THE AMERICAN LEGION, Inc. , is a U.S. wartime veterans organization
In addition to organizing commemorative events, volunteer veterans
operating through The
American Legion support activities and provide
assistance at Veterans Administration hospitals and clinics . The
Legion is active in issue-oriented
* 1 Eligibility
* 2 History
* 2.1 19th century * 2.2 1915 American Legion
* 2.3 Post World
* 2.3.1 The
* 2.4 1920s * 2.5 1930s to 1950s * 2.6 1960s to 1980s * 2.7 1990s to present
* 3 Programs * 4 Publications
* 5 Organization
* 5.1 National * 5.2 Departments * 5.3 Districts * 5.4 Counties * 5.5 Posts
* 6 Notable members * 7 List of Past National Commanders * 8 List of Past National Commanders by Vote of National Conventions
* 9 List of Honorary National Commanders * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links
Veterans who served at least one day of active duty during wartime, or are serving now, are potentially eligible for membership in The American Legion. Members must have been honorably discharged or still serving honorably. Merchant Marines who served from December 7, 1941, to December 31, 1946, are also eligible.
WAR OR CONFLICT FROM TO
Southwest Asia and Global
Panama December 20, 1989 January 31, 1990
Lebanon and Grenada August 24, 1982 July 31, 1984
WAR OR CONFLICT FROM TO
Membership peaked for The
American Legion right after World
The aftermath of two American wars in the second half of the 19th
century had seen the formation of several ex-soldiers' organizations.
1915 AMERICAN LEGION
The Legion believes in making instantly available to our country, in case of war, all men who already have military or technical training valuable in modern warfare by land or sea. Members of the Legion enroll themselves in advance for this purpose to be used as the Government (not they themselves) may see fit, according to their qualifications. Adventure (November 1915)
Concerned about the United States' absence from the world war and the
preparedness of its army and navy, magazine editor Arthur Sullivant
Hoffman and writer Stephen Allan Reynolds founded The American Legion
in February 1915, inspired by a letter from reader E. D. Cook. They
lobbied government to strengthen the military. They held a
preparedness parade in
New York City
POST WORLD WAR I
With the termination of hostilities in World
This situation was a particular matter of concern to Lt. Col.
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. , eldest son of the 26th President . One day
in January 1919, he had a discussion at General Headquarters with a
mobilized National Guard officer named
George A. White , a former
newspaper editor with the Portland Oregonian . After long discussion,
he suggested the establishment at once of a new servicemen's
organization including all members of the AEF, as well as those
soldiers who remained stateside as members of the Army , Navy , and
Marine Corps during the war without having been shipped abroad. He
and White advocated ceaselessly for this proposal until ultimately
they found sufficient support at headquarters to move forward with the
John J. Pershing
The session of reserve and regular officers was instructed to provide
a set of laws to curb the problem of declining morale. After three
days, the officers presented a series of proposals, including
eliminating restrictive regulations, organizing additional athletic
and recreational events, and expanding leave time and entertainment
programs. At the end of the first day, the officers retired to the
Inter-Allied Officers Club, a converted home across the street from
A provisional executive committee of four people emerged from the
February 15 "Roosevelt dinner": Roosevelt in the first place, who was
to return to the
Preparations for a convention in
The site of Ferdinand Branstetter Post No. 1 of The American Legion
is a vacant lot in Van Tassell, Wyoming, where the first American
Legion post in the
The first post of The American Legion, General John Joseph Pershing
Post Number 1 in Washington, D.C., was organized on March 7, 1919, and
obtained the first charter issued to any post of the Legion on May 19,
1919. The St. Louis caucus that same year decided that Legion posts
should not be named after living persons, and the first post changed
its name to George Washington Post 1. The post completed the
constitution and made plans for a permanent organization. It set up
temporary headquarters in
New York City
Congress granted The American Legion a national charter in September 1919.
