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The American marten
American marten
or American pine marten[1] ( Martes
Martes
americana) is a North American member of the family Mustelidae, sometimes referred to as the pine marten. The name "pine marten" is derived from the common but distinct Eurasian species of Martes. It differs from the fisher ( Martes
Martes
pennanti) in that it is smaller in size and lighter in colour.

Contents

1 Distribution and habitat 2 Home range 3 Description 4 Behavior

4.1 Weather factors

5 Reproduction

5.1 Breeding 5.2 Denning behavior 5.3 Development of young

6 Food habits 7 Mortality

7.1 Life span 7.2 Predators 7.3 Hunting 7.4 Other

8 References 9 External links 10 Bibliography

Distribution and habitat[edit] The American marten
American marten
is broadly distributed in northern North America. From north to south its range extends from the northern limit of treeline in arctic Alaska
Alaska
and Canada
Canada
to northern New Mexico. From east to west its distribution extends from Newfoundland and south west to Napa County, California. In Canada
Canada
and Alaska, American marten distribution is vast and continuous. In the western United States, American marten
American marten
distribution is limited to mountain ranges that provide preferred habitat. Over time, the distribution of American marten has contracted and expanded regionally, with local extirpations and successful recolonizations occurring in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
region and some parts of the Northeast.[3] The American marten
American marten
has been reintroduced in several areas where extinction occurred.[4]

The marten lives in mature coniferous or mixed forests in Alaska
Alaska
and Canada, the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
of the United States[5] and south into Northern New England[6][7][8] and through the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and Sierra Nevada. Small groups of martens live in the Midwest
Midwest
in Minnesota
Minnesota
and Wisconsin. Trapping and destruction of forest habitat have reduced its numbers, but it is still much more abundant than the larger fisher. The Newfoundland subspecies of this animal (Martes americana atrata) is considered to be threatened. Home range[edit] Compared to other carnivores, American marten
American marten
population density is low for their body size. One review reports population densities ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 individuals/km2.[3] Population density may vary annually[9] or seasonally.[10] Low population densities have been associated with low abundance of prey species.[3] Home range size of the American marten
American marten
is extremely variable, with differences attributable to sex,[11][12][13][14] year, geographic area,[3] prey availability,[3][15] cover type, quality or availability,[3][15] habitat fragmentation,[16] reproductive status, resident status, predation,[17] and population density.[15] Home range size does not appear to be related to body size for either sex.[11] Home range size ranged from 0.04 sq mi (0.1 km2) in Maine to 6.1 sq mi (15.7 km2) in Minnesota
Minnesota
for males, and 0.04 sq mi (0.1 km2) in Maine to 3.0 sq mi (7.7 km2) in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
for females.[15] Males generally exhibit larger home ranges than females,[11][12][13][14] which some authors suggest is due to more specific habitat requirements of females (e.g., denning or prey requirements) that limit their ability to shift home range.[12] However, unusually large home ranges were observed for 4 females in two studies (Alaska[18] and Quebec[9]). Males and females in northeastern California
California
appeared to have approximately equal home range size.[19] Home ranges are indicated by scent-marking. American marten
American marten
male pelts often show signs of scarring on the head and shoulders, suggesting intrasexual aggression that may be related to home range maintenance.[15] Home range overlap is generally minimal or nonexistent between adult males[10][13][20] but may occur between males and females,[10][13] adult males and juveniles,[13][21] and between females.[22] Several authors have reported that home range boundaries appear to coincide with topographical or geographical features. In northeastern California, movements and home range boundaries were influenced by cover, topography (forest-meadow edges, open ridgetop, lakeshores), and other American marten.[19] In south-central Alaska, home range boundaries included creeks and a major river.[13] In an area burned 8 years previously in interior Alaska, home range boundaries coincided with transition areas between riparian and nonriparian habitats.[22] In northwestern Montana, home range boundaries appeared to coincide with the edge of large open meadows and burned areas; the authors suggested that open areas represent a "psychological rather than physical barriers".[23] Description[edit]

