* Great Britain cedes to the United States the area east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River * Great Britain cedes East Florida , West Florida , and Minorca to Spain * Great Britain cedes Tobago and Senegal to France * Dutch Republic cedes Negapatnam to Great Britain
Dutch Republic Mysore ------------------------- NATIVE AMERICANS :
BRITISH EMPIRE Hanover -------------------------
GERMAN MERCENARIES : Hesse-Kassel Hesse- Hanau Waldeck Brunswick Ansbach Anhalt-Zerbst ------------------------- NATIVE AMERICANS :
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS
George III Lord North _ Lord George Germain full list..._
UNITED STATES: ARMY padding-left:0.25em">
GREAT BRITAIN: ARMY : 48,000 (America peak) 121,000 (global 1781) 7,500 (Gibraltar) NAVY : 94 ships-of-the-line (1782) 104 frigates (1781) 37 sloops (1781) 171,000 sailors
LOYALISTS : 25,000 (total served)
HANOVERIANS : 2,365 (total served)
GERMAN MERCENARIES : 29,875 (total served)
NATIVE AMERICAN ALLIES: 13,000
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
UNITED STATES: 25,000–70,000 total dead 6,800 killed in battle 17,000 died of disease
FRANCE: at least 7,000 dead (2,112 in the United States)
SPAIN: 5,000 killed
NETHERLANDS: 500 killed ------------------------- TOTAL: 37,000–82,500+ soldiers dead
GREAT BRITAIN: ARMY: 43,633 total dead ~9,372 killed in battle 27,000 died of disease NAVY: 1,243 killed in battle 18,500 died of disease (1776–1780) 42,000 deserted
GERMANS: 7,774 total dead 1,800 killed in battle 4,888 deserted
LOYALISTS: 5,300 total dead 1,700 killed in battle 3,600 died of disease (estimated) ------------------------- TOTAL: 76,500+ soldiers dead
* v * t * e
American Revolutionary War Campaigns and theaters
* Caribbean * Gulf Coast * Gold Coast * Naval
The AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR (1775–1783), also known as the AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and her Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America .
After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Britain and its colonies. Following the Stamp Act , Patriot protests against taxation without representation escalated into boycotts, which culminated in the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves , and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power.
British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord in April 1775 led to open combat . Militia forces then besieged Boston , forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army . Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British decisively failed . On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive , capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne , intending to isolate New England . Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777.
Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences; France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India , and tensions between Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war . In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy " led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising , but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King\'s Mountain and Cowpens . He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis\' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered.
Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive, but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar . The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes .
* 1 Background
* 1.1 Early seeds * 1.2 Taxation disputes * 1.3 Colonial response
* 2 Course of the war
* 2.1 War breaks out (1775–1776) * 2.2 Political reactions * 2.3 British counter-offensive (1776–1777) * 2.4 British northern strategy fails (1777–1778) * 2.5 Foreign intervention
* 2.6 International war breaks out (1778–1780)
* 2.7 Stalemate in the North (1778–1780) * 2.8 War in the South (1778–1781) * 2.9 British defeat in America (1781) * 2.10 North Ministry collapses
* 2.11 Final years of the war (1781–1783)
* 3 Peace of Paris
* 4 Aftermath
* 4.1 Casualties and losses
* 4.1.1 Americans and allies * 4.1.2 British and allies
* 4.2 Financial debts
* 5 Analysis of combatants
* 5.1 Great Britain
* 5.1.1 Armed Forces
* 184.108.40.206 Recruitment
* 220.127.116.11.1 Loyalists and Hessians
* 18.104.22.168 Leadership * 22.214.171.124 Logistics * 126.96.36.199 Discipline
* 5.1.2 Strategic deficiencies
* 188.8.131.52 William Howe * 184.108.40.206 Clinton and Cornwallis
* 5.1.3 Campaign issues
* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 Reference literature
* 11 External links
* 11.1 Bibliographies
Main article: American Revolution
In 1651, the Parliament of England sought to regulate trade in America by passing the Navigation Acts , ensuring that trade only enriched Britain . The economic effects were minimal, but they triggered serious political friction. The American colonists had fought King Philip\'s War without significant assistance from the Crown, and this contributed to a growing sense of American identity separate from that of Britain . Britain continued to assert control into the 1680s, culminating in the abrogation of colonial charters and the establishment of the Dominion of New England in 1686. Colonists, however, felt that the Dominion was undermining their democratic liberty and they overthrew it in 1689; the Crown made no attempt to restore it.
The British government continued to pursue trade control, however, passing acts that taxed wool , hats , and molasses . The Molasses Act of 1733 was especially egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product. The taxes severely damaged the local economy, and consequently they were rarely paid. Smuggling, bribery, piracy, and intimidation of customs officials became commonplace. Colonial wars were also a contributing factor. The return of Louisbourg to France in 1748 following the War of the Austrian Succession caused considerable resentment in New England, the colonists having expended great effort in subduing the fortress only to have it returned to their erstwhile enemy.
Britain triumphed over France and Spain in the Seven Years\' War , but this led to a financial crisis, as the national debt had doubled to £130 million, and the annual cost of the British civil and military establishment in America had quintupled when compared to 1749. Smuggling had been tacitly accepted, but now the British began to consider that it blunted their revenue, so Whitehall decided to ensure that customs duties were unavoidable by passing the Stamp Act in 1765. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives . Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually ", an idea that was criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766; however, it also affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies. From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, and opposition soon became widespread.
Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop _Liberty _ on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, and Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of a teen by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre . In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island boarded and burned a customs schooner . Parliament then repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy. The landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor —so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests. This iconic 1846 lithograph by Nathaniel Currier was entitled "The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor"; the phrase " Boston Tea Party" had not yet become standard. Contrary to Currier's depiction, few of the men dumping the tea were actually disguised as Indians.
Parliament then passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter , taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor\'s Council . Additionally, the royal governor was granted powers to undermine local democracy. Further measures allowed the extradition of officials for trial elsewhere in the Empire, if the governor felt that a fair trial could not be secured locally. The act's vague reimbursement policy for travel expenses left few with the ability to testify, and colonists argued that it would allow officials to harass them with impunity. Further laws allowed the governor to billet troops in private property without permission. The colonists referred to the measures as the " Intolerable Acts ", and they argued that both their constitutional rights and their natural rights were being violated, viewing the acts as a threat to all of America. The acts were widely opposed, driving neutral parties into support of the Patriots and curtailing Loyalist sentiment.
The colonists responded by establishing the Massachusetts Provincial Congress , effectively removing Crown control of the colony outside Boston. Meanwhile, representatives from twelve colonies convened the First Continental Congress to respond to the crisis. The Congress narrowly rejected a proposal which would have created an American parliament to act in concert with the British Parliament; instead, they passed a compact declaring a trade boycott against Britain. Congress also affirmed that Parliament had no authority over internal American matters, but they were willing to consent to trade regulations for the benefit of the empire, and they authorized committees and conventions to enforce the boycott. The boycott was effective, as imports from Britain dropped by 97% in 1775 compared to 1774.
Parliament refused to yield. In 1775, it declared Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion and enforced a blockade of the colony. It then passed legislation to limit colonial trade to the British West Indies and the British Isles. Colonial ships were barred from the Newfoundland cod fisheries, a measure which pleased Canadiens but damaged New England's economy. These increasing tensions led to a mutual scramble for ordnance and pushed the colonies toward open war. Thomas Gage was the British Commander-in-Chief and military governor of Massachusetts, and he received orders on April 14, 1775 to disarm the local militias.
COURSE OF THE WAR
WAR BREAKS OUT (1775–1776)
Main articles: Battles of Lexington and Concord ; Boston campaign ; Invasion of Quebec (1775) ; Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War § Early operations, 1775–1778 ; and Battle of Nassau The British marching to Concord in April 1775
On April 18, 1775, 700 troops were sent to confiscate militia ordnance stored at Concord . Fighting broke out , forcing the regulars to conduct a fighting withdrawal to Boston . Overnight, the local militia converged on and laid siege to Boston . On March 25, 4,500 British reinforcements arrived with three senior generals; William Howe , John Burgoyne and Henry Clinton . On June 17, the British seized the Charlestown peninsular after a costly frontal assault, leading Howe to replace Gage. Many senior officers were dismayed at the attack which had gained them little, while Gage wrote to London stressing the need for a large army to suppress the revolt. On July 3, George Washington took command of the Continental Army besieging Boston. Howe made no effort to attack, much to Washington's surprise. After a plan to assault the city was rejected, in early March 1776, the Americans fortified Dorchester Heights with heavy artillery captured from a raid on Fort Ticonderoga . On March 17, the British were permitted to withdraw unmolested, sailing to Halifax , Nova Scotia . Washington then moved his army to New York .
Meanwhile, British officials in Quebec began lobbying Native American tribes to support them, while the Americans attempted to maintain their neutrality. Fearing an Anglo-Indian attack from Canada, Congress authorized an invasion of Quebec. Quebec, with a largely Francophone population, had only been under British rule for twelve years, and the Americans expected that liberating them from the British would be welcomed. After an arduous march , the Americans attacked Quebec City on December 31, which was decisively defeated . After a loose siege, the Americans withdrew on May 6. 1776. A failed counter-attack on June 8 ended American operations in Quebec. However, the British could not conduct an aggressive pursuit, due to the presence of American ships on Lake Champlain . On October 11, the British defeated the American squadron , forcing the Americans to withdraw to Ticonderoga , ending the campaign. The invasion cost the Patriots their support in British public opinion, while aggressive anti-Loyalist policies diluted Canadien support. The Patriots continued to view Quebec as a strategic aim, though no further attempts to invade were ever realized. British soldiers and Provincial militiamen repulse the American assault at Sault-au-Matelot , Canada , December 1775
In Virginia , the Royal governor , Lord Dunmore , had attempted to disarm the militia as tensions increased, although no fighting broke out. After war broke out, Dunmore issued a proclamation on November 7, 1775, promising freedom for slaves who fled their Patriot masters to fight for the Crown. After Dunmore's troops were overwhelmed by Patriots at Great Bridge , Dunmore fled to naval ships anchored off Norfolk . After negotiations broke down, Dunmore ordered the ships to destroy the town . In South Carolina , fighting broke out on November 19 between Loyalist and Patriot militias, and the Loyalists were subsequently driven out of the colony . Loyalists recruited in North Carolina to reassert colonial rule in the South were decisively defeated , subduing Loyalist sentiment. An expedition of British regulars to reconquer South Carolina launched a failed attack on Charleston on June 28, 1776, effectively leaving the South in Patriot control until 1780.
The shortage of gunpowder had led Congress to authorize an expedition against the Bahamas Colony in the West Indies , in order to secure ordnance there. On March 3, 1776, the Americans landed after a bloodless exchange of fire , and the local militia offered no resistance. For two weeks, the Americans confiscated all the supplies they could load, and sailed away on March 17. After a brief skirmish with the Royal Navy frigate _HMS Glasgow _ on April 6, the squadron reached New London on April 8.
After fighting began, Congress launched a final attempt to avert war , which Parliament rejected as insincere. King George III then issued a Proclamation of Rebellion on August 23, 1775, leading to an emboldening of hitherto weak support for independence in the colonies. After a speech by the King, Parliament rejected to oppose coercive measures on the colonies by 170 votes. British Tories refused to compromise, while Whigs argued current policy would drive the colonists towards secession. Despite opposition, the King himself began micromanaging the war effort. The Irish Parliament pledged to send troops to America, and Irish Catholics were allowed to enlist in the army for the first time. Irish Protestants favored the Americans, while Catholics favored the King.
Militarily, the initial hostilities was a sobering lesson for the British, causing them to rethink their views on colonial military capability. The weak British response gave the Patriots the advantage; the British lost control over every colony. The army had been kept deliberately small since 1688 to prevent abuses of power by the King. Parliament secured treaties with small German states for additional troops , and, after a year, were able to send an army of 32,000 men to America, the largest it had ever sent outside Europe at the time.
In the colonies, the success of Thomas Paine\'s pamphlet _Common Sense _ had boosted public support for independence. On July 2, Congress voted in favor of independence with twelve affirmatives and one abstention, issuing its declaration on July 4. Washington read the declaration to his men and the citizens of New York on July 9, invigorating the crowd to tear down a lead statue of the King, melting it to make bullets. British Tories criticized the signatories for not extending the same standards of equality to slaves . Patriots followed independence with the Test Laws, requiring residents to swear allegiance to the state in which they lived, intending to root out neutrals or opponents to independence. Failure to do so meant possible imprisonment, exile, and, in some cases, death. American Tories were barred from public office, forbidden from practising medicine and law, forced to pay increased taxes, barred from executing wills or becoming guardians to orphans. Congress enabled states to confiscate Loyalist property to fund the war, and offered them a choice between swearing loyalty to the republic, or either face exile, or forfeit the right to protection. Quakers , who remained neutral, had their property confiscated. States later prevented Loyalists from collecting any debts they were owed.
BRITISH COUNTER-OFFENSIVE (1776–1777)
After regrouping at Halifax, William Howe determined to take the fight to the Americans. Howe set sail in June 1776, and began landing troops on Staten Island on July 2. Due to poor intelligence, Washington split his army to positions across the city. An informal attempt to negotiate peace was rejected by the Americans. On August 27, Howe defeated Washington and forced him back to Brooklyn Heights . Had Howe chose to land on Manhattan , Washington could have been encircled and his army destroyed. Howe restrained his subordinates from pursuit, opting to besiege Washington instead. Washington managed to withdraw to Manhattan without any losses in men or ordnance. Following the withdrawal, a second attempt to negotiate peace failed, as the British delegates did not possess authorization to grant independence. Howe then seized control of New York on September 15, and unsuccessfully engaged the Americans the following day. Howe attempted encirclement of Washington again , but the Americans successfully withdrew. On October 28, the British fought an indecisive action against Washington, in which Howe declined to attack Washington's army, instead concentrating his efforts upon a hill that was of no strategic value. British warships forcing passage of the Hudson River.
Washington's retreat left the remnants of his forces isolated, and, on November 16, the British captured an American army , taking 3,000 prisoners, amounting to the worst American defeat to date. Washington fell back four days later. Henry Clinton then captured Newport , an operation which he opposed, feeling the 6,000 troops assigned to him could have been better employed in the pursuit of Washington. The American prisoners were then sent to the infamous "prison ships" , in which more American soldiers and sailors died of disease and neglect than died in every battle of the war combined. Charles Cornwallis pursued Washington, but Howe ordered him to halt, and Washington escaped unmolested. The outlook of the American cause was bleak; the army had dwindled to fewer than 5,000 men, and would be reduced further when the enlistments expired at the end of the year. Popular support wavered, morale ebbed away, and Congress abandoned Philadelphia . Loyalist activity surged in the wake of the American defeat, especially in New York. _ Emanuel Leutze 's famous 1851 depiction of Washington Crossing the Delaware _
News of the campaign was well received in Britain; festivities took place in London, and public support reached a peak. William Howe was awarded the Order of the Bath by the King. The successes led to predictions that the British could win within a year. The American defeat revealed Washington's strategic deficiencies, such as dividing a numerically weaker army in the face of a stronger one, his inexperienced staff misreading the situation, and his poorly-trained troops, who fled in disorder when fighting began. In the meantime, the British entered winter quarters , and were in a good place to resume campaigning.
On December 25, 1776, Washington stealthily crossed the Delaware , and overwhelmed the Hessian garrison at Trenton the following morning, taking 900 prisoners. The decisive victory rescued the army's flagging morale, and gave a new hope to the cause for independence. Cornwallis marched to re-take Trenton, though his efforts to this end were repulsed on January 2. Washington outmanoeuvred Cornwallis that night, and defeated his rearguard the following day. The victories proved instrumental in convincing the French and Spanish that the Americans were worthwhile allies, as well as recovering morale in the army. Washington entered winter quarters at Morristown on January 6, though a protracted guerrilla conflict continued . While encamped, Howe made no attempt to attack, much to Washington's amazement.
BRITISH NORTHERN STRATEGY FAILS (1777–1778)
In December 1776, John Burgoyne returned to London to set strategy with Lord George Germain . Burgoyne's plan was to establish control of the Champlain -George -Hudson route from New York to Quebec, isolating New England. Efforts could then be concentrated on the southern colonies, where it was believed Loyalist support was in abundance. Howe instead argued capturing Philadelphia and defeating Washington was a priority. Germain approved this plan, leaving Howe unable to assist Burgoyne. Washington himself was baffled by Howe's choices. Alden argues Howe was influenced by the idea that, upon success, he would not receive credit, but Burgoyne. Controversy persists over whether Germain approved Burgoyne's plan after reading Howe's, and whether he shared this information with his subordinates. Howe was not given any explicit orders to assist Burgoyne, however, a copy Germain sent to Quebec explicitly stated Howe was to assist Burgoyne's efforts. Another letter stated Howe should launch his campaign against Philadelphia as intended, while allowing enough time to assist Burgoyne. Black argues Germain either left his generals too much latitude, or without a clear direction.