American Legion China Post One, formed in 1919 one year after the
"great war" and chartered by The
American Legion on April 20, 1920,
was originally named the General
Frederick Townsend Ward Post No. 1,
China. It is the only Post nominally headquartered in a Communist
country, and has been operating in exile since 1948 – presently in
Photograph taken by a photographer who slipped in a half-hour
before the session began, with more than half the
Having immediately received a blizzard of acceptances to attend the opening of the "Liberty League Caucus", as he had begun to refer to it, Temporary Secretary Eric Fisher Wood began to search for use of a room of sufficient size to contain the gathering. The Cirque de Paris had been retained, a large, multisided amphitheater sufficient to accommodate a crowd of about 2,000. Delegates began to assemble from all over France. The 10:00 am scheduled start was delayed due to various logistical problems, with a beginning finally made shortly after 2:45 pm.
As "Temporary Chairman" Teddy Roosevelt, Jr. had already departed for
America, the session was gaveled to order by Eric Wood, who briefly
recounted Roosevelt's idea and the story of the 20 AEF officers who
had jointly helped to give the new organization form. In his keynote
opening remarks Wood recommended to the delegates of the so-called
William G. Price Jr. was selected to preside. Convention rules were decided upon and four 15-member committees were chosen. The Committee on Name reported back that they had considered a dozen potential names, including Veterans of the Great War, Liberty League, American Comrades of the Great War, Legion of the Great War, and The American Legion, among others. This list was whittled down to five ranked choices for the consideration of the Caucus, with "The American Legion" the preferred option. It was noted in passing during the course of debate on the topic that Teddy Roosevelt, Jr. had been responsible for an earlier organization called "The American Legion" in 1914, a "preparedness" society with a claimed membership of 35,000 which had been absorbed into the Council of National Defense in 1916.
The Committee on Constitution reported with a report containing the draft of a Preamble for the organization, specifying organizational objectives. This document stated that the group
... desiring to perpetuate the principles of Justice, Freedom, and
The majority report of the Committee on Convention recommended that
11 am on November 11, 1919—one year to the hour after the
termination of hostilities in World
The Committee on Permanent Organization recommended an organization based upon territorial units rather than those based upon military organizations, governed by an Executive Committee of 50, with half of these coming from the officer corps and the other half coming from the ranks of enlisted men.
The St. Louis Caucus (May 8–10, 1919)
This cover of the first official organ of The American Legion emphasizes the unemployment problem facing many ex-soldiers during the post-war recession.
A minor crisis followed when Roosevelt twice declined nomination for permanent chairman of the session, to the consternation of many overwrought delegates, who sought to emphasize the symbolism of President Theodore Roosevelt's son maintaining the closest of connections with the organization.
The work of the St. Louis Caucus was largely shaped by the
fundamental decisions made by the earlier
As time before the scheduled start of the convention was short,
delegation to the assembly was highly irregular. On April 10, 1919,
Eric Fisher Wood mailed a letter to the Governor
of every state, informing them of the forthcoming gathering and making
note of the non-partisan and patriotic nature of the League.
Follow-up cables by Roosevelt and Wood encouraged the organization of
state conventions to select delegates. This was, however, largely a
failed formality, as states lacked sufficient time to organize
themselves and properly elect delegates to St. Louis. In practice,
the fledgling organization's provisional Executive Committee decided
to allow each state delegation twice as many votes at that state had
Participants at the St. Louis Caucus were enthusiastic although the
session was not a productive one. Fully two days were invested
choosing ceremonial officers and selecting
The preamble of the constitution adopted in St. Louis became one of the seminal statements of the Legion's orientation and objectives:
For God and Country we associate ourselves together for the following purposes:
To uphold and defend the Constitution of the
The St. Louis Caucus spent much of its time discussing resolutions:
whether a stand should be taken on the
League of Nations
A particularly hard line was taken towards the American radical
movement, with one resolution passed on the final day calling on
Congress to "pass a bill or immediately deporting every one of those
Industrial Workers of the World
Founding Convention (November 10–12, 1919)
Hundreds of thousands of African-Americans were in segregated
units in World
The formal founding convention was held in
From the outset The American Legion maintained a strictly nonpartisan orientation towards electoral politics. The group wrote a specific prohibition of the endorsement of political candidates into its constitution, declaring:
...this organization shall be absolutely non-political and shall not be used for the dissemination of partisan principles or for the promotion of the candidacy of any person seeking public office or preferment; and no candidate for or incumbent of a salaried elective public office shall hold any office in The American Legion or in any branch or post thereof.