Skull

The American marten
American marten
is a long, slender-bodied weasel about the size of a mink with relatively large rounded ears, short limbs, and a bushy tail. American marten
American marten
have a roughly triangular head and sharp nose. Their long, silky fur ranges in color from pale yellowish buff to tawny brown to almost black. Their head is usually lighter than the rest of their body, while the tail and legs are darker. American marten usually have a characteristic throat and chest bib ranging in color from pale straw to vivid orange.[4] Sexual dimorphism is pronounced, with males averaging about 15% larger than females in length and as much as 65% larger in body weight.[4] Total length ranges from 1.5 to 2.2 feet (0.5–0.7 m),[24][3] with tail length of 5.4 to 6.4 inches (135–160 mm),[24] Adult weight ranges from 1.1 to 3.1 pounds (0.5–1.4 kg)[24][3] and varies by age and location. Other than size, sexes are similar in appearance.[3] American marten
American marten
have limited body-fat reserves, experience high mass-specific heat loss, and have a limited fasting endurance. In winter, individuals may go into shallow torpor daily to reduce heat loss.[25] Behavior[edit]

American marten
American marten
in flowers

American marten
American marten
activity patterns vary by region,[15] though in general, activity is greater in summer than in winter.[4][25] American marten may be active as much as 60% of the day in summer but as little as 16% of the day in winter.[25] In north-central Ontario individuals were active about 10 to 16 hours a day in all seasons except late winter, when activity was reduced to about 5 hours a day. In south-central Alaska, American marten
American marten
were more active in autumn (66% active) than in late winter and early spring (43% active).[13] In northeastern California, more time was spent traveling and hunting in summer than in winter, suggesting that reduced winter activity may be related to thermal and food stress or may be the result of larger prey consumption and consequent decrease in time spent foraging.[26] American marten
American marten
may be nocturnal or diurnal. Variability in daily activity patterns has been linked to activity of major prey species,[15][26] foraging efficiency,[13] gender, reducing exposure to extreme temperatures,[13][15][22] season,[20][25][26] and timber harvest. In northeastern California, activity in the snow-free season (May–December) was diurnal, while winter activity was largely nocturnal.[26] In south-central Alaska, American marten
American marten
were nocturnal in autumn, with strong individual variability in diel activity in late winter. Activity occurred throughout the day in late winter and early spring.[13] Daily distance traveled may vary by age,[18] gender, habitat quality, season,[20] prey availability, traveling conditions, weather, and physiological condition of the individual. Year-round daily movements in Grand Teton National Park ranged from 0 to 2.83 miles (0–4.57 km), averaging 0.6 mile (0.9 km, observations of 88 individuals).[20] One marten in south-central Alaska
Alaska
repeatedly traveled 7 to 9 miles (11–14 km) overnight to move between 2 areas of home range focal activity.[13] One individual in central Idaho moved as much as 9 miles (14 km) a day in winter, but movements were largely confined to a 1,280-acre (518 ha) area. Juvenile American marten
American marten
in east-central Alaska
Alaska
traveled significantly farther each day than adults (1.4 miles (2.2 km) vs. 0.9 mile (1.4 km)).[18] Weather factors[edit]

