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia". Retrieved October 19, 2014. * ^ "Table 10.1 Registered Foreigners by Nationality: 1950-2006" (PDF). _Ministry of Justice, . Annual Report of Statistics on Legal Migrants_. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2012. * ^ Kelly Carter (May 17, 2005). "High cost of living crush Americans\' dreams of Italian living". _USA Today_. Positano, Italy. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Nearly 50,000 Americans lived in Italy at the end of 2003, according to Italy's immigration office. * ^ "UAE´s population – by nationality". _BQ Magazine_. 12 April 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015. * ^ McKinley Jr.; James C. (January 17, 2010). "For 45,000 Americans in Haiti, the Quake Was \'a Nightmare That\'s Not Ending\'". New York Times . Retrieved February 27, 2015. * ^ "SAUDI-U.S. TRADE". _Commerce Office_. Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington D.C. Retrieved February 14, 2012. Furthermore, there are approximately 40,000 Americans living and working in the Kingdom. * ^ " Argentina (03/12/12)". _Previous Editions of Argentina Background Note_. United States Department of State. March 12, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012. The Embassy's Consular Section monitors the welfare and whereabouts of some 37,000 U.S. citizen residents of Argentina and more than 500,000 U.S. tourists each year. * ^ "Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background. January 1, 2010". Retrieved October 19, 2014. * ^ "Bahamas, The (01/25/12)". _Previous Editions of Panama Background Note_. United States Department of State. January 25, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2012. The countries share ethnic and cultural ties, especially in education, and The Bahamas is home to approximately 30,000 American residents. * ^ Bertrand, Eva (20 December 2012). "US citizens moving to Russia". _Voice of Russia_. Russia. Retrieved 7 May 2017. There are about 6.32 million American citizens living abroad, of those about 30,000 chose Russia, according to the Association of Americans Resident Overseas. * ^ Kate King (July 18, 2006). "U.S. family: Get us out of Lebanon". CNN. Retrieved February 14, 2012. About 350 of the estimated 25,000 American citizens in Lebanon had been flown to Cyprus from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut by nightfall Tuesday, Maura Harty, the assistant secretary of state for consular affairs, told reporters. * ^ " Panama (03/09)". _Previous Editions of Panama Background Note_. United States Department of State. March 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality. * ^ " El Salvador (01/10)". United States Department of State. Retrieved April 11, 2014. More than 19,000 American citizens live and work full-time in El Salvador * ^ "North Americans: Facts and figures". _Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand _. * ^ " Honduras (11/23/09)". _Previous Editions of Honduras Background Note_. United States Department of State. November 23, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012. U.S.-Honduran ties are further strengthened by numerous private sector contacts, with an average of between 80,000 and 110,000 U.S. citizens visiting Honduras annually and about 15,000 Americans residing there. * ^ " Chile (07/08)". _Previous Editions of Chile Background Note_. United States Department of State. July 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2012. The Consular Section of the Embassy provides vital services to the more than 12,000 U.S. citizens residing in Chile. * ^ "06-08 外僑居留人數 Foreign Residents". _National Immigration Agency, MOI_. Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interior. 2011. Archived from the original on January 6, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2012. * ^ "STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Retrieved October 19, 2014. * ^ " Bermuda (12/09/11)". _Previous Editions of Bermuda Background Note_. United States Department of State. December 9, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2012. An estimated 8,000 registered U.S. citizens live in Bermuda, many of them employed in the international business community. * ^ Tatiana Morales (August 2, 2009). " Americans in Kuwait: When To Go?". _CBS News_. Retrieved December 17, 2012. There are about 8,000 Americans who live in Kuwait. * ^ _A_ _B_ Luis Lug; Sandra Stencel; John Green; Gregory Smith; Dan Cox; Allison Pond; Tracy Miller; Elixabeth Podrebarac; Michelle Ralston (February 2008). "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" (PDF). _Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life_. Pew Research Center . Retrieved February 12, 2012.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Christine Barbour; Gerald C Wright (January 15, 2013). _Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, 6th Edition The Essentials_. CQ Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-4522-4003-9 . Retrieved January 6, 2015. Who Is An American? Native-born and naturalized citizens Shklar, Judith N. (1991). _American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion_. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9780674022164 . Retrieved December 17, 2012. Slotkin, Richard (2001). "Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality". _American Literary History_. Oxford University Press. 