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The American badger
American badger
(Taxidea taxus)[n 1] is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European badger. It is found in the western and central United States, northern Mexico, and south-central Canada
Canada
to certain areas of southwestern British Columbia. American badger's habitat is typefied by open grasslands with available prey (such as mice, squirrels, and groundhogs). The species prefers areas such as prairie regions with sandy loam soils where it can dig more easily for its prey.

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Diet 4 Behavior 5 Life cycle 6 Habitat

6.1 Plant communities 6.2 Cover requirements

7 Predation 8 Conservation status 9 Notes 10 References 11 Cited sources 12 Further reading 13 External links

Taxonomy[edit] The American badger
American badger
is a member of the Mustelidae, a diverse family of carnivorous mammals that also includes the weasel, otter, ferret, and wolverine.[4] The American badger
American badger
belongs to the Taxidiinae, one of three subfamilies of badgers – the other two being the Melinae (9 species, including the Eurasian badger) and the Mellivorinae (honey badger). The American badger's closest relative is the prehistoric Chamitataxus. Recognized subspecies include: the nominate subspecies T. t. taxus, found in central Canada
Canada
and central US; T. t. jacksoni, found in the southern Great Lakes
Great Lakes
region including southern Ontario; T. t. jeffersoni, in British Columbia and the western US; and T. t. berlandieri, in the southwestern US and northern Mexico.[5][6][7] Ranges of subspecies overlap considerably, with intermediate forms occurring in the areas of overlap. In Mexico, this animal is sometimes called tlalcoyote. The Spanish word for badger is tejón, but in Mexico
Mexico
this word is also used to describe the coati. This can lead to confusion, as both coatis and badgers are found in Mexico. Description[edit]

Adult female American badger
American badger
(sow)

The American badger
American badger
has most of the general characteristics common to badgers; with stocky and low-slung bodies with short, powerful legs, they are identifiable by their huge foreclaws (measuring up to 5 cm in length) and distinctive head markings. Measuring generally between 60 and 75 cm (23.5 and 29.5 in) in length, males of the species are slightly larger than females. They may attain an average weight of roughly 6.3 to 7.2 kg (14 to 16 lb) for females and up to 8.6 kg (19 lb) for males. Northern subspecies such as T. t. jeffersonii are heavier than the southern subspecies. In the fall, when food is plentiful, adult male badgers can reach up to 11.5 to 15 kg (25 to 33 lb).[8][9][10][11] In some northern populations, females can average 9.5 kg (21 lb).[12]

American badger

Except for the head, the American badger
American badger
is covered with a grizzled, brown, black and white coat of coarse hair or fur, giving almost a mixed brown-tan appearance. The coat aids in camouflage in grassland habitat. Its triangular face shows a distinctive black and white pattern, with brown or blackish "badges" marking the cheeks and a white stripe extending from the nose to the base of the head. In the subspecies T. t. berlandieri, the white head stripe extends the full length of the body, to the base of the tail.[13] Diet[edit]

American Badger
Badger
Skull

The American badger
American badger
is a fossorial carnivore. It preys predominantly on pocket gophers (Geomyidae), ground squirrels (Spermophilus), moles (Talpidae), marmots (Marmota), prairie dogs (Cynomys), pika (Ochotona), woodrats (Neotoma), kangaroo rats (Dipodomys), deer mice (Peromyscus), and voles (Microtus), often digging to pursue prey into their dens, and sometimes plugging tunnel entrances with objects.[14] The American badger
American badger
is a significant predator of snakes including rattlesnakes, and is considered the most important predator of rattlesnakes in South Dakota.[15] They also prey on ground-nesting birds, such as the bank swallow or sand martin (Riparia riparia) and burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), and lizards, amphibians, carrion, fish, skunks (Mephitis and Spilogale), insects, including bees and honeycomb, and some plant foods such as corn (Zea mais), peas, green beans, mushrooms and other fungi, and sunflower seeds (Helianthus). Behavior[edit]

Badger
Badger
forepaw with long, sharp claws. Primarily used for digging.

