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The American Indian Wars, or Indian Wars is the collective name for the various armed conflicts fought by European governments and colonists, and later the United States
United States
government and American settlers, against the native peoples of North America. These conflicts occurred within the current boundaries of the United States
United States
and Canada from the time of the earliest colonial settlements in the 17th century until the 1920s. The Indian Wars resulted from competition for resources and land ownership as European and later American and Canadian settlers encroached onto territory which had been traditionally inhabited by Native Americans. European powers and the United States
United States
also enlisted Native American tribes to help them conduct warfare against each other's settlements and their Native American allies. After the American Revolution
American Revolution
of 1776, many conflicts were local to specific states or regions, and frequently involved disputes over land use; some entailed cycles of violent reprisal. The British Royal Proclamation of 1763, now included in the Constitution of Canada, prohibiting white settlers from taking the lands of Indigenous peoples in Canada
Canada
without signing a treaty with them. The Royal Proclamation was a major cause of the American Revolution
American Revolution
since it prohibited American white settlers from seizing native land without signing a peace treaty with them. In Canada, it continued to be the law up until the present time, and the signing of eleven Numbered Treaties
Numbered Treaties
which covering most of the native lands, limited the number of such conflicts. In the United States
United States
in the 19th century, conflicts were spurred by ideologies such as Manifest Destiny, which held that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent from coast to coast. As the population of white settlers on the continent continued to increase, the size, duration, and intensity of armed conflicts between settlers and Native Americans
Americans
grew to unprecedented degrees. Some were resolved by treaty, often through sale or exchange of territory between federal governments and specific tribes; others only ended with the death or surrender of important leaders. The Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act
of 1830 authorized the U.S. government to enforce the large-scale removal of indigenous peoples who lived east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to the sparsely populated western frontier. American citizens continued to migrate towards the Pacific for the rest of the century, and the Indian Wars persisted. The policy of removal was eventually refined to allow for the relocation of indigenous peoples to specially designated and federally protected reservations in the United States.

Contents

1 Colonial period (1540–1774) 2 East of the Mississippi (1775–1842)

2.1 American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
1775–1783 2.2 Cherokee–American wars 2.3 Northwest Indian War 2.4 Tecumseh, the Creek War, and the War of 1812 2.5 Removal era wars 2.6 Second Seminole War

3 West of the Mississippi (1811–1924)

3.1 Background 3.2 Texas 3.3 Pacific Northwest 3.4 Southwest 3.5 California 3.6 Great Basin 3.7 Great Plains

3.7.1 Dakota War 3.7.2 Colorado War, Sand Creek Massacre
Sand Creek Massacre
and the Sioux
Sioux
War of 1865 3.7.3 Sheridan's campaigns 3.7.4 Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War
and the Treaty of Fort Laramie 3.7.5 Black Hills
Black Hills
War

3.8 Last conflicts

4 Effects on indigenous populations 5 Historiography 6 List 7 See also

7.1 Comparable events

8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading

10.1 Historiography 10.2 Primary sources

11 External links

Colonial period (1540–1774)[edit] Further information: European colonization of the Americas From Europeans' first contact with the native inhabitants of the Americas in the late 15th century, the colonization of North America by the English, French, Spanish, Dutch and Swedish was resisted by various indigenous tribes. The most significant conflicts of the early colonial period occurred in New Spain, mostly in the southern part of the continent in what is now Mexico
Mexico
and Central America, though brief violent contact did occur sporadically between natives and Spanish expeditions in the present-day southeastern and southwestern United States. Conflict north of the modern Mexican border did not begin in earnest until the first part of the 17th century, when the English established the first permanent settlement at Jamestown. Wars and other armed conflicts in the 17th and 18th centuries included the following:

Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
(1609–1701) between the Haudenosaunee and the French, who allied with the Algonquians Anglo-Powhatan Wars
Anglo-Powhatan Wars
(1610–14, 1622–32, 1644–46), including the 1622 Jamestown Massacre, between English colonists and the Powhatan Confederacy in the Colony of Virginia Pequot War
Pequot War
of 1636–38 between the Pequot
Pequot
tribe and English colonists (together with their allies the Narragansett and Mohegan
Mohegan
tribes) in what are today Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Connecticut Kieft's War
Kieft's War
(1643–45) in the Dutch territory of New Netherland (modern-day New Jersey
New Jersey
and New York) between Dutch colonists and the Lenape
Lenape
people Peach Tree War
Peach Tree War
(1655) large scale attack by the Susquehannock Nation and allied Native Americans
Americans
on several New Netherland
New Netherland
settlements along the Hudson River Esopus Wars
Esopus Wars
(1659–1663) conflicts between the indigenous Esopus tribe of Lenape
Lenape
Indians and colonialist New Netherlanders during the latter half of the 17th century in what is now Ulster County, New York King Philip's War
King Philip's War
(1675–78) across much of New England
New England
and the Saint Lawrence River Valley (modern-day Quebec), fought between English colonists and their allies the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy versus French colonists and their allies the Wabanaki Confederacy Tuscarora War (1711–15) in English North Carolina Yamasee War
Yamasee War
(1715–17) in English South Carolina Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1722–25) in northern New England
New England
and French Acadia (modern-day New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia) Pontiac's War
Pontiac's War
(1763–66) in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
region Lord Dunmore's War
Lord Dunmore's War
(1774) in western Virginia
Virginia
(modern-day Kentucky
Kentucky
and West Virginia)

In several instances, warfare in North America
North America
was a reflection of European rivalries, with Native American tribes splitting their alliances among the powers, often their trading partners. For instance, in King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Dummer's War, King George's War, and the French and Indian War, various Native American tribes fought on each side of the wars, allying with British or French colonists according to their own self interests. Similarly, in the American Revolution
American Revolution
and the War of 1812, Native American tribes in the territories of conflict differed in their alliances. Because the Cherokee
Cherokee
supported the British in the Revolution and raided frontier American settlements, in the hopes of expelling the interlopers, rebel American forces mounted retaliations such as the Cherokee Expedition against them. The contributions of those Native American tribes who fought for the United States, such as the Oneida and Tuscarora nations of the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy in New York, who were among the founders of the nation, are often rendered invisible.[1] East of the Mississippi (1775–1842)[edit] Further information: Origins of the War of 1812
Origins of the War of 1812
and War of 1812

Indian Wars East of the Mississippi (post-1775)

American Revolution
American Revolution
(1775–1783) Cherokee–American wars
Cherokee–American wars
(1776–1794) Northwest Indian War
Northwest Indian War
(1785–1795) Nickajack Expedition (1794) Sabine Expedition (1806) War of 1812
War of 1812
(1811–1815)

Tecumseh's War
Tecumseh's War
(1811–1813) Creek War
Creek War
(1813–1814) Peoria War
Peoria War
(1813)

First Seminole War
First Seminole War
(1817–1818) Winnebago War
Winnebago War
(1827) Black Hawk War
Black Hawk War
(1832) Creek War
Creek War
(1836) Florida–Georgia Border War (1836) Second Seminole War
Second Seminole War
(1835–1842)