13 (3): 469–498. doi :10.1093/alh/13.3.469 . Retrieved December 17, 2012. But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging. Eder, Klaus; Giesen, Bernhard (2001). _European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects_. Oxford University Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 9780199241200 . Retrieved February 1, 2013. In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior. Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). _Concepts of Ethnicity_. Harvard University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780674157262 . Retrieved February 1, 2013. To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American. Charles Hirschman; Philip Kasinitz; Josh Dewind (November 4, 1999). _The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience_. Russell Sage Foundation. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-61044-289-3 . David Halle (July 15, 1987). _America\'s Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics Among Blue Collar Property Owners_. University of Chicago Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-226-31366-5 . The first, and central, way involves the view that Americans are all those persons born within the boundaries of the United States or admitted to citizenship by the government. * ^ Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). _Concepts of Ethnicity_. Harvard University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780674157262 . Retrieved February 1, 2013. ...from Thomas Paine's plea in 1783...to Henry Clay's remark in 1815... 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* ^ Shan Li (May 3, 2013). " Asian Americans had higher poverty rate than whites in 2011, study says". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved May 6, 2013. In 2011, for example, nearly a third of Asians in the U.S. lived in the metropolitan regions around Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York. "Selected Population Profile in the United States". _U.S. Census_. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2011. * ^ Meizhu Lui, Barbara Robles, Betsy Leondar-Wright, Rose Brewer, and Rebecca Adamson (2006). _The Color of Wealth_. The New Press. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ "US Census Bureau report on educational attainment in the United States, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved July 31, 2006. * ^ "The American Community-Asians: 2004" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. February 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007. * ^ Chou, Rosalind; Joe R. Feagin (2008). _The myth of the model minority: Asian Americans facing racism_. Paradigm Publishers. p. x. ISBN 978-1-59451-586-6 . Retrieved February 9, 2011. * ^ Tamar Lewin (June 10, 2008). "Report Takes Aim at \'Model Minority\' Stereotype of Asian-American Students". _ New York Times _. Retrieved February 9, 2012. * ^ Tojo Thatchenkery (March 31, 2000). " Asian Americans Under the Model Minority Gaze". _International Association of Business Disciplines National Conference_. modelminority.com. Retrieved February 26, 2012. * ^ "The Journey from Gold Mountain: The Asian American Experience" (PDF). Japanese American Citizens League. 2006. p. 3. Retrieved November 27, 2016. * ^ " California Declares Filipino American History Month". _San Francisco Business Times_. September 10, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hune, Shirley; Takeuchi, David T.; Andresen, Third; Hong, Seunghye; Kang, Julie; Redmond, Mavae'Aho; Yeo, Jeomja (April 2009). " Asian Americans in Washington State: Closing Their Hidden Achievement Gaps" (PDF). _Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs_. State of Washington. Retrieved February 9, 2012. * ^ Nicole Duran (November 3, 2011). "Asian- Americans Are Fastest-Growing Minority Population". _ National Journal _. Retrieved February 9, 2012. * ^ Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong (2004). _The politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community_. Psychology Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-415-93465-7 . Retrieved February 9, 2012. In addition, because of their perceived racial difference, rapid and continuous immigration from Asia, and on going detente with communist regimes in Asia, Asian Americans are construed as "perpetual foreigners" who cannot or will not adapt to the language, customs, religions, and politics of the American mainstream. * ^ Wu, Frank H. (2003). _Yellow: race in America beyond black and white_. Basic Books . p. 79. ISBN 978-0-465-00640-3 . Retrieved February 9, 2012. * ^ "History Crash Course #55: Jews and the Founding of America" Spiro, Rabbi Ken. Aish.com. Published December 8, 2001. Accessed December 12, 2015. "The first Jews arrived in America with Columbus in 1492, and we also know that Jews newly-converted to Christianity were among the first Spaniards to arrive in Mexico with Conquistador Hernando Cortez in 1519." * ^ _A_ _B_ "Arab Americans: An Integral Part of American Society" Arab American National Museum. Published 2009. Accessed December 12, 2015. "Zammouri, the first Arab American...traveled over 6,000 miles between 1528 and 1536, trekking across the American Southwest." * ^ "Timeline in American Jewish History" American Jewish Archives. Accessed December 12, 2015. * ^ "The American Jewish Experience through the Nineteenth Century: Immigration and Acculturation" Golden, Jonathan, and Jonathan D. Sarna. National Humanities Center. Brandeis University. Accessed December 12, 2015. * ^ Netanyahu, Benzion._The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain._ New York: Random House, 1995. Hardcover. 