American badgers are generally nocturnal; however, in remote areas with no human encroachment they are routinely observed foraging during the day. Seasonally, a badger observed during daylight hours in the Spring months of late March to early May often represents a female foraging during daylight and spending nights with her young. Badgers do not hibernate but may become less active in winter. A badger may spend much of the winter in cycles of torpor that last around 29 hours. They do emerge from their burrows when the temperature is above freezing.[6] An abandoned badger burrow may be occupied by mammals of similar size, such as foxes and skunks, as well as animals as diverse as the burrowing owl, California
California
Tiger
Tiger
Salamander and California
California
Red-Legged Frog. The American Badger
Badger
has been seen working with a coyote in tandem while hunting. Typically this pairing is one badger to one coyote, however, one study found about 9% of sightings included two coyotes to one badger, while 1% had one badger to three coyotes. Researchers have found that the coyote benefits by an increased catch rate of about 33%, and while it is difficult to see precisely how the badger benefits, the badger has been noted to spend more time underground and active. Badgers are also thought to expend less energy while hunting in burrows. According to research, this partnership works due to the different hunting styles of the predators and how they prey reacts to them. A ground squirrel, upon spotting a coyote, will crawl into its hole to escape; while upon seeing a badger, the ground squirrel will climb out of its hole and use its speed to out run the badger. Hunting in tandem raises the prey vulnerability and both predators win.[16][17][18] Life cycle[edit] Badgers are normally solitary animals, but are thought to expand their territories in the breeding season to seek out mates. Mating occurs in late summer and early fall, with some males breeding with more than one female. American badgers experience delayed implantation, with pregnancies suspended until December or as late as February. Young are born from late March to early April[6] in litters ranging from one to five young,[19] averaging about three.[20] Badgers are born blind, furred, and helpless.[6] Eyes open at four to six weeks. The female feeds her young solid foods prior to complete weaning, and for a few weeks thereafter.[20] Young American badgers first emerge from the den on their own at five to six weeks old.[19][21] Families usually break up and juveniles disperse from the end of June to August; young American badgers leave their mothers as early as late May or June.[21] Juvenile dispersal movements are erratic.[19]

American badger
American badger
at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo

Most female American badgers become pregnant for the first time after they are a year old. A minority of females four to five months old ovulate and a few become pregnant. Males usually do not breed until their second year.[6] Large predators occasionally kill American badgers.[19] The average longevity in the wild is 9–10 years, with a record of 14;[22] a captive example lived at least 15 years and five months.[19] Habitat[edit] American badgers prefer grasslands and open areas with grasslands, which can include parklands, farms, and treeless areas with friable soil and a supply of rodent prey.[23][24] They may also be found in forest glades and meadows, marshes, brushy areas, hot deserts, and mountain meadows. They are sometimes found at elevations up to 12,000 feet (3,700 m) but are usually found in the Sonoran and Transition life zones (which are at elevations lower and warmer than those characterized by coniferous forests).[20] In Arizona, they occur in desert scrub and semidesert grasslands.[25] In California, American badgers are primarily able to survive through a combination of open grasslands of agricultural lands, protected land trust and open space lands, and even regional and state and national park lands with grassland habitat. The Sonoma County badger population includes some protected and private lands near the Sonoma Coast, as well as one in South Sonoma County fragilely surviving in spite of abundant prey due to fragmentation. Badgers are occasionally found in open chaparral (with less than 50% plant cover) and riparian zones. They are not usually found in mature chaparral.[26] In Manitoba aspen parklands, American badger
American badger
abundance was positively associated with the abundance of Richardson's ground squirrels ( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
richardsonii).[27] In Ontario it primarily resides on the extreme southwestern portion of the province, restricted to the north shore of Lake Erie in open areas generally associated with agriculture and along woodland edges. There have been a few reports from the Bruce-Grey region.[28]

Badgers can be found in the sagebrush deserts of eastern Oregon.