In the period after the American Revolution, 1783-1812, British merchants and government agents supplied weapons to Indians living in the United States, in the hope that if a war broke out the Indians would fight with them. The British planned to set up an Indian nation in what is now the Ohio-Wisconsin area to block further American expansion.[2] The U.S. protested and finally, in 1812, went to war. Most Indian tribes, especially those allied with Tecumseh, supported the British and were ultimately defeated by General William Henry Harrison. The War of 1812
War of 1812
became caught up in internal Native American rivalries as well; the Creek War
Creek War
was in part an internal conflict as well as one in which some of the nation allied with the United States and other bands allied with the British. The latter were defeated by General Andrew Jackson. During and after such warfare, many refugees from defeated tribes went over the border to Canada; those in the South went to Florida while it was under Spanish control. During the early 19th century, the federal government was under pressure by settlers in many regions to expel Native Americans
Americans
from their areas. Under the Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act
of 1830, they offered Native Americans
Americans
the choices of assimilation and giving up tribal membership, forced relocation to a controlled Indian reservation with an exchange or payment for lands, or movement west. Some resisted fiercely, most notably the Seminoles
Seminoles
in a series of wars in Florida. They were never finally defeated, although some Seminole did remove to Indian Territory. The United States
United States
gave up on the remainder, by then living defensively deep in the swamps and Everglades. Others were moved to reservations west of the Mississippi River, most famously the Cherokee
Cherokee
whose relocation was called the "Trail of Tears." American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
1775–1783[edit] Main article: Western theater of the American Revolutionary War For the Americans
Americans
the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
was essentially two parallel wars: while the war in the east was a struggle against British rule, the war in the west was an "Indian War". The newly proclaimed United States
United States
competed with the British for control of the territory of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River. Some Native Americans
Americans
who joined the struggle sided with the British, as they hoped to win the opportunity to reduce settlement and expansion onto their land. The Revolutionary War was "the most extensive and destructive" Indian war in United States
United States
history.[3] Some native communities were divided over which side to support in the war. For the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy, based in New York and Pennsylvania, the American Revolution
American Revolution
resulted in civil war; the Six Nations split, with the Oneida and Tuscarora siding with the rebels, and Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, and Onondaga fighting with and for the British. While the Iroquois
Iroquois
tried to avoid fighting directly against one another, the Revolution eventually forced intra- Iroquois
Iroquois
combat. Both sides lost territory following the United States
United States
establishing its independence. The Crown aided the landless Iroquois
Iroquois
by rewarding them with a reservation at Grand River in Ontario
Ontario
and some other lands. In the Southeast, the Cherokee
Cherokee
split into a neutral (or pro-patriot) faction and a pro-British faction, whom the Americans
Americans
referred to as the Chickamauga Cherokee; they were led by Dragging Canoe. Many other tribes were similarly divided. Both immigrant and native noncombatants suffered greatly during the war, and villages and food supplies were frequently destroyed during military expeditions. The largest of these expeditions was the Sullivan Expedition
Sullivan Expedition
of 1779, which razed more than 40 Iroquois villages. When the British made peace with the Americans
Americans
in the Treaty of Paris (1783), they ceded a vast amount of Native American territory (without the consent of the indigenous peoples) to the United States. The United States
United States
treated the Native Americans
Americans
who had fought with the British as enemy allies, a conquered people who had lost their land. The federal government of the United States
United States
was eager to expand, and the national government did so by purchasing Native American land in treaties and through warfare. Cherokee–American wars[edit] Main article: Cherokee–American wars These frontier conflicts were almost nonstop, beginning with Cherokee involvement in the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
and continuing through late 1794. The so-called "Chickamauga Cherokee", later called "Lower Cherokee," were those, at first from the Overhill Towns and later from the Lower Towns, Valley Towns, and Middle Towns, who followed the war leader Dragging Canoe southwest, first to the Chickamauga Creek area (near modern-day Chattanooga, Tennessee), then to the Five Lower Towns. There they were joined by groups of Muskogee, white Tories, runaway slaves, and renegade Chickasaw, as well as by more than a hundred Shawnee, in exchange for whom a hundred Chickamauga Cherokee warriors migrated north, along with another seventy a few years later. The primary objects of attack were the Washington District colonies along the Watauga, Holston, and Nolichucky rivers, and in Carter's Valley in upper eastern Tennessee, as well as the settlements along the Cumberland River
Cumberland River
beginning with Fort Nashborough
Fort Nashborough
in 1780, even into Kentucky, plus against the colonies, the Franklin settlements, and later states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The scope of attacks by the Chickamauga/Lower Cherokee
Cherokee
and their allies ranged from quick raids by small war parties of a handful of warriors to large campaigns by four or five hundred, and once over a thousand, warriors. The Upper Muskogee under Dragging Canoe's close ally Alexander McGillivray
Alexander McGillivray
frequently joined their campaigns as well as operated separately, and the settlements on the Cumberland came under attack from the Chickasaw, Shawnee
Shawnee
from the north, and Delaware. Campaigns by Dragging Canoe and his successor, John Watts, were frequently conducted in conjunction with campaigns in the Northwest. The response by the colonists were usually attacks in which Cherokee towns in peaceful areas were completely destroyed, though usually without great loss of life on either side. The wars continued until the Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse
Tellico Blockhouse
in November 1794.[4] Northwest Indian War[edit] Main article: Northwest Indian War

The Battle of Fallen Timbers

In 1787, the Northwest Ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
officially organized the Northwest Territory for white settlement. American settlers began pouring into the region. Violence erupted as indigenous tribes resisted this encroachment, and so the administration of President George Washington sent armed expeditions into the area to suppress native resistance. However, in the Northwest Indian War, a pan-tribal confederacy led by Blue Jacket (Shawnee), Little Turtle
Little Turtle
(Miami),[5] Buckongahelas (Lenape), and Egushawa
Egushawa
(Ottawa) crushed armies led by Generals Josiah Harmar and Arthur St. Clair. General St. Clair's defeat was the most severe loss ever inflicted upon an American army by Native Americans. The Americans
Americans
attempted to negotiate a settlement, but Blue Jacket and the Shawnee-led confederacy insisted on a boundary line that the Americans
Americans
found unacceptable, and so a new expedition led by General Anthony Wayne
Anthony Wayne
was dispatched. Wayne's army defeated the Indian confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
Battle of Fallen Timbers
in 1794. The Indians had hoped for British assistance; when that was not forthcoming, the indigenous people were compelled to sign the Treaty of Greenville
Treaty of Greenville
in 1795, which ceded modern-day Ohio and part of Indiana to the United States.[6] Tecumseh, the Creek War, and the War of 1812[edit]

Treaty with the Creeks, Fort Jackson, 1814

By 1800, the many millions of Native Americans
Americans
had been reduced to 600,000 Native Americans
Americans
in the area now comprising the continental United States. By 1890, their population had declined to about 250,000.[7] The United States
United States
continued to gain title to Native American land after the Treaty of Greenville, at a rate that created alarm in Indian communities.[citation needed] In 1800, William Henry Harrison became governor of the Indiana Territory
Indiana Territory
and, under the direction of President Thomas Jefferson, pursued an aggressive policy of obtaining titles to Indian lands. Two Shawnee
Shawnee
brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, organized Tecumseh's War, another pan-tribal resistance to American expansion. While Tecumseh
Tecumseh
was in the South attempting to recruit allies among the Creeks, Cherokees, and Choctaws, Harrison marched against the Indian confederacy, defeating Tenskwatawa
Tenskwatawa
and his followers at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. The Americans
Americans
hoped that the victory would end the militant resistance, but Tecumseh
Tecumseh
instead chose to ally openly with the British, who were soon at war with the Americans
Americans
in the War of 1812. Like the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812
War of 1812
was also a massive war on the western front. Encouraged by Tecumseh, the Creek War (1813–1814), which began as a civil war within the Creek (Muscogee) nation, became part of the larger struggle against American expansion. Although the war with the British was ultimately a stalemate, the United States
United States
was more successful on the western front. Tecumseh
Tecumseh
was killed by Harrison's army at the Battle of the Thames, ending the resistance in the Old Northwest. The Creeks who fought against the United States
United States
were defeated. The First Seminole War
First Seminole War
in 1818 was in some ways a continuation of the Creek War[citation needed] and resulted in the transfer of Florida to the United States
United States
in 1819 from Spain. As in the Revolution and the Northwest Indian War, the British abandoned their Indian allies to the Americans
Americans
after the War of 1812. This proved to be a major turning point in the Indian Wars, marking the last time that Native Americans
Americans
would turn to a foreign power for assistance against the United States. Removal era wars[edit]

A dead Sauk and her surviving child with a U.S. officer at the Bad Axe Massacre, 1832

Numerous Indian removal
Indian removal
treaties were signed. Most American Indians reluctantly but peacefully complied with the terms of the removal treaties, often with bitter resignation.[citation needed] Some groups, however, went to war to resist the implementation of these treaties, e.g., two short wars (the Black Hawk War
Black Hawk War
of 1832 and the Creek War
Creek War
of 1836), as well as the long and costly Second Seminole War (1835–1842). Second Seminole War[edit] Main articles: Second Seminole War
Second Seminole War
and Seminole Wars American settlers began to push into Florida, which was now an American territory and had some of the most fertile lands in the nation. Some scholars have noted that covetousness, racism, and claims of "self-defense" against Indian raids (real or imagined) became the order of the day in the 1820s, and played a major part in the settlers' determination to "rid Florida of Indians once and for all".[8] To compound the tension, runaway black slaves sometimes found refuge in Seminole camps. The inevitable result was clashes between white settlers and the Native Americans
Americans
already residing there. Andrew Jackson sought to alleviate this problem by signing the Indian Removal Act, which stipulated forced relocation of Native Americans
Americans
(if necessary) out of Florida. The Seminoles, led by such powerful leaders as Aripeka (Sam Jones), Micanopy, and Osceola, had little or no intention of leaving their ancestral homelands and quickly retaliated against settler theft, encroachment and attacks on their camps. This led to what is known as the Second Seminole War, the longest and most costly war ever waged against Indians. In May 1830, the Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act
was passed by Congress which stipulated forced removal of Native Americans
Americans
to Oklahoma. Also in Florida in May 1832, the Treaty of Paynes Landing was signed by a few Seminole chiefs who later recanted the signing of this treaty, claimed that they were tricked or forced in to signing, and made it clear that they would not consent to relocating to a reservation out west. The Seminoles' continued resistance to relocation led Florida to prepare for war. The St. Augustine Militia
Militia
asked the U.S. War Department for the loan of 500 muskets. Five hundred volunteers were mobilized under Brig. Gen. Richard K. Call. Indian war parties raided farms and settlements, and families fled to forts, large towns, or out of the territory altogether. A war party led by Osceola
Osceola
captured a Florida militia supply train, killing eight of its guards and wounding six others. Most of the goods taken were recovered by the militia in another fight a few days later. Sugar plantations along the Atlantic coast south of St. Augustine were destroyed, with many of the slaves on the plantations joining the Seminoles.