Burgoyne's plan was to lead an army along Lake Champlain , while a strategic diversion advanced along the Mohawk River , and both would rendezvous at Albany . Burgoyne set out on June 14, 1777, quickly capturing Ticonderoga on July 5. The hasty withdrawal of the Continental Army after little resistance outraged the American public. Burgoyne's pursuit ran into stiff resistance at Hubbardton and Fort Anne . Leaving 1,300 men behind as a garrison, Burgoyne continued the advance. Progress was slow; the Americans blocked roads, destroyed bridges, dammed streams and denuded the area of food. Meanwhile, Barry St. Ledger\'s diversionary column laid siege to Fort Stanwix . St. Ledger withdrew to Quebec on August 22 after his Indian support abandoned him . On August 16, a British foraging expedition was soundly defeated at Bennington , and more than 700 troops were captured. As a result of the defeat, the vast majority of Burgoyne's Indian support abandoned him. Meanwhile, Howe informed Burgoyne he would launch his campaign on Philadelphia as planned, and would be unable to render aid.
Having considered his options, Burgoyne decided to continue the advance. On September 19, he attempted to flank the American position, and clashed at Freeman\'s Farm . The British won, but at the cost of 600 casualties. Burgoyne then dug in , but suffered a constant haemorrhage of deserters, and critical supplies were running low. Henry Clinton did capture two key forts on October 6 to divert American resources, though he turned back ten days later. Meanwhile, the American army was growing in size daily, swelling to some 15,000 men. On October 7, a British reconnaissance in force against the American lines was repulsed with heavy losses . Burgoyne then withdrew with the Americans in pursuit, and by October 13, he was surrounded. With no hope of relief and supplies exhausted, Burgoyne surrendered on October 17. 6,222 soldiers became prisoners of the Americans . The decisive success spurred France to enter the war as an ally of the United States , securing the final elements needed for victory over Britain, that of foreign assistance. Washington and Lafayette inspect the troops at Valley Forge .
Meanwhile, Howe launched his campaign against Washington, though his initial efforts to bring him to battle in June 1777 failed. Howe declined to attack Philadelphia overland via New Jersey , or by sea via the Delaware Bay , even though both options would have enabled him to assist Burgoyne if necessary. Instead, he took his army on a time-consuming route through the Chesapeake Bay , leaving him completely unable to assist Burgoyne. This decision was so difficult to understand, Howe's critics accused him of treason.
Howe outflanked and defeated Washington on September 11, though he failed to follow-up on the victory and destroy his army. A British victory at Willistown left Philadelphia defenceless, and Howe captured the city unopposed on September 26. Howe then moved 9,000 men to Germantown , north of Philadelphia. Washington launched a surprise attack on Howe's garrison on October 4, which was eventually repulsed. Again, Howe did not follow-up on his victory, leaving the American army intact and able to fight. Later, after several days of probing American defences at White Marsh, Howe inexplicably ordered a retreat to Philadelphia, astonishing both sides. Howe ignored the vulnerable American rear, where an attack could have deprived Washington of his baggage and supplies. On December 19, Washington's army entered winter quarters at Valley Forge . Poor conditions and supply problems resulted in the deaths of some 2,500 troops. Howe, only 20 miles (32 km) away, made no effort to attack, which critics observed could have ended the war.
The Continental Army was put through a new training program, supervised by Baron von Steuben , introducing the most modern Prussian methods of drilling. Meanwhile, Howe resigned, and was replaced by Henry Clinton on May 24, 1778. Clinton received orders to abandon Philadelphia and fortify New York following France's entry into the war. On June 18, the British departed Philadelphia, with the reinvigorated Americans in pursuit. The two armies fought at Monmouth Court House on June 28, with the Americans holding the field, greatly boosting morale and confidence. By July, both armies were back in the same positions they had been two years prior.
The defeat at Saratoga caused considerable anxiety in Britain over foreign intervention. The North ministry sought reconciliation with the colonies by consenting to their original demands, although Lord North refused to grant independence. No positive reply was received from the Americans.
French foreign minister the Comte de Vergennes was strongly anti-British , and he sought a _casus belli _ to go to war with and weaken their perennial foe following the conquest of Canada in 1763. The French had covertly supplied the Americans through neutral Dutch ports since the onset of the war, proving invaluable throughout the Saratoga campaign. The French public favored war, though Vergennes and King Louis XVI were hesitant, owing to the military and financial risk. The American victory at Saratoga convinced the French that supporting the Patriots was worthwhile, but doing so also brought major concerns. The King was concerned that Britain's concessions would be accepted, and that she would then reconcile with the Colonies to strike at French and Spanish possessions in the Caribbean . To prevent this, France formally recognized the United States on February 6, 1778 and followed with a military alliance . France aimed to expel Britain from the Newfoundland fishery , end restrictions on Dunkirk sovereignty, regain free trade in India, recover Senegal and Dominica , and restore the Treaty of Utrecht provisions pertaining to Anglo-French trade.
Spain was wary of provoking war with Britain before she was ready, so she covertly supplied the Patriots via her colonies in New Spain . Congress hoped to persuade Spain into an open alliance, so the first American Commission met with the Count of Aranda in 1776. Spain was still reluctant to make an early commitment, owing to a lack of direct French involvement, the threat against their treasure fleets , and the possibility of war with Portugal , Spain's neighbor and a close ally of Britain . However, Spain affirmed its desire to support the Americans the following year, hoping to weaken Britain's empire. In the Spanish-Portuguese War (1776-77) , the Portuguese threat was neutralized. On 12 April 1779, Spain signed the Treaty of Aranjuez with France and went to war against Britain. Spain sought to recover Gibraltar and Minorca in Europe, as well as Mobile and Pensacola in Florida, and also to expel the British from Central America .
Meanwhile, George III had given up on subduing America while Britain had a European war to fight. He did not welcome war with France, but he believed that Britain had made all necessary steps to avoid it and cited the British victories over France in the Seven Years' War as a reason to remain optimistic. Britain tried in vain to find a powerful ally to engage France, leaving it isolated, preventing Britain from focusing the majority of her efforts in one theater , and forcing a major diversion of military resources from America. Despite this, the King determined never to recognize American independence and to ravage the colonies indefinitely, or until they pleaded to return to the yoke of the Crown. Mahan argues that Britain's attempt to fight in multiple theaters simultaneously without major allies was fundamentally flawed, citing impossible mutual support, exposing the forces to defeat in detail .
Since the outbreak of the conflict, Britain had appealed to her ally, the neutral Dutch Republic, to loan her the use of the Scots Brigade for service in America, but pro-American sentiment among the Dutch public forced them to deny the request. Consequently, the British attempted to invoke several treaties for outright Dutch military support, but the Republic still refused. Moreover, American troops were being supplied with ordnance by Dutch merchants via their West Indies colonies . French supplies bound for America had also passed through Dutch ports. The Republic maintained free trade with France following France's declaration of war on Britain, citing a prior concession by Britain on this issue. Britain responded by confiscating Dutch shipping, and even firing upon it. Consequently, the Republic joined the First League of Armed Neutrality to enforce their neutral status. The Republic had also given sanctuary to American privateers and had drafted a treaty of commerce with the Americans. Britain argued that these actions contravened the Republic's neutral stance and declared war in December 1780.
INTERNATIONAL WAR BREAKS OUT (1778–1780)
Soon after France declared war, French and British fleets fought an indecisive action off Ushant on 27 July 1778. On 12 April 1779, Spain entered the war, with a primary goal of capturing Gibraltar. On June 24, Spanish troops under the Duc de Crillon laid siege to the Rock . The naval blockade, however, was relatively weak, and the British were able to resupply the garrison. Meanwhile, a plan was formulated for a combined Franco-Spanish invasion of the British mainland . A combination of poor planning, disease, logistical issues and high financial expenditures resulted in the expedition's failure. However, a diversionary Franco-American squadron under John Paul Jones did meet with some success on 23 September. On 16 January 1780, the Royal Navy under George Rodney scored a major victory over the Spanish, weakening the naval blockade of Gibraltar.
On 9 August, a Franco-Spanish fleet commanded by Luis de Córdova intercepted and decisively defeated a large British convoy off The Azores , led by John Moutray , bound for the West Indies. The defeat was catastrophic for Britain; losing 52 merchant ships , 5 East Indiamen , 80,000 muskets, equipment for 40,000 troops, 294 guns and 3,144 men, making it one of the most complete naval captures ever made. The loss was valued at some £1.5 million, or £180 million in today's money, dealing a severe blow to British commerce. The Moonlight Battle of Cape St. Vincent , 16 January 1780 by Francis Holman, painted 1780
In the Caribbean, intending to damage British trade, the French blockaded the lucrative sugar islands of Barbados and Jamaica . In order to improve communication among French Caribbean islands , and to strike a blow to privateering, French troops led by the Marquis de Bouillé captured Dominica on 7 September 1778. To monitor the French naval base on Martinique , the British defeated a French naval force on 15 December, and captured St. Lucia on 28 December. Though both fleets received reinforcements through the first half of 1779, the French under the Comte d\'Estaing soon enjoyed superiority in the Caribbean, and began capturing British territories; seizing St. Vincent on 18 June, and Grenada on 4 July. On July 6, having pursued d'Estaing from Grenada, the British fleet under John Byron was tactically defeated , the worst loss the Royal Navy had suffered since 1690 . Naval skirmishes continued until 17 April 1780, when British and French fleets clashed indecisively off Martinique .
On the mainland, Bernardo de Gálvez , governor of Louisiana , had intercepted intelligence the British were planning to invade New Orleans , and decided to strike first . Gálvez intended to conquer West Florida, and set out with 670 men on August 27, 1779, though his force was soon swollen to 1,400 by local Native Americans. On 7 September, Fort Bute fell to the Spanish, who then marched on to Baton Rouge , arriving on September 12. After a nine-day siege , the town fell. Leaving a garrison behind, Gálvez returned to New Orleans to recruit additional troops. In early 1780, Gálvez mounted an expedition to take Mobile , setting off with 750 troops on 11 January. Joined by reinforcements from Havana, siege operations commenced on March 1, and the town fell after a 14-day siege. Gálvez had hoped to push on to Pensacola , the British capital of West Florida, however, a hurricane devastated his expedition, stalling it till 1781.
In Central America, the defence of Guatemala was a priority for Spain. The British intended to capture the key fortress of San Fernando de Omoa and drive the Spanish from the region. After inadequate first attempts, 1,200 British troops led by William Dalrymple arrived on 16 October, and captured the fort on 20 October. However, the British suffered terribly due to disease, and were forced to abandon the fort on 29 November, and Spanish troops subsequently reoccupied the fort. In 1780, John Dalling , governor of Jamaica, planned an expedition to cut New Spain in two, by capturing Granada , which would subsequently allow them full control of the San Juan River . The British expedition , led by John Polson and Horatio Nelson , set out on 3 February 1780. On 17 March, the expedition reached Fort San Juan and laid siege, capturing it on 29 April. The British were ravaged by disease, and were running low on food due to poor logistics. The British withdrew on 8 November, the expedition having suffered a decisive defeat; some 2,500 troops had perished, making it the costliest British disaster of the war. Mysorean troops defeat the British at Pollilur, using rockets against closely massed British infantry
After word of hostilities with France reached India , the British East India Company moved quickly to capture French possessions, and took Pondicherry after a two-week siege on 19 October 1778. The Company resolved to drive the French out of India entirely, capturing the Malabar port of Mahé in 1779. Mahé had been under the protection of Mysore , as French ordnance passed through the port to the Mysorean ruler, Hyder Ali . Tensions were already inflamed due to British support for Malabar rebels against Ali, and the fall of Mahé precipitated war . In July 1780, Ali invaded the Carnatic , and laid siege to Tellicherry and Arcot . A 7,000-strong Company relief force under William Baille was intercepted and destroyed by the Tipu Sultan on 10 September; thus far the worst defeat suffered by a European army in India. Instead of pressing on for a decisive victory against a second Company army at Madras , Ali renewed the siege at Arcot, capturing it on 3 November. The delay allowed British forces to regroup for campaigning the following year.
STALEMATE IN THE NORTH (1778–1780)
Main articles: Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War after Saratoga and Western theater of the American Revolutionary War "Give 'em Watts, boys!" – American troops repulse Wilhelm von Knyphausen\'s attack at Springfield
Following the British defeat at Saratoga, and the entry of France into the war, Henry Clinton withdrew from Philadelphia, consolidating in New York. French admiral the Comte d'Estaing had been dispatched to North America in April 1778 to assist Washington, arriving shortly after Clinton withdrew into New York. Concluding New York's defences were too formidable for the French fleet, the Franco-American forces opted to attack Newport. This effort, launched on August 29 , failed after the French opted to withdraw, greatly angering the Americans. The war then ground down to a stalemate, with the majority of actions fought as large skirmishes, such as those at Chestnut Neck and Little Egg Harbor . In the summer of 1779, the Americans captured British posts at Stony Point and Paulus Hook .
In July, Clinton's attempts to coax Washington into a decisive engagement with a major raid into Connecticut failed. That month, a large American naval operation to retake Maine resulted in the worst American naval defeat until Pearl Harbor in 1941. The high frequency of Iroquois raids on the locals compelled Washington to mount a punitive expedition , destroying a large number of Iroquois settlements, but the effort ultimately failed to stop the raids. During the winter of 1779–80, the Continental Army suffered greater hardships than at Valley Forge. Morale was poor; public support was being eroded by the long war, the national currency was virtually worthless, the army was plagued with supply problems, desertion was common, and, in early 1780, whole regiments mutinied over the conditions. Hamilton surrenders at Vincennes, February 29, 1779
In 1780, Clinton launched an attempt to re-take New Jersey. On June 7, an invasion of 6,000 men under Hessian general Wilhelm von Knyphausen met stiff resistance from the local militia. Though the British held the field, Knyphausen feared a general engagement with Washington's main army, and withdrew. A fortnight later, Knyphausen and Clinton decided upon a second attempt, which was soundly defeated at Springfield , effectively ending British ambitions in New Jersey. Meanwhile, American general Benedict Arnold had grown disenfranchised with the war, and conspired with the British to surrender the key American fortress of West Point . Arnold's plot was foiled upon the capture of his contact, John André , and he escaped to British lines in New York. Though Arnold's reasoning reflected Loyalist opinion, Patriots strongly condemned him.
West of the Appalachians , the war was largely confined to skirmishing and raids. In February 1778, an expedition of militia to destroy British military supplies in settlements along the Cuyahoga River was halted due to adverse weather. Later in the year, a second campaign was undertaken to seize the Illinois Country from the British. The Americans captured Kaskaskia on July 4, and then secured Vincennes , although the latter was quickly recaptured by Henry Hamilton , the British commander at Detroit . In early 1779, the Americans counter-attacked by undertaking a risky winter march, and secured the surrender of the British at Vincennes, taking Hamilton prisoner.
On May 25, 1780, the British launched an expedition into Kentucky , as part of a wider operation to clear resistance from Quebec to the Gulf coast . The expedition met with only limited success, though hundreds of settlers were killed or captured. The Americans responded with a major offensive along the Mad River in August, which met with some success , but did little to abate the Native American raids on the frontier. An attempt by French militia to capture Detroit ended in disaster when Miami Indians ambushed and defeated the gathered troops on November 5. The war in the west had become a stalemate; the Americans did not have the manpower to simultaneously defeat the Indian tribes and occupy their land.
WAR IN THE SOUTH (1778–1781)
Main article: Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War British troops besiege Charleston in 1780, by Alonzo Chappel
In 1778, despite the defeat at Saratoga, the British turned their attention to reconquering the South. Prominent Loyalists with great influence in London had convinced the British that Loyalist support was high in the South, and that a campaign there would inspire a popular Loyalist uprising. The British centred their strategy upon this thinking. A southern campaign also had the advantage of keeping the Royal Navy closer to the Caribbean, where it would be needed to defend lucrative colonies against the Franco-Spanish fleets.
On December 29, 1778, an expeditionary corps from New York captured Savannah . British troops then moved inland to recruit Loyalist support. Despite a promising initial turnout in early 1779, a large Loyalist militia was defeated at Kettle Creek on February 14, demonstrating their vulnerability when operating away from British regulars. The British recovered their loss, defeating Patriot militia at Brier Creek on March 3. The British then launched an abortive assault on Charleston, South Carolina . The operation was noted for a high degree of looting by British troops, enraging both Loyalists and Patriot colonists. In October, a combined Franco-American effort to capture Savannah failed. In 1780, Henry Clinton moved against Charleston, capturing it on May 12. With few losses of their own, the British took 5,266 prisoners, effectively destroying the Continental Army in the south. Organized American resistance in the region collapsed when Banastre Tarleton defeated the withdrawing Americans at Waxhaws on May 29. American and British cavalry clash at the Battle of Cowpens, from an 1845 painting by William Ranney
Clinton returned to New York, leaving Charles Cornwallis in command in Charleston to oversee the southern war effort. In the interim, the war was carried on by Patriot militias, whom effectively suppressed Loyalists by winning victories in Fairfield County , Lincolnton , York County , Stanly County , and Lancaster County . Congress appointed Horatio Gates , victor at Saratoga, to lead the American effort in the south. Soon after arriving, on August 16, Gates suffered a major defeat at Camden , setting the stage for Cornwallis to invade North Carolina. While Patriot militia continued to interfere in attempts to pacify the countryside, Cornwallis dispatched troops to raise Loyalist forces to cover his left flank as he moved north. This wing of Cornwallis' army was virtually destroyed on October 7, irreversibly breaking Loyalist support in the Carolinas. Cornwallis subsequently aborted his advance and retreated back into South Carolina. In the interim, Washington replaced Gates with his trusted subordinate, Nathanael Greene .
