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The Info List - American Hog-nosed Skunk


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The American hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus leuconotus) is a species of hog-nosed skunk from Central and North America, and is one of the largest skunks in the world, growing to lengths of up to 2.7 feet (82 cm).[2] Recent work has concluded the western hog-nosed skunk (formerly Conepatus mesoleucus) is the same species, and Conepatus leuconotus is the correct name of the merged populations.[3] In Texas, it is commonly known as the rooter skunk for its habit of rooting and overturning rocks and debris in search of food.

Contents

1 Description 2 Reproduction 3 Range and habitat

3.1 Subspecies

4 Conservation 5 References 6 External links

Description[edit]

Hog-nosed skunk

The distinguishing feature of the American hog-nosed skunk is it has a single, broad white stripe from the top of the head to the base of the tail, with the tail itself being completely white. It is the only skunk that lacks a white dot or medial bar between the eyes and has primarily black body fur. The snout of C. leuconotus is relatively long, with a naked nose pad, and resembles the nose of a small hog. The nose pad (20 mm wide by 25 mm long) is about three times wider than that of Mephitis mephitis. The ears are small and rounded, and the eyes are relatively small. The fur is short and coarse.

A hog-nosed skunk skeleton on exhibit at the Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

The American hog-nosed skunk has stocky legs and plantigrade feet (the entire sole of the foot touches the ground). Its hind feet are broad and large with soles that are naked for about one-half their length. Its upper body is powerfully built, and the fore claws are very long. Length can range from 44.4–93.4 cm (17.5–36.8 in) and weight is typically 1,130–4,500 g (2.49–9.92 lb).[4] The striped skunk can broadly overlap in size with this species, but in comparison the striped, has a shorter head-and-body length and a longer tail than the hog-nosed skunk.[5] Males of this species average about 10% larger than females. The American hog-nosed skunk is adapted for digging, and resembles badgers rather than other species of skunks in this respect. The rectangular-shaped scapula, strong forearms, and shape of the humeri of C. leuconotus resemble those of badgers. The nostrils are located ventrally and open downward. Their sense of smell is acute, and the nose is used in locating and capturing buried prey. This skunk species also is a capable climber, although not as agile as the spotted skunks of the genus Spilogale.[6] Reproduction[edit] C. leuconotus breeds from late February through early March; most adult females are pregnant by the end of March. Typically, gestation lasts about 60 days. Birth occurs in April and May. Half-grown young have been observed in late July and mid-August, and by late August young begin to disperse. The litter size is one to five young, although two to four are most common.[6] Range and habitat[edit] This species occurs in canyons, stream sides, and rocky terrain. It has been collected in a variety of habitats in Mexico, including open desert-scrub and mesquite-grasslands, tropical areas, mountains, coastal plains, cornfields surrounded by brushland or adjacent to grassy plains and thickets of bull-horn acacia, thorn woodland, and riparian forests, characterized by live-oaks, pecans, sycamores, and Texas persimmons and an understory of briars, grasses, and weeds. It also has been found in pine–oak forest and in scrub and cacti. In Kleberg County, Texas, C. leuconotus occurs in mesquite-brushland, pastures, and native grassland, used exclusively for cattle ranching. Thorny brush and cactus are the predominant vegetation in the region of southern Texas where this species occurs.[6] It is omnivorous, feeding primarily on insects and vegetation, though it will take small mammals and reptiles when available. While sometimes considered a pest by crop farmers due to their rooting habits, this is largely misplaced, as it generally prefers insects to agricultural plants. Like all skunk species, it possesses powerful anal glands used to deter would-be attackers. Subspecies[edit] Three subspecies are currently recognized,[6] although one may be extinct:

C. l. leuconotus – Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua C. l. figginsi – Colorado C. l. telmalestes † – southeastern Texas

Conservation[edit] Though not threatened through most of its range, one subspecies, the big thicket hog-nosed skunk (C. l. telmalestes) of Oklahoma and southeastern Texas, is now considered extinct by the IUCN. Globally, this species is of low concern for conservation efforts, but at the local level, it is considered threatened in some states. In Colorado, for instance, it was ranked as "critically imperiled because of extreme rarity (five or fewer records of occurrence in the state or less than 1,000 individuals)" as of 2006. In New Mexico and Oklahoma, it was ranked as "Imperiled because of rarity (six to 20 occurrences or less than 3,000 individuals)", also as of 2006. The situation is far different in Texas and Arizona, though; the populations are high enough for the species to be legally harvested throughout the year and is designated as a "fur bearer" by the United States Forest Service.[7] References[edit]