Attack of the Seminoles
Seminoles
on the blockhouse in December 1835

The U.S. Army had 11 companies (about 550 soldiers) stationed in Florida. Fort King
Fort King
(Ocala) had only one company of soldiers, and it was feared that they might be overrun by the Seminoles. Three companies were stationed at Fort Brooke
Fort Brooke
(Tampa), with another two expected imminently, so the army decided to send two companies to Fort King. On December 23, 1835, the two companies, totaling 110 men, left Fort Brooke
Fort Brooke
under the command of Major Francis L. Dade. Seminoles shadowed the marching soldiers for five days. On December 28, the Seminoles
Seminoles
ambushed the soldiers, and wiped out the command. Only three men survived, and one, Edwin De Courcey, was hunted down and killed by a Seminole the next day. Two survivors, Ransome Clarke and Joseph Sprague, returned to Fort Brooke. Only Clarke, who died of his wounds later, left any account of the battle from the army's perspective. Joseph Sprague was unharmed and lived quite a while longer, but was not able to give an account of the battle because he had sought immediate refuge in a nearby pond. The Seminoles
Seminoles
lost just three men, with five wounded. On the same day as the Dade Massacre, Osceola
Osceola
and his followers shot and killed Agent Wiley Thompson and six others during an ambush outside of Fort King. Major Ethan Allen Hitchcock was subsequently among those who found the remains of the Dade party in February. In his journal he accounted for the discovery, then vented his bitter discontent with the conflict: "The government is in the wrong, and this is the chief cause of the persevering opposition of the Indians, who have nobly defended their country against our attempt to enforce a fraudulent treaty. The natives used every means to avoid a war, but were forced into it by the tyranny of our government." On December 29, General Clinch left Fort Drane (recently established on Clinch's plantation, about twenty miles (32 km) northwest of Fort King) with 750 soldiers, including 500 volunteers on an enlistment due to end January 1, 1836. The group was traveling to a Seminole stronghold called the Cove of the Withlacoochee, an area of many lakes on the southwest side of the Withlacoochee River. When they reached the river, the soldiers could not find the ford, so Clinch ferried his regular troops across the river in a single canoe they had found. Once they were across and had relaxed, the Seminoles
Seminoles
attacked. The troops only saved themselves by fixing bayonets and charging the Seminoles, at the cost of four dead and 59 wounded. The militia provided cover as the army troops then withdrew across the river.

The Dade Massacre
Dade Massacre
was the U.S. Army's worst defeat at the hands of Seminoles

In another key skirmish known as the Battle of Lake Okeechobee, Colonel Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
saw the first major action of the campaign. Leaving Fort Gardiner on the upper Kissimmee with 1,000 men on December 19, Taylor headed towards Lake Okeechobee. In the first two days ninety Seminoles
Seminoles
surrendered. On the third day Taylor stopped to build Fort Basinger, where he left his sick and enough men to guard the Seminoles
Seminoles
that had surrendered. Three days later, on Christmas Day, 1837, Taylor's column caught up with the main body of the Seminoles
Seminoles
on the north shore of Lake Okeechobee. The Seminoles, led by Alligator, Sam Jones, and the recently escaped Coacoochee, were well positioned in a hammock surrounded by sawgrass. The ground was thick mud, and sawgrass easily cuts and burns the skin. Taylor had about 800 men, while the Seminoles
Seminoles
numbered fewer than 400. Taylor sent in the Missouri volunteers first, moving his troops squarely into the center of the swamp. His plan was to make a direct attack rather than encircle the Indians. All his men were on foot. Missouri volunteers formed the first line. As soon as they came within range, the Indians opened with heavy fire. The volunteers broke, and their commander, Colonel Gentry, fatally wounded, was unable to rally them. They fled back across the swamp. The fighting in the sawgrass was deadliest for five companies of the Sixth Infantry; every officer but one, and most of their non-commissioned officers, were either killed or wounded. When that part of the regiment retired a short distance to re-form, they found only four men of these companies unharmed. Only about a dozen Seminoles
Seminoles
had been killed in the battle. Nevertheless, the Battle of Lake Okeechobee
Battle of Lake Okeechobee
was hailed as a great victory for Taylor and the army. Twenty-six U.S. soldiers, including the majority of Taylor's officers and NCOs, were killed, with 112 wounded, compared to only 11 Seminoles
Seminoles
killed and 14 wounded. No Seminoles
Seminoles
were captured, although Taylor did capture 100 ponies and 600 head of cattle.

Marines searching for the Seminoles
Seminoles
among the mangroves.

By 1842, the war was winding down, and most Seminoles, save a few hundred diehards, had left Florida for Oklahoma. Estimates of the true cost of the Seminole War range from $30 million to $40 million (about $1.5 billion to $2 billion in today's prices), though no analysis of the actual cost has been made. Congress appropriated funds for the "suppression of Indian hostilities", but the costs of the Creek War
Creek War
of 1836 are included in that. An inquiry into extravagance in naval operations found that the navy had spent about $511,000 on the war. The investigation did find questionable expenditures. Among other things, while the army had bought dugout canoes for $10 to $15 apiece, the navy spent an average of $226 per canoe. The number of army, navy and marine regulars who served in Florida is given as 10,169. About 30,000 militiamen and volunteers also served in the war. Sources agree that the U.S. Army officially recorded 1,466 deaths in the Second Seminole War, mostly from disease. The number killed in action is less clear. Mahon reports 328 regular army killed in action, while Missall reports that Seminoles
Seminoles
killed 269 officers and men. Almost half of those deaths occurred in the Dade Massacre, Battle of Lake Okeechobee
Lake Okeechobee
and Harney Massacre. Similarly, Mahon reports 69 deaths for the navy, while Missal reports 41 for the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, but adds others may have died after being sent out of Florida as incurable. Mahon and the Florida Board of State Institutions agree that 55 volunteer officers and men were killed by the Seminoles, while Missall says the number is unknown. There is no figure for how many militiamen and volunteers died of disease or accident, however. The number of white civilians and Seminoles
Seminoles
killed is also uncertain. A northern newspaper carried a report that more than eighty civilians were killed by Indians in Florida in 1839. Nobody kept a cumulative account of the number of Indians killed, or who died of starvation or other privations caused by the war. The Indians who were shipped west did not fare well either. By the end of 1843, 3,824 Indians had been shipped from Florida to what became the Indian Territory, but in 1844 only 3,136 remained. As of 1962 there were only 2,343 Seminoles
Seminoles
in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and perhaps some 1,500 in Florida. West of the Mississippi (1811–1924)[edit]

Indian Wars West of the Mississippi

Arikara War
Arikara War
(1823) Osage Indian War
Osage Indian War
(1837) Texas–Indian wars
Texas–Indian wars
(1836–1877)

Comanche Wars
Comanche Wars
(1836–1877) Antelope Hills expedition
Antelope Hills expedition
(1858) Comanche Campaign
Comanche Campaign
(1867–1875) Red River War
Red River War
(1874–1875) Buffalo Hunters' War
Buffalo Hunters' War
(1876–1877)

Cayuse War
Cayuse War
(1847–1855) Apache Wars
Apache Wars
(1849–1924)

Jicarilla War
Jicarilla War
(1849–1855) Chiricahua
Chiricahua
Wars (1860–1886) Tonto War (1871–1875) Victorio's War
Victorio's War
(1879–1880) Geronimo's War (1881–1886) Post 1887 Apache Wars
Apache Wars
period (1887–1924)

Yuma War
Yuma War
(1850–1853) Ute Wars
Ute Wars
(1850–1923)