One semi-official historian of the organization has noted the way that this explicit refusal to affiliate with one or another political party had the paradoxical effect of rapidly building great political power for the organization, as politicians from both of the "old parties" competed for the favor of the Legion's massive and active membership.
One of the gathering's primary accomplishment was the establishment
of a permanent National Legislative Committee to advance the Legion's
political objectives as its lobbying arm. The first iteration of this
Chief on the Legion's legislative agenda was a dramatic improvement
of the level of compensation for soldiers who suffered permanent
disability during the war. At the time of the end of World
The American Legion's chief base of support during its first years
was among the officers corps of the reserves and the National Guard .
The size of the regular army was comparatively small and its
representation in the League in its earliest days was even more
limited. Consequently, for nearly two decades The American Legion
maintained a largely isolationist perspective, best expressed in three
resolutions passed by the
1. That a large standing army is uneconomic and un-American. National safety with freedom from militarism is best assured by a national citizen army and navy based on the democratic principles of equality of obligation and opportunity for all.
2. That we favor universal military training and the administration of such a policy should be removed from the complete control of any exclusively military organization or caste.
3. That we are strongly opposed to compulsory military service in time of peace.
Additional resolutions passed by the founding convention emphasized the need for military preparedness, albeit maintained through a citizens' army of reservists and National Guardsmen rather than through the costly and undemocratic structure of a vast standing army led by a professional military caste. This nationalist isolationism would remain in place until the very eve of American entry into the Second World War.
Departments And Posts Overseas
On November 9, 1919, the National Headquarters of The American Legion
accredited Lt. Col. Francis E. Drake as the Commander of The
Department of France; on February 7, 1921, in the National Executive
Committee meeting held at Washington D.C., the Department of France
was created with Posts in Belgium, France, Germany, Poland and Turkey.
On April 20, 1920,
American Legion China Post One, originally formed
in 1919 and named General
Frederick Townsend Ward Post No. 1, was
chartered in Shanghai . During the lead up to World
Centralia Massacre Of 1919
Main article: Centralia Massacre (Washington)
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In this political cartoon from the Portland Telegram a Legionnaire prepares to hit a ball labeled "Bolshevism" with a rifle butt labeled "100 per cent Americanism" beside a quote from Theodore Roosevelt: "Don't argue with the reds; go to bat with them and go to the bat strong!"
November 11, 1919, the first anniversary of
Armistice Day and the
occasion of The American Legion's formal launch at its Minneapolis
Founding Convention, was also a historical moment of violence and
controversy. On that day a parade of Legionnaires took place in the
mill town of Centralia , located in Southwestern Washington . Plans
were made by some of the marchers at the conclusion of their patriotic
demonstration to storm and ransack the local hall maintained by the
Industrial Workers of the World
At 2.00 pm the march began at the city park, led by a marching band playing "Over There." Marchers included Boy Scouts , members of the local Elks Lodge , active-duty sailors and marines, with about 80 members of the newly established Centralia and Chehalis American Legion posts bringing up the rear. As the parade turned onto Tower Avenue and crossed Second Street, it passed IWW Hall on its left. The parade stopped and Legionnaires surrounded the hall.
Parade Marshal Adrian Cormier rode up on horseback and, according to some witnesses, blew a whistle giving the signal to the Legionnaires to charge the IWW headquarters building. A group of marchers rushed the hall, smashing the front plate glass window and attempting to kick in the door. Just as the door gave way, shots were fired from within at the intruders. This provided the signal to other armed IWW members, who were stationed across the street to set up a crossfire against potential invaders and they also began firing on the Legionnaires. In less than a minute the firing was over, with three AL members left dead or dying and others wounded.