^ Cuarón, A.D.; Reid, F. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Conepatus leuconotus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 January 2009.  ^ Eastern Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus leuconotus). Nsrl.ttu.edu. Retrieved on 2011-09-16. ^ Western Hog-nosed Skunk Archived 2008-09-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Museum.utep.edu. Retrieved on 2011-09-16. ^ Conepatus leuconotus. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History ^ Dohring, A. 2002. Conepatus leuconotus leuconotus. eastern hog-nosed skunk. Animal Diversity Web ^ a b c d Dragoo, Jerry W.; Sheffield, Steven R (2009). "Conepatus leuconotus (carnivora: mephitidae)". Mammalian Species. 827: 1. doi:10.1644/827.1.  ^ Meaney, Carron A., Anne K. Ruggles, and Gary P. Beauvais. American Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus leuconotus): A Technical Conservation Assessment. 21 Dec 2006. Prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project, Accessed 25 Jan 2010.

External links[edit]

Media related to Conepatus leuconotus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Conepatus leuconotus at Wikispecies

v t e

Extant species of family Mephitidae

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia

Conepatus

Western hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus mesoleucus) Eastern hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) Molina's hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed sskunk (Conepatus humboldtii)

Mydaus

Javan stink badger (Mydaus javanensis) Palawan stink badger (Mydaus marchei)

Mephitis

Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) Hooded skunk (Mephitis macroura)

Spilogale

Western spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk (Spilogale pygmaea)

Category

v t e

Extant Carnivora species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet (N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse (C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens) Black mongoose (G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso) Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus) Banded mongoose (M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat (S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena (H. brunnea) Striped hyena (H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf (P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah (A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal (C. caracal) African golden cat (C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat (C. badia) Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat (F. silvestris) African wildcat (F. lybica) Jungle cat (F. chaus) Black-footed cat (F. nigripes) Sand cat (F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot (L. pardalis) Margay (L. wiedii) Pampas cat (L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi) Kodkod (L. guigna) Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita) Oncilla (L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval (L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) Iberian lynx (L. pardinus) Bobcat (L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat (O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat (P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat (P. viverrinus) Leopard cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar (P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion (P. leo) Jaguar (P. onca) Leopard (P. pardus) Tiger (P. tigris) Snow leopard (P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)

Family Viverridae (includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong (A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet (P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet (C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang (P. linsang) Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet (C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica) Angolan genet (G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet (G. cristata) Common genet (G. genetta) Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata) Pardine genet (G. pardina) Aquatic genet (G. piscivora) King genet (G. poensis) Servaline genet (G. servalina) Haussa genet (G. thierryi) Cape genet (G. tigrina) Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang (P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina) Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila) Malayan civet (V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet (V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet (F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia (cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear (H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear (M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear (U. americanus) Brown bear (U. arctos) Polar bear (U. maritimus) Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk (M. macroura) Striped skunk (M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni) Northern olingo (B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo (B. medius) Olinguito (B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus) Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati (N. narica) South American coati (N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou (P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus) Raccoon (P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda (A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia (cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) (Pinniped inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal (A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii) Brown fur seal (A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion (O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion (Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae (Pinniped inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus (O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) (Pinniped inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal (C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal (E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal (L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal (O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal (P. largha) Harbor seal (P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal (P. caspica) Ringed seal (P. hispida) Baikal seal (P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae (includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog (A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal (C. adustus) African golden wolf (C. anthus) Golden jackal (C. aureus) Coyote (C. latrans) Gray wolf (C. lupus) Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas) Red wolf (C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox (C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole (C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo (L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes) South American gray fox (L. griseus) Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox (L. sechurae) Hoary fox (L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog (L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog (S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox (U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox (V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox (V. cana) Cape fox (V. chama) Corsac fox (V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata) Arctic fox (V. lagopus) Kit fox (V. macrotis) Pale fox (V. pallida) Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli) Swift fox (V. velox) Red fox (V. vulpes) Fennec fox (V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter (A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter (E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter (L. canadensis) Marine otter (L. felina) Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis) Southern river otter (L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter (L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger (A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra (E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison (G. cuja) Greater grison (G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine (G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca) Striped polecat (I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten (M. americana) Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula) Beech marten (M. foina) Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten (M. martes) Japanese marten (M. melampus) Sable (M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger (M. anakuma) Asian badger (M. leucurus) European badger (M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger (M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel (M. africana) Mountain weasel (M. altaica) Stoat (M. erminea) Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel (M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata) Japanese weasel (M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah) European mink (M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes) Least weasel (M. nivalis) Malayan weasel (M. nudipes) European polecat (M. putorius) Siberian weasel (M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink (N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel (P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger (T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q934487 ADW: Conepatus_leuconotus EoL: 328596 Fossilworks: 45219 GBIF: 2434878 iNaturalist: 41877 ITIS: 180567 IUCN: 41632 MSW: 14

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