Battle at Fort Utah
Battle at Fort Utah
(1850) Walker War
Walker War
(1853–1854) Tintic War (1856) Black Hawk War
Black Hawk War
(1865–1872) White River War
White River War
(1879) Ute War (1887) Bluff War
Bluff War
(1914–1915) Bluff Skirmish (1921) Posey War
Posey War
(1923)

Sioux Wars
Sioux Wars
(1854–1891)

First Sioux
Sioux
War (1854-1856) Dakota War (1862) Colorado War
Colorado War
(1863–1865) Powder River War (1865) Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War
(1866–1868) Great Sioux
Sioux
War (1876–1877) Northern Cheyenne Exodus
Northern Cheyenne Exodus
(1878-1879) Ghost Dance War
Ghost Dance War
(1890–1891)

Rogue River Wars
Rogue River Wars
(1855–1856) Yakima War
Yakima War
(1855–1858)

Puget Sound War
Puget Sound War
(1855–1856) Coeur d'Alene War
Coeur d'Alene War
(1858)

Mohave War
Mohave War
(1858–1859) Navajo Wars
Navajo Wars
(1849–1866) Paiute War (1860) Yavapai Wars
Yavapai Wars
(1861–1875) Snake War (1864–1869) Hualapai War (1865–1870) Modoc War
Modoc War
(1872–1873) Nez Perce War
Nez Perce War
(1877) Bannock War
Bannock War
(1878) Crow War
Crow War
(1887) Bannock Uprising (1895) Yaqui Uprising
Yaqui Uprising
(1896) Battle of Sugar Point
Battle of Sugar Point
(1898) Crazy Snake Rebellion
Crazy Snake Rebellion
(1909) Last Massacre (1911) Battle of Kelley Creek
Battle of Kelley Creek
(1911) Battle of Bear Valley
Battle of Bear Valley
(1918)

The series of conflicts in the western United States
United States
between Native Americans, American settlers, and the United States
United States
Army are generally known as the Indian Wars. Many of the most well-known of these conflicts occurred during and after the Civil War until the closing of the frontier in about 1890. However regions of the West that were settled before the Civil War, such as Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Oregon, California
California
and Washington, saw significant conflicts prior to 1860. Various statistics have been developed concerning the devastation of these wars on the peoples involved. One notable study by Gregory Michno used records dealing with figures "as a direct result of" engagements and concluded that "of the 21,586 total casualties tabulated in this survey, military personnel and civilians accounted for 6,596 (31%), while Indian casualties totaled about 14,990 (69%)." for the period of 1850–90. However, Michno says he "used the army's estimates in almost every case" and "the number of casualties in this study are inherently biased toward army estimations". His work includes almost nothing on "Indian war parties", and that "army records are often incomplete"; his work is a "workable" number, not a definitive account of events, since it excluded other figures.[9] According to Michno, more conflicts with Native Americans
Americans
occurred in the states bordering Mexico
Mexico
than in the interior states. Arizona ranked highest, with 310 known battles fought within the state's boundaries between Americans
Americans
and the natives. Also, when determining how many deaths resulted from the wars, in each of the American states, Arizona
Arizona
again ranked highest. At least 4,340 people were killed, including both the settlers and the Indians, over twice as many as occurred in Texas, the second highest-ranking state. Most of the deaths in Arizona
Arizona
were caused by the Apache. Michno also says that fifty-one percent of the Indian war battles between 1850 and 1890 took place in Arizona, Texas and New Mexico, as well as thirty-seven percent of the casualties in the country west of the Mississippi River.[10] Background[edit] The region that would later be the western United States
United States
had been penetrated by U.S. forces and settlers before this period, notably by fur trappers, the Santa Fe Trail, the Oregon Trail
Oregon Trail
and the Mormon emigration to Utah, as well as by settlement of California
California
and Oregon. Relations between American Immigrants and Native Americans
Americans
were generally peaceful. In the case of the Santa Fe Trail, this was due to the friendly relationship of the Bents of Bent's Fort
Bent's Fort
with the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho, and in the case of the Oregon Trail, to the peace established by the Treaty of Fort Laramie. Signed in 1851 between the United States
United States
and the plains Indians and the Indians of the northern Rocky Mountains, the treaty allowed passage by immigrants and the building of roads and the stationing of troops along the Oregon Trail. The Pike's Peak Gold Rush
Pike's Peak Gold Rush
of 1859 introduced a substantial white population into the Front Range of the Rockies supported by a trading lifeline that crossed the central Great Plains. Advancing settlement following the passage of the Homestead Act
Homestead Act
and the building of the transcontinental railways following the Civil War further destabilized the situation, placing white settlers into direct competition for the land and resources of the Great Plains
Great Plains
and the Rocky Mountain West.[11][12] Further factors included discovery of gold in the Black Hills, resulting in the gold rush of 1875–1878, and, earlier, in Montana during the Montana Gold Rush of 1862–1863 and the opening of the Bozeman Trail, which led to Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War
and later the Great Sioux
Sioux
War of 1876–77.[13] As in the East, expansion into the plains and mountains by miners, ranchers and settlers led to increasing conflicts with the indigenous population of the West. Many tribes—from the Utes of the Great Basin to the Nez Perces of Idaho—fought Americans
Americans
at one time or another. But the Sioux
Sioux
of the Northern Plains and the Apache
Apache
of the Southwest provided the most celebrated opposition to encroachment on tribal lands. Led by resolute, militant leaders, such as Red Cloud
Red Cloud
and Crazy Horse, the Sioux
Sioux
were skilled at high-speed mounted warfare. The Sioux were relatively new arrivals on the Plains, as, previously, they had been sedentary farmers in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
region. Once they learned to capture and ride horses, they moved west, displacing other Indian tribes and became feared warriors. Historically the Apache
Apache
bands supplemented their economy by raiding others and practiced warfare to avenge a death of a kinsman. The Apache
Apache
bands were adept at fighting and highly elusive in the environments of desert and canyons. During the American Civil War, U.S. Army units were withdrawn to fight the war in the east. They were replaced by the volunteer infantry and cavalry raised by the states of California
California
and Oregon, by the western territorial governments or the local militias. These units fought the Indians besides keeping open communications with the east, holding the west for the Union and defeating the Confederate attempt to capture the New Mexico
Mexico
Territory. After 1865 national policy called for all Indians either to assimilate into the general population as citizens, or to live peacefully on reservations. Raids and wars between tribes were not allowed, and armed Indian bands off a reservation were the responsibility of the Army to round up and return. Texas[edit] Main article: Texas–Indian wars In the 18th century, Spanish settlers in Texas came into conflict with the Apache, Comanche, and Karankawa, among other tribes. Large numbers of Anglo-American settlers reached Texas in the 1830s, and from that point until the 1870s, a series of armed confrontations broke out, mostly between Texans and Comanches. During the same period the Comanche
Comanche
and their allies raided hundreds of miles deep into Mexico (see Comanche– Mexico
Mexico
Wars).

Battles, army posts, and the general location of tribes in the American West

The first notable battle was the Fort Parker massacre
Fort Parker massacre
in 1836, in which a huge war party of Comanches, Kiowa, Wichitas, and Delawares attacked the Texan outpost at Fort Parker. Despite the small number of white settlers killed during the raid, the abduction of Cynthia Ann Parker and two other children caused widespread outrage among Texas' Anglo settlers. Once the Republic of Texas
Republic of Texas
was declared and had secured some sovereignty in their war with Mexico, the Texas government under President Sam Houston
Sam Houston
pursued a policy of engagement with the Comanches and Kiowa. Ironically, since Houston had lived with the Cherokee, the republic faced a conflict called the Cordova Rebellion, in which Cherokees appear to have joined with Mexican forces to fight the fledgling country. Houston resolved the conflict without resorting to arms, refusing to believe that the Cherokee
Cherokee
would take up arms against his government.[14] The administration of Mirabeau B. Lamar, which followed Houston's, took a very different policy towards the Indians. Under Lamar, Texas removed the Cherokee
Cherokee
to the west, and then sought to deport the Comanche
Comanche
and Kiowa. This led to a series of battles, including the Council House Fight, in which, at a peace parley, the Texas militia killed 33 Comanche
Comanche
chiefs. The Comanche retaliated with the Great Raid of 1840, and the Battle of Plum Creek followed several days later.

Quanah Parker, son of a Comanche
Comanche
Chief and an Anglo-Texas settler. His family's story spans the history of the Texas–Indian wars.