Unable to confront the British directly, Greene dispatched a force under Daniel Morgan to recruit additional troops. Morgan then defeated the cream of the British army under Tarleton on January 17, 1781, at Cowpens . As after the defeat of the Loyalists at King's Mountain, Cornwallis was criticized for his decision to detach a substantial part of his army without adequate support. Despite the setbacks, Cornwallis proceeded to advance into North Carolina, gambling that he would receive substantial Loyalist support. Greene evaded combat with Cornwallis, instead wearing his army down through a protracted war of attrition . By March, Greene's army had grown enough where he felt confident in facing Cornwallis. The two armies engaged at Guilford Courthouse on March 15, and, though Greene was beaten, Cornwallis' army had suffered irreplaceable casualties. Compounding this, far fewer Loyalists were joining as expected due to effective Patriot suppression. Cornwallis' casualties were such that he was compelled to retreat to Wilmington for reinforcement, leaving the interior of the Carolinas, and Georgia, wide open to Greene.
In Cornwallis' absence, Greene proceeded to reconquer the South. Despite suffering a reversal at Hobkirk\'s Hill on April 25, American troops continued to dislodge strategic British posts in the area, capturing Fort Watson , and Fort Motte . Augusta, the last major British outpost in the South outside of Charleston and Savannah, fell on June 6 . In an effort to stop Greene, a British force clashed with American troops at Eutaw Springs on September 8. Despite inflicting a tactical defeat on Greene's army, the casualties suffered by the British were such that they withdrew to Charleston. While minor skirmishes in the Carolinas continued till the end of the war, British troops were effectively confined to Charleston and Savannah for the remainder of the conflict.
BRITISH DEFEAT IN AMERICA (1781)
Cornwallis had discovered that the majority of the American's supplies in the Carolinas were passing through Virginia , and had written to both Lord Germain and Clinton detailing his intentions to invade. Cornwallis believed a successful campaign there would cut supplies to Greene's army and precipitate a collapse of American resistance in the South. Clinton strongly opposed the plan, instead favoring conducting a campaign further north in the Chesapeake region. Lord Germain wrote to Cornwallis approving his plan, neglecting to include Clinton in the decision-making entirely, despite him being Cornwallis' superior officer. Cornwallis then decided to move into Virginia without informing Clinton. Clinton, however, had failed to construct a coherent strategy for British operations in 1781, owing to his difficult relationship with his naval counterpart, Marriot Arbuthnot .
Following the calamitous operations at Newport and Savannah, French planners realized closer cooperation with the Americans was required to achieve success. The French fleet, led by the Comte de Grasse , had received discretionary orders from Paris to assist joint efforts in the north if naval support was needed. Washington and his French counterpart, the Comte de Rochambeau , discussed their options. Washington pushed for an attack on New York, while Rochambeau preferred a strike in Virginia, where the British were less well-established and thus, easier to defeat. Franco-American movements around New York caused Clinton a great deal of anxiety, fearing an attack on the city. His instructions to Cornwallis during this time were vague, rarely forming explicit orders. However, Clinton did instruct Cornwallis to establish a fortified naval base, and transfer troops to the north to defend New York. Cornwallis dug in at Yorktown , and awaited the Royal Navy. _ Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown_ by John Trumbull , 1797
Washington still favored an assault on New York, but was essentially overruled when the French opted to send their fleet to their preferred target of Yorktown. In August, the combined Franco-American army moved south to cooperate with de Grasse to defeat Cornwallis. Lacking sufficient naval resources to effectively counter the French, the British dispatched an inadequate fleet under Thomas Graves to assist Cornwallis and assume naval dominance. On September 5, the French fleet decisively defeated Graves , giving the French control of the seas around Yorktown, cutting Cornwallis off from reinforcements and relief. Despite the continued urging of his subordinates, Cornwallis made no attempt to break out and engage the Franco-American army before it had established siege works, instead expecting reinforcements would arrive from New York.
On September 28, the Franco-American army laid siege to Yorktown . Believing relief from Clinton was imminent, Cornwallis prematurely abandoned all of his outer defences, which were then occupied by the Franco-American troops, serving to hasten his subsequent defeat. A British attempt to break out of the siege across the river at Gloucester Point failed when a storm hit. Under increasing bombardment and with dwindling supplies, Cornwallis and his subordinates agreed their situation was untenable, and negotiated a surrender on October 17. Some 7,685 soldiers became prisoners of the Franco-American army. The same day as the surrender, 6,000 troops under Clinton had departed New York, sailing to relieve Yorktown.
NORTH MINISTRY COLLAPSES
The Gordon Riots, by John Seymour Lucas
Following British successes at Newport and Charleston, the North government had gained support in Parliament. However, the government's decision to allow Irish Catholics to enlist in the army was deeply unpopular, triggering a massive protest in London in 1780, culminating in widespread rioting . The riots were the most destructive in London\'s history , damaging the prestige of the government. On 25 November 1781, the situation worsened when news of the surrender at Yorktown arrived in London. Prime Minister Lord North is said to have repeatedly exclaimed; "Oh, God! It's all over!" King George III received the news with dignity, though later became depressed and considered abdication . The Whig opposition gained traction in Parliament, though a motion proposed on December 12 to end the war was defeated by only one vote.
Lord Germain , who had overseen strategic matters in the war effort, was dismissed from office in early 1782. Soon after, a no confidence motion in the Prime Minister was passed, forcing the resignation of North and leading to the collapse of his ministry. The Rockingham Whigs came to power soon after and began opening negotiations for peace. Prime Minister the Marquess of Rockingham died in office on 1 July 1782, and was succeeded by the Earl of Shelburne , forcing the resignations of prominent Whigs Edmund Burke and Charles James Fox , with whom Shelburne had an icy relationship. Shelburne was initially hesitant to granting full American independence, instead preferring the colonies accept Dominion status , though such intentions were never realized.
Despite the defeats in America, the British still had 30,000 troops garrisoned there, occupying New York, Charleston and Savannah. Henry Clinton was recalled to London after the defeat at Yorktown, and departed America in March 1782. He was replaced by Guy Carleton , who was under orders to suspend offensive operations in America.
FINAL YEARS OF THE WAR (1781–1783)
After hostilities with the Dutch began in late 1780, Britain had moved quickly, enforcing a blockade across the North Sea . Within weeks, the British had captured 200 Dutch merchantmen, and 300 more were holed up in foreign ports, though political turmoil within the Republic and peace negotiations by both sides helped keep conflict to a minimum. The majority of the Dutch public favored a military alliance with France against Britain, however, the Dutch Stadtholder impeded these efforts, hoping to secure an early peace. To restore diminishing trade a Dutch squadron under Johan Zoutman escorted a fleet of some 70 merchantmen from the Texel . Zoutman's ships were intercepted by Sir Hyde Parker , who engaged Zoutman at Dogger Bank on 5 August 1781. Though the contest was tactically inconclusive, the Dutch fleet did not leave harbor again during the war, and their merchant fleet remained crippled. _ The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar _, September 13, 1782, by John Singleton Copley
On 6 January 1781, a French attempt to capture Jersey to neutralize British privateering failed. Frustrated in their attempts to capture Gibraltar, a Franco-Spanish force of 14,000 men under the Duc de Mahon met with more success in August; invading Minorca on 19 August. After a long siege of St. Philip\'s , the British garrison under James Murray surrendered on 5 February 1782, securing a primary war goal for the Spanish. At Gibraltar, a major Franco-Spanish assault on 13 September 1782 was repulsed with heavy casualties. On 20 October 1782, following a successful resupply of Gibraltar, British ships under Richard Howe successfully refused battle to the Franco-Spanish fleet under Luis de Córdova, denying Córdova dominance at sea. On 7 February 1783, after 1,322 days of siege, the Franco-Spanish army withdrew, decisively defeated.
In the West Indies, on 29–30 April 1781, a Royal Navy squadron under Samuel Hood was narrowly defeated by the French, led by the Comte de Grasse. de Grasse continued seizing British territories; Tobago fell on 2 June, Demerara and Essequibo on 22 January 1782, St. Kitts and Nevis on 12 February, despite a British naval victory on 25 January, and Montserrat on 22 February. In 1782, the primary strategic goal of the French and Spanish was the capture of Jamaica, whose sugar exports were more valuable to the British than the Thirteen Colonies combined. On 7 April 1782, de Grasse departed Martinique to rendezvous with Franco-Spanish troops at Saint Domingue , and invade Jamaica from the north. The British under Hood and George Rodney pursued and decisively defeated the French off Dominica between 9–12 April. The Franco-Spanish plan to conquer Jamaica was in ruins, and the balance of naval power in the Caribbean shifted to the Royal Navy.
After the fall of Mobile to Spanish troops under Bernardo de Gálvez, an attempt to capture Pensacola was thwarted due to a hurricane. Emboldened by the disaster, John Campbell , British commander at Pensacola, decided to recapture Mobile. Campbell's expeditionary force of around 700 men was defeated on 7 January 1781. After re-grouping at Havana , Gálvez set out for Pensacola on 13 February. Arriving on 9 March, siege operations did not begin until 24 March, owing to difficulties in bringing the ships into the bay. After a 45-day siege, Gálvez decisively defeated the garrison, securing the conquest of West Florida. In May, Spanish troops captured the Bahamas , although the British bloodlessly recaptured the islands the following year on 18 April.
In Guatemala, Matías de Gálvez led Spanish troops in an effort to dislocate British settlements along the Gulf of Honduras . Gálvez captured Roatán on 16 March 1782, and then quickly took Black River . Following the decisive naval victory at the Saintes , Archibald Campbell , the Royal governor of Jamaica, authorized Edward Despard to re-take Black River, which he did on 22 August . However, with peace talks opening, and Franco-Spanish resources committed to the siege of Gibraltar, no further offensive operations took place.
Few operations were conducted against the Dutch, although several Dutch colonies were captured by the British in 1781. Sint Eustatius, a key supply port for the Patriots, was sacked by British forces under George Rodney on 3 February 1782, plundering the island's wealth.
Following Dutch entry into the conflict, East India Company troops under Hector Munro captured the Dutch port of Negapatam after a three-week siege on 11 October 1781. Soon after, British Admiral Edward Hughes captured Trincomalee after a brief engagement on 11 January 1782. _ The British (right) and the French (left), with Admiral Suffren's flagship Cléopâtre _ on the far left, exchange fire at Cuddalore , by Auguste Jugelet, 1836.
In March 1781, French Admiral Bailli de Suffren was dispatched to India to assist colonial efforts. Suffren arrived off the Indian coast in February 1782, where he clashed with a British fleet under Hughes, winning a narrow tactical victory. After landing troops at Porto Novo to assist Mysore, Suffren's fleet clashed with Hughes again Providien on 12 April. There was no clear victor, though Hughes' fleet came off worse, and he withdrew to the British-held port of Trincomalee. Hyder Ali wished for the French to capture Negapatam to establish naval dominance over the British, and this task fell to Suffren. Suffren's fleet clashed with Hughes again off Negapatam on 6 July. Suffren withdrew to Cuddalore , strategically defeated, and the British remained in control of Negapatam. Intending to find a more suitable port than Cuddalore, Suffren captured Trincomalee on 1 September, and successfully engaged Hughes two days later.
Meanwhile, Ali's troops loosely blockaded Vellore as the East India Company regrouped. Company troops under Sir Eyre Coote led a counter-offensive, defeating Ali at Porto Novo on 1 July 1781, Pollilur on 27 August, and Sholinghur on 27 September, expelling the Mysorean troops from the Carnatic. On 18 February 1782, Tipu Sultan defeated John Braithwaite near Tanjore , taking his entire 1,800-strong force prisoner. The war had, by this point, reached an uneasy stalemate. On 7 December 1782, Hyder Ali died, and the rule of Mysore passed to his son, Tipu Sultan.
Sultan advanced along the west coast, laying siege to Mangalore on 20 May 1783. Meanwhile, on the east coast, an army under James Stuart besieged the French-held port of Cuddalore on 9 June 1783. On 20 June, key British naval support for the siege was neutralized when Suffren defeated Hughes' fleet off Cuddalore , and though narrow, the victory gave Suffren the opportunity to displace British holdings in India. On 25 June, the Franco-Mysorean defenders made repeated sorties against British lines, though all assaults failed. On 30 June, news arrived of a preliminary peace between the belligerent powers, and the siege was effectively over when the French abandoned the siege. Mangalore remained under siege, and capitulated to Sultan on 30 January 1784. Little fighting took place thereafter, and Mysore and Britain made peace on 11 March.
PEACE OF PARIS
Main articles: Peace of Paris (1783) and Treaty of Paris (1783) Benjamin West 's famous painting of the American delegations at the Treaty of Paris. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed.
Following the surrender at Yorktown, the Whig party came to power in Britain and began opening negotiations for a cessation of hostilities. While peace negotiations were being undertaken, British troops in America were restricted from launching further offensives. Prime Minister the Earl of Shelburne was reluctant to accept American independence as a prerequisite for peace, as the British were aware that the French economy was nearly bankrupt, and reinforcements sent to the West Indies could potentially reverse the situation there. He preferred that the colonies accept Dominion status within the Empire, though a similar offer had been rejected by the Americans in 1778. Negotiations soon began in Paris.
The Americans initially demanded that Quebec be ceded to them as spoils of war , a proposal that was dropped when Shelburne accepted American demands for recognition of independence. On April 19, 1782, the Dutch formally recognized the United States as a sovereign power, enhancing American leverage at the negotiations. Spain initially impeded the negotiations, refusing to enter into peace talks until Gibraltar had been captured. The Comte de Vergennes proposed that American territory be confined to the east of the Appalachians; Britain would have sovereignty over the area north of the Ohio River , below which an Indian barrier state would be established under Spanish control. The United States fiercely opposed the proposal. Washington enters New York in triumph following the British evacuation of America .
The Americans skirted their allies, recognizing that more favorable terms would be found in London. They negotiated directly with Shelburne, who hoped to make Britain a valuable trading partner of America at the expense of France. To this end, Shelburne offered to cede all the land east of the Mississippi River , north of Florida, and south of Quebec, while also allowing American fishermen access to the rich Newfoundland fishery. According to one historian, Shelburne was hoping to facilitate the growth of the American population, creating lucrative markets that Britain could exploit at no administrative cost to London. As Vergennes commented, "the English buy peace rather than make it".
Throughout the negotiations, Britain never consulted her American Indian allies, forcing them to reluctantly accept the treaty. However, the subsequent tension erupted into conflicts between the Indians and the young United States, the largest being the Northwest Indian War . Britain continued trying to create an Indian buffer state in the American Midwest as late as 1814 during the War of 1812 .
Britain negotiated separate treaties with Spain, France, and the Dutch Republic. Gibraltar proved to be a stumbling block in the peace talks; Spain offered to relinquish their conquests in West Florida, Minorca, and the Bahamas in exchange for Gibraltar, terms which Shelburne steadfastly refused. Shelburne instead offered to cede East Florida , West Florida, and Minorca if Spain would relinquish the claim on Gibraltar, terms which were reluctantly accepted. However, in the long-term, the new territorial gains were of little value to Spain. France's only net gains were the island of Tobago in the Caribbean and Senegal in Africa, after agreeing to return all other colonial conquests to British sovereignty. Britain returned Dutch Caribbean territories to Dutch sovereignty, in exchange for free trade rights in the Dutch East Indies and control of the Indian port of Negapatnam .
Preliminary peace articles were signed in Paris on 30 November 1782, while preliminaries between Britain, Spain, France, and the Netherlands continued until September 1783. The United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784 . Copies were sent back to Europe for ratification by the other parties involved, the first reaching France in March 1784. British ratification occurred on April 9, 1784, and the ratified versions were exchanged in Paris on May 12, 1784. The war formally concluded on September 3, 1783.
The last British troops departed New York City on November 25, 1783, marking the end of British rule in the new United States.
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
Americans And Allies
The total loss of life throughout the conflict is largely unknown. As was typical in wars of the era, diseases such as smallpox claimed more lives than battle. Between 1775 and 1782, a smallpox epidemic broke out throughout North America, killing 40 people in Boston alone. Historian Joseph Ellis suggests that Washington's decision to have his troops inoculated against the disease was one of his most important decisions.