Taken by surprise by the armed defense of IWW headquarters, many Legionnaires rushed home to arm themselves, while others broke into local hardware stores to steal guns and ammunition. Now armed, a furious mob reassembled and charged the IWW Hall again, capturing six IWW members inside. The mob proceeded to destroy the front porch of the hall and a large bonfire was built, upon which were torched the local Wobblies' official records, books, newspapers and mattresses.
One local Wobbly named Wesley Everest escaped through a back door when he saw the mob approaching the hall. He fled into nearby woods, exchanging gunshots with his pursuers. One of those chasing the fleeing IWW man was hit in the chest several times with bullets and was killed, running the death count of Legionnaires to four. Everest was taken alive, kicked and beaten, and a belt wrapped around his neck as he was dragged back to the town to be lynched . Local police intervened, however, and Everest was taken to jail, where he was thrown down on the concrete floor. At 7:30 pm, on cue, all city lights in town went out for 15 minutes and Legionnaires stopped cars and forced them to turn out their headlights. The Elks Hall gathering entered the jail without meeting resistance and took Wesley Everest, dragging him away to a waiting car but leaving other incarcerated Wobblies in jail cells unhindered. A procession of six cars drove west to a railroad bridge across the Chehalis River .
A rope was attached to Everest's neck and he was pushed off the bridge, but the lynching attempt was bungled and Everest's neck was not snapped by the fall. Everest was hauled up again, a longer rope was substituted, and Everest was pushed off the bridge again. The lynch mob then shined their car headlights on the hanging form of Everest and shot him for good measure.
Although a mob milled around the jail all night, terrorizing the occupants, no further acts of extra-legal retribution were taken. Everest's body was cut down the next morning, falling into the riverbed below, where it remained all day. As night fell Everest's body was hauled back to town, the rope still around his neck, where it was refused by local undertakers and left on the floor of the jail in sight of the prisoners all night. No charges were ever filed in connection with the lynching.
Twelve IWW members were ultimately indicted by a grand jury for first degree murder in connection with the killing of the four Legionnaires and a local left wing lawyer was charged as an accessory to the crime. A January 1920 trial resulted in the conviction of six defendants on charges of second degree murder .
The American Legion was very active in the 1920s. The organization was formally non-partisan , endorsing candidates of no political party. Instead the group worked to the spread of the ideology of Americanism and acted as an lobbying organization on behalf of issues of importance to veterans, with particular emphasis on winning a "soldier's bonus" payment from the government and for the alleviation of the unemployment to which many soldiers returned. The Legion also served a strong social function, building and buying "clubhouses" in communities across America at which its members could gather, reflect, network, and socialize.
The Legion's efforts to promote Americanism during the 1920s included urging its members to report on publication materials perceived to be subversive, left-wing, or reflective of radical foreign political views, and established a National Americanism Commission to oversee its actions related to subversive activities. It commissioned the development of textbooks that promoted American patriotism, worked with members of the National Education Association to promote the teaching of history from an American perspective, and sought the removal of textbooks it saw as "un-American". It also supported legislation restricting immigration and seditious speech , and used its influence in an effort to deny public forums to speakers whose views it opposed.
In 1924, the Legion, led by its lobbyist Col.
John Thomas Taylor ,
and other veterans organizations won their battle for additional
compensation for World
If ever needed, The American Legion stands ready to protect our country's institutions and ideals as the Fascisti dealt with the destructionists who menaced Italy!... The American Legion is fighting every element that threatens our democratic government—Soviets, anarchists, IWW, revolutionary socialists and every other red.... Do not forget that the Fascisti are to Italy what The American Legion is to the United States.
The Legion invited Mussolini to speak at its convention as late as 1930.
The American Legion was instrumental in the creation of the U.S. Veterans\' Bureau , now known as the Department of Veterans Affairs . The Legion also created its own American Legion Baseball Program, hosting national tournaments annually from 1926.
Commander Travers D. Carmen awarded
Charles Lindbergh its
"Distinguished Service Medal", the medal's first recipient, on July
American Legion national convention was held in
1930S TO 1950S
The American Legion Memorial Bridge in Traverse City, Michigan , was completed in 1930. The Traverse City city commission decided to purchase dedication plaques for $100 at the request of The American Legion in 1930.