The Lamar Administration was known for its failed and expensive Indian policy; the cost of the war with the Indians exceeded the annual revenue of the government throughout his four-year term. It was followed by a second Houston administration, which resumed the previous policy of diplomacy. Texas signed treaties with all of the tribes, including the Comanche. The Comanche
Comanche
and their allies shifted most of their raiding activities to Mexico, using Texas as a safe haven from Mexican retaliation. After Texas joined the Union in 1846, the struggle between the Plains Indians and the settlers was taken up by the federal government and the state of Texas. The years 1856–1858 were particularly vicious and bloody on the Texas frontier, as settlers continued to expand their settlements into the Comanche
Comanche
homeland, the Comancheria, and 1858 was marked by the first Texan incursion into the heart of the Comancheria, the so-called Antelope Hills Expedition, marked by the Battle of Little Robe Creek. This battle signaled the beginning of the end of the Comanche
Comanche
as an independent nation, as, for the first time, they were attacked in the heart of their domain, in force. The battles between settlers and Indians continued and in 1860, at the Battle of Pease River, Texas militia destroyed an Indian camp. In the aftermath of the battle, the Texans learned that they had recaptured Cynthia Ann Parker, the little girl captured by the Comanche
Comanche
in 1836. She returned to live with the Parkers, but missed her children, including her son Quanah Parker. He was the son of Parker and Comanche Chief Peta Nocona
Peta Nocona
and would go on to be a Comanche
Comanche
war chief at the First Battle of Adobe Walls. As chief of the Quahadi Comanches, he finally surrendered to the overwhelming force of the federal government and in 1875 moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Pacific Northwest[edit] Main articles: Cayuse War, Yakima War, Puget Sound War, Rogue River Wars, Spokane – Coeur d'Alene – Paloos War, Snake War, Nez Perce War, Bannock War, and Sheepeater Indian War A number of wars occurred in the wake of the Oregon Treaty
Oregon Treaty
of 1846 and the creation of Oregon Territory
Oregon Territory
and Washington Territory. Among the causes of conflict were a sudden immigration to the region and a series of gold rushes throughout the Pacific Northwest. The Whitman massacre of 1847 triggered the Cayuse War, which led to fighting from the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
to the Rocky Mountains. The Cayuse were defeated in 1855, but by then the conflict had expanded and continued in what became known as the Yakima War, 1855–1858. One of the triggers of the Yakima War
Yakima War
was the creation of Washington Territory
Washington Territory
and the effort of its first governor, Isaac Stevens, to compel tribes to sign treaties ceding land and establishing reservations. The Yakama signed one of the treaties negotiated during the Walla Walla Council of 1855, and the Yakama Indian Reservation
Yakama Indian Reservation
was established. The treaties were poorly received by the native peoples and served mainly to intensify hostilities. Gold discoveries near Fort Colville
Fort Colville
resulted in many miners crossing Yakama lands via Naches Pass, and conflicts rapidly escalated into violence. It took several years for the US Army to defeat the Yakama, during which time war spread to the Puget Sound region west of the Cascades. The Puget Sound War
Puget Sound War
of 1855–1856 was triggered in part by the Yakima War
Yakima War
and in part by the use of intimidation to compel tribes to sign land cession treaties. The Treaty of Medicine Creek, signed in 1855, established an unrealistically small reservation on poor land for the Nisqually and Puyallup people. Violence broke out in the White River valley, along the route to Naches Pass, which connected Nisqually and Yakama lands. Although limited in its magnitude, territorial impact and losses in terms of lives, the Puget Sound War
Puget Sound War
is often remembered in connection with the 1856 Battle of Seattle and the execution of a central figure of the war, Nisqually Chief Leschi.[15]

Nisqually Chief Leschi
Chief Leschi
was hanged for murder in 1858 but exonerated in 2004.

In 1858, the fighting on the east side of the Cascades spread. This second phase of the Yakima War
Yakima War
is known as the Coeur d'Alene War. The Yakama, Palouse, Spokane, and Coeur d'Alene tribes were defeated at the Battle of Four Lakes
Battle of Four Lakes
in late 1858.[15] In southwest Oregon, tensions and skirmishes between American settlers and the Rogue River peoples, starting about 1850, escalated into the Rogue River Wars
Rogue River Wars
of 1855–1856. The California Gold Rush
California Gold Rush
helped fuel a large increase in the number of people traveling south through the Rogue River Valley. Gold discoveries continued to trigger violent conflict between prospectors and indigenous peoples. Beginning in 1858, the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in British Columbia
British Columbia
drew large numbers of miners, many from Washington, Oregon, and California, culminating in the Fraser Canyon War. Although this conflict occurred in what is now Canada, the militias involved were formed mostly of Americans. Due to the discovery of gold in Idaho
Idaho
and Oregon in the 1860s, similar conflicts arose that culminated in the Bear River Massacre
Bear River Massacre
in 1863 and Snake War from 1864 to 1868. In the late 1870s another series of armed conflicts occurred in Oregon and Idaho, spreading east into Wyoming and Montana. The Nez Perce War of 1877 is known particularly for Chief Joseph
Chief Joseph
and the four-month, 1,200-mile fighting retreat of a band of about 800 Nez Perce, including women and children. As with the other wars in the Pacific Northwest, the Nez Perce War
Nez Perce War
was caused by a large influx of settlers, the appropriation of Indian lands, and a gold rush—this time in Idaho. The Nez Perce engaged 2,000 American soldiers of different military units, as well as their Indian auxiliaries. The Nez Perce fought "eighteen engagements, including four major battles and at least four fiercely contested skirmishes".[16] Although finally defeated and captured, Chief Joseph
Chief Joseph
and the Nez Perce were much admired for their conduct in the war and their fighting ability.[17] The Bannock War
Bannock War
broke out the following year for similar reasons. The Sheepeater Indian War in 1879 was the last conflict in the area. Southwest[edit] Main articles: Navajo Wars, Yuma War, Mohave War, Apache
Apache
Wars, Black Hawk War (1865–1872), and Apache- Mexico
Mexico
Wars

Geronimo
Geronimo
(right) and his warriors in 1886

The acquisition of Alta California
Alta California
and Santa Fe de Nuevo México
Santa Fe de Nuevo México
from Mexico
Mexico
at the end of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
in 1848, and the Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
in 1853, brought about conflicts with native peoples in what is now the Southwestern United States
United States
that spanned from 1846 to at least 1895. The first conflicts were in the New Mexico Territory, and later in California
California
and the Utah Territory
Utah Territory
during and after the California
California
Gold Rush. Native American tribes or bands in the southwest had been engaged in cycles of trading and fighting each other and foreign settlers for centuries prior to the United States
United States
gaining control of the region. These conflicts with the United States
United States
involved every non-pueblo tribe in the region and often were a continuation of Mexican–Spanish conflicts. The Navajo Wars
Navajo Wars
and Apache Wars
Apache Wars
are perhaps the best known. The last major campaign of the U.S. military against Native Americans in the Southwest involved 5,000 troops in the field, and resulted in the surrender of Chiricahua
Chiricahua
Apache
Apache
chief Geronimo
Geronimo
and his band of 24 warriors, women and children in 1886. California[edit] Main articles: California
California
Indian Wars, Gila Expedition, Mariposa War, Klamath and Salmon River War, Modoc War, Bald Hills War, Pitt River Expedition, Mendocino War, Owens Valley Indian War, and Snake War Because of the small U.S. Army garrison west of the Rockies, and the economic and political effects of the California
California
Gold Rush, most of the early conflicts with the mostly unwarlike California
California
Indians involved local parties of miners or settlers. Occasionally companies of the California
California
Militia
Militia
were involved, whose actions were dignified with the name of an "Expedition" or a "War". The first of these, the Gila Expedition in 1850, was a dismal failure and nearly bankrupted the state. Later, during the American Civil War, California
California
volunteers replaced Federal troops and won the ongoing Bald Hills War
Bald Hills War
and the Owens Valley Indian War and engaged in minor actions against hostiles in Northern California. California
California
and Oregon volunteer garrisons in Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, New Mexico
Mexico
and the Arizona
Arizona
Territories also engaged in conflicts with the Apache, Cheyenne, Goshute, Navajo, Paiute, Shoshone, Sioux
Sioux
and Ute Indians from 1862 to 1866. Following the Civil War, California
California
was mostly pacified, but federal troops replaced the volunteers and again took up the struggle against Native Americans
Americans
in the remote regions of the Mojave Desert, and in the northeast against the Snakes (1864–1868) and Modocs (1872–1873). Great Basin[edit] Main articles: Ute Wars, Walker War, Paiute War, Bear River Massacre, Goshute War, Snake War, Black Hawk War
Black Hawk War
(Utah), Bannock War, and White River War The tribes of the Great Basin, for the most part Shoshone, were severely impacted by the Oregon and California
California
Trails and by Mormon emigration to Utah. Beginning with their encounter with Lewis and Clark the Shoshone
Shoshone
had generally had friendly relations with American and British fur traders and trappers. At first, relationships were friendly with travelers on the trails, but, with time, the volume of emigrants severely impacted natural resources in the areas traversed by the trails. Often travelers treated the Indians they encountered badly and the Indians on their part continued to steal horses and other stock. In Utah, expanding Mormon settlement pushed natives from the fertile and well-watered valleys where they had lived and the cattle of the Mormons consumed the grasses and other plants which made up the traditional Shoshone
Shoshone
diet. While unwilling to compensate the Shoshone, or the Ute, for their lands the Mormons did offer food to the Indians. However relations were not smooth, with the Indians being aggressive and demanding while the Mormons found the burden imposed by the Church leadership onerous. The federal government had little presence in the Great Basin
Great Basin
and made little effort to ameliorate the situation. The Indians, their traditional way of life disrupted and in retaliation for outrages suffered at the hands of emigrants, engaged in raiding of travelers along the trails and engaged in aggressive behavior toward Mormon settlers. The efforts of the undisciplined California
California
militia who were stationed in Utah during the Civil War to respond to complaints resulted in the Bear River Massacre.[18] Following the massacre a series of treaties were agreed to with the various Shoshone
Shoshone
tribes exchanging promises of peace for small annuities and reservations. One of these, the Box Elder Treaty, identified a land claim made by the Northwestern Shoshone. (This claim was declared non-binding by the Supreme Court in a 1945 ruling,[19][20] but later recognized by the Indian Claims Commission in 1968. Descendents of the original group were compensated collectively at a rate of less than $0.50 per acre, minus legal fees.)[21] Most of the local groups were decimated by the war, and faced continuing loss of hunting and fishing land caused by encroachment of white settlers. Some moved to the Fort Hall Indian Reservation
Fort Hall Indian Reservation
when it was created in 1868. Some of the Shoshone
Shoshone
populated the Mormon-sanctioned community of Washakie, Utah.[22] Great Plains[edit] Main articles: Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851), Treaty of Fort Wise, Dakota War of 1862, Sand Creek Massacre, Colorado War, Powder River Expedition (1865), Red Cloud's War, Great Sioux
Sioux
War of 1876–77, Battle of the Little Bighorn, and Wounded Knee Massacre