Between 25,000 and 70,000 American Patriots died during active military service. Of these, approximately 6,800 were killed in battle, while at least 17,000 died from disease. The majority of the latter died while prisoners of war of the British, mostly in the prison ships in New York Harbor. If the upper limit of 70,000 is accepted as the total net loss for the Patriots, it would make the conflict proportionally deadlier than the American Civil War . Uncertainty arises due to the difficulties in accurately calculating the number of those who succumbed to disease, as it is estimated at least 10,000 died in 1776 alone. The number of Patriots seriously wounded or disabled by the war has been estimated from 8,500 to 25,000.
The French suffered approximately 7,000 total dead throughout the conflict; of those, 2,112 were killed in combat in the American theaters of war.
The Dutch suffered around 500 total killed, owing to the minor scale of their conflict with Britain.
British And Allies
British returns in 1783 listed 43,633 rank and file deaths across the British Armed Forces . A table from 1781 puts total British Army deaths at 9,372 soldiers killed in battle across the Americas; 6,046 in North America (1775–1779), and 3,326 in the West Indies (1778–1780). In 1784, a British lieutenant compiled a detailed list of 205 British officers killed in action during the war, encompassing Europe, the Caribbean and the East Indies. Extrapolations based upon this list puts British Army losses in the area of at least 4,000 killed or died of wounds. Approximately 7,774 Germans died in British service in addition to 4,888 deserters; of the former, it is estimated 1,800 were killed in combat.
Around 171,000 sailors served in the Royal Navy during the war; approximately a quarter of whom had been pressed into service. Around 1,240 were killed in battle, while an estimated 18,500 died from disease (1776–1780). The greatest killer at sea was scurvy , a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. It was not until 1795 that scurvy was eradicated from the Royal Navy after the Admiralty declared lemon juice and sugar were to be issued among the standard daily rations of sailors. Around 42,000 sailors deserted during the war. The impact on merchant shipping was substantial; an estimated 3,386 merchant ships were seized by enemy forces during the war; of those, 2,283 were taken by American privateers alone.
Main article: Financial costs of the American Revolutionary War
At the start of the war, the economy of the colonies was flourishing, and the free white population enjoyed the highest standard of living in the world. The Royal Navy enforced a naval blockade during the war to financially cripple the colonies, however, this proved unsuccessful; 90% of the population worked in farming, not in coastal trade, and, as such, the American economy proved resilient enough to withstand the blockade.
Congress had immense difficulties throughout the conflict to efficiently finance the war effort. As the circulation of hard currency declined, the Americans had to rely on loans from American merchants and bankers, France, Spain and the Netherlands, saddling the young nation with crippling debts. Congress attempted to remedy this by printing vast amounts of paper money and bills of credit to raise revenue. The effect was disastrous; inflation skyrocketed, and the paper money became virtually worthless. The inflation spawned a popular phrase that anything of little value was "not worth a continental ".
By 1791, the United States had accumulated a national debt of approximately $75.5 million. The United States finally solved its debt and currency problems in the 1790s, when Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton secured legislation by which the national government assumed all of the state debts, and, in addition, created a national bank and a funding system based on tariffs and bond issues that paid off the foreign debts.
Britain spent around £ 80 million and ended with a national debt of £250 million, (£27.1 billion in today's money), generating a yearly interest of £9.5 million annually. The debts piled upon that which it had already accumulated from the Seven Years\' War . Due to wartime taxation upon the British populace, the tax for the average Briton amounted to approximately four shillings in every pound .
The French spent approximately 1.3 billion livres on aiding the Americans, accumulating a national debt of 3.315.1 billion livres by 1783 on war costs. Unlike Britain, which had a very efficient taxation system, the French tax system was highly unstable, eventually leading to a financial crisis in 1786. The debts contributed to a worsening fiscal crisis that ultimately begat the French Revolution at the end of the century. The debt continued to spiral; on the eve of the French Revolution, the national debt had skyrocketed to 12 billion livres.
Spain had nearly doubled her military spending during the war, from 454 million reales in 1778 to over 700 million in 1779. Spain more easily disposed of her debts unlike her French ally, partially due to the massive increase in silver mining in her American colonies; production increased approximately 600% in Mexico, and by 250% in Peru and Bolivia.
ANALYSIS OF COMBATANTS
See also: British Army during the American Revolutionary War , Royal Navy , Hessian (soldier) , and Loyalist (American Revolution) British redcoats at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775.
The population of Great Britain and Ireland in 1780 was approximately 12.6 million, while the Thirteen Colonies held a population of some 2.8 million, including some 500,000 slaves. Theoretically, Britain had the advantage, however, many factors inhibited the procurement of a large army.
Press gang at work, British caricature of 1780
In 1775, the standing British Army , exclusive of militia, comprised 45,123 men worldwide, made up of 38,254 infantry and 6,869 cavalry. The Army had approximately eighteen regiments of foot, some 8,500 men, stationed in North America. Standing armies had played a key role in the purge of the Long Parliament in 1648, the maintenance of a military dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell , and the overthrow of James II , and, as such, the Army had been deliberately kept small in peacetime to prevent abuses of power by the King. Despite this, eighteenth century armies were not easy guests, and were regarded with scorn and contempt by the press and public of the New and Old World alike, derided as enemies of liberty. An expression ran in the Navy ; "A messmate before a shipmate, a shipmate before a stranger, a stranger before a dog, a dog before a soldier".
Parliament suffered chronic difficulties in obtaining sufficient manpower, and found it impossible to fill the quotas they had set. The Army was a deeply unpopular profession, one contentious issue being pay. A Private infantryman was paid a wage of just 8d. per day, the same pay as for a New Model Army infantryman, 130 years earlier. The rate of pay in the army was insufficient to meet the rising costs of living, turning off potential recruits, as service was nominally for life.
To entice people to enrol, Parliament offered a bounty of £ 1.10s for every recruit. As the war dragged on, Parliament became desperate for manpower; criminals were offered military service to escape legal penalties, and deserters were pardoned if they re-joined their units. After the defeat at Saratoga, Parliament doubled the bounty to £3, and increased it again the following year, to £3.3s, as well as expanding the age limit from 17–45 to 16–50 years of age.
Impressment , essentially conscription by the "press gang", was a favored recruiting method, though it was unpopular with the public, leading many to enlist in local militias to avoid regular service. Attempts were made to draft such levies, much to the chagrin of the militia commanders. Competition between naval and army press gangs, and even between rival ships or regiments, frequently resulted in brawls between the gangs in order to secure recruits for their unit. Men would maim themselves to avoid the press gangs, while many deserted at the first opportunity. Pressed men were militarily unreliable; regiments with large numbers of such men were deployed to garrisons such as Gibraltar or the West Indies, purely to increase the difficulty in successfully deserting.
By 1781, the Army numbered approximately 121,000 men globally, 48,000 of whom were stationed throughout the Americas. Of the 171,000 sailors who served in the Royal Navy throughout the conflict, around a quarter were pressed. Interestingly, this same proportion, approximately 42,000 men, deserted during the conflict. At its height, the Navy had 94 ships-of-the-line , 104 frigates and 37 sloops in service. Hessian soldiers of the Leibregiment
Loyalists And Hessians
In 1775, Britain unsuccessfully attempted to secure 20,000 mercenaries from Russia , and the use of the Scots Brigade from the Dutch Republic, such was the shortage of manpower. Parliament managed to negotiate treaties with the princes of German states for large sums of money, in exchange for mercenary troops . In total, 29,875 troops were hired for British service from six German states; Brunswick (5,723), Hesse-Kassel (16,992), Hesse-Hannau (2,422), Ansbach-Bayreuth (2,353), Waldeck-Pyrmont (1,225) and Anhalt-Zerbst (1,160). King George III, who also ruled Hanover as a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire , was approached by Parliament to loan the government Hanoverian soldiers for service in the war. Hanover supplied 2,365 men in five battalions , however, the lease agreement permitted them to only be used in Europe.
Without any major allies, the manpower shortage became critical when France and Spain entered the war, forcing a major diversion of military resources from the Americas. Recruiting adequate numbers of Loyalist militia in America proved difficult due to high Patriot activity. To bolster numbers, the British promised freedom and grants of land to slaves who fought for them . Approximately 25,000 Loyalists fought for the British throughout the war, and provided some of the best troops in the British service; the British Legion , a mixed regiment of 250 dragoons and 200 infantry commanded by Banastre Tarleton, gained a fearsome reputation in the colonies, especially in the South.
Britain had a difficult time appointing a determined senior military leadership in America. Thomas Gage, Commander-in-Chief of North America at the outbreak of the war, was criticized for being too lenient on the rebellious colonists. Jeffrey Amherst, who was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in 1778, refused a direct command in America, due to unwillingness to take sides in the war. Admiral Augustus Keppel similarly opposed a command, stating; "I cannot draw the sword in such a cause". The Earl of Effingham resigned his commission when his regiment was posted to America, while William Howe and John Burgoyne were opposed to military solutions to the crisis. Howe and Henry Clinton both stated they were unwilling participants, and were only following orders.
As was the case in many European armies, except the Prussian Army , officers in British service could purchase commissions to ascend the ranks. Despite repeated attempts by Parliament to suppress it, the practise was common in the Army. Values of commissions varied, but were usually in line with social and military prestige, for example, regiments such as the Guards commanded the highest prices. The lower ranks often regarded the treatment to high-ranking commissions by wealthier officers as "plums for consumption". Wealthy individuals lacking any formal military education, or practical experience, often found their way into positions of high responsibility, diluting the effectiveness of a regiment. Though Royal authority had forbade the practise since 1711, it was still permitted for infants to hold commissions. Young boys, often orphans of deceased wealthy officers, were taken from their schooling and placed in positions of responsibility within regiments.
Logistical organization of eighteenth century armies was chaotic at best, and the British Army was no exception. No logistical corps existed in the modern sense; while on campaign in foreign territories such as America, horses, wagons, and drivers were frequently requisitioned from the locals, often by impressment or by hire. No centrally organized medical corps existed. It was common for surgeons to have no formal medical education, and no diploma or entry examination was required. Nurses sometimes were apprentices to surgeons, but many were drafted from the women who followed the army . Army surgeons and doctors were poorly paid and were regarded as social inferiors to other officers. Soldiers of the Black Watch armed with Brown Bess muskets, c. 1790. Grenadier of the 40th Regiment of Foot in 1767, armed with a Brown Bess musket.
The heavy personal equipment and wool uniform of the regular infantrymen were wholly unsuitable for combat in America, and the outfit was especially ill-suited to comfort and agile movement. During the Battle of Monmouth in late June 1778, the temperature exceeded 100°F (37.8°C ) and is said to have claimed more lives through heat stroke than through actual combat. The standard-issue firearm of the British Army was the Land Pattern Musket . Some officers preferred their troops to fire careful, measured shots (around two per minute), rather than rapid firing. A bayonet made firing difficult, as its cumbersome shape hampered ramming down the charge into the barrel. British troops had a tendency to fire impetuously, resulting in inaccurate fire, a trait for which John Burgoyne criticized them during the Saratoga campaign. Burgoyne instead encouraged bayonet charges to break up enemy formations, which was a preferred tactic in most European armies at the time.
Every battalion in America had organized its own rifle company by the end of the war, although rifles were not formally issued to the army until the Baker Rifle in 1801. Flintlocks were heavily dependent on the weather; high winds could blow the gunpowder from the flash pan , while heavy rain could soak the paper cartridge , ruining the powder and rendering the musket unable to fire. Furthermore, flints used in British muskets were of notoriously poor quality; they could only be fired around six times before requiring resharpening, while American flints could fire sixty. This led to a common expression among the British: "Yankee flint was as good as a glass of grog".
Provisioning troops and sailors proved to be an immense challenge, as the majority of food stores had to be shipped overseas from Britain. The need to maintain Loyalist support prevented the Army from living off the land. Other factors also impeded this option; the countryside was too sparsely populated and the inhabitants were largely hostile or indifferent, the network of roads and bridges was poorly developed, and the area which the British controlled was so limited that foraging parties were frequently in danger of being ambushed. After France entered the war, the threat of the French navy increased the difficulty of transporting supplies to America. The food that could be bought in America was purchased at vastly inflated prices. Soldiers stationed in the West Indies perhaps suffered the worst; the garrison commander of Tobago, Barbados, and Antigua frequently complained of the near-total lack of regular supply from Britain, and the food that could be bought was so expensive that the pay of the troops was inadequate to cover the costs.
Food supplies were frequently in terrible condition, infested with mould, weevils , worms, and maggots. Provisions were frequently destroyed by rats, and their containers were too fragile to sustain a long ocean voyage or the rigors of campaigning. The climate was also against the British in the southern colonies and the Caribbean, where the intense summer heat caused food supplies to sour and spoil. British troops stationed in America were often on the verge of starvation.
Life at sea was little better. Sailors and passengers were issued a daily food ration, largely consisting of hardtack and beer. The hardtack was often infested by weevils and was so tough that it earned the nicknames "molar breakers" and "worm castles", and it sometimes had to be broken up with cannon shot. Meat supplies often spoiled on long voyages. The lack of fresh fruit and vegetables gave rise to scurvy, one of the biggest killers at sea. Rum was issued as part of a daily ration and was a popular drink among soldiers and sailors alike, often mixed with fresh water to make grog .
Flogging of a delinquent in Germany , 17th century
Discipline in the armed forces was harsh, and the lash was used to punish even trivial offences, nor was it applied sparingly. For instance, during the Saratoga campaign, two redcoats received 1,000 lashes each for robbery, while another received 800 lashes for striking a superior officer. During the Napoleonic Wars , one soldier received 700 lashes for stealing a beehive, while another, whom had received only 175 strikes of his 400-lash sentence, spent three weeks in hospital from his injuries. The practise could often be a contentious source of resentment; during the Battle of Quatre Bras in 1815, the commander of the 92nd Foot was shot and killed by a soldier whom he had recently flogged. Flogging was a common punishment in the Royal Navy, and came to be associated with the stereotypical hardiness of sailors.
Despite the harsh discipline, a distinct lack of self-discipline pervaded all ranks. Soldiers had an intense passion for gambling, reaching such excesses that troops would often wager their own uniforms. Soldiers drank heavily, and was not exclusive to the lower ranks; William Howe was said to have seen many "crapulous mornings" while campaigning in New York. John Burgoyne drank heavily on a nightly basis towards the end of the Saratoga campaign. The two generals were also reported to have found solace with the wives of subordinate officers to ease the stressful burdens of command. During the Philadelphia campaign, British officers deeply offended local Quakers by entertaining their mistresses in the houses they had been quartered in. Despite such issues, British troops are reported to have been generally scrupulous in their treatment of non-combatants. This is contrasted by Hessian diaries, who wrote of their disapproval of British conduct towards the colonists, such as the destruction of property and the execution of prisoners.
The presence of Hessian soldiers caused considerable anxiety amongst the colonists, both Patriot and Loyalist, who viewed them as brutal mercenaries. British soldiers were often contemptuous in their treatment of Hessian troops, despite orders from General Howe that "the English should treat the Germans as brothers". The order only began to have any real effect when the Hessians learned to speak a minimal degree of English, which was seen as a prerequisite for the British troops to accord them any respect.
During peacetime, the Army's idleness led to it becoming riddled with corruption and inefficiency, resulting in a myriad of administrative difficulties once campaigning began.
The British leadership soon discovered it had overestimated the capabilities of its own troops, while underestimating those of the colonists, causing a sudden re-think in British planning. The ineffective initial response of British military and civil officials to the onset of the rebellion had allowed the advantage to shift to the colonists, as British authorities rapidly lost control over every colony. A microcosm of these shortcomings were evident at the Battle of Bunker Hill . It took ten hours for the British leadership to respond following the sighting of the Americans on the Charlestown Peninsula, giving the colonists ample time to reinforce their defenses. Rather than opt for a simple flanking attack that would have rapidly succeeded with minimal loss, the British decided on repeated frontal attacks. The results were telling; the British suffered 1,054 casualties of a force of around 3,000 after repeated frontal assaults. The British leadership had nevertheless remained excessively optimistic, believing that just two regiments could suppress the rebellion in Massachusetts.
Debate persists over whether a British defeat was a guaranteed outcome. Ferling argues that the odds were so long, the defeat of Britain was nothing short of a miracle. Ellis , however, considers that the odds always favored the Americans, and questions whether a British victory by any margin was realistic. Ellis argues that the British squandered their only opportunities for a decisive success in 1777, and that the strategic decisions undertaken by William Howe underestimated the challenges posed by the Americans. Ellis concludes that, once Howe failed, the opportunity for a British victory "would never come again". Conversely, the United States Army's official textbook argues that, had Britain been able to commit 10,000 fresh troops to the war in 1780, a British victory was within the realms of possibility.