American badger
American badger
use of home range varies with season and sex. Different areas of the home range are used more frequently at different seasons and usually are related to prey availability. Males generally have larger home ranges than females. In a study almost 40 years ago, radiotransmitter-tagged American badgers had an average annual home range of 2,100 acres (850 hectares). The home range of one female was 1,790 acres (720 hectares) in summer, 131 acres (53 hectares) in fall, and 5 acres (2.0 hectares) in winter.[29] Lindzey reported average home ranges of 667 to 1,550 acres (270 to 627 ha).[30] Estimated density of American badgers in Utah scrub-steppe was one per square mile (2.6 km2), with 10 dens in active or recent use.[6] As of 2014, overdevelopment of American Badger
Badger
habitat had resulted in reduced range, decreased prey, and forced badgers into contact with man foraging between fragments. Direct observations in Sonoma County, documenting habitat and badger sightings and foraging, reflect various ranges within the fragmented habitat areas from less than 1/2 mile to approximately 4 miles. Within these areas, the availability of prey and a fresh water source are key factors for the preferred habitat areas and ability to survive. Identifying and conserving habitat areas where there is year-round activity, along with identified burrowing patterns and observations of female badger territory for birthing and raising young have become critical factors in survival of the species. Plant communities[edit] American badgers are most commonly found in treeless areas, including tallgrass and shortgrass prairies, grass-dominated meadows and fields within forested habitats, and shrub-steppe communities. In the Southwest, plant indicators of the Sonoran and Transition life zones (relatively low, dry elevations) commonly associated with American badgers include creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), junipers (Juniperus spp.), gambel oak (Quercus gambelii), willows (Salix spp.), cottonwoods ( Populus
Populus
spp.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), grasses, and sagebrushes (Artemisia spp.).[20] In Colorado in 1977, American badgers were common in grass–forb and ponderosa pine habitats.[31] In Kansas, they are common in tallgrass prairie dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), and Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans).[32] In Montana 24 years ago, badgers were present in Glacier National Park in fescue (Festuca spp.) grasslands.[33] In Manitoba, they occur in grassland extensions within aspen ( Populus
Populus
spp.) parklands.[27] Cover requirements[edit] American badgers require cover for sleep, concealment, protection from weather, and natal denning. They typically enlarge foraged out gopher or other prey holes, or other animal burrows. Their dens range from about 4 feet to 10 feet in depth and 4 feet to 6 feet in width. A female American Badger
Badger
may create 2 to 4 burrows in proximity with a connecting tunnel for concealment and safety for her young. Displaced soil from digging out the burrow characteristically appears in front of the burrow entrance, and a view from a distance reveals a mound-like roof of the burrow, with the living and concealment space created underneath the raised-roof appearing mound. During summer and autumn, badgers range more frequently, with mating season generally in November, and burrowing patterns reflect 1 to 3 burrows may be dug from foraged out prey holes in a day, used for a day to a week, and then abandoned, with possible returns later, and other small wildlife utilizing abandoned burrows in the interim. Where prey is particularly plentiful, they will reuse dens,[20] especially in the fall, sometimes for a few days at a time. In winter, a single den may be used for most of the season.[6] Natal dens are dug by the female and are used for extended periods, but litters may be moved, probably to allow the mother to forage in new areas close to the nursery. Natal dens are usually larger and more complex than diurnal dens.[19] Predation[edit] While the American badger
American badger
is an aggressive animal with few natural enemies it is still vulnerable to other species in its habitat. Predation on smaller individuals by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), coyotes,[6] cougars (Puma concolor), and bobcats ( Lynx
Lynx
rufus) have been reported.[34] Bears (Ursus spp.) and gray wolves ( Canis
Canis
lupus) occasionally kill American badgers.[19] American badgers are trapped by humans for their pelts. Their fur is used for shaving and painting brushes.[2] Conservation status[edit] In May 2000, the Canadian Species at Risk Act listed both the Taxidea taxus jacksoni and the T. t. jeffersonii subspecies as an endangered species in Canada.[35] The California
California
Department of Fish and Game designated the American badger
American badger
as a California
California
species of special concern.[36] Notes[edit]

^ It was formerly classified as part of the genus Meles as Meles labradorica (Lat. "Labrador badger"),[2] then classified as Taxidea americana (Lat. "American taxid" or "badger-like animal")[3]

References[edit]