Sons of the American Legion formed at The American Legion's 14th
National Convention in
In the spring of 1933, at the very beginning of his presidency,
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
In December 1933, retired General Smedley Butler , a popular and colorful speaker, toured the country on behalf of the VFW, calling on veterans to organize politically to win their benefits. Butler believed The American Legion was controlled by banking interests. On December 8, 1933, explaining why he believed veterans' interests were better served by the VFW than The American Legion, he said: "I said I have never known one leader of The American Legion who had never sold them out–and I mean it." In November 1934, Butler told the New York Evening Post and a congressional subcommittee that representatives of powerful industrial interests and The American Legion were trying to induce him to lead the Legion in a campaign to preserve the gold standard and to engineer a coup against President Roosevelt with Butler's aid in marshaling the support of veterans. Everyone implicated denied involvement and the press gave the story little credence.
Nevertheless, Butler's charges, elaborated by articles in the Communist newspaper New Masses, gave birth to an enduring conspiracy theory, known as the Business Plot , that powerful business interests in alliance with the Legion planned to overthrow the federal government.
In 1935, the first Boys\' State convened in
After the 1935
Labor Day Hurricane , which killed about 480 former
servicemen and women, the Legion was very critical of the government
and the safety of the
In 1942, the Legion adopted the practice of the VFW to become a
perpetual organization, rather than die off as its membership aged as
that of the
Grand Army of the Republic was rapidly doing. The Legion's
charter was changed to allow veterans of World
The first Boys Nation program was held in 1946.
Late in 1950, at least some local Legion organizations began to
At the Legion's 1951 convention at
The Legion's Americanism activities continued through the 1930s to
the 1950s. It promoted the passage of state bills requiring loyalty
oaths of school teachers, and supported the activities of
anti-Communist newspaper publishers, including William Randolph Hearst
, in identifying Communist sympathizers in academic institutions. It
was also influential in the creation of state-level legislative
investigations into communist or un-American activities, and staged a
mock Communist takeover of
Mosinee, Wisconsin that garnered national
headlines. Its programs were rejuvenated by increased membership
The Legion's political activities were opposed from an early date by
organizations like the
American Civil Liberties Union
1960S TO 1980S
American Legion halls are found in cities both large and small,
like this longstanding structure on Pine Street in Minden , Louisiana
, which has for decades hosted military and civic events.
American Legion Memorial Hall in Garden City ,
On May 30, 1969, the Cabin John Bridge, which carried the Capital
Beltway (I-495) across the Potomac River northwest of Washington , was
officially renamed to the "
American Legion Memorial Bridge " in a
ceremony led by Lt. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey , director of the U.S.
Selective Service System
In 1976, an outbreak of bacterial pneumonia occurred in a convention
American Legion at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia
. This pneumonia killed 34 people at the convention and later became
known as Legionnaires\' disease (Legionellosis). The bacterium that
causes the illness was later named
In 1988, after over 44 years of opposing U.S. Merchant seamen from
receiving benefits under the
G.I. Bill , they allowed Merchant seamen
to join The American Legion. This followed Merchant seamen being
granted limited veterans status by the
After a 1989 U.S. Supreme Court decision ( Texas v. Johnson ), The American Legion launched and funded an unsuccessful campaign to win a constitutional amendment against harming the flag of the United States. The Legion formed the Citizens' Flag Honor Guard and it later became the Citizens Flag Alliance .
1990S TO PRESENT
Also in 1993, two members of Garden City ,
In a letter to U.S. President
In 2006, the Chairman of the House Veterans Affairs Committee, Steve
Buyer (R-Ind.), announced that he planned to eliminate the annual
congressional hearings for Veterans Service Organizations that was
established by President
Dwight D. Eisenhower
According to The American Legion, the ACLU has used the threat of
attorney fees to intimidate cities, counties, school boards and other
locally elected bodies into surrendering to its demands to remove
religion from the public square. As such The
American Legion states
that it "is leading a nationwide effort to combat the secular
cleansing of our American heritage", stating that the phrase
"separation of church and state " is nowhere mentioned in the First
Amendment to the
In October 2011, National Commander Jimmie L. Foster objected to courts allowing homosexuals to serve openly in the military.