A 1777 mezzotint of Sir William Howe, British Commander-in-Chief from 1775–1778
Historians such as Ellis and Stewart have observed that, under William Howe's command, the British squandered several opportunities to achieve a decisive victory over the Americans. Throughout the New York and Philadelphia campaigns, Howe made several strategic errors, errors which cost the British opportunities for a complete victory. At Long Island , Howe failed to even attempt an encirclement of Washington, and actively restrained his subordinates from mounting an aggressive pursuit of the defeated American army. At White Plains , he refused to engage Washington's vulnerable army, and instead concentrated his efforts upon a hill which offered the British no strategic advantage. After securing control of New York, Howe dispatched Henry Clinton to capture Newport, a measure which Clinton was opposed to, on the grounds the troops assigned to his command could have been put to better use in pursuing Washington's retreating army. Despite the bleak outlook for the revolutionary cause and the surge of Loyalist activity in the wake of Washington's defeats, Howe made no attempt to mount an attack upon Washington while the Americans settled down into winter quarters, much to their surprise.
During planning for the Saratoga campaign, Howe was left with the choice of committing his army to support Burgoyne, or capture Philadelphia, the revolutionary capital. Howe decided upon the latter, determining that Washington was of a greater threat. The decision left Burgoyne precariously isolated, and left the Americans confounded at the decision. Alden argues Howe may have been motivated by political opportunism ; if Burgoyne was successful, he would receive the credit for a decisive victory, and not Howe. However, the confusion was further compounded by the lack of explicit and contradictory instructions from London. When Howe launched his campaign, he took his army upon a time-consuming route through the Chesapeake Bay, rather than the more sensible choices of overland through New Jersey, or by sea through the Delaware Bay. The move left him unable to assist Burgoyne even if it was required of him. The decision so confused Parliament, that Howe was accused by Tories on both sides of the Atlantic of treason.
During the Philadelphia campaign, Howe failed to pursue and destroy the defeated Americans on two occasions; once after the Battle of Brandywine , and again after the Battle of Germantown . At the Battle of White Marsh , Howe failed to even attempt to exploit the vulnerable American rear, and then inexplicably ordered a retreat to Philadelphia after only minor skirmishes, astonishing both sides. While the Americans wintered only twenty miles away, Howe made no effort to attack their camp, which critics argue could have ended the war. Following the conclusion of the campaign, Howe resigned his commission, and was replaced by Henry Clinton on May 24, 1778.
Contrary to Howe's more hostile critics, however, there were strategic factors at play which impeded aggressive action. Howe may have been dissuaded from pursuing aggressive manoeuvres due to the memory of the grievous losses the British suffered at Bunker Hill. During the major campaigns in New York and Philadelphia, Howe often wrote of the scarcity of adequate provisions, which hampered his ability to mount effective campaigns. Howe's tardiness in launching the New York campaign, and his reluctance to allow Cornwallis to vigorously pursue Washington's beaten army, have both been attributed to the paucity of available food supplies.
During the winter of 1776–1777, Howe split his army into scattered cantonments. This decision dangerously exposed the individual forces to defeat in detail, as the distance between them was such that they could not mutually support each other. This strategic failure allowed the Americans to achieve victory at the Battle of Trenton , and the concurrent Battle of Princeton . While a major strategic error to divide an army in such a manner, the quantity of available food supplies in New York was so low that Howe had been compelled to take such a decision. The garrisons were widely spaced so their respective foraging parties would not interfere with each other's efforts. Howe's difficulties during the Philadelphia campaign were also greatly exacerbated by the poor quality and quantity of available provisions.
Clinton And Cornwallis
General Charles Cornwallis , who led British forces in the southern campaign .
In 1780, the primary British strategy hinged upon a Loyalist uprising in the south, for which Charles Cornwallis was chiefly responsible. After an encouraging success at Camden , Cornwallis was poised to invade North Carolina. However, any significant Loyalist support had been effectively destroyed at the Battle of Kings Mountain , and the British Legion, the cream of his army, had been decisively defeated at the Battle of Cowpens . Following both defeats, Cornwallis was fiercely criticized for detaching a significant portion of his army without adequate mutual support. Despite the defeats, Cornwallis chose to proceed into North Carolina, gambling his success upon a large Loyalist uprising which never materialized. As a result, subsequent engagements cost Cornwallis valuable troops he could not replace, as at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse , and the Americans steadily wore his army down in an exhaustive war of attrition . Cornwallis had thus left the Carolinas ripe for reconquest. The Americans had largely achieved this aim by the end of 1781, effectively confining the British to the coast, and undoing all the progress they had made in the previous year.
In a last-ditch attempt to win the war in the South, Cornwallis resolved to invade Virginia, in order to cut off the American's supply base to the Carolinas. Henry Clinton, Cornwallis' superior, strongly opposed the plan, believing the decisive confrontations would take place between Washington in the North. London had approved Cornwallis plan, however they had failed to include Clinton in the decision-making, despite his seniority over Cornwallis, leading to a muddled strategic direction. Cornwallis then decided to invade Virginia without informing Clinton of his intentions. Clinton, however, had wholly failed to construct a coherent strategy for British campaigning that year, owing to his fractious relationship that he shared with Mariot Arbuthnot, his naval counterpart.
As the Franco-American army approached Cornwallis at Yorktown, he made no attempt to sally out and engage before siege lines could be erected, despite the repeated urging of his subordinate officers. Expecting relief to soon arrive from Clinton, Cornwallis prematurely abandoned all of his outer defences, which were then promptly occupied by the besiegers, serving to hasten the British defeat. These factors contributed to the eventual surrender of Cornwallis' entire army, and the end of major operations in North America.
Like Howe before him, Clinton's efforts to campaign suffered from chronic supply issues. In 1778, Clinton wrote to Germain complaining of the lack of supplies, even after the arrival of a convoy from Ireland. That winter, the supply issue had deteriorated so badly, that Clinton expressed considerable anxiety over how the troops were going to be properly fed. Clinton was largely inactive in the North throughout 1779, launching few major campaigns. This inactivity was partially due to the shortage of food. By 1780, the situation had not improved. Clinton wrote a frustrated correspondence to Germain, voicing concern that a "fatal consequence will ensue" if matters did not improve. By October that year, Clinton again wrote to Germain, angered that the troops in New York had not received "an ounce" of that year's allotted stores from Britain.
Suppressing a rebellion in America presented the British with major problems. The key issue was distance; it could take up to three months to cross the Atlantic, and, subsequently, orders from London were often outdated by the time they arrived. As the colonies had never been united in a homogeneous manner prior to the conflict, there was no centralized area of ultimate strategic importance. Traditionally, the fall of a capital city often signalled the end of a conflict, yet after the fall of major settlements such as New York, Philadelphia (which was the Patriot capital), and Charleston, the war continued unabated. Britain's ability to project its power overseas lay chiefly in the power of the Royal Navy, allowing her to control major coastal settlements with relative ease, and enforce a strong blockade of colonial ports. However, the overwhelming majority of the American population was agrarian , not urban. As a result, the American economy proved resilient enough to withstand the blockade's effects. _ Black Loyalist soldiers fought alongside British regulars in the 1781 Battle of Jersey , from The Death of Major Peirson _
The need to maintain Loyalist support prevented the British from using the harsh methods of suppressing revolts they had used in Scotland and Ireland . For example, during an aborted attack on Charleston in 1779, British troops looted and pillaged the locals, enraging both Patriots and Loyalists. Neutral colonists were often driven into the ranks of the Patriots when brutal combat broke out between Tories and Whigs across the Carolinas in the later stages of the war. Conversely, Loyalists were often emboldened, or at the very least sympathies to the Patriots dulled, when Patriots resorted to intimidating suspected Tories, such as destroying property, or tarring and feathering . The vastness of the American countryside, and the limited manpower available, meant the British could never simultaneously defeat the Americans, and occupy captured territory. One British statesman described the attempt as "like trying to conquer a map".
Wealthy Loyalists wielded great in influence in London, and were successful in convincing the British that sympathies to the Crown was the majority view in the colonies. Consequently, British planners pinned the success of their strategies on popular uprisings of Loyalists, which never transpired on the scale required. Historians have estimated that Loyalists made up only 15–20% of the population, and that they continued to deceive themselves on their level of support as late as 1780. The British soon discovered that any significant level of organized Loyalist activity would require the continued presence of British regulars, which presented them with a major dilemma. The manpower the British had available was insufficient to both protect Loyalist territory, and counter American advances, often leaving the former vulnerable to the latter. The vulnerability of Loyalist militias was repeatedly demonstrated in the South, where they suffered strings of defeats to their Patriot neighbors. The most crucial juncture of this was at Kings Mountain; the victory of the Patriot partisans irreversibly crippled Loyalist military capability in the South.
Upon the entry of France and Spain into the conflict, the British were forced to severely limit the number of troops and warships it sent to North America, in order to defend other key territories, and the British mainland. As a result, King George III abandoned any hope of subduing America militarily, while it had a European war to contend with. The small size of Britain's army left it unable to concentrate its resources primarily in one theater , as it had done in the Seven Years' War, leaving it at a critical disadvantage. Compelled to disperse its troops from the Americas, to Europe, to the East Indies, these forces were thus unable to mutually assist each other, precariously exposing them to defeat in detail. In North America, the immediate strategic focus of the French, Spanish and British shifted to Jamaica, whose sugar exports were more valuable to the British than the economy of the Thirteen colonies combined.
Following the end of the war, Britain had lost some of her most populous colonies. However, the economic effects of the loss were negligible in the long-term; just thirty-two years after the end of the conflict, Britain had risen to become the foremost global superpower.
The Americans began the war with significant disadvantages compared to the British. They had no national government, no national army or navy, no financial system, no banks, no established credit, and no functioning government departments, such as a treasury. The Congress tried to handle administrative affairs through legislative committees, which proved inefficient. The state governments were themselves brand new and officials had no administrative experience. In peacetime the colonies relied heavily on ocean travel and shipping, but that was now shut down by the British blockade and the Americans had to rely on slow overland travel.
However, the Americans had multiple advantages that in the long run outweighed the initial disadvantages they faced. The Americans had a large prosperous population that depended not on imports but on local production for food and most supplies, while the British were mostly shipped in from across the ocean. The British faced a vast territory far larger than Britain or France, located at a far distance from home ports. Most of the Americans lived on farms distant from the seaports—the British could capture any port but that did not give them control over the hinterland. They were on their home ground, had a smoothly functioning, well organized system of local and state governments, newspapers and printers, and internal lines of communications. They had a long-established system of local militia, previously used to combat the French and Native Americans, with companies and an officer corps that could form the basis of local militias, and provide a training ground for the national army created by Congress.
Motivation was a major asset. The Patriots wanted to win; over 200,000 fought in the war; 25,000 died. The British expected the Loyalists to do much of the fighting, but they did much less than expected. The British also hired German mercenaries to do much of their fighting.
At the onset of the war, the Americans had no major international allies. Battles such as the Battle of Bennington , the Battles of Saratoga and even defeats such as the Battle of Germantown proved decisive in gaining the attention and support of powerful European nations such as France and Spain, who moved from covertly supplying the Americans with weapons and supplies, to overtly supporting them militarily, moving the war to a global stage.
The new Continental Army suffered significantly from a lack of an effective training regime, and largely inexperienced officers and sergeants. The inexperience of its officers was compensated for in part by its senior officers; officers such as George Washington , Horatio Gates , Charles Lee , Richard Montgomery and Francis Marion all had military experience with the British Army during the French and Indian War . The Americans solved their training dilemma during their stint in Winter Quarters at Valley Forge, where they were relentlessly drilled and trained by General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben , a veteran of the famed Prussian General Staff. He taught the Continental Army the essentials of military discipline, drills, tactics and strategy, and wrote the Revolutionary War Drill Manual . When the Army emerged from Valley Forge, it proved its ability to equally match the British troops in battle when they fought a successful strategic action at the Battle of Monmouth . Population density in the American Colonies in 1775
When the war began, the 13 colonies lacked a professional army or navy. Each colony sponsored local militia . Militiamen were lightly armed, had little training, and usually did not have uniforms. Their units served for only a few weeks or months at a time, were reluctant to travel far from home and thus were unavailable for extended operations, and lacked the training and discipline of soldiers with more experience. If properly used, however, their numbers could help the Continental armies overwhelm smaller British forces, as at the battles of Concord , Bennington and Saratoga , and the siege of Boston . Both sides used partisan warfare but the Americans effectively suppressed Loyalist activity when British regulars were not in the area.
Seeking to coordinate military efforts, the Continental Congress established a regular army on June 14, 1775, and appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief. The development of the Continental Army was always a work in progress, and Washington used both his regulars and state militia throughout the war.
Three current branches of the United States Military trace their institutional roots to the American Revolutionary War; the United States Army comes from the Continental Army , formed by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775. The United States Navy recognizes October 13, 1775 as the date of its official establishment, the passage of the resolution of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia that created the Continental Navy . And the United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the war, formed by a resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775, a date regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps. At the beginning of 1776, Washington's army had 20,000 men, with two-thirds enlisted in the Continental Army and the other third in the various state militias. At the end of the American Revolution in 1783, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded. About 250,000 men served as regulars or as militiamen for the Revolutionary cause in the eight years of the war, but there were never more than 90,000 men under arms at one time. About 55,000 American sailors served aboard privateers during the war. The American privateers had almost 1,700 ships, and they captured 2,283 enemy ships. John Paul Jones became the first great American naval hero, capturing HMS _Drake_ on April 24, 1778, the first victory for any American military vessel in British waters.
Armies were small by European standards of the era, largely attributable to limitations such as lack of powder and other logistical capabilities on the American side. It was also difficult for Great Britain to transport troops across the Atlantic and they depended on local supplies that the Patriots tried to cut off. By comparison, Duffy notes that Frederick the Great usually commanded from 23,000 to 50,000 in battle. Both figures pale in comparison to the armies that were fielded in the early 19th century, where troop formations approached or exceeded 100,000 men.
1780 drawing of American soldiers from the Yorktown campaign shows a black infantryman from the 1st Rhode Island Regiment .
African Americans —slave and free—served on both sides during the war. The British recruited slaves belonging to Patriot masters and promised freedom to those who served by act of Lord Dunmore\'s Proclamation . Because of manpower shortages, George Washington lifted the ban on black enlistment in the Continental Army in January 1776. Small all-black units were formed in Rhode Island and Massachusetts ; many slaves were promised freedom for serving. Some of the men promised freedom were sent back to their masters, after the war was over, out of political convenience. Another all-black unit came from Saint-Domingue with French colonial forces. At least 5,000 black soldiers fought for the Revolutionary cause.
Tens of thousands of slaves escaped during the war and joined British lines; others simply moved off in the chaos. For instance, in South Carolina, nearly 25,000 slaves (30% of the enslaved population) fled, migrated or died during the disruption of the war. This greatly disrupted plantation production during and after the war. When they withdrew their forces from Savannah and Charleston, the British also evacuated 10,000 slaves belonging to Loyalists. Altogether, the British evacuated nearly 20,000 blacks at the end of the war. More than 3,000 of them were freedmen and most of these were resettled in Nova Scotia; other blacks were sold in the West Indies.
Most Native Americans east of the Mississippi River were affected by the war, and many communities were divided over the question of how to respond to the conflict. Though a few tribes were on friendly terms with the Americans, most Native Americans opposed the United States as a potential threat to their territory. Approximately 13,000 Native Americans fought on the British side, with the largest group coming from the Iroquois tribes, who fielded around 1,500 men. The powerful Iroquois Confederacy was shattered as a result of the conflict; although the Confederacy did not take sides, the Seneca , Onondaga , and Cayuga nations sided with the British. Members of the Mohawk fought on both sides. Many Tuscarora and Oneida sided with the colonists. The Continental Army sent the Sullivan Expedition on raids throughout New York to cripple the Iroquois tribes that had sided with the British. Both during and after the war friction between the Mohawk leaders Joseph Louis Cook and Joseph Brant , who had sided with the Americans and the British respectively, further exacerbated the split. A watercolor painting depicting a variety of Continental Army soldiers.
Early in July 1776, a major action in the fledgling conflict occurred when the Cherokee allies of Britain attacked the western frontier areas of North Carolina . Their defeat resulted in a splintering of the Cherokee towns and people, and was directly responsible for the rise of the Chickamauga Cherokee , bitter enemies of the Colonials who carried on a frontier war for decades following the end of hostilities with Britain.
Creek and Seminole allies of Britain fought against Americans in Georgia and South Carolina. In 1778, a force of 800 Creeks destroyed American settlements along the Broad River in Georgia. Creek warriors also joined Thomas Brown\'s raids into South Carolina and assisted Britain during the Siege of Savannah . Many Native Americans were involved in the fighting between Britain and Spain on the Gulf Coast and up the Mississippi River—mostly on the British side. Thousands of Creeks, Chickasaws , and Choctaws fought in or near major battles such as the Battle of Fort Charlotte , the Battle of Mobile , and the Siege of Pensacola .
RACE AND CLASS
Pybus (2005) estimates that about 20,000 slaves defected to or were captured by the British, of whom about 8,000 died from disease or wounds or were recaptured by the Patriots. The British took along some 12,000 at the end of the war; of these 8000 remained in slavery. Including those who left during the war, a total of about 8000 to 10,000 ex-slaves gained freedom. About 4000 freed slaves went to Nova Scotia along with about 1200 blacks who remained slaves.