^ Helgen, K. & Reid, F. (2016). "Taxidea taxus". The IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T41663A45215410. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41663A45215410.en. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ a b EB (1878). ^ EB (1911). ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 619. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ "Taxidea". funet.fi. Retrieved 2007-08-07.  ^ a b c d e f g h Long, Charles A. (1972). "Taxidea taxus" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 26 (26): 1–4. doi:10.2307/3504047. JSTOR 3504047. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-07.  ^ Long, Charles A. (1972). "Taxonomic Revision of the North American Badger, Taxidea taxus". Journal of Mammalogy. Journal of Mammalogy. 53 (4): 725–759. doi:10.2307/1379211. JSTOR 1379211.  ^ Feldhamer, George A.; Bruce Carlyle Thompson; Joseph A. Chapman (2003). Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation. JHU Press. p. 683. ISBN 0-8018-7416-5.  ^ Lindzey, Fred, BADGERS (1994). The Handbook: Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. 28 ^ Minta, S. C., Minta, K. A., & Lott, D. F. (1992). Hunting associations between badgers (Taxidea taxus) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Journal of Mammalogy, 73(4), 814-820. ^ Quinn, J. H. (2008). The ecology of the American badger
American badger
Taxidea taxus in California: assessing conservation needs on multiple scales. University of California, Davis. ^ Harlow, H. J., Miller, B., Ryder, T., & Ryder, L. (1985). Energy requirements for gestation and lactation in a delayed implanter, the American badger. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 82(4), 885-889. ^ American Society of Mammalogists Staff; Smithsonian Institution Staff (1999). The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. UBC Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-7748-0762-8.  ^ Michener, Gail R. (2004). "Hunting techniques and tool use by North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels". Journal of Mammalogy. 85 (5): 1019–1027. doi:10.1644/BNS-102. JSTOR 1383835.  ^ Klauber, Lawrence Monroe (1997). Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind. Volume 1. 2nd ed. Berkeley (California): University of California
California
Press. p. 1076. ISBN 0520210565. ^ https://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/animals/blogs/coyote-and-badger-hunt-together ^ http://animals.howstuffworks.com/animal-facts/coyotes-badgers-find-food1.htm ^ https://www.fws.gov/news/blog/index.cfm/2016/11/2/Spotted-A-Coyote-and-Badger ^ a b c d e f g Lindzey, Frederick G. (1982). "Badger: Taxidea taxus", pp. 653–663 in Chapman, Joseph A.; Feldhamer, George A., eds. Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management, and economics. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801874165. ^ a b c d e Long, Charles A.; Killingley, Carl Arthur. (1983). The badgers of the world. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishing ^ a b Messick, John P.; Hornocker, Maurice G. (1981). "Ecology of the Badger
Badger
in Southwestern Idaho". Wildlife Monographs. 76 (76): 1–53. JSTOR 3830719.  ^ Lindsey, Frederick G. (1971). Ecology of badgers in Curlew Valley, Utah and Idaho with emphasis on movement and activity patterns. Logan, UT: Utah State University ^ Banfield, A. W. F. (1974). The mammals of Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press ^ de Vos, A. (1969). "Ecological conditions affecting the production of wild herbivorous mammals on grasslands", pp. 137–179 in Advances in ecological research. On file at U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT ^ Davis, Russell; Sidner, Ronnie. (1992). Mammals of woodland and forest habitats in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Monument, Arizona. Technical Report NPS/WRUA/NRTR-92/06. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Cooperative National Park esources Study Unit ^ Quinn, Ronald D. (1990). "Habitat preferences and distribution of mammals in California
California
chaparral". Res. Pap. PSW-202. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station ^ a b Bird, Ralph D. (1930). "Biotic communities of the aspen parkland of central Canada". Ecology. 11 (2): 356–442. doi:10.2307/1930270. JSTOR 1930270.  ^ "Ontario Badgers". ontariobadgers.org.  ^ Sargeant, Alan B.; Warner, Dwain W. (1972). "Movements and denning habits of a badger". Journal of Mammalogy. 53 (1): 207–210. doi:10.2307/1378851.  ^ Lindzey, Frederick G. (1978). "Movement patterns of badgers in northwestern Utah". Journal of Wildlife Management. 42 (2): 418–422. doi:10.2307/3800282. JSTOR 3800282.  ^ Morris, Meredith J.; Reid, Vincent H.; Pillmore, Richard E.; Hammer, Mary C. (1977). "Birds and mammals of Manitou Experimental Forest, Colorado". Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-38. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment. ^ Gibson, David J. (1989). "Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass prairie vegetation". American Midland Naturalist. 121 (1): 144–154. doi:10.2307/2425665. JSTOR 2425665.  ^ Tyser, Robin W. (1990). "Ecology of fescue grasslands in Glacier National Park", pp. 59–60 in Boyce, Mark S.; Plumb, Glenn E. (eds.) National Park Service Research Center, 14th annual report. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, National Park Service Research Center. ^ Skinner, Scott (1990). "Earthmover". Wyoming Wildlife. 54 (2): 4–9.  ^ "Species at Risk Act: List of Wildlife Species at Risk". Retrieved 14 March 2013.  ^ " Mammal
Mammal
Species of Special
Special
Concern". dfg.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 27 November 2010. 

Cited sources[edit]

 Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Badger", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 227   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Badger", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 188 

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States
United States
Department of Agriculture document "Taxidea taxus". Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to taxidea taxus.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to taxidea

Shefferly, N. 1999. "Taxidea taxus" (On-line), Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. Accessed April 15, 2007 at University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Whitaker, John O. (1980-10-12). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 745. ISBN 0-394-50762-2. 

External links[edit]

Ontario Badgers (information about the American badger
American badger
and the research of their endangered Ontario population) Miller, Ira. "Montana Animal
Animal
Field Guide". Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-04.  Streube, Donald. "American Badger, Idaho Museum of Natural History". Archived from the original on 4 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-04.  "American Badger, The University of Texas at El Paso". The University of Texas at El Paso. Archived from the original on 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2007-08-04.  Steve Jackson's badger page Smithsonian Institution – North American Mammals: Taxidea taxus

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter
Otter
civet (C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California
California
sea lion (Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q232129 ADW: Taxidea_taxus ARKive: taxidea-taxus BioLib: 1780 EoL: 328595 EPPO: TAXITA Fossilworks: 52093 GBIF: 2434102 iNaturalist: 41789 ITIS: 180565 IUCN: 41663 MSW: 14

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