On March 25, 2014, The
American Legion testified before Congress in
favor of the bill "To amend title 38,
Also in 2014, Verna L. Jones was appointed as the first female executive director of The American Legion.
At the state level, The American Legion is organized into "departments", which run annual civic training events for high school juniors called Boys State . Two members from each Boys State are selected for Boys Nation. The American Legion Auxiliary runs Girls State and Girls Nation . In addition to Boys State, The American Legion features numerous programs including American Legion Baseball, Scouting, Oratorical Contests, Junior Shooting Sports, Youth Alumni, Sons of the American Legion, American Legion Riders, and Scholarships at every level of the organization.
The organization's official publication in its initial phase was a magazine called The American Legion Weekly, launched on July 4, 1919. This publication switched its frequency and renamed itself The American Legion Monthly in 1926. In 1936 the publication's name and volume numbering system changed again, this time to American Legion Magazine.
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
American Legion National Headquarters, Indianapolis
American Legion Headquarters is located on the
The head department for each state is located in that states capital. There is a total of 55 lodges; one for each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, France, Mexico, and the Philippines. The departments located overseas are intended to allow active duty military stationed and veterans living overseas to be actively involved with The American Legion similar to as if they were back in the United States. The main Department of France consists of 29 posts located in 10 European counties, the Department of Mexico consists of 22 posts located in Central America, and the Department of Philippines covers Asia and the Pacific Islands. A department officer or department executive committee representative is distinguished by a white garrison cap with gold piping.
Each Department is divided into Divisions and/or Districts. Each District oversees several Posts, generally about 20, to help each smaller group have a larger voice. Divisions are even larger groups of about four or more Districts. The main purpose of these "larger" groups (Districts and Divisions) is to allow one or two delegates to represent an area at conferences, conventions, and other gatherings, where large numbers of Legionnaires may not be able to attend. A District Commander is distinguished by a navy blue garrison cap with a white crown and gold piping.
Each U.S. county comprises several Posts and oversees their operations, led by a County Council of elected officers. The County Commander performs annual inspections of the Posts within their jurisdiction and reports the findings to both the District and the Department level. A County Commander is distinguished by a navy blue garrison cap with white piping.
The Post is the basic unit of the Legion and usually represents a small geographic area such as a single town or part of a county. There are roughly 14,900 posts in the United States. The Post is used for formal business such as meetings and a coordination point for community service projects. Often the Post will host community events such as bingo, Hunter breakfasts, holiday celebrations, and available to the community, churches in time of need. It is also not uncommon for the Post to contain a bar open during limited hours. A Post member is distinguished by a navy blue garrison cap with gold piping.
Notable members of The American Legion have included:
Harry Truman , 33rd President of the
Dwight Eisenhower , 34th President of the
John Kennedy , 35th President of the
Lyndon Johnson , 36th President of the
George Bush , 41st President of the
George Bush , 43rd President of the
Louis Johnson , 2nd Secretary of Defense *
General George Patton, Jr. , Two-time Distinguished Service Cross recipient *
Admiral Mark Ferguson III , 37th Vice Chief of Naval Operations *
Sergeant Alvin York ,
Medal of Honor
Humphrey Bogart , Academy Award winner *
LIST OF PAST NATIONAL COMMANDERS
* Franklin D'Olier,
LIST OF PAST NATIONAL COMMANDERS BY VOTE OF NATIONAL CONVENTIONS
Henry D. Lindsley , Texas, 1919
Milton J. Foreman , Illinois, 1921
Bennett Champ Clark
LIST OF HONORARY NATIONAL COMMANDERS
* ^ Wheat 1919 , pp. 6-8
* ^ "
American Legion Day". The
American Legion Magazine.