Baller (2006) examines family dynamics and mobilization for the Revolution in central Massachusetts. He reports that warfare and the farming culture were sometimes incompatible. Militiamen found that living and working on the family farm had not prepared them for wartime marches and the rigors of camp life. Rugged individualism conflicted with military discipline and regimentation. A man's birth order often influenced his military recruitment, as younger sons went to war and older sons took charge of the farm. A person's family responsibilities and the prevalent patriarchy could impede mobilization. Harvesting duties and family emergencies pulled men home regardless of the sergeant's orders. Some relatives might be Loyalists, creating internal strains. On the whole, historians conclude the Revolution's effect on patriarchy and inheritance patterns favored egalitarianism .
McDonnell (2006) shows a grave complication in Virginia's mobilization of troops was the conflicting interests of distinct social classes, which tended to undercut a unified commitment to the Patriot cause. The Assembly balanced the competing demands of elite slave-owning planters, the middling yeomen (some owning a few slaves), and landless indentured servants, among other groups. The Assembly used deferments, taxes, military service substitute, and conscription to resolve the tensions. Unresolved class conflict, however, made these laws less effective. There were violent protests, many cases of evasion, and large-scale desertion, so that Virginia's contributions came at embarrassingly low levels. With the British invasion of the state in 1781, Virginia was mired in class division as its native son, George Washington, made desperate appeals for troops. Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau at Yorktown, 1781
* Bibliography of the American Revolutionary War * Bibliography of George Washington * Conrad Heyer * Diplomacy in the American Revolutionary War * British Army during the American War of Independence * First Treaty of San Ildefonso * First League of Armed Neutrality * Fourth Anglo-Dutch War * George Washington in the American Revolution * Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War * Lemuel Cook * List of American Revolutionary War battles * List of British Forces in the American Revolutionary War * List of Continental Forces in the American Revolutionary War * List of plays and films about the American Revolution * List of revolutions and rebellions * Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War * Treaty of El Pardo (1778) * War of the Bavarian Succession
* ^ This article primarily refers to the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies who supported the American Revolution as "Americans", with occasional references to "Patriots" or "Revolutionaries". Colonists who supported the British and opposed the Revolution are referred to as "Loyalists" or "Tories". The geographical area of the thirteen colonies is often referred to simply as "America".
* ^ (from 1777) * ^ (from 1778) * ^ The term "French Empire" colloquially refers to the empire under Napoleon , but it is used here for brevity to refer to France proper and to the colonial empire that the Kingdom of France ruled * ^ (from 1779) * ^ (1780–83) * ^ (1780–84 ) * ^ (until 1779) * ^ Hanover supplied troops per Personal union treaty, not as mercenaries * ^ Lowell, Edward J (1884), "The Hessians and the other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War", Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York, Chapter II. Quote: "Five battalions of the Hanoverian subjects of George III were despatched to Gibraltar and Minorca" * ^ (from 1779) * ^ _A_ _B_ A ceasefire in America was proclaimed by Congress on April 11, 1783 in response to a ceasefire agreement between Great Britain and France on January 20, 1783. The final peace treaty was signed on September 3, 1783 and ratified in the U.S. on January 14, 1784, with final ratification exchanged in Europe on May 12, 1784. Hostilities in India continued until July 1783. * ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). _Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O_. p. 720. Retrieved 1 April 2017. * ^ Jaques (2007), p. 666 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Duncan, Louis C. MEDICAL MEN IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (1931). * ^ _A_ _B_ Michael Lanning (2009). _ American Revolution 100: The Battles, People, and Events of the American War for Independence, Ranked by Their Significance_. Sourcebooks. pp. 195–96. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole. _A Companion to the American Revolution_ (Wiley-Blackwell, 2003), p. 328. * ^ Paullin, Charles Oscar (1906). _The navy of the American Revolution: its administration, its policy and its achievements_. The Burrows Brothers Co. * ^ "Privateers or Merchant Mariners help win the Revolutionary War". Usmm.org. Retrieved May 25, 2017. * ^ Howarth 1991, p. 16 * ^ Montero 1860 , p. 356. * ^ Chartrand & Courcelle 2006 , p. 79. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jonathan Dull, _A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution_ (Yale University Press, 1985), p. 110. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Red Coats Facts – British Soldiers in the American Revolution". _totallyhistory.com_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The British Army 1775–1783" (PDF). orbat. Retrieved 2013-09-23. * ^ Chartrand Boatner (1974), p. 545. * ^ _A_ _B_ Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). * ^ _A_ _B_ Burrows, Edwin G. (Fall 2008). "Patriots or Terrorists". _American Heritage_. 58 (5). Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved November 29, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dawson, Warrington. "The 2112 Frenchmen who died in the United States from 1777 to 1783 while fighting for the American Independence". _Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route_. Journal de la societe des Americanistes. Retrieved 4 June 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Spanish casualties in The American Revolutionary war.". Necrometrics. * ^ _A_ _B_ Annual Register, 1783 (1785), pp. 199–200. * ^ _A_ _B_ Parliamentary Register (1781), pp. 263–65. * ^ "Eighteenth Century Death Tolls". _necrometrics.com_. Retrieved January 7, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Parliamentary Register (1781), p. 269. * ^ _A_ _B_ Mackesy (1964), pp. 6, 176 (British seamen) * ^ Burrows, Edwin. "Forgotten Patriots: The Untold Story of American Prisoners During the Revolutionary War." Basic Books. New York, 2008. Page 203. * ^ Modern British writers generally favor "American War of Independence", rather than "American Rebellion" or "War of American Independence". "National Curriculum England". Retrieved April 21, 2016. * ^ The colony of Georgia joined later. * ^ Brooks, Richard (editor). _Atlas of World Military History_. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." * ^ "status quo ante bellum". _Merriam-Webster Online_. Retrieved June 24, 2017. * ^ Pestana, Carla Gardina (2004). The English Atlantic in an Age of Revolution: 1640–1661. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Harvard University Press. p. 120. * ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (23 April 1997). _A dictionary of American history_. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-57718-099-9 . Retrieved 24 May 2017. * ^ Whaples, Robert (March 1995). "Where Is There Consensus Among American Economic Historians? The Results of a Survey on Forty Propositions". _ The Journal of Economic History _. Cambridge University Press . 55 (1): 140. JSTOR 2123771 . doi :10.1017/S0022050700040602 – via JSTOR . (Registration required (help)). * ^ Thomas, Robert P. (1964). "A Quantitative Approach to the Study of the Effects of British Imperial Policy of Colonial Welfare: Some Preliminary Findings". _ Journal of Economic History _. 25 (4): 615–638. JSTOR 2116133 . * ^ Walton, Gary M. (1971). "The New Economic History and the Burdens of the Navigation Acts". _ Economic History Review _. 24 (4): 533–542. doi :10.1111/j.1468-0289.1971.tb00192.x . * ^ Lepore (1998), _The Name of War_ (1999) pp 5–7 * ^ Curtis P. Nettels, The Roots of American Civilization: A History of American Colonial Life (1938) p. 297. * ^ Lovejoy, David (1987). _The Glorious Revolution in America_. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6177-0 . OCLC 14212813 . , pp. 148–56, 155–57, 169–70 * ^ Lovejoy, pp. 180, 192–93, 197 * ^ Barnes, Viola Florence (1960) . _The Dominion of New England: A Study in British Colonial Policy_. New York: Frederick Ungar. ISBN 978-0-8044-1065-6 . OCLC 395292 . , pp. 169–70 * ^ Webb, Stephen Saunders (1998). _Lord Churchill's Coup: The Anglo-American Empire and the Glorious Revolution Reconsidered_. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0558-4 . OCLC 39756272 . , pp. 190–91 * ^ Lustig, Mary Lou (2002). _The Imperial Executive in America: Sir Edmund Andros, 1637–1714_. Madison, WI: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-3936-8 . OCLC 470360764 . , p. 201 * ^ Palfrey, John (1864). _History of New England: History of New England During the Stuart Dynasty_. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 1658888 . , p. 596 * ^ Evans, James Truslow (1922). _The Founding of New England_. Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press. OCLC 1068441 . , p. 430 * ^ John A. Garraty; Mark C. Carnes (2000). "Chapter Three: America in the British Empire". _A Short History of the American Nation_ (8th ed.). Longman. ISBN 0-321-07098-4 . * ^ Max Savelle, Empires to Nations: Expansion in America, 1713–1824, p.93 (1974) * ^ Draper pg. 100. The quote provided by Draper came from Leo Francis Stock’s Proceedings and Debates of the British Parliaments respecting North America (1937) vol. 4. pg. 182 * ^ Miller, John C. (1943). _Origins of the American Revolution_. Boston: Little, Brown and company. , pp. 95-e99 * ^ Guizot, M. _A popular history of France, from the earliest times._ Vol IV, University of Michigan, 2005, ISBN 978-1-4255-5724-9 , p.166. * ^ "American Revolution". Britannica.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017. * ^ Debt & Taxes, John Makim & Norman Ornstein P.54 * ^ Spain An Intrinsic Gift. Thomas E, Chavez P.22 * ^ Gladney, Henry M. (2014). _No Taxation without Representation: 1768 Petition, Memorial, and Remonstrance_ (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2015. * ^ _Liberty and Property: Political Ideology in Eighteenth-century Britain – H. T. Dickinson – Google Books_. Books.google.com. 1977. p. 218. ISBN 9780416729306 . Retrieved 2015-01-07. * ^ Charles Howard McIlwain (1938). _The American Revolution: A Constitutional Interpretation_. p. 51. * ^ Paul Boyer; et al. (2014). _The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People_. Cengage Learning. p. 142. * ^ Knollenberg, Growth, 48; Thomas, Duties Crisis, 76 * ^ Knollenberg, Growth, 69 * ^ "What was the Boston Massacre?". _ Boston Massacre Society_. * ^ " Boston Tea Party". _History.com_. * ^ Young, _Shoemaker_, 183–85. * ^ http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/mass_gov_act.asp * ^ Ian R. Christie and Benjamin W. Labaree, Empire or Independence, 1760–1776 (New York: Norton, 1976) p. 188. * ^ Ammerman, David (1974). _In the Common Cause: American Response to the Coercive Acts of 1774_. New York: Norton. , p. 9 * ^ Ammerman points out that the act only permitted soldiers to be quartered in unoccupied buildings—although they were still private property. (Ammerman, In the Common Cause, 10) * ^ Ammerman, _In the Common Cause,_ 15. * ^ Gary B. Nash; Carter Smith (2007). _Atlas Of American History_. Infobase Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 9781438130132 . * ^ Peter Knight (2003). _Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. pp. 184–85. ISBN 9781576078129 . * ^ Georgia did not attend * ^ Ferling, John. (2003). A Leap in the Dark. Oxford University Press. p. 112. * ^ Kindig, Thomas E. (1995). "Galloway\'s Plan for the Union of Great Britain and the Colonies". _Declaration of Independence_. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , USA: Independence Hall Association , publishing electronically as ushistory.org. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 14, 2015. The plan was considered very attractive to most of the members, as it proposed a popularly elected Grand Council which would represent the interests of the colonies as a whole, and would be a continental equivalent to the English Parliament. After a sincere debate, it was rejected by a six to five vote on October 22, 1774. It may have been the arrival of the Suffolk County (Boston) resolutions that killed it. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kramnick, Isaac (ed); Thomas Paine (1982). Common Sense. Penguin Classics. p. 21. * ^ "Resolved, 4. That the foundation of English liberty, and of all free government, is a right in the people to participate in their legislative council: and as the English colonists are not represented, and from their local and other circumstances, cannot properly be represented in the British parliament, they are entitled to a free and exclusive power of legislation in their several provincial legislatures, where their right of representation can alone be preserved, in all cases of taxation and internal polity, subject only to the negative of their sovereign, in such manner as has been heretofore used and accustomed: But, from the necessity of the case, and a regard to the mutual interest of both countries, we cheerfully consent to the operation of such acts of the British parliament, as are bonfide, restrained to the regulation of our external commerce, for the purpose of securing the commercial advantages of the whole empire to the mother country, and the commercial benefits of its respective members; excluding every idea of taxation internal or external, for raising a revenue on the subjects, in America, without their consent." quoted from the Declarations and Resolves of the First Continental Congress October 14, 1774. * ^ Cogliano, Francis D. _Revolutionary America, 1763–1815: A Political History_. Routledge, 1999. pp. 47 * ^ Cogliano, Revolutionary America, 47–48 * ^ Alan Axelrod, The Real History of the American Revolution: A New Look at the Past, p. 83 * ^ Fischer, p. 76 * ^ Fischer, p. 85 * ^ Chidsey , p. 6. This is the total size of Smith's force. * ^ Ketchum, pp. 18,54 * ^ Ketchum, pp. 2–9 * ^ Ketchum pp. 110–111 * ^ Adams, Charles Francis, "The Battle of Bunker Hill", in _American Historical Review_ (1895–1896), pp. 401–13. * ^ Higginbotham (1983), pp. 75–77. * ^ Ketchum, p. 183, 198–209 * ^ Hugh F. Rankin, ed. (1987). _Rebels and Redcoats: The American Revolution Through the Eyes of Those who Fought and Lived it_. Da Capo Press. p. 63. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Lecky, William Edward Hartpole, A History of England in the Eighteenth CentuIry (1882), pp. 449–50. * ^ McCullough, p.53 * ^ Frothingham , pp. 100–101 * ^ John R. Alden (1989). _A History of the American Revolution_. Da Capo Press. pp. 188–90. * ^ Smith (1907), vol 1 , p. 293 * ^ Glatthaar (2006) , p. 91 * ^ Glatthaar (2006) , p. 93 * ^ Quebec was officially ceded in 1763 * ^ Smith (1907), vol 1 , p. 242 * ^ Gabriel, Michael P. (2002). _Major General Richard Montgomery: The Making of an American Hero_. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-3931-3 . , p. 141 * ^ Mark R. Anderson, _The Battle for the Fourteenth Colony: America's War of Liberation in Canada, 1774–1776_ (University Press of New England; 2013). * ^ Alden, _The American Revolution_ (1954) p. 206 * ^ Willard Sterne Randall , " Benedict Arnold at Quebec", _MHQ: Quarterly Journal of Military History_, Summer 1990, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp 38–49. * ^ Davies, Blodwen (1951). Quebec: Portrait of a Province. Greenberg. p. 32.Carleton's men had won a quick and decisive victory * ^ Lanctot (1967) , pp. 141–146 * ^ Thomas A. Desjardin, _Through a Howling Wilderness: Benedict Arnold's March to Quebec, 1775_ (2006). * ^ Stanley , pp. 127–128 * ^ Watson (1960), p. 203. * ^ Arthur S. Lefkowitz, _Benedict Arnold's Army: The 1775 American Invasion of Canada during the Revolutionary War_ (2007). * ^ Smith (1907), volume 2 , pp. 459–552 * ^ Selby and Higginbotham, p. 2 * ^ Levy, Andrew (Jan 9, 2007). _The First Emancipator: Slavery, Religion, and the Quiet Revolution of Robert Carter_. Random House Trade Paperbacks. p. 74. ISBN 978-0375761041 . * ^ Scribner, Robert L. (1983). _Revolutionary Virginia, the Road to Independence_. University of Virginia Press . pp. _xxiv_. ISBN 0-8139-0748-9 . * ^ Russell, p. 73 * ^ McCrady, p. 89 * ^ Landrum, John Belton O'Neall (1897). _Colonial and Revolutionary History of Upper South Carolina_. Greenville, SC: Shannon. OCLC 187392639 . , pp. 80–81 * ^ Wilson, David K (2005). _The Southern Strategy: Britain's Conquest of South Carolina and Georgia, 1775–1780_. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-573-3 . OCLC 56951286 . , p. 33 * ^ Hibbert, C: Rebels and Redcoats, p.106 * ^ Kepner, F, "A British View of the Siege of Charleston, 1776", _The Journal of Southern History_, Vol. 11, No. 1. (Feb., 1945), p. 94 Jstor link * ^ Bicheno, H: _Rebels and Redcoats_, p.154, 158 * ^ Field, Edward (1898). _Esek Hopkins, commander-in-chief of the continental navy during the American Revolution, 1775 to 1778_. Providence: Preston & Rounds. OCLC 3430958 . , p. 104 * ^ McCusker, John J (1997). _Essays in the economic history of the Atlantic world_. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16841-0 . OCLC 470415294 . , p. 185-187 * ^ Riley, pp. 101–102 * ^ Field, pp. 117–118 * ^ Field, pp. 120–125 * ^ "DECLARATION OF TAKING UP ARMS: RESOLUTIONS OF THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS". Constitution Society. Retrieved 2013-09-23. * ^ Ketchum, p.211 * ^ Maier, _American Scripture_, 25. The text of the 1775 king\'s speech is online, published by the American Memory project. * ^ Middlekauff, Glorious Cause, 168; Ferling, Leap in the Dark, 123–24. * ^ Maier, American Scripture, 25 * ^ Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy, _The Men who Lost America: British Leadership, the American Revolution, and the Fate of the Empire_ (Yale UP, 2013). * ^ Frank A. Biletz (2013). _Historical Dictionary of Ireland_. Scarecrow Press. p. 8. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lecky. _A History of England_. pp. 162–65. * ^ Vincent Morley (2002). _Irish Opinion and the American Revolution, 1760–1783_. Cambridge UP. pp. 154–57. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ketchum , pp. 208–209 * ^ _A_ _B_ Frothingham (1903) , p. 298 * ^ _A_ _B_ John C. Miller (1959). _Origins of the American Revolution_. Stanford UP. pp. 410–12. * ^ _A_ _B_ Scheer , p. 64 * ^ _A_ _B_ http://library.si.edu/digital-library/book/hessiansotherge00lowe * ^ David Smith (2012). _New York 1776: The Continentals\' First Battle_. Osprey Publishing. pp. 21–23. * ^ Christie and Labaree, Empire or Independence, 270; Maier, American Scripture, 31–32. * ^ Maier, American Scripture, 33–34 * ^ Boyd, Evolution, 19 * ^ Maier, American Scripture, 160–61 * ^ Fischer (2004), p. 29. * ^ Maier, American Scripture, 156–57 * ^ Encyclopedia of the American Revolution Mark M. Botner III, (1974) P. 1094. * ^ Liberty's Exiles; American Loyalists Colin Bonwick (1991) P.152 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Encyclopedia of American History. Richard B. Morris and Jeffrey B. Morris, eds., 6th Edition (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1982), p. 130. * ^ Flight of the Tories from the Republic, The Tories of the American Revolution. North Callahan (1967) P. 120. * ^ Land confiscation Records of north Carolina – Vol.1 (1779–1800) Stewart Dunaway P.9 * ^ Fischer, pp. 76–78 * ^ Fischer, pp. 89, 381 * ^ Ketchum (1973), p. 104 * ^ _A_ _B_ Adams, Charles Francis, "Battle of Long Island", in _American Historical Review_ (1895–1896), pp. 668–669. * ^ _A_ _B_ Adams, Charles Francis, "Battle of Long Island", in _American Historical Review_ (1895–1896), p. 657. * ^ Fischer, pp. 88–102 * ^ Ketchum (1973), p. 117 * ^ Thomas J. McGuire (2011). _Stop the Revolution: America in the Summer of Independence and the Conference for Peace_. Stackpole Books. pp. 165–66. * ^ Fischer, pp. 102–107 * ^ _A_ _B_ Fischer (2004), pp. 102–11. * ^ _A_ _B_ Barnet Schecter, _The battle for New York: The city at the heart of the American Revolution_ (2002). * ^ Ketchum p.130 * ^ Ketchum p.111-"The most disastrous defeat of the entire war" * ^ Fischer, pp. 109–125 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ridpath, John Clark (1915). _The new complete history of the United States of America, Volume 6_. Cincinnati: Jones Brothers. OCLC 2140537 . , p. 2531 * ^ David McCullough (2006). _1776_. p. 122. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stedman, Charles, _The History of the Origin, Progress and Termination of the American War_ Volume I (1794), p. 221. * ^ Larry Lowenthal, _Hell on the East River: British Prison Ships in the American Revolution_ (2009). * ^ Mary Tucker (March 1, 2002). _Washington Crossing the Delaware_. Lorenz Educational Press. pp. 22–23. * ^ Stedman, Charles, _The History of the Origin, Progress and Termination of the American War_ Volume I (1794), p. 223. * ^ Schecter, pp. 266–267 * ^ _A_ _B_ Fischer, pp. 138–142 * ^ Lecky. _A History of England_. pp. 70–78. * ^ McCullough 2006 , p. 195. * ^ Ketchum (1973), p. 191, 269 * ^ Charles Francis Adams, "The Battle of Long Island," _American Historical Review_ Vol. 1, No. 4 (Jul. 1896), pp. 650–670 in JSTOR * ^ Schecter, pp. 259–263 * ^ Fischer p. 254—Casualty numbers vary slightly with the Hessian forces, usually between 21–23 killed, 80–95 wounded and 890–920 captured (including the wounded), but it is generally agreed that the casualties were in this area. * ^ Fischer (2004), pp. 206–59. * ^ Wood, W. J (1995). _Battles of the Revolutionary War, 1775–1781_. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80617-7 . ISBN 0-306-81329-7 (2003 paperback reprint), p. 72-74 * ^ Fischer p. 307 * ^ Ketchum p. 286 * ^ Ketchum (1973), pp. 388–389 * ^ Schecter, p. 268 * ^ McCullough p. 290 * ^ Lengel p. 208 * ^ Fischer (2004), pp. 345–58. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lecky, William, _A History of England in the Eighteenth Century_, Vol. IV (1891), p. 57. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ketchum (1997) , p. 84 * ^ John Martin Carroll; Colin F. Baxter (2007). _The American Military Tradition: From Colonial Times to the Present_. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 14. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ketchum, _Saratoga_ (1999), p. 81 * ^ _A_ _B_ Martin, p. 11-15 * ^ _A_ _B_ John E. Ferling , _The First of Men: A Life of George Washington_ (2010) p. * ^ _A_ _B_ Alden, _The American Revolution_ (1954) p. 118 * ^ Samuel B. Griffith, _The War for American Independence: From 1760 to the Surrender at Yorktown in 1781_ * ^ _A_ _B_ Ketchum (1997) , p. 104 * ^ Martin, p. 11 * ^ Fisher, Sydney George. The Struggle for American Independence Vol. II (1908) pp. 73–74 * ^ Black, Jeremy (1991). _War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783_. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-06713-5 . , p. 126 * ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 84. * ^ Pancake (1977), p.125 * ^ Nickerson (1967) , pp. 146–157, 438 * ^ Ketchum (1997) , p. 244-249 * ^ Pancake (1977), p. 145 * ^ Nickerson (1967) , pp. 271–275 * ^ Gabriel, Michael P. (2012). _The Battle of Bennington: Soldiers and Civilians_. The History Press. ISBN 978-1609495152 . * ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 285–323. * ^ Ketchum (1997) , p. 283 * ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 296. * ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 337–378. * ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 343–405. * ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 327. * ^ Luzader, John F. _Saratoga: A Military History of the Decisive Campaign of the American Revolution_. New York: Savas Beatie. 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Chavez, Thomas (1997). _Spain's Support Vital to United States Independence, 1777–1783_. United States. Dept. of Defense. pp. United States. * ^ Sparks, Jared (1829–1830). _The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution_. Boston: Nathan Hale and Gray & Bowen. , p. 1:408 * ^ Fernández y Fernández, Enrique (1885). _Spain's Contribution to the independence of the United States_. Embassy of Spain: United States of America. , p. 4 * ^ Clarfield, Gerard. United States Diplomatic History: From Revolution to Empire. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1992. * ^ Stockley, Andrew (1 January 2001). _Britain and France at the Birth of America: The European Powers and the Peace Negotiations of 1782–1783_. University of Exeter Press. ISBN 978-0-85989-615-3 . Retrieved 28 August 2015. , p. 19 * ^ Chartrand, René (2006). _ Gibraltar 1779–83: The Great Siege_. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-977-6 . 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The Genesis of the French Revolution: A Global-historical Interpretation, UK, Cambridge University Press (1994). * ^ Gerald Newman and Leslie Ellen Brown, Britain in the Hanoverian age, 1714–1837 (1997) p. 533 * ^ Edler 2001, 181–189 * ^ W., Francis (2002). _Gazetteer of South India, Volume 1_. Mittal Publications. , p. 161 * ^ Dwight L. Smith, "Josiah Harmar, Diplomatic Courier." _Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography_ 87.4 (1963): 420–430. * ^ Richard Morris, _The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence_ (1983). * ^ Ellis (2004), p. 87. * ^ American dead and wounded: Shy, pp. 249–50. The lower figure for number of wounded comes from Chambers, p. 849. * ^ _The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography_, Volume 27 (1903), p. 176. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Scurvy". _GARD_. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 26 September 2016. * ^ Vale, Brian (2008). "The Conquest of Scurvy in the Royal Navy 1793–1800: a Challenge to Current Orthodoxy". The Mariner's Mirror. 94: 160–175. * ^ Mackesy (1964), pp. 6, 176 (British seamen). * ^ Conway (1995) p. 191 * ^ _A_ _B_ John Pike (October 18, 1907). "Privateers". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved May 8, 2013. * ^ Marston, Daniel. The American Revolution 1774–1783. Osprey Publishing (2002) ISBN 978-1-84176-343-9 . p. 82 * ^ Whaples, Robert (March 1995). "Where Is There Consensus Among American Economic Historians? The Results of a Survey on Forty Propositions". _ The Journal of Economic History _. Cambridge University Press . 55 (1): 144. JSTOR 2123771 . doi :10.1017/S0022050700040602 – via JSTOR . (Registration required (help)). There is an overwhelming consensus that Americans' economic standard of living on the eve of the Revolution was among the highest in the world. * ^ _A_ _B_ Greene and Pole, eds., A Companion to the American Revolution (2004) chapters 42, 48 * ^ Curtis P. Nettels, The Emergence of a National Economy, 1775–1815 (1962) pp 23–44 * ^ "Not worth a continental", "Creating the United States", Library of Congress. Retrieved 14 January 2012. * ^ Trescott, Paul. "Federal-State Financial Relations, 1790–1860". 15: 227–45. * ^ David Kennedy; et al. (2011). _The Brief American Pageant: A History of the Republic, Volume I: To 1877_. Cengage Learning. p. 136.
* ^ Robert Tombs and Isabelle Tombs (2006). _That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present_. Knopf Doubleday. p. 179. * ^ Conway, Stephen. The War of American Independence 1775–1783. Publisher: E. Arnold (1995) ISBN 0-340-62520-1 . 280 pages. * ^ Schiff, Stacy (2006). _A Great Improvisation: Franklin, France, and the Birth of America_. Macmillan. p. 5. * ^ Conway (1995) p. 242 * ^ Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (1987) p. 81, 119 * ^ Marston (2002) p. 82 * ^ Tombs (2007) p. 179 * ^ Stacy Schiff (2006). _A Great Improvisation: Franklin, France, and the Birth of America_. Macmillan. p. 5. * ^ Lynch, John. Bourbon Spain 1700–1808. Publisher: Oxford (1989) ISBN 978-0-631-19245-9 . p. 326 * ^ Castillero Calvo, Alfredo (2004). Las Rutas de la Plata: La Primera Globalización. Madrid: Ediciones San Marcos. ISBN 84-89127-47-6 ., p. 193 * ^ Mulhall, Michael G., Mulhall\'s Dictionary of Statistics (1884), p. 357. * ^ Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics U.S. Census Bureau. * ^ Clode, Charles Matthew (1869), "The Military Forces of the Crown: Their Administration and Government", London, J Murray, p. 268. NOTE: Figures include the 41st regiment of invalids, but not the 20 independent companies on garrison duty. Troops in India were under the control of the East India Company , and did not become part of the British Army until 1858. * ^ _The Oxford Companion to British History._ (2 ed.). * ^ Plant, David, _Rule of the Major-Generals_, British Civil Wars and Commonwealth website, retrieved June 9, 2017 * ^ Rodger, N.A.M (2004). The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649–1815. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-393-06050-8 , p. 137 * ^ "The March of the Guards to Finchley; 18th Century Recruitment". Umich education. * ^ Belcher, Henry (1911), "The First American Civil War; First Period, 1775–1778, with chapters on the Continental or Revolutionary army and on the forces of the Crown", Volume 1, London Macmillan, p. 250, 258 * ^ War Office Papers, Manuscripts in the Public Record Office, 1:992–1008, passim * ^ War Officer Papers, 4:275, Jenkinson to Clinton, 5 Dec. 1780 * ^ 9th Report on Public Accounts (1783) in 39 House of Commons Journal, H.M. Stationery Office, 1803, pp. 325–344 * ^ Plant, David, "The New Model Army", BCW Project, http://bcw-project.org/military/new-model-army, Retrieved 9 June 2017 * ^ Fortescue, Volume III, p. 41 * ^ Owen, Captain Wheeler (1914), "The War Office Past and Present", Methuen & Co. London, p. 90 * ^ War Office Papers, 3:5, Harvey to Elliot, 10 March 1775 * ^ Clode, Volume II, p.13-14 * ^ Statutes at Large, Ruffhead's Edition (London, 1763–1800), Volume XIII, p. 273-280 * ^ Statutes at Large, Ruffhead's Edition, Volume XIII, p. 316-317 * ^ War Office Papers, 4:966, Jenkinson to John Livesey and E. Brewer, 13 Apr. 1779 * ^ War Office Papers, 1:996, Sir William Codrington to Barrington, December 1778 * ^ War Office Papers. 1:998, Lieutenant General Parker to Barrington, 19 June 1778. * ^ War Office Papers, 1:1005, Oughton to Jenkinson, 27 May 1779 * ^ Andrews, Charles McLean (1912), "Guide to the materials for American history, to 1783, in the Public record office of Great Britain", Washington, D.C., Carnegie institution of Washington, Volume II, p. 32 * ^ War Office Papers, 4:966, Jenkinson to Amherst, 26 Oct. 1779 * ^ Jonathan Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (Yale University Press, 1985), p. 110. * ^ Winfield, Rif, British Warships in the Age of Sail: 1714–1792 (Seaforth Publishing, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84415-700-6 * ^ Winfield, Rif, British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates (Seaforth Publishing, 2007) * ^ Colonial Office Papers. Manuscripts in the Public Record Office, 5:92, Dartmouth to Howe, 5 Sept. 1775 * ^ Edler 2001, pp. 28–32 * ^ Knesebeck, Ernst von dem (1845), "Geschichte de churhannoverschen Truppen in Gibraltar, Minorca und Ostindien", Published by Im Verlage der Helwingschen Hof-Buchhandlung. NOTE: The strength of a Hanoverian battalion is listed as 473 men * ^ _A_ _B_ Black (2001), p. 59. On militia see Boatner (1974), p. 707, and Weigley (1973), ch. 2. * ^ "Lord Dunmore\'s Proclamation". Digital History. 2007-10-18. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-18. * ^ Buchanan, 327 * ^ Babits, page 46, “British Legion Infantry strength at Cowpens was between 200 and 271 enlisted men”. However, this statement is referenced to a note on pages 175–176, which says, “The British Legion infantry at Cowpens is usually considered to have had about 200–250 men, but returns for the 25 December 1780 muster show only 175. Totals obtained by Cornwallis, dated 15 January, show that the whole legion had 451 men, but approximately 250 were dragoons”. There would therefore appear to be no evidence for putting the total strength of the five British Legion Light Infantry companies at more than 200. * ^ Review by: Hugh F. Rankin; Reviewed Work: _The Green Dragoon: The Lives of Banastre Tarleton and Mary Robinson_ by Robert D. Bass, _The North Carolina Historical Review,_ Vol. 34, No. 4 (October, 1957), pp. 548–550 * ^ Bass, Robert.D (August 1957). "_The Green Dragoon: The Lives of Banastre Tarleton and Mary Robinson_ ". North Carolina Office of Archives and History. JSTOR 23517100 . * ^ Agniel, Lucien (June 1972). "_The Late Affair Has Almost Broke My Heart: The American Revolution in the South, 1780–1781_". Chatham Press. Retrieved 18 November 2015. * ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 76 * ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 77 * ^ Duffy, Christopher. The Military Experience in the Age of Reason. p. 61. ISBN 1-85326-690-6 . * ^ Forteseue, The British Army, 1783–1802, p. 34 * ^ Armatys, John; Cordery, Robert George (2005). "The Purchase of Officers\' Commissions in the British Army". Colonial Wargames. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2017. * ^ Belcher, Volume I, p. 270 * ^ Michael Lanning (2009). _ American Revolution 100: The Battles, People, and Events of the American War for Independence, Ranked by Their Significance_. Sourcebooks. pp. 193–96. * ^ Duncan, Volume II, p. 15 * ^ Duncan, Francis (1879). "History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery", Volume 1. J. Murray, p. 131, 303, 309 * ^ Sergeant Lamb, "Journal of the American War", p. 75 * ^ Duncan, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, Volume 2, p. 15 * ^ Burgoyne, State of the Expedition, p. 148 * ^ " Battle of Monmouth Courthouse". _Robinson Library_. Self-published. Retrieved 20 June 2017. * ^ Lloyd, Ernest Marsh (1908), Review of the History of Infantry, p. 155 * ^ Howe, William, Orderly Book, p. 116 * ^ Howe, Orderly Book, 20 June 1777, p. 3. * ^ Trevelyan, Volume III, p. 6; Volume IV, p. 158 * ^ Fortescue, The British Army, 1783–1802, p. 83. * ^ Sawyer, Charles Winthrop (1910), "Firearms in American History", p. 99 * ^ Trevelyan, Volume IV, p. 224 * ^ Trevelyan, Volume IV, p.34 * ^ Minute Book of a Board of General Officers of the British Army in New York, 1781. New York Historical Society Collections, 1916, p. 81. * ^ Black (2001), p. 14 * ^ Correspondence of George III with Lord North, Volume II, p. 7, 52 * ^ _A_ _B_ Minute Book (1916), p. 81 * ^ War Office Papers, Manuscripts in the Public Record Office, 1:51, Graham to Jenkinson, 13 September and 23 November 1779; 1:51, Vaughan to Jenkinson, 2 November 1780 * ^ Treasury Papers, Manuscripts in the Public Record Office, 64:118, Chamier to Robinson, 9 Nov 1776 * ^ Treasury Papers, 64:103, Day to Robinson, 22 Aug. 1777 * ^ Treasury Papers, 64:200, Marsh to Navy Board, 17 Dec 1779 * ^ Treasury Papers, 64:120, Paumier to Robinson, 20 June & 7 August 1779 * ^ Treasury Papers, Manuscripts in the Public Record Office, 64:201, Wier to Robinson, 14 September 1780 * ^ "Ships Biscuits – Royal Navy hardtack". Royal Navy Museum. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-14. * ^ "19th United States Infantry". 19thusregulars.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-25. * ^ Lowell, Edward J and Andrews, Raymond J (June 15, 1997) "The Hessians in the Revolutionary War", Corner House Pub, ISBN 978-0879281168 , p. 56 * ^ Blue, Anthony Dias (2004). The Complete Book of Spirits : A Guide to Their History, Production, and Enjoyment. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-054218-7 , p. 77 * ^ Howe, (Sir) William, Orderly Book, edited by B. F. Stevens (London, 1890), pp. 263, 288 * ^ Burgoyne, John, Orderly Book, edited by E. B. O'Callaghan (Albany, 1860), p. 74. * ^ Howe, Orderly Book, pp 263, 288 * ^ Oman, Charles. Wellington's Army, 1809–1814. London: Greenhill, (1913) 1993. ISBN 0-947898-41-7 , p. 246, 254 * ^ Regan, G. (2004). More Military Blunders. Carlton Books. ISBN 1-84442-710-2 . * ^ "Life at sea in the age of sail". National Maritime Museum. * ^ Lamb, Memoir, p. 74 * ^ Riedesel, Mrs. General, Letters and Journals, translated from the original German by W. L. Stone (Albany, 1867) p. 125 * ^ Stedman, Charles, History of the American War (London, 1794), Volume I, p. 309 * ^ Fortescue, The British Army, 1783–1802, p. 35 * ^ Steven Schwamenfeld."The Foundation of British Strength: National Identity and the Common British Soldier." Ph.D. diss., Florida State University 2007, p. 123-124 * ^ Schwamenfeld (2007), p.123-124 * ^ Schwamenfeld (2007), p. 123 * ^ Clayton, Anthony (2007). The British Officer: Leading the Army from 1660 to the Present. Routledge. ISBN 178159287X , p. 65 * ^ French , pp. 263–265 * ^ Frothingham, p. 155 * ^ Frothingham pp. 191, 194 * ^ Frothingham , p. 156 * ^ Ferling, 2015 , p. 127-129 * ^ John E. Ferling, _Almost A Miracle: The American Victory in the War of Independence_ (2009), pp. 562–77. * ^ _A_ _B_ Joseph J. Ellis (2013). _Revolutionary Summer: The Birth of American Independence_. Random House. * ^ _A_ _B_ Richard W. Stewart, ed., _American Military History Volume 1 The United States Army And The Forging Of A Nation, 1775–1917" (2005)_ ch 4 "The Winning of Independence, 1777–1783" (2005), p. 103. * ^ David McCullough (2006). _1776_. p. 122. * ^ Black, Jeremy (1991). _War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783_. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-06713-5 . , p. 126 * ^ Cadwalader, Richard McCall (1901). _Observance of the One Hundred and Twenty-third Anniversary of the Evacuation of Philadelphia by the British Army. Fort Washington and the Encampment of White Marsh, November 2, 1777:_. pp. 20–28. Retrieved January 7, 2016. * ^ Frothingham pp. 152–153 * ^ Jackson, Kenneth T; Dunbar, David S (2005). Empire City: New York Through the Centuries. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-10909-3 , p. 20 * ^ Colonial Office Papers, Manuscripts in the Public Record Office, 5:93, Howe to Dartmouth, 1st December 1775 * ^ Colonial Office Papers, 5:93, Howe to Germain, 7 June and 7 July 1776 * ^ A View of the Evidence (London, 1783), p. 13 * ^ Correspondence of George III with Lord North, Volume II, p. 57 * ^ Colonial Office Papers, 5:93, Howe to Germain, 30 Nov 1776 * ^ Stedman, American War, Volume I, p. 287 * ^ _A_ _B_ Lumpkin, From Savannah to Yorktown: The American Revolution in the South (2000). * ^ Trevelyan, Sir George Otto (1914). George the Third and Charles Fox: The Concluding Part of The American Revolution. New York and elsewhere: Longmans, Green and Co. * ^ Pancake, John (1985). This Destructive War. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0191-7 ., p. 221 * ^ Clinton, H.; _The American Rebellion_. Note: This lack of notification was one of Clinton's main arguments in his own defense in the controversy that followed the surrender at Yorktown. * ^ Grainger, John (2005). _The Battle of Yorktown, 1781: a Reassessment_. Woodbridge, NJ: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-137-2 . OCLC 232006312 . , p. 29 * ^ Wickwire, Franklin and Mary (1970). Cornwallis: The American Adventure. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 62690 . p. 362 * ^ Lengel, Edward (2005). General George Washington. New York: Random House Paperbacks. ISBN 0-8129-6950-2 ., p. 337 * ^ Fleming, Thomas (1970). The Perils of Peace. New York: The Dial Press. ISBN 978-0-06-113911-6 , p. 16 * ^ Colonial Office Papers, 5:96, Clinton to Germain, 15 September 1778 * ^ Colonial Office Papers, 5:97, Clinton to Germain, 15 December 1778 * ^ Colonial Office Papers, 5:98, Haldimand to Clinton, 19 July and 29 August 1779 * ^ Colonial Office Papers, 5:100, Clinton to Germain, 31st October 1780 * ^ Black (2001), p. 39; Greene and Pole (1999), pp. 298, 306 * ^ Rossman, Vadim (2016), "Capital Cities: Varieties and Patterns of Development and Relocation", Taylor Sabine adds they were certainly wrong. * ^ Greene and Pole (1999), p. 235 * ^ William Edward Hartpole Lecky (1891). _A History of England: In the Eighteenth Century_. p. 139. * ^ Black (2001), p. 12. * ^ Black (2001), p. 13–14. * ^ Ferling (2007), p. 294 * ^ Dull, (1985) p. 244 * ^ Tellier, L.-N. (2009). Urban World History: an Economic and Geographical Perspective. Quebec: PUQ. p. 463. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5 . * ^ Pole and Greene, eds. _Companion to the American Revolution_, ch. 36–39. * ^ Trevelyan, p. 249. * ^ Ketchum (1997) , pp. 405–48. * ^ Philander D. Chase. "Steuben, Friedrich Wilhelm von"; _American National Biography Online_ (2000). Accessed January 29, 2015. * ^ Ferling, John (2007), pp. 294–95" * ^ "Establishment of the Navy, 13 October 1775". United States Navy. Retrieved November 5, 2009. * ^ Crocker (2006), p. 51. * ^ "Privateers or Merchant Mariners help win the Revolutionary War". Usmm.org. Retrieved May 8, 2013. * ^ Higginbotham (1983), pp. 331–46. * ^ Boatner (1974), p. 264 says the largest force Washington commanded was "under 17,000"; Duffy (1987), p. 17, estimates Washington's maximum was "only 13,000 troops". * ^ Kaplan and Kaplan (1989), pp. 64–69. * ^ Leslie Alexander (2010). _Encyclopedia of African American History_. ABC-CLIO. p. 356. * ^ Peter Kolchin, _American Slavery: 1619–1877_, New York: Hill and Wang, 1994, p. 73 * ^ Kolchin, p.73 * ^ William Weir (2004). _The Encyclopedia of African American Military History_. Prometheus Books. pp. 31–32. * ^ Cassadra Pybus, "Jefferson's Faulty Math: the Question of Slave Defections in the American Revolution", _William and Mary Quarterly_ (2005) 62#2 pp: 243–264. in JSTOR * ^ Greene and Pole (1999), p. 393; Boatner (1974), p. 545. * ^ John Finger, _Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition_ (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2001), pp. 43–64. * ^ Ward, Harry M. (1999). _The war for independence and the transformation of American society_. Psychology Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-85728-656-4 . Retrieved March 25, 2011. * ^ O'Brien, Greg (April 30, 2008). _Pre-removal Choctaw history: exploring new paths_. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 123–126. ISBN 978-0-8061-3916-6 . Retrieved March 25, 2011. * ^ Cassandra Pybus, "Jefferson\'s Faulty Math: the Question of Slave Defections in the American Revolution", _William and Mary Quarterly_ 2005 62#2: 243–264. * ^ John N. Grant, "Black Immigrants into Nova Scotia, 1776–1815." _Journal of Negro History_ (1973): 253–270. in JSTOR * ^ James W. St G. Walker, _The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783–1870_ (1992). * ^ William Baller, "Farm Families and the American Revolution," _Journal of Family History_ (2006) 31(1): 28–44. ISSN 0363-1990 . Fulltext: online in EBSCO . * ^ Michael A. McDonnell, "Class War: Class Struggles During the American Revolution in Virginia", _William and Mary Quarterly_ 2006 63(2): 305–344. ISSN 0043-5597 Fulltext: online at History Cooperative .
* Black, Jeremy . _War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783_. 2001. Analysis from a noted British military historian. * Benn, Carl. _Historic Fort York, 1793–1993_. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd. 1993. ISBN 0-920474-79-9 . * Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. _Encyclopedia of the American Revolution._ 1966; revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1 . Military topics, references many secondary sources . * Chambers, John Whiteclay II, ed. in chief. _The Oxford Companion to American Military History_. Oxford University Press , 1999. ISBN 0-19-507198-0 . * Conway, Stephen. _The British Isles and the War of American Independence_ (2002) doi :10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199254552.001.0001 online * Crocker III, H. W. (2006). _Don't Tread on Me_. New York: Crown Forum. ISBN 978-1-4000-5363-6 . * Curtis, Edward E. _The Organization of the British Army in the American Revolution_ (Yale U.P. 1926) online * Duffy, Christopher. _The Military Experience in the Age of Reason, 1715–1789_ Routledge, 1987. ISBN 978-0-7102-1024-1 . * Edler, Friedrich. _The Dutch Republic and The American Revolution_. University Press of the Pacific, 1911, reprinted 2001. ISBN 0-89875-269-8 . * Ellis, Joseph J. _His Excellency: George Washington_. (2004). ISBN 1-4000-4031-0 . * David Hackett Fischer . _Washington\'s Crossing _. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-517034-2 . * Fletcher, Charles Robert Leslie. _An Introductory History of England: The Great European War_, Volume 4. E.P. Dutton, 1909. OCLC 12063427 . * Greene, Jack P. and Pole, J.R., eds. _The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution_. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1991; reprint 1999. ISBN 1-55786-547-7 . Collection of essays focused on political and social history. * Gilbert, Alan. _Black Patriots and Loyalists: Fighting for Emancipation in the War for Independence_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-226-29307-3 . * Higginbotham, Don . _The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789_. Northeastern University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-930350-44-8 . Overview of military topics; online in ACLS History E-book Project. * Morrissey, Brendan. _Monmouth Courthouse 1778: The Last Great Battle in the North_. Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-84176-772-7 . * Jensen, Merrill. _The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution 1763–1776._ (2004) * Kaplan, Sidney and Emma Nogrady Kaplan. _The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution_. Amherst, Massachusetts: The University of Massachusetts Press , 1989. ISBN 0-87023-663-6 . * Ketchum, Richard M. _Saratoga: Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War_. Henry Holt, 1997. ISBN 0-8050-4681-X . * Mackesy, Piers . _The War for America: 1775–1783_. London, 1964. Reprinted University of Nebraska Press , 1993. ISBN 0-8032-8192-7 . Highly regarded examination of British strategy and leadership. * McCullough, David . _1776 _. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. * Middleton, Richard, _The War of American Independence, 1775–1783_. London: Pearson, 2012. ISBN 978-0-582-22942-6 * Reynolds, Jr., William R. (2012). _Andrew Pickens: South Carolina Patriot in the Revolutionary War_. Jefferson NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-6694-8 . * Riddick, John F. _The History of British India: a Chronology_. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. ISBN 978-0-313-32280-8 . * Savas, Theodore P. and Dameron, J. David. _A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution._ New York: Savas Beatie LLC, 2006. ISBN 1-932714-12-X . * Schama, Simon . _Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves, and the American Revolution _, New York, NY: Ecco/HarperCollins, 2006 * O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson. _The Men who Lost America: British Leadership, the American Revolution, and the Fate of the Empire_ (Yale UP, 2014). * Shy, John. _A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence_. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976 (ISBN 0-19-502013-8 ); revised University of Michigan Press, 1990 (ISBN 0-472-06431-2 ). Collection of essays. * Stephenson, Orlando W. "The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776", _American Historical Review_, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Jan. 1925), pp. 271–281 in JSTOR . * Tombs, Robert and Isabelle. _That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present_ Random House, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4000-4024-7 . * Trevelyan, George Otto. _George the Third and Charles Fox: the concluding part of The American revolution_ Longmans, Green, 1912. * Watson, J. Steven. _The Reign of George III, 1760–1815_. 1960. Standard history of British politics. * Weigley, Russell F. _The American Way of War_. Indiana University Press, 1977. ISBN 978-0-253-28029-9 . * Weintraub, Stanley. _Iron Tears: America's Battle for Freedom, Britain's Quagmire: 1775–1783_. New York: Free Press, 2005 (a division of Simon -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
These are some of the standard works about the war in general that are not listed above; books about specific campaigns, battles, units, and individuals can be found in those articles.
* Billias, George Athan. _George Washington's Generals and Opponents: Their Exploits and Leadership_ (1994) scholarly studies of key generals on each side. * Black, Jeremy. "Could the British Have Won the American War of Independence?." _Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research._ (Fall 1996), Vol. 74 Issue 299, pp 145–154. online video lecture, uses Real Player * Conway, Stephen. _The War of American Independence 1775–1783_. Publisher: E. Arnold, 1995. ISBN 0-340-62520-1 . 280 pages. * Lowell, Edward J. _The Hessians in the Revolution_ Williamstown, Massachusetts, Corner House Publishers, 1970, Reprint * Bancroft, George . _History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent._ (1854–78), vol. 7–10. * Bobrick, Benson. _Angel in the Whirlwind: The Triumph of the American Revolution_. Penguin, 1998 (paperback reprint). * Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, and Ryerson, Richard A., eds. _The Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History_ (ABC-CLIO, 2006) 5 volume paper and online editions; 1000 entries by 150 experts, covering all topics * Frey, Sylvia R. _The British Soldier in America: A Social History of Military Life in the Revolutionary Period_ (University of Texas Press, 1981). * Hibbert, Christopher. _Redcoats and Rebels: The American Revolution through British Eyes ._ New York: Norton, 1990. ISBN 0-393-02895-X . * Kwasny, Mark V. _Washington's Partisan War, 1775–1783_. Kent, Ohio: 1996. ISBN 0-87338-546-2 . Militia warfare. * Middlekauff, Robert . _The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789_. Oxford University Press, 1984; revised 2005. ISBN 0-19-516247-1 . online edition * Savas, Theodore; J. David Dameron (2006). _Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution_. Savas Beatie. Contains a detailed listing of American, French, British, German, and Loyalist regiments; indicates when they were raised, the main battles, and what happened to them. Also includes the main warships on both sides, And all the important battles. * Simms, Brendan. _Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire, 1714–1783_ (2008) 802 pp., detailed coverage of diplomacy from London viewpoint * Symonds, Craig L. _A Battlefield Atlas of the American Revolution_ (1989), newly drawn maps emphasizing the movement of military units * Ward, Christopher. _The War of the Revolution_. (2 volumes. New York: Macmillan, 1952.) History of land battles in North America. * Wood, W. J. _Battles of the Revolutionary War, 1775–1781_. ISBN 0-306-81329-7 (2003 paperback reprint). Analysis of tactics of a dozen battles, with emphasis on American military leadership.
* Men-at-Arms series: short (48pp), very well illustrated descriptions:
* Zlatich, Marko; Copeland, Peter. _General Washington's Army (1): 1775–78_ (1994) * Zlatich, Marko. _General Washington's Army (2): 1779–83_ (1994) * Chartrand, Rene. _The French Army in the American War of Independence_ (1994) * May, Robin. _The British Army in North America 1775–1783_ (1993)
* _ The Partisan in War _, a treatise on light infantry tactics written by Colonel Andreas Emmerich in 1789.
_ Look up AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR _.
* Library of Congress Guide to the American Revolution * Bibliographies of the War of American Independence http://wayback.archive.org/web/20151101171424/http://www.history.army.mil/reference/revbib/revwar.htm compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History * Political bibliography from Omohundro Institute of Early