American marten
American marten
standing in a snowy glade

Weather may impact American marten
American marten
activity, resting site use, and prey availability. Individuals may become inactive during storms or extreme cold.[15][27] In interior Alaska, a decrease in above-the-snow activity occurred when ambient temperatures fell below −4 °F (−20 °C).[22] In southeastern Wyoming, temperature influenced resting site location. Above-snow sites were used during the warmest weather, while subnivean sites were used during the coldest weather, particularly when temperatures were low and winds were high following storms. High mortality may occur if American marten
American marten
become wet in cold weather, as when unusual winter rains occur during live trapping.[4] In Yosemite National Park, drought conditions increased the diversity of prey items; American marten
American marten
consumed fish and small mammal species made more accessible by low snow conditions in a drought year.[27] A snowy habitat in many parts of the range of the American marten provides thermal protection[21] and opportunities for foraging and resting.[20] American marten
American marten
may travel extensively under the snowpack. Subnivean travel routes of >98 feet (30 m) were documented in northeastern Oregon,[28] >33 feet (10 m) on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan,[28] and up to 66 feet (20 m) in Wyoming.[20] American marten
American marten
are well adapted to snow. On the Kenai Peninsula, individuals navigated through deep snow regardless of depth, with tracks rarely sinking >2 inches (5 cm) into the snow pack. Snowfall pattern may affect distribution, with the presence of American marten
American marten
linked to deep snow areas.[21] Adaptations to deep snow are particularly important in areas where the American marten
American marten
is sympatric with the fisher, which may compete with and/or prey on American marten. In California, American marten
American marten
were closely associated with areas of deep snow (>9 inches (23 cm)/winter month), while fishers were more associated with shallow snow (<5 inches (13 cm)/winter month). Overlap zones were areas with intermediate snow levels. Age and recruitment ratios suggested that there were few reproductive American marten where snow was shallow and few reproductive fishers where snow was deep.[29] Where deep snow accumulates, American marten
American marten
prefer cover types that prevent snow from packing hard and have structures near the ground that provide access to sub nivean sites.[30] While American marten select habitats with deep snow, they may concentrate activity in patches with relatively shallow snow. In north-central Idaho, American marten activity was highest in areas where snow depths were <12 inches (30 cm). This was attributed to easier burrowing for food and more shrub and log cover.[31] Reproduction[edit] Breeding[edit] American marten
American marten
reach sexual maturity by 1 year of age, but effective breeding may not occur before 2 years of age.[25] In captivity, 15-year-old females bred successfully.[4][32] In the wild, 12-year-old females were reproductive.[32] Adult American marten
American marten
are generally solitary except during the breeding season.[4] They are polygamous, and females may have multiple periods of heat.[32] Females enter estrus in July or August,[25] with courtship lasting about 15 days.[4] Embryonic implantation is delayed until late winter, with active gestation lasting approximately a month. Females give birth in late March or April to a litter ranging from 1 to 5 kits.[25] Annual reproductive output is low according to predictions based on body size. Fecundity varies by age and year and may be related to food abundance.[3] Denning behavior[edit] Females use dens to give birth and to shelter kits. Dens are classified as either natal dens, where parturition takes place, or maternal dens, where females move their kits after birth.[3] American marten females use a variety of structures for natal and maternal denning, including the branches, cavities or broken tops of live trees, snags,[20] stumps, logs,[20] woody debris piles, rock piles, and red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) nests or middens. Females prepare a natal den by lining a cavity with grass, moss, and leaves.[15] They frequently move kits to new maternal dens once kits are 7–13 weeks old. Most females spend more than 50% of their time attending dens in both pre-weaning and weaning periods, with less time spent at dens as kits aged. Paternal care has not been documented.[3] Development of young[edit]

American marten

Weaning occurs at 42 days. Young emerge from dens at about 50 days but may be moved by their mother before this.[3] In northwestern Maine, kits were active but poorly coordinated at 7 to 8 weeks, gaining coordination by 12 to 15 weeks. Young reach adult body weight around 3 months.[25] Kits generally stay in the company of their mother through the end of their first summer, and most disperse in the fall.[3] The timing of juvenile dispersal is not consistent throughout American marten's distribution, ranging from early August to October.[3] In south-central Yukon, young-of-the-year dispersed from mid-July to mid-September, coinciding with the onset of female estrus.[10] Observations from Oregon[17] and Yukon[10] suggest that juveniles may disperse in early spring. Of 9 juvenile American marten
American marten
that dispersed in spring in northeastern Oregon, 3 dispersed a mean of 20.7 miles (33.3 km) (range: 17.4–26.8 miles (28.0–43.2 km)) and established home ranges outside of the study area. Three were killed after dispersing distances ranging from 5.3 to 14.6 miles (8.6–23.6 km), and 3 dispersed a mean of 5.0 miles (8.1 km) (range: 3.7–6.0 miles (6.0–9.6 km)) but returned and established home ranges in the area of their original capture. Spring dispersal ended between June and early August, after which individuals remained in the same area and established a home range.[17] Food habits[edit] American marten
American marten
are opportunistic predators, influenced by local and seasonal abundance and availability of potential prey.[25] They require about 80 cal/day while at rest, the equivalent of about 3 voles (Microtus, Myodes, and Phenacomys spp.).[15] Voles dominate diets throughout the American marten's geographic range,[25] though larger prey—particularly snowshoe hares—may be important, particularly in winter.[21] Red-backed voles ( Myodes
Myodes
spp.) are generally taken in proportion to their availability, while meadow voles (Microtus' spp.) are taken in excess of their availability in most areas. Deer mice
Deer mice
(Peromyscus maniculatus) and shrews (Soricidae) are generally eaten less than expected, but may be important food items in areas lacking alternative prey species.[3] Birds were the most important prey item in terms of frequency and volume on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Fish may be important in coastal areas.[33] American marten
American marten
diet may shift seasonally[13][19][21][26][31] or annually.[13][27] In general, diet is more diverse in summer than winter, with summer diets containing more fruit, other vegetation, and insects. Diet is generally more diverse in the eastern and southern parts of American marten's distribution compared to the western part,[25] though there is high diversity in the Pacific states. American marten
American marten
exhibit the least diet diversity in the subarctic, though diversity may also be low in areas where the diet is dominated by large prey species (e.g., snowshoe hares or red squirrels).[34] American marten
American marten
may be important seed dispersers; seeds generally pass through the animal intact, and seeds are likely germinable. One study from Chichagof Island, southeast Alaska, found that Alaska
Alaska
blueberry (Vaccinium alaskensis) and ovalleaf huckleberry (V. ovalifolium) seeds had higher germination rates after passing through the gut of American marten compared to seeds that dropped from the parent plant. Analyses of American marten
American marten
movement and seed passage rates suggested that American marten
American marten
could disperse seeds long distances: 54% of the distances analyzed were >0.3 mile (0.5 km).[35] Mortality[edit]