Indianapolis, Indiana. September 2016. p. 8. ISSN 0886-1234 .
* ^ "Membership in The American Legion". The American Legion
Magazine. Indianapolis, Indiana. September 2016. p. 5. ISSN 0886-1234
* ^ Carney, Timothy. "Changing of the Guard". Philanthropy
* ^ A B C Marquis James, A History of The American Legion. New
York: William Green, 1923; p. 77.
* ^ A B Rumer 1990, p. 9.
* ^ A B C Bleiler, Richard. "A History of Adventure Magazine".
Philsp. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
* ^ A B (via Google News)"Patriotic Founders Invite". The
Cowles Publishing Company . July 25, 1915.
Retrieved March 13, 2016.
* ^ (via Google News)Doenecke, Justus D. (2011). Nothing Less Than
War: A New History of America\'s Entry into World
* ^ Wheat 1919 , p. 19
* ^ Rumer 1990, pp. 18–19.
* ^ Rumer 1990, p. 19.
* ^ A B Rumer 1990, p. 21.
* ^ Rumer 1990, p. 23.
* ^ Byer, Gene (March 16, 1953). "Gen. Wm. G. Price Jr. Recalls
American Legion\'s Founding". Delaware County Times. Chester, PA. p.
13. (Subscription required (help)).
* ^ Rumer 1990, p. 24.
* ^ A B C Rumer 1990, p. 25.
* ^ Rumer 1990, p. 28.
* ^ A B C Rumer 1990, p. 26.
* ^ Rumer 1990, pp. 26–27.
* ^ James, A History of The American Legion, pg. 44.
* ^ James, A History of The American Legion, pp. 45–46.
* ^ James, A History of The American Legion, pp. 47–48.
* ^ A B C D William Pencak, For God and Country: The American
Legion, 1919–1941. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1989; p.
* ^ A B Pencak, For God and Country, p. 59.
* ^ The words are those of Dorothy R. Harper, "Hawaii –
Department History", quoted in Pencak, For God and Country, p. 59.
* ^ Wheat 1919 , p. 193
* ^ Pencak, For God and Country, pp. 59–60.
* ^ Pencak, For God and Country, pg. 60.
* ^ Jones, A History of The American Legion, p. 349.
* ^ Richard Seely Jones, A History of The American Legion.
Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1946; p. 44.
* ^ Quoted in Jones, A History of The American Legion, p. 49.
* ^ Jones, A History of The American Legion, p. 45.
* ^ Jones, A History of The American Legion, p. 46.
* ^ A B Jones, A History of The American Legion, p. 47.
* ^ A B C D Jones, A History of The American Legion, p. 48.
* ^ Jones, A History of The American Legion, p. 85.
* ^ A B Jones, A History of The American Legion, p. 86.
* ^ "Department History". amerlegiondeptfrance.org. Retrieved April
* ^ A B C Tom Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy of 1919: Elmer Smith
and the Wobblies. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1993;
* ^ A B C D E F G Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy of 1919, p. 51.
* ^ Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy of 1919, pp. 51–52.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I Copeland, The Centralia Massacre of 1919, p.
* ^ Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy of 1919, p. 53.
* ^ Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy, pp. 53–54.
* ^ A B C D E Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy of 1919, p. 54.
* ^ A B Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy of 1919, p. 55.
* ^ A B Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy of 1919, p. 59.
* ^ Copeland, The Centralia Tragedy of 1919, pp. 65, 82–83.
* ^ Heale 1990 , p. 82
* ^ Heale 1990 , p. 86
* ^ Heale 1990 , p. 85
* ^ A B C Ceplair, p. 38
* ^ "
John Thomas Taylor Dies" (Press release). Indianapolis,
American Legion News Service. May 28, 1965. pp. 179–180.
Retrieved April 26, 2017.
* ^ American Red Cross, "World
American Legion 40th National Convention: official program ".
American Legion. 1958 – via
* Littlewood, Thomas B. (2004). Soldiers Back Home: The American
Legion in Illinois, 1919–1939. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern
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* American Legion, Dept. of Washington records, 1919-1920 at the University of Washington Libraries