Massacre Canyon
Massacre Canyon
monument and historical marker in Nebraska

Initially relations between participants in the Pike's Peak gold rush and the Native American tribes of the Front Range and the Platte valley were friendly.[23][24] An attempt was made to resolve conflicts by negotiation of the Treaty of Fort Wise which established a reservation in southeastern Colorado, but the settlement was not agreed to by all of the roving warriors, particularly the Dog Soldiers. During the early 1860s tensions increased and culminated in the Colorado War
Colorado War
and the Sand Creek Massacre
Sand Creek Massacre
where Colorado volunteers fell on a peaceful Cheyenne
Cheyenne
village killing women and children[25] which set the stage for further conflict. The peaceful relationship between settlers and the Indians of the Colorado and Kansas plains was maintained faithfully by the tribes, but sentiment grew among the Colorado settlers for Indian removal. The savagery of the attacks on civilians during the Dakota War of 1862 contributed to these sentiments as did the few minor incidents which occurred in the Platte Valley and in areas east of Denver. Regular army troops had been withdrawn for service in the Civil War and were replaced with the Colorado Volunteers, rough men who often favored extermination of the Indians. They were commanded by John Chivington and George L. Shoup
George L. Shoup
who followed the lead of John Evans, territorial governor of Colorado. They adopted a policy of shooting all Indians encountered on sight, a policy which in short time ignited a general war on the Colorado and Kansas plains, the Colorado War.[26] Raids by bands of plains Indians on isolated homesteads to the east of Denver, on the advancing settlements in Kansas, and on stage line stations along the South Platte, such as at Julesburg,[27][28] and along the Smoky Hill Trail, resulted in settlers in both Colorado and Kansas adopting a murderous attitude towards Native Americans, with calls for extermination.[29] Likewise, the savagery shown by the Colorado Volunteers during the Sand Creek massacre
Sand Creek massacre
resulted in Native Americans, particularly the Dog Soldiers, a band of the Cheyenne, engaging in savage retribution. Dakota War[edit] Main article: Dakota War of 1862

Settlers escaping the Dakota War of 1862

The Dakota War of 1862
Dakota War of 1862
(more commonly called the Sioux
Sioux
Uprising of 1862 in older authorities and popular texts) was the first major armed engagement between the U.S. and the Sioux. After six weeks of fighting in Minnesota, led mostly by Chief Taoyateduta
Taoyateduta
(aka, Little Crow), records conclusively show that more than 500 U.S. soldiers and settlers died in the conflict, though many more may have died in small raids or after being captured. The number of Sioux
Sioux
dead in the uprising is mostly undocumented, but after the war, 303 Sioux
Sioux
were convicted of murder and rape by U.S. military tribunals and sentenced to death. Most of the death sentences were commuted by President Lincoln, but on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota, 38 Dakota Sioux
Sioux
men were hanged in what is still today the largest penal mass execution in U.S. history.[30] After the expulsion of the Dakota, some refugees and warriors made their way to Lakota lands in what is now North Dakota. Battles continued between Minnesota
Minnesota
regiments and combined Lakota and Dakota forces through 1864, as Colonel Henry Sibley pursued the Sioux
Sioux
into Dakota Territory. Sibley's army defeated the Lakota and Dakota in three major battles in 1863: the Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake
Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake
on July 26, 1863, the Battle of Stony Lake
Battle of Stony Lake
on July 28, 1863, and the Battle of Whitestone Hill on September 3, 1863. The Sioux
Sioux
retreated further, but again faced an American army in 1864; this time, Gen. Alfred Sully
Alfred Sully
led a force from near Fort Pierre, South Dakota, and decisively defeated the Sioux
Sioux
at the Battle of Killdeer Mountain
Battle of Killdeer Mountain
on July 28, 1864. Colorado War, Sand Creek Massacre
Sand Creek Massacre
and the Sioux
Sioux
War of 1865[edit] Main articles: Colorado War, Sand Creek massacre, and Powder River Expedition (1865)

Mochi, a Southern Cheyenne
Cheyenne
in Black Kettle's camp, became a warrior after her experiences at the Sand Creek massacre

On November 29, 1864, the Colorado territory militia responded to a series of Indian attacks on white settlements by attacking a Cheyenne and Arapaho
Arapaho
encampment on Sand Creek in southeastern Colorado. Under orders to take no prisoners, the militia killed and mutilated about 200 of the Indians, two-thirds of whom were women and children,[31] taking scalps and other grisly trophies of battle.[32] The Indians at Sand Creek had been assured by the U.S. Government that they would be safe in the territory they were occupying, but anti-Indian sentiments by white settlers were running high. Following the massacre, the survivors joined the camps of the Cheyenne on the Smokey Hill and Republican Rivers. There, the war pipe was smoked and passed from camp to camp among the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho
Arapaho
camped in the area and an attack on the stage station and fort at Julesburg was planned and carried out in the January 1865 Battle of Julesburg. This successful attack was followed up by numerous raids along the South Platte both east and west of Julesburg and a second raid on Julesburg in early February. A great deal of loot was captured and many whites killed. The bulk of the Indians then moved north into Nebraska on their way to the Black Hills
Black Hills
and the Powder River.[33][34] In the spring of 1865 raids continued along the Oregon trail in Nebraska and the Sioux, the Northern Cheyenne, the Northern Arapaho together with the warriors who had come north after the Sand Creek massacre raided the Oregon Trail
Oregon Trail
along the North Platte River, and in July 1865 attacked the troops stationed at the bridge across the North Platte at the present site of Casper, Wyoming
Casper, Wyoming
in the Battle of Platte Bridge.[35][36] Sheridan's campaigns[edit] Main articles: Washita Massacre
Washita Massacre
and Marias Massacre

A cartoon from Harper's Weekly of December 21, 1878, features General Philip Sheridan
Philip Sheridan
and Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz

After the Civil War, all of the Indians were assigned to reservations; the role of the army was to keep them there. The reservations themselves were under the control of the Interior Department. Control of the Great Plains
Great Plains
fell under the Army's Department of the Missouri, an administrative area of over 1,000,000 mi.², encompassing all land between the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and the Rocky Mountains. Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock
Winfield S. Hancock
had led the department in 1866, but had mishandled his campaign, resulting in Sioux
Sioux
and Cheyenne
Cheyenne
raids that attacked mail stagecoaches, burnt the stations, and killed the employees. They also raped, killed, and kidnapped many settlers on the frontier.[37] Philip Sheridan
Philip Sheridan
was the military governor of Louisiana and Texas in 1866. President Johnson removed Sheridan from that post claiming he was ruling over the area with absolute tyranny and insubordination. In order to preserve reconstruction efforts Sheridan had to be replaced. Shortly after Hancock was removed as Head of the Department of the Missouri and Grant selected Sheridan to replace him in August 1867.[38] Sheridan was ordered to pacify the plains and take control of the Natives there. His first order was to immediately called General Custer back to command of the 7th Cavalry who had been suspended by Hancock.[39] The Department of Missouri was in poor shape upon Sheridan’s arrival. A peace treaty was signed by commissioners from the government in October 1867 with the Comanche, Kiowa, Kiowa
Kiowa
Apache, Cheyenne, and Arapaho
Arapaho
that offered them land to live on in the form of reservations along with food and supplies.[38] This attempt at peace through bribery was unsuccessful as Congress failed to pass it. The promised supplies from the government were not reaching the natives and they were beginning to starve. When Sheridan took command of the territory these now starving Indians numbered an estimated 6,000 warriors and families. Sheridan only had at his disposal 2,600 men at the time to control them and defend against any raids or attacks but only 1,200 of his men were mounted.[40] These men were also under supplied and stationed at forts that themselves were in poor conditions. They were also mostly unproven units that replaced retired veterans from the American Civil War, only the West Point officers were able to maintain command positions. Sheridan attempted to approve the conditions of the military outpost and the Indians on the plains through a peace-oriented strategy. Toward the beginning of his command members of the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho
Arapaho
followed him on his travels from Fort Larned to Fort Dodge where he spoke to them. They brought their problems to Sheridan’s ear and explained how the supplies they were promised by the commissioners were not being delivered. In response Sheridan gave the starving Natives a generous supply of rations. Shortly after the Saline Valley
Saline Valley
settlements were attacked and were followed by other violent raids and kidnappings in the region. Sheridan wanted to respond in force by was constrained by the government’s peace police and the lack of well supplied mounted troops.[38] Since he could not deploy official military units, Sheridan commissioned a group of 47 frontiersmen and sharpshooters called Solomon’s Avengers. They investigated the recent raids near Arickaree Creek and where attacked by Native Indians on September 17 of 1868. The battle now known as Beecher’s Island saw the Avengers under siege for eight days by some seven hundred Indian warriors. Using their Spencer repeaters they were able to keep them at bay until military units arrived to help. The Avengers lost six men and another 15 were wounded. Due to the increase of violent attacks like Beecher’s Island and Saline Valley, Sherman gave Sheridan authority to respond in force to these threats.[40] During his lifetime Sheridan was known as a fierce enemy of the Indians, and his approach to the Indians were encapsulated when he is thought to have said "The only good Indian is a dead Indian", although he himself denied having said this when criticized by his political opponents.[41] Sheridan believed that his soldiers would be unable to contend or chase the horses of the Natives during the summer months and decided to use them as a defensive force the remainder of September and October. His forces were better fed and clothed than the natives and in the winter months when they were constricted to winter camps, his forces could launch a successful campaign. His Winter Campaign of 1868 would start with the 19th Kansas from Custer’s 7th Cavalry along with 5 battalions of infantry under Major John H Page setting out from Fort Dodge on November 5. A few days later a force from the East consisting of units of the 5th Cavalry along with two companies of infantry moved from Fort Bascom to Fort Cobb where they would meet up with units from the 3rd Cavalry leaving from Fort Lyon. Sheridan Directed the opening month of the campaign from Camp Supply. The Units from the 5th and 3rd Cavalry would meet at Fort Cobb without any sign of the 19th Kansas, but they had a lead on a band of Indians nearby and Custer would lead a force after them.[42] The coming attack by Custer on the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Indians and Black Kettle would come to be known as the Battle of Washita River. During Custer’s attack it is estimated over 100 Indians were killed and over 50 taken prisoner. For Custer’s forces two officers and nineteen men were killed, two officers and eleven men wounded, and a unit under Major Elliott’s command had gone missing. After the battle Custer would execute 675 ponies which were imperative to the native’s survival on the plains. At this time the 19th Kansas were found and made their way into Camp Supply.[42] Immediately following the battle, Sheridan received large amounts of backlash from Washington politicians who defended Black Kettle
Black Kettle
as a peace-loving Indian. This began the controversy arose as to whether the event was best described as a military victory or as a massacre. This discussion endures among historians to this day. Following Washita, Sheridan oversaw the refitting of the 19th Kansas and personally led them down the Washita River toward the Wichita Mountains. During this expedition, Sheridan met with Custer along the Washita River and the two searched for the missing unit of Major Elliott. They found the bodies of the missing unit and during this expedition also found the bodies of Mrs. Blynn and her child who had been taken by natives the previous summer near Fort Lyon.[42] The defeat at Washita had scared many of the tribes and through force and threats Sheridan was able to round up the majority of the Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche
Comanche
people at Fort Cobb in December and get them to agree to living on reservations. Shortly following this Sheridan began negotiations with Little Robe (chief of the Cheyenne) and Yellow Bear about agreeing to living on the reservations.[43] Sheridan then began the construction of Camp Sill, later called Fort Sill
Fort Sill
which would be named after General Sill who died at Stone River. During this time the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
would flee and Custer would chase after them. By late march Custer found them and Sheridan got them and the other tribes to agree to live on reservations under the watch of military outposts. With his successful campaign coming to a close Sheridan was called back to Washington following the election of President Grant. He was informed on his promotion to Lieutenant General of the army and reassigned from the Department. With his campaign yet complete Sheridan protested and was allowed to stay in Missouri with the rank of Lieutenant General. The last remnants of Indian resistance came from Tall Bull Dog Soldiers
Dog Soldiers
and elements of the Sioux
Sioux
and Northern Cheyenne
Cheyenne
tribes. The 5th Cavalry from Fort McPherson
Fort McPherson
were sent to handle the Situation on the Platte River in Nebraska. In May the two forces collided at Summit Springs and the Natives were pursued out of the region. This brought the end to Sheridan’s campaign as the Indians had successfully been removed from the Platte and Arkansas and the majority of those in Kansas had been settled onto reservations. Sheridan would leave in 1869 to take command of the Army and was replaced by Major General Schofield. This was not the end of the wars but the beginning of a war of attrition.[43] Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War
and the Treaty of Fort Laramie[edit] Main articles: Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War
and Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) Black Hills
Black Hills
War[edit]

Custer and Bloody Knife
Bloody Knife
(kneeling left), Custer's favorite Indian Scout.

In 1875, the Great Sioux
Sioux
War of 1876–77, the last serious Sioux
Sioux
war erupted, when the Dakota gold rush penetrated the Black Hills. The U.S. Government decided to stop evicting trespassers from the Black Hills, and offered to buy the land from the Sioux. When they refused, the Government decided instead to take the land, and gave the Lakota until January 31, 1876 to return to reservations. With the deadline's passing, the tribes were absent from the reservations, and military action commenced. After several indecisive encounters, Lt. Colonel George Custer
George Custer
found the main encampment of the Lakota and their allies at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Custer and his men—who were separated from their main body of troops—were all killed by the far more numerous Indians who had the tactical advantage. They were led in the field by Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse
and inspired by Sitting Bull's earlier vision of victory. The defeat of Custer and his troopers as a popularized episode in the history of western Indian warfare was fostered by an advertising campaign by the Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
brewery. The enterprising company ordered reprints of a dramatic painting that depicted "Custer's Last Fight" and had them framed and hung in many American saloons, helping to create lasting impressions of the battle and the brewery's products in the minds of bar patrons.[44][45]

Mass grave for the dead Lakota following the Wounded Knee Massacre

Later, in 1890, a Ghost Dance
Ghost Dance
ritual on the Northern Lakota reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, led to the Army's attempt to subdue the Lakota. On December 29 during this attempt, gunfire erupted, and soldiers killed up to 300 Indians, mostly old men, women and children in the Wounded Knee Massacre.[46] Following the massacre, author L. Frank Baum
L. Frank Baum
wrote: "The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extermination of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries, we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth."[47] Long before this, the means of subsistence and the societies of the indigenous population of the Great Plains
Great Plains
had been destroyed by the slaughter of the buffalo, driven almost to extinction in the 1880s by indiscriminate hunting. Last conflicts[edit]