1390 pages. p. 1085. * ^ "Conversos ">(PDF). Arab American Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Dept. of Justice Affirms in 1909 Whether Syrians, Turks, and Arabs are of White or Yellow Race" Arab American Historical Foundation. Accessed December 14, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Lobbying for a \'MENA\' category on U.S. Census" Wiltz, Teresea. USA Today. Published October 7, 2014. Accessed December 14, 2015. * ^ "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League" San Francisco: November 1909. Pg. 6. Accessed December 14, 2015. "As to the Syrians, it must be admitted that for 1500 years before Christ they trace their descent from the Hebraic branch of the Semitic family of the Indo-Aryan race, but the Mongolian incursion of the first and thirteenth centuries, when the male Syrians were slain and the females taken to wife by their Mongol conquerors, so altered their racial composition that centuries of contact with the western nations have been unable to restore their original characteristics." * ^ "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League" Asiatic Exclusion League. San Francisco: April 1910. Pg. 7. "To amend section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States be, and the same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following: And Mongolians, Malays, and other Asiatics, except Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews, shall not be naturalized in the United States." * ^ Three Anti- Jewish Hate Crimes Prosecuted In April In Texas, Utah And New Mexico United States Department of Defense. Civil Rights Division. Published May 2014. Accessed December 15, 2015. * ^ "Unraveling Anti-Semitic 9/11 Conspiracy Theories" Foxman, Abraham H. and Glen A. Tobias. Gorowitz Institute. ADL.com. Published September 2, 2003. Accessed December 15, 2015. * ^ "HIGH COURT HOLDS 1866 RACE-BIAS LAW IS A BROADER TOOL" Taylor, Stuart Jr. Published May 19, 1987. Accessed December 14, 2015. * ^ "HIGH COURT HOLDS 1866 RACE-BIAS LAW IS A BROADER TOOL" Taylor, Stuart Jr. Published May 19, 1987. Accessed December 14, 2015. "In its two decisions today, the Court upheld the rights of an Iraqi-American associate professor to use the law in a suit asserting that he was denied tenure because of his Arab origins and of a Jewish congregation to use it in a damage suit against eight men accused of spray-painting its synagogue with large Nazi and anti-Semitic symbols and slogans." * ^ _A_ _B_ Cohen, Debra Nussbaum. "New U.S. Census Category to Include Israeli\' Option". Haaretz. Retrieved 16 December 2015. * ^ Ethnic Identity and the Census: The Case of the American Jewish Population Rosenwaike, Ira. Published 1985. Accessed December 12, 2015. "the realities of the situation are that many religious and non-religious Jews think of themselves as ethnically (as a people, a culture, a language) Jewish, not German, Polish, Ukrainian, etc." pg. 12. * ^ "American Jews, Race, Identity, and the Civil Rights Movement" Rosenbaum, Judith. Jewish Women's Archive. Accessed December 12, 2015. "Today, many American Jews retain an ambivalence about whiteness, despite the fact that the vast majority have benefited and continue to benefit from privilege. This ambivalence stems from many different places: a deep connection to a Jewish history of discrimination and otherness; a moral imperative to identify with the stranger; an anti-universalist impulse that does not want Jews to be among the "melted" in the proverbial melting pot; an experience of prejudice and awareness of the contingency of whiteness; a feeling that Jewish identity is not fully described by religion but has some ethnic/tribal component that feels more accurately described by race; and a discomfort with contemporary Jewish power and privilege." * ^ " Jews Are a \'Race\', Genes Reveal". Entine, Jon. The Jewish Daily Forward. Forward.com. Published May 4, 2012. Accessed December 13, 2015. * ^ " Jewish and Middle Eastern non- Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes" M. F. Hammer, A. J. Redd, E. T. Wood, M. R. Bonner, H. Jarjanazi, T. Karafet, S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Oppenheim‖, M. A. Jobling, T. Jenkins‡‡, H. Ostrer, and B. Bonné-Tamir§. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Published June 6, 2000. Accessed December 13, 2015. * ^ "Public Comments to NCT Federal Register Notice" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau; Department of Commerce. Retrieved 13 December 2015. * ^ "2015 National Content Test" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. pp. 33–34. Retrieved 13 December 2015. The Census Bureau is undertaking related mid-decade research for coding and classifying detailed national origins and ethnic groups, and our consultations with external experts on the Asian community have also suggested Sikh receive a unique code classified under Asian. The Census Bureau does not currently tabulate on religious responses to the race or ethnic questions (e.g., Sikh, Jewish, Catholic, Muslim, Lutheran, etc.). * ^ "2015 National Content Test" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 60. Retrieved 13 December 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000" (XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 2, 2010. * ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported: 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved November 30, 2012.