Play media

American marten
American marten
in a tree in New Hampshire

Life span[edit] American marten
American marten
in captivity may live for 15 years. The oldest individual documented in the wild was 14.5 years old. Survival rates vary by geographic region, exposure to trapping, habitat quality, and age. In an unharvested population in northeastern Oregon, the probability of survival of American marten
American marten
≥9 months old was 0.55 for 1 year, 0.37 for 2 years, 0.22 for 3 years, and 0.15 for 4 years. The mean annual probability of survival was 0.63 for 4 years.[36] In a harvested population in east-central Alaska, annual adult survival rates ranged from 0.51 to 0.83 over 3 years of study. Juvenile survival rates were lower, ranging from 0.26 to 0.50.[18] In Newfoundland, annual adult survival was 0.83. Survival of juveniles from October to April was 0.76 in a protected population, but 0.51 in areas open to snaring and trapping.[16] In western Quebec, natural mortality rates were higher in clearcut areas than in unlogged areas.[37] Predators[edit] American marten
American marten
are vulnerable to predation from raptors and other carnivores. The threat of predation may be an important factor shaping American marten
American marten
habitat preferences, a hypothesis inferred from their avoidance of open areas and from behavioral observations of the European pine marten
European pine marten
( Martes
Martes
martes).[3] Specific predators vary by geographic region. In Newfoundland, red foxes ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes) were the most frequent predator, though coyote ( Canis
Canis
latrans) and other American marten
American marten
were also responsible for some deaths.[16] In deciduous forests in northeastern British Columbia, most predation was attributed to raptors.[14] Of 18 American marten
American marten
killed by predators in northeastern Oregon, 8 were killed by bobcats ( Lynx
Lynx
rufus), 4 by raptors, 4 by other American marten, and 2 by coyotes. Throughout the distribution of American marten, other predators include the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Canada
Canada
lynx (L. canadensis), mountain lion (Puma concolor),[4][32] fisher (M. pennanti), wolverine (Gulo gulo), grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), American black bear (U. americanus), and grey wolf (C. lupus).[22] In northeastern Oregon, most predation (67%) occurred between May and August, and no predation occurred between December and February.[36] Hunting[edit] The fur of the American marten
American marten
is shiny and luxuriant, resembling that of the closely related sable. At the turn of the twentieth century, the American marten
American marten
population was depleted due to the fur trade. The Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
traded in pelts from this species among others. Numerous protection measures and reintroduction efforts have allowed the population to increase, but deforestation is still a problem for the marten in much of its habitat. American marten
American marten
are trapped for their fur in all but a few states and provinces where they occur.[25] The highest annual take in North America
North America
was 272,000 animals in 1820.[15] Trapping is a major source of American marten
American marten
mortality in some populations[18][37] and may account for up to 90% of all deaths in some areas.[3] Overharvesting has contributed to local extirpations.[38] Trapping may impact population density, sex ratios and age structure.[3][15][25] Juveniles are more vulnerable to trapping than adults,[16][38] and males are more vulnerable than females.[3][16] American marten
American marten
are particularly vulnerable to trapping mortality in industrial forests.[25] Other[edit] Other sources of mortality include drowning,[28] starvation,[39] exposure,[36] choking, and infections associated with injury.[16] During live trapping, high mortality may occur if individuals become wet in cold weather.[4] American marten
American marten
host several internal and external parasites, including helminths, fleas (Siphonaptera), and ticks (Ixodida).[15] American marten
American marten
in central Ontario carried both toxoplasmosis and Aleutian disease, but neither affliction was suspected to cause significant mortality.[32] High American marten
American marten
mortality in Newfoundland was caused by encephalitis.[39] References[edit]  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States
United States
Department of Agriculture document " Martes
Martes
americana".