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Ira Sheskin; Arnold Dashefsky (2010). "Jewish Population in the United States, 2010" (PDF). _Mandell L. Berman Institute North American Jewish Data Bank, Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life, University of Connecticut_. Brandeis University. Retrieved November 16, 2015. * ^ Heather Brown; Emily Guskin; Amy Mitchell (November 28, 2012). "Arab-American Population Growth". _Arab-American Media_. Pew Research Center. Retrieved November 6, 2015. * ^ "Arab Americans: Demographics". _ Arab American Institute_. 2006. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. Retrieved November 16, 2015. * ^ Gabriel Habib (March 17, 2004). "…And What About Arab Christians?". _Al-Hewar Center, Virginia_. Retrieved November 16, 2015. * ^ "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 12 December 2015. * ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 30 November 2012. * ^ "B04003. TOTAL ANCESTRY REPORTED". _2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates_. United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2010-04-02. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Tina Norris; Paula L. Vines; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel (January 2012). "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). _ United States Census Bureau_. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Kathryn Walbert. "American Indian vs. Native American: A note on terminology". _Kearn NC_. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Clyde Tucker; Brian Kojetin; Rodrick Harrison (1996). "A Statistical Analysis of the CPS Supplement on Race and Ethnic Origin" (PDF). _ United States Census Bureau_. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Axelrod, Alan (2003). _The Complete Idiot\'s Guide to American History_. Complete Idiot's Guide to. Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 9780028644646 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Magoc, Chris J. (2011). _Chronology of Americans and the Environment_. ABC-CLIO. p. 1. ISBN 9781598844115 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Columbus, Christopher ; de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver; Kelley, James Edward (1991). de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver, eds. _The Diario of Christopher Columbus\'s First Voyage to America, 1492-1493_. Volume 70 of American Exploration and Travel Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 491. ISBN 9780806123844 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Rodriguez, Arturo B. (2000). _U.S. Citizenship Guidebook_. Sinagtala Educational Resources. p. 82. ISBN 9780967989808 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. (1992). "The Role of Epidemic Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America". _Allergy and Asthma Proceedings_. OceanSide Publications, Inc. 13 (5): 225–232. PMID 1483570 . doi :10.2500/108854192778817040 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Thornton, Russell (1987). _American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492_. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780806122205 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Kessel, William B.; Wooster, Robert (2005). _Encyclopedia Of Native American Wars And Warfare_. Facts on File library of American History. Infobase Publishing. p. 398. ISBN 9780816033379 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Thornton, Russell (1987). _American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492_. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780806122205 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. From whatever cause wars may be brought on, either between different Indian tribes or between indians and whites, they are very destructive, not only of the lives of the warriors engaged in it, but of the women and children also, often becoming a war of extermination. * ^ "Early History, Native Americans, and Early Settlers in Mercer County". Mercer County Historical Society. Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ R. David Edmunds (March 14, 2006). "Native American Displacement Amid U.S. Expansion". _KERA_. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Blond, Becca; Dunford, Lisa; Schulte-Peevers, Andrea (2008). _Southwest USA_. Country Regional Guides. Lonely Planet. p. 37. ISBN 9781741047134 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Gallay, Alan (2010). _Indian Slavery in Colonial America_. University of Nebraska Press. p. 448. ISBN 9780803222007 . Retrieved September 8, 2012. * ^ Woods Weierman, Karen (2005). _One Nation, One Blood: Interracial Marriage In American Fiction, Scandal, and Law, 1820-1870_. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 44. ISBN 9781558494831 . Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Mann, Kaarin (2007). "Interracial Marriage In Early America: Motivation and the Colonial Project" (PDF). _ Michigan Journal of History_. University of Michigan (Fall). Retrieved September 8, 2012. * ^ "American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2011". _ United States Census Bureau_. United States Department of Commerce. November 1, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Lindsay Hixson; Bradford B. Hepler; Myoung Ouk Kim (May 2012). "The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010" (PDF). _ United States Census Bureau_. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2012. * ^ "Fact Sheet:What You should Know About Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI\'s)" (PDF). _White House Initiative on Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders (WHIAAPI)_. United States Department of Education. Retrieved September 11, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011". _ United States Census Bureau_. United States Department of Commerce. April 29, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). _2010 Census Briefs_. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 22, 2013. * ^ Jones, Nicholas A.; Amy Symens Smith. "The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau . Retrieved May 8, 2008. * ^ Ewen MacAskill; Nicholas Watt (May 20, 2011). "Obama looks forward to rediscovering his Irish roots on European tour". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved August 3, 2011. * ^ Mason, Jeff (May 23, 2011). "Obama visits family roots in Ireland". Reuters. Retrieved August 3, 2011. * ^ Oscar Avila (April 4, 2010). "Obama\'s census-form choice: \'Black\'". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved February 22, 2013. * ^ Sam Roberts; Peter Baker (April 2, 2010). "Asked to Declare His Race, Obama Checks \'Black\'". _New York Times_. Retrieved February 22, 2013. * ^ Nocholas A. Jones; Jungmiwka Bullock (September 2012). "The Two or More Races Population: 2010" (PDF). _ United States Census Bureau_. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved November 18, 2014. * ^ Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 * ^ "United States". Modern Language Association . Retrieved September 2, 2013. * ^ "Table 53—Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2007" (PDF). _Statistical Abstract of the United States 2010_. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 21, 2009. * ^ "Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Learning" (PDF). MLA. Fall 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 1999. Retrieved October 16, 2006. * ^ Feder, Jody (January 25, 2007). "English as the Official Language of the United States—Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress" (PDF). Ilw.com (Congressional Research Service). Retrieved June 19, 2007. * ^ "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4". Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. November 7, 1978. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007. * ^ Dicker, Susan J. (2003). _Languages in America: A Pluralist View_. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. pp. 216, 220–25. ISBN 1-85359-651-5 . * ^ " California Code of Civil Procedure, Section 412.20(6)". Legislative Counsel, State of California. Retrieved December 17, 2007. " California Judicial Council Forms". Judicial Council, State of California. Retrieved December 17, 2007. * ^ "America\'s Changing Religious Landscape". The Pew Forum. 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-12. * ^ "U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion". _Pew Global Attitudes Project_. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2007. * ^ Eck, Diana (2002). _A New Religious America: the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation_. HarperOne. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-06-062159-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Kosmin, Barry A.; Keysar, Ariela (March 2009). " American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008: Summary Report" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Trinity College. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2009. * ^ "CIA Fact Book". CIA World Fact Book. 2002. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2007. * ^ "Religious Composition of the U.S." (PDF). _U.S. Religious Landscape Survey_. Pew Forum on Religion ">(PDF) from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved May 9, 2009. * ^ Newport, Frank (July 28, 2008). "Belief in God Far Lower in Western U.S.". The Gallup Organization . Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010. * ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). _Divided by God_. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 10 ("For the first time in recorded history, they designed a government with no established religion at all.") * ^ Marsden, George M. 1990. _Religion and American Culture._ Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp.45–46. * ^ Carlos E. Cortés (September 3, 2013). _Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia_. SAGE Publications. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-4522-7626-7 . The dominance of English and Anglo values in U.S. culture is evident in the country's major institutions, demonstrating the melting pot model. * ^ Kirschbaum, Erik (1986). _The eradication of German culture in the United States, 1917-1918_. H.-D. Heinz. p. 155. ISBN 3-88099-617-2 . * ^ Peter J. Parish (January 1997). _Reader\'s Guide to American History_. Taylor & Francis. p. 276. ISBN 978-1-884964-22-0 . However, France was second only to Britain in its influence upon the formation of American politics and culture. * ^ Marilyn J. Coleman; Lawrence H. Ganong (16 September 2014). _The Social History of the American Family: An Encyclopedia_. SAGE Publications. p. 775. ISBN 978-1-4522-8615-0 . As the communities grew and prospered, Italian food, entertainment, and music influenced American life and culture. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Mr. Jefferson and the giant moose: natural history in early America", Lee Alan Dugatkin. University of Chicago Press, 2009. ISBN 0-226-16914-6 , ISBN 978-0-226-16914-9 . University of Chicago Press, 2009. Chapter x. * ^ M. D. R. Evans; Jonathan Kelley (January 2004). _Religion, Morality and Public Policy in International Perspective, 1984-2002_. Federation Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-86287-451-0 .

* ^ "America tops in national pride survey finds". _NBC News_. Associated Press. June 27, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2014. Elizabeth Theiss-Morse (July 27, 2009). _Who Counts as an American?: The Boundaries of National Identity_. Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-139-48891-4 .

* v * t * e

Demographics of the United States

Demographic history

By economic and social

* Affluence * Educational attainment * Emigration * Home-ownership * Household income * Immigration * Income inequality * Language * LGBT * Middle classes * Personal income * Poverty * Social class * Unemployment by state * Wealth

BY RELIGION

* Buddhists

* Christians

* Catholics * Coptic * Protestants

* Hindus * Jainism * Jews

* Muslims

* Ahmadiyya

* Neopagans * Non-religious * Sikhs

By continent and ethnicity

AFRICA

* African diaspora in the Americas

* Afro- Caribbean / West Indian Americans

* Belizean Americans * Guyanese Americans * Haitian Americans * Jamaican Americans * Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans

* Black Hispanic and Latino Americans

* African immigrants to the United States

* Central Africans in the United States * Horn Africans in the United States * North Africans in the United States * Southeast Africans in the United States * Southern Africans in the United States * West Africans in the United States

ASIA

* Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans

* South and Southeast Asia

* Bangladeshi Americans * Bhutanese Americans * Burmese Americans * Cambodian Americans * Filipino Americans * Hmong Americans * Indian Americans * Indonesian Americans * Laotian Americans * Malaysian Americans * Nepalese Americans * Pakistani Americans * Romani people * Singaporean Americans * Sri Lankan Americans * Thai Americans * Vietnamese Americans

* East Asia

* Chinese Americans

* Hong Kong Americans * Tibetan Americans

* Japanese Americans * Korean Americans * Mongolian Americans * Taiwanese Americans

* West Asia

* Arab Americans * Assyrian Americans * Iranian Americans * Israeli Americans * Jewish Americans

EUROPE

* White Americans

* English Americans * French Americans * German Americans * Irish Americans * Italian Americans * Spanish Americans

* Non-Hispanic whites * White Hispanic and Latino Americans

OCEANIA

* Pacific Islands Americans

* Chamorro Americans * Native Hawaiians * Samoan Americans * Tongan Americans

* Euro Oceanic Americans

* Australian Americans * New Zealand Americans

NORTH AMERICA

* Native Americans and Alaska Natives * Canadian Americans * Cuban Americans * Mexican Americans * Puerto Ricans (Stateside)

SOUTH AMERICA

* Hispanic and Latino Americans * Colombian Americans

MULTIETHNIC

* Melungeon

* People of the United States / Americans * American ancestry * Maps of American ancestries * 2010 Census * Race and ethnicity in the Census * Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission * Racism

* v * t * e

European Americans

CENTRAL EUROPE

* Austrian 1, * Czech

* German 1,

* Amish * German Texan * Pennsylvania Dutch * German Mennonites from Russia

* Hungarian

* Hungarian Ohioans

* Kashubian * Liechtensteiner * Luxembourgian * Polish 1, * Slovak * Slovene * Sorbian * Swiss

EASTERN EUROPE

* Armenian 5 * Azerbaijani 5 * Belarusian * Chechen * Georgian 5 * Kazakh 6

* Russian 1, 2

* Cossack * Kalmyk

* Ukrainian

* Cossack * Rusyn

NORTHERN EUROPE

* Danish * Estonian * Faroese * Finnish * Icelandic * Latvian * Lithuanian

* Norwegian

* Norwegian Dakotan * Norwegian Minnesotan

* Sami * Swedish

SOUTHEAST EUROPE3

* Albanian * Bosnian * Bulgarian * Cypriot * Croatian * Greek * Macedonian * Moldovan * Montenegrin * Romanian

* Serbian

* Alaskan Serbs

* Turkish 4

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Italian

* Sicilian

* Maltese * Monacan * Portuguese * Sanmarinese

* Spanish

* Asturian * Basque * Canarian * Catalan * Galician * Hispano

WESTERN EUROPE

* Basque

* Belgian

* Flemish

* Breton * Corsican

* British

* Cornish * English * Manx * Scots-Irish/Ulster Scots * Scottish * Welsh

* Dutch

* French

* Cajun

* Frisian * Irish

OTHER EUROPEANS

* Non-Hispanic whites * Métis

* Roma

* Hungarian Slovak Romanies 7

* Louisiana Creole

* Cajun * Isleños

1 Poles came to the United States legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia until Poland regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I.

2 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia , therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here.

3 Yugoslav Americans are the American people from the former Yugoslavia .

4 Turkey is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace .

5 Armenia , Azerbaijan , and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus .

6 Kazakhstan is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands. 7 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.