^ a b Reid, F. & Helgen, K. (2008). " Martes
Martes
americana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ Martes
Martes
americana, MSW3 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Buskirk, Steven W.; Ruggiero, Leonard F. (1994). " American marten
American marten
, pp. 7–37 in Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Lyon, L. Jack; Zielinski, William J., tech. eds. The scientific basis for conserving carnivores: American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-254. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clark, Tim W.; Anderson, Elaine; Douglas, Carman; Strickland, Marjorie (1987). " Martes
Martes
americana" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 289 (289): 1–8. doi:10.2307/3503918. JSTOR 3503918.  ^ Larrison, Patrick and Larrison, Earl J. (1976). Mammals of the Northwest ISBN 0-914516-04-3 ^ List of Vermont's Wild Mammals Archived 20 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. (PDF) Retrieved on 2011-05-28. ^ List of Wild Mammals in Maine. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-05-28. ^ List of New Hampshire Wildlife Archived 3 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Wildlife.state.nh.us. Retrieved on 2011-05-28. ^ a b Godbout, Guillaume; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre (2008). "Habitat selection of American marten
American marten
in a logged landscape at the southern fringe of the boreal forest" (PDF). Ecoscience. 15 (3): 332–342. doi:10.2980/15-3-3091.  ^ a b c d e Archibald, W. R.; Jessup, R. H. (1984). "Population dynamics of the pine marten ( Martes
Martes
americana) in the Yukon Territory", pp. 81–97 in Olson, Rod; Hastings, Ross; Geddes, Frank, eds. Northern ecology and resource management: Memorial essays honouring Don Gill. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta Press. ISBN 0888640471. ^ a b c Smith, Adam C; Schaefer, James A (2002). "Home-range size and habitat selection by American marten
American marten
( Martes
Martes
americana) in Labrador". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 80 (9): 1602–1609. doi:10.1139/z02-166.  ^ a b c Phillips, David M.; Harrison, Daniel J.; Payer, David C (1998). "Seasonal changes in home-range area and fidelity of martens". Journal of Mammalogy. 79 (1): 180–190. doi:10.2307/1382853. JSTOR 1382853.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Buskirk, Steven William. (1983). The ecology of marten in southcentral Alaska. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska. Dissertation ^ a b c Poole, Kim G.; Porter, Aswea D.; Vries, Andrew de; Maundrell, Chris; Grindal, Scott D.; St. Clair, Colleen Cassady (2004). "Suitability of a young deciduous-dominated forest for American marten and the effects of forest removal". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 82 (3): 423–435. doi:10.1139/z04-006.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Strickland, Marjorie A.; Douglas, Carman W. (1987). "Marten", pp. 531–546 in Novak, Milan; Baker, James A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Malloch, Bruce, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. North Bay, ON: Ontario Trappers Association. ISBN 0774393653. ^ a b c d e f Hearn, Brian J. (2007). Factors affecting habitat selection and population characteristics of American marten
American marten
(Martes americana atrata) in Newfoundland. Orono, ME: The University of Maine. Dissertation ^ a b c Bull, Evelyn L.; Heater, Thad W (2001). "Home range and dispersal of the American marten
American marten
in northeastern Oregon". Northwestern Naturalist. 82 (1): 7–11. doi:10.2307/3536641. JSTOR 3536641.  ^ a b c d e Shults, Bradley Scott. (2001). Abundance and ecology of martens ( Martes
Martes
americana) in interior Alaska. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska. Thesis ^ a b c Simon, Terri Lee. (1980). An ecological study of the marten in the Tahoe National Forest, California. Sacramento, CA: California State University. Thesis ^ a b c d e f g h Hauptman, Tedd N. (1979). Spatial and temporal distribution and feeding ecology of the pine marten. Pocatello, ID: Idaho State University. Thesis ^ a b c d e Schumacher, Thomas V.; Bailey, Theodore N.; Portner, Mary F.; Bangs, Edward E.; Larned, William W. (1989). Marten
Marten
ecology and distribution on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Draft manuscript. Soldotna, AK: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT; FEIS files ^ a b c d e Vernam, Donald J. (1987). Marten
Marten
habitat use in the Bear Creek burn, Alaska. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska. Thesis ^ Hawley, Vernon D.; Newby, Fletcher E (1957). " Marten