* v * t * e

African American topics

HISTORY

* Atlantic slave trade * Maafa * Slavery in the United States * Partus sequitur ventrem * Free negro * Reconstruction Era * Military history of African Americans * Jim Crow laws * Redlining * Great Migration * Civil Rights Movement 1865–95 / 1896–1954 / 1954–68 * Black Power movement * Second Great Migration * Afrocentrism * New Great Migration * Post-Civil Rights era * Inauguration of Barack Obama 2009 / Inauguration of Barack Obama 2013

CULTURE

* Art * African-American names * Black mecca * Dance * Film * Juneteenth * Kwanzaa * Literature * Music * Musical theater * Neighborhoods * Sexual orientation * Soul food

Education, science and technology

* Black schools * Black colleges and universities * Museums * African- American studies * Inventors and scientists

* Women

* in computer science * in medicine * in STEM fields

RELIGION

* Black church * Black theology * Doctrine of Father Divine * American Society of Muslims * Nation of Islam * Black Hebrew Israelites

POLITICAL MOVEMENTS

* Pan-Africanism

* Self-determination

* Nationalism

* Black Power * Black fist * Anarchism * Capitalism * Conservatism * Populism * Leftism * Garveyism

Civic and economic groups

* National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

* Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) * Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) * Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) * Black Panther Party * National Urban League (NUL) * Rights organizations * Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) * Thurgood Marshall College Fund * United Negro College Fund (UNCF) * National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC) * National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) * National Council of Negro Women (NCNW)

SPORTS

* Negro league baseball

* Baseball color line

* Black players in professional American football * African Americans in the Canadian Football League * Black players in ice hockey

Athletic associations and conferences

* Central (CIAA) * Southern (SIAC) * Mid-Eastern (MEAC) * Southwestern (SWAC)

ETHNIC SUBDIVISIONS

* Black Indians * Gullah * Fula * Igbo * Yoruba

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Neighborhoods

* list

* U.S. cities with large populations

* 2000 majorities * 2010 majorities

* Metropolitan areas * Black Belt

LANGUAGES

* English

* American English * African American Vernacular English

* Gullah * Louisiana Creole French

BY STATE/CITY

* Alabama * Florida * Georgia (Atlanta ) * Illinois ( Chicago ) * Iowa (Davenport ) * Louisiana * Maryland * Massachusetts (Boston ) * Michigan (Detroit ) * Mississippi * Nebraska (Omaha )

* New York

* New York City

* Pennsylvania (Philadelphia ) * Puerto Rico * Tennessee * Texas (Houston )

DIASPORA

AFRICA

* Ghana * Liberia * Sierra Leone * Back-to- Africa movement

AMERICAS

* Caribbean history

* Canada

* Nova Scotia

* Dominican Republic * Haiti

OTHER

* France * Israel

LISTS

* African Americans

* visual artists * Republicans * US senators

* African-American firsts

* mayors * US state firsts

* Neighborhoods * Landmark African-American legislation * African American-related articles * Topics related to the African diaspora

* Category * Portal

* v * t * e

Asian Americans 1, 2

CENTRAL ASIAN3

* Mongolian * Uzbek

EAST ASIAN

* Chinese

* Hong Kong * Tibetan 4 * Fuzhou/Hokchiu * Hokkien/Hoklo/Minnan * Hakka

* Japanese * Korean

* Taiwanese

* Fuzhou/Hokchiu * Hokkien/Hoklo/Minnan * Hakka

SOUTH ASIAN5

* Bangladeshi

* Bengali

* Bhutanese

* Indian

* Indo- Caribbean * Bengali * Punjabi * Sindhi * Tamil

* Nepalese

* Pakistani

* Baloch * Pashtun * Punjabi * Sindhi

* Sri Lankan

* Tamil

SOUTHEAST ASIAN

* Burmese * Cambodian * Filipino * Hmong * Indonesian * Laotian

* Malaysian

* Fuzhou/Hokchiu * Hokkien/Hoklo/Minnan * Hakka * Tamil

* Mien

* Singaporean

* Fuzhou/Hokchiu * Hokkien/Hoklo/Minnan * Hakka * Tamil

* Thai * Vietnamese

OTHER

* Hispanic and Latino

* Punjabi Mexican

* Multiracial American

* Afro-Asian * Amerasian * Eurasian

HISTORY

* General * Immigration * Military

TOPICS

* Arts and Entertainment * Demographics * Politics * Stereotypes

RELIGION

* Buddhists

* Christians

* Catholics * Protestants

* Hindus * Jainism * Muslims * Sikhs

Notes

1 The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.

2 The United States Government classified Kalmyks as Asian until 1951, when Kalmyk Americans were reclassified as White Americans .

3 The U.S. Census Bureau considers Mongolians and Uzbeks as Central Asians, but a specific Central Asian American group similar to Middle Eastern American does not yet exist.

4 The U.S. Census Bureau reclassifies anyone identifying as "Tibetan American" as "Chinese American". 5 Bengali Americans may be classified as Bangladeshi or Indian. Punjabi Americans may be classified as Indian or Pakistani. Tamil Americans may be classified as Indian or Sri Lankan.