Marten
home ranges and population fluctuations". Journal of Mammalogy. 38 (2): 174–184. doi:10.2307/1376307. JSTOR 1376307.  ^ a b c http://imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/bio/mammal/carn/muste/ammr/marten.htm/. [ Martes
Martes
americana (American Marten), Idaho State University] ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Powell, Roger A.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Zielinski, William J. (2003). "Fisher and marten: Martes
Martes
pennanti and Martes
Martes
americana", pp. 635–649 in Feldhamer, George A.; Thompson, Bruce C.; Chapman, Joseph A., eds. Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management, and conservation. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7416-1 ^ a b c d e Zielinski, William J.; Spencer, Wayne D.; Barrett, Reginald H (1983). "Relationship between food habits and activity patterns of pine martens". Journal of Mammalogy. 64 (3): 387–396. doi:10.2307/1380351. JSTOR 1380351.  ^ a b c Hargis, Christina Devin. (1981). Winter habitat utilization and food habits of the pine marten ( Martes
Martes
americana) in Yosemite National Park. Berkeley, CA: University of California. Thesis ^ a b c Thomasma, Linda Ebel. (1996). Winter habitat selection and interspecific interactions of American martens ( Martes
Martes
americana) and fishers ( Martes
Martes
pennanti) in the McCormick Wilderness and surrounding area. Houghton, MI: Michigan Technological University. Dissertation ^ Krohn, W B; Elowe, K D; Boone, R B (1995). "Relations among fishers, snow, and martens: development and evaluation of two hypotheses". Forestry Chronicle. 71 (1): 97–105. doi:10.5558/tfc71097-1.  ^ Buskirk, Steven W.; Powell, Roger A. "Habitat ecology of fishers and American martens". in Buskirk, pp. 283–296 ^ a b Koehler, Gary M.; Hornocker, Maurice G (1977). "Fire effects on marten habitat in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness". Journal of Wildlife Management. 41 (3): 500–505. doi:10.2307/3800522. JSTOR 3800522.  ^ a b c d e Strickland, Marjorie A.; Douglas, Carman W.; Novak, Milan; Hunziger, Nadine P. (1982). Marten: Martes
Martes
americana. In: Chapman, Joseph A.; Feldhamer, George A., eds. Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and economics. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 599–612 ISBN 0-8018-2353-6 ^ Nagorsen, David W.; Campbell, R. Wayne; Giannico, Guillermo R. (1991). Winter food habits of marten, Martes
Martes
americana, on the Queen Charlotte Islands. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(1): 55–59 ^ Martin, Sandra K. (1994). "Feeding ecology of American martens and fishers", in Buskirk, pp. 297–315 ^ Hickey, Jena R. (1997). The dispersal of seeds of understory shrubs by American martens, Martes
Martes
americana, on Chichagof Island, Alaska. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming. Thesis ^ a b c Bull, Evelyn L.; Heater, Thad W (2001). "Survival, causes of mortality, and reproduction in the American marten
American marten
in northeastern Oregon" (PDF). Northwestern Naturalist. 82 (1): 1–6. doi:10.2307/3536640. JSTOR 3536640.  ^ a b Potvin, Francois; Breton, Laurier. (1995). "Short-term effects of clearcutting on martens and their prey in the boreal forest of western Quebec", pp. 452–474 in Proulx, Gilbert; Bryant, Harold N.; Woodard, Paul M., eds. Martes: taxonomy, ecology, techniques, and management: Proceedings of the 2nd international Martes
Martes
symposium; 1995 August 12–16; Edmonton, AB. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press ^ a b Berg, William E.; Kuehn, David W. "Demography and range of fishers and American martens in a changing Minnesota
Minnesota
landscape", in Buskirk, pp. 262–271 ^ a b Fredrickson, Richard John. (1990). The effects of disease, prey fluctuation, and clear cutting on American marten
American marten
in Newfoundland. Logan, UT: Utah State University. Thesis.

External links[edit]

Smithsonian Institution – North American Mammals: Martes
Martes
americana

Bibliography[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Martes
Martes
americana.

Buskirk, Steven W.; Harestad, Alton S.; Raphael, Martin G.; Powell, Roger A., eds. (1994). Martens, sables, and fishers: Biology and conservation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-2894-7. 

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California
California
sea lion (Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q322145 ADW: Martes_americana ARKive: martes-americana EoL: 328591 EPPO: MRTSAM Fossilworks: 48844 GBIF: 5218864 iNaturalist: 41798 ITIS: 180559 IUCN: 41648 MSW: 1

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