* v * t * e

Rights of Native Americans in the United States

CASE LAW

* _ Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl _ * _ Bryan v. Itasca County _ * _ Cherokee Nation v. Georgia _ * _ City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York _ * _ Cobell v. Salazar _ * _ County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State _ * _ Elk v. Wilkins _ * _ Ex parte Crow Dog _ * _ Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation _ * _ Fellows v. Blacksmith _ * _ Hodel v. Irving _ * _Idaho v. Coeur d\'Alene Tribe of Idaho _ * _Idaho v. United States _ * _Johnson v. M\'Intosh _ * _ Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock _ * _ McClanahan v. Arizona State Tax Commission _ * _Menominee Tribe v. United States _ * _ Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe _ * _Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians v. Holyfield _ * _ New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble _ * _ Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida _ * _ Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez _ * _ Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy _ * _ Solem v. Bartlett _ * _ South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe, Inc. _ * _ South Dakota v. Bourland _ * _ Standing Bear v. Crook _ * _ Talton v. Mayes _ * _Tee-Hit-Ton Indians v. United States _ * _ United States v. Antelope _ * _ United States v. Lara _ * _ United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co. _ * _ Williams v. Lee _ * _ Worcester v. Georgia _

LEGISLATION

* Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act * American Indian Religious Freedom Act * Burke Act * Civilization Act * Curtis Act * Dawes Act * Diminishment * Indian Arts and Crafts Act * Indian Child Welfare Act * Indian Citizenship Act * Indian Civil Rights Act * Indian Gaming Regulatory Act * Indian Removal Act * Indian Reorganization Act * Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act * Nationality Act * Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act * Native American Languages Act * Nonintercourse Act * Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act

RELATED

* Aboriginal title * Bureau of Indian Affairs * Cherokee Commission * Dawes Rolls

* Eagle feather law

* Eagle-bone whistle

* Federal recognition of Native Hawaiians

* Legal status of Hawaii

* Hunting license * _ In the Courts of the Conqueror _ * National Indian Gaming Commission * Native American gaming * Native American Rights Fund * Public Law 280 * Recognition of sacred sites * State recognized tribes * Treaty rights

* Tribal sovereignty

* Federally recognized tribes

* v * t * e

Middle Eastern Americans

* Afghan 1

* Pashtun

* Arab

* Emirati * Egyptian * Iraqi * Jordanian * Kuwaiti * Lebanese * Omani * Palestinian * Saudi * Syrian * Yemeni

* Armenian * Assyrian * Azerbaijani * Coptic * Georgian * Iranian * Israeli

* Jewish

* Syrian Jews

* Kurdish

* Yazidis

* Turkish

BY LOCATION

* Detroit

Notes 1 The U.S. Census Bureau considers Afghanistan a South Asian country, but does not classify Afghan Americans as Asian , but as Middle Eastern American.

* v * t * e

Central Asian Americans

* Afghan

* Pashtun

* Kazakh * Mongolian * Tajik * Uzbek

* v * t * e

Pacific Islands Americans

MICRONESIANS

* Chamorros * Marshallese * Micronesian * Palauan

POLYNESIANS

* French Polynesian * Māori * Native Hawaiians * Samoan * Tongan

MELANESIANS

* Fijian

RELATED TOPICS

* Asian Pacific American

* Oceanian American

* Euro Oceanic Americans

* Pacific Island migration and Pacific Island American identities * Pacific Islanders

* v * t * e

Hispanic and Latino American groups

CARIBBEAN

* Cuban * Dominican

* Puerto Rican

* Nuyorican

NORTH AMERICAN

* Hispano

* Californio * Nuevomexicano * Tejano

* Creoles of Louisiana

* Isleño

* Mexican

* Chicano * Indigenous Mexican * Punjabi

CENTRAL AMERICAN

* Costa Rican * Guatemalan * Honduran * Nicaraguan * Panamanian * Salvadoran

SOUTH AMERICAN

* Argentine * Bolivian * Brazilian * Chilean * Colombian * Ecuadorian * Paraguayan * Peruvian * Uruguayan * Venezuelan

EUROPEAN

* Spanish

* Asturian * Basque * Catalan * Canarian * Galician * Jews

RACIAL GROUPS

* All groups * Amerindian

* Asian

* Punjabi

* Black * White

* Multiracial

* Quadroon * Castizo * " Cholo " * Mestizo * Mulatto * Pardo * Zambo

LINGUISTIC GROUPS

* Hispanic

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS

* Christians * Garifuna * Jews * Muslims

RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS

* Belizean * Filipino * Guyanese * Haitian * Portuguese * Surinamese

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