Buffalo Soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment, 1890

October 5, 1898: Leech Lake, Minnesota: Battle of Sugar Point. Last Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
given for Indian Wars campaigns was awarded to Private Oscar Burkard
Oscar Burkard
of the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment. 1907: Four Corners, Arizona: Two troops of the 5th Cavalry from Fort Wingate skirmish with armed Navajo men. One Navajo was killed and the rest escaped. March 1909: Crazy Snake Rebellion, Oklahoma: Federal officials attack the Muscogee Creeks and allied Freedmen
Freedmen
who had resisted forcible allotment and division of tribal lands by the federal government since 1901, headquartered at Hickory ceremonial grounds in Oklahoma. A two-day gun battle seriously wounded leader Chitto Harjo
Chitto Harjo
and quelled this rebellion.[48] 1911: Chaco Canyon, New Mexico: A company of cavalry went from Fort Wingate to quell an alleged uprising by some Navajo.[citation needed] January 19, 1911: Washoe County, Nevada: The Last Massacre occurred. A group of Shoshones and Bannocks killed four ranchers. On February 26, 1911 eight of the natives involved in the Last Massacre were killed by a posse in the Battle of Kelley Creek; the remaining four were captured. March 1914 – March 15, 1915: Bluff War
Bluff War
in Utah between Ute natives and Mormon colonists. January 9, 1918: Santa Cruz County, Arizona: The Battle of Bear Valley was fought in Southern Arizona. United States
United States
Army forces of the 10th Cavalry engaged and captured a band of Yaquis, after a brief firefight.[49] March 20–23, 1923: Posey War
Posey War
in Utah between Ute and Paiute natives against Mormon colonists.

In 1924, both the Renegade period
Renegade period
and the Apache
Apache
Wars, which had begun decades earlier, ended and brought the American Indian Wars
American Indian Wars
to a close. Effects on indigenous populations[edit] The 2010 census found 2,932,248 Americans
Americans
who identified themselves as being Native American (or Alaskan Native), about 0.9% of the U.S. population.[50] In Canada, the 2011 census found 1,836,035 Canadians who identified themselves as being First Nations
First Nations
(or Inuit
Inuit
or Métis), about 4.3% of the Canadian population.[51] No consensus exists on how many native people lived in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans, but extensive research has been and continues to be conducted.[52][53] Estimates on the population of pre-contact North America range from a low of 2.1 million (Ubelaker 1976) to 7 million (Russell Thornton) to 18 million (Dobyns 1983).[54] As the direct result of infectious diseases, conflict with Europeans, wars between tribes, assimilation, migration to Canada
Canada
and Mexico, and declining birth rates, the numbers of Native Americans
Americans
dropped to below half a million in the 19th century. Scholars believe that the overwhelmingly important causes were new infectious diseases carried by European explorers and traders. Native Americans
Americans
had not evolved immunity to such diseases, which had been chronic in Eurasian populations for over five centuries;[55] the diseases were therefore highly lethal to the Native Americans. For instance, some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–98% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics.[56] The United States
United States
Census Bureau (1894) provided their estimate of deaths due specifically to war during the 102 years between 1789 and 1891, including 8,500 natives and 5,000 whites killed in "individual affairs":

The Indian wars under the government of the United States
United States
have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the number given... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate...[57]

In the same 1894 report, the Census Bureau dismissed assertions that millions of Native Americans
Americans
once inhabited what is now the United States, insisting instead that North America
North America
in 1492 was an almost empty continent, and "guesstimating" that aboriginal populations "could not have exceeded much over 500,000."[58][59] Historiography[edit] In American history books, the Indian Wars have often been treated as a relatively minor part of the military history of the United States and were long treated from the point of view of the United States. After 1970 younger historians took the Indian point of view in their writings about the wars, dealing more harshly with the U.S. government's failures and emphasizing the impact of the wars on native peoples and their cultures. An influential book in popular history was Dee Brown's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee
(1970). In academic history, Francis Jennings's The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest (New York: Norton, 1975) was notable for strong attacks on the Puritans and rejection of traditional portrayal of the wars between the indigenous peoples and colonists.[60] List[edit] Main article: List of American Indian Wars See also[edit]

Captives in American Indian Wars Cultural assimilation of Native Americans Genocide of indigenous peoples History of the United States Indian Campaign Medal Indian massacre Manifest destiny List of Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
recipients for the Indian Wars Native American conflicts, wars, battles, expeditions and campaigns. United States
United States
Army Indian Scouts

Comparable events[edit]

Mexican Indian Wars Conquest of the Desert Occupation of Araucanía French and Indian Wars Red River Rebellions North-West Rebellion Australian frontier wars New Zealand Wars Canadian Indian Act of 1876

Notes[edit]

^ Merrell, James H. (2012). "Second Thoughts on Colonial Historians and American Indians". William & Mary Quarterly. 69 (3): 451–512. doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.69.3.0451.  ^ Francis M. Carroll, A Good and Wise Measure: The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary, 1783–1842 (2001) pp 23-25 ^ Raphael, People's History, 244. ^ Wiley Sword, President Washington's Indian War: The Struggle for the Old Northwest, 1790-1795 (University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 1985). ^ Harvey Lewis Carter, The Life and Times of Little Turtle: First Sagamore of the Wabash (1987) ^ Gregory Evans Dowd, A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745-1815 (Johns Hopkins U.P. 1992.) ^ Thornton, Russel (1990). American Indian holocaust and survival: a population history since 1492. University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-8061-2220-X. ^ Hoffman, Paul (2002). "Florida's Frontiers". Indiana Press. pgs. 295-304 ^ Michno, Gregory (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian wars: western battles and skirmishes, 1850–1890. Mountain Press Publishing. p. 353. ISBN 0-87842-468-7.  ^ Michno, pg. 367 ^ The Battle of Beecher Island and the Indian War of 1867–1869, by John H. Monnett, University Press of Colorado (1992), pp. 24–25, trade paperback, 236 pages ISBN 0-87081-347-1 ^ Angie Debo, A history of the Indians of the United States, p. 213. ^ Section on the Bozeman Trail
Bozeman Trail
"Winning the West the Army in the Indian Wars, 1865–1890" ^ Krenek, Thomas H. "Sam Houston". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2007-11-11.  ^ a b Beckey, Fred (2003). Range of Glaciers: The Exploration and Survey of the Northern Cascade Range. Oregon Historical Society Press. pp. 101–114. ISBN 0-87595-243-7.  ^ Alvin M. Josephy: Nez Perce Summer, 1877: The US Army and the Nee-Me-Poo Crisis; ISBN 978-0-917298-82-0, pp 632-633 ^ Josephy, pp. 632-633 ^ The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, Brigham D. Madsen, forward by Charles S. Peterson, University of Utah Press (1985, paperback 1995), pp. 1–56, trade paperback, 286 pages, ISBN 0-87480-494-9 ^ ''Northwestern Bands of Shoshone
Shoshone
Indians v. United States
United States
United States Supreme Court, April 9, 1945, 89 L.Ed. 985; 65 S.Ct. 690; 324 U.S. 335. ^ American Indian Sovereignty and the U.S. Supreme Court: The Masking of Justice, David E. Wilkins, University of Texas Press (1997), pp. 141–165, trade paperback, 421 pages, ISBN 978-0-292-79109-1 ^ Parry, "The Northwestern Shoshone" (2000), pp. 70–71. ^ Parry, "The Northwestern Shoshone" (2000), pp. 52–53. ^ "''The Diary of Lamech Chambers''". Nrchambers.tripod.com. Retrieved 2011-05-28.  ^ Life of George Bent: Written From His Letters, by George E. Hyde, edited by Savoie Lottinville, University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press (1968), pp. 105–115, hardcover, 390 pages; trade paperback, 280 pages (March 1983) ISBN 978-0-8061-1577-1 ^ John M. Coward, The newspaper Indian, pp. 102–110. ^ Life of George Bent: Written From His Letters, by George E. Hyde, edited by Savoie Lottinville, University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press (1968), pp. 127–136, 148, 162, 163, hardcover, 390 pages; trade paperback, 280 pages (March 1983) ISBN 978-0-8061-1577-1 ^ "Julesburg to Latham". ^ Angie Debo, A history of the Indians of the United States, p. 196. ^ "The Settler's War" of The Battle of Beecher Island and the Indian War of 1867–1869, by John H. Monnett, University Press of Colorado (1992), pp. 55–73, Chapter 3, trade paperback, 236 pages ISBN 0-87081-347-1 ^ Carley, Kenneth (1961). The Sioux
Sioux
Uprising of 1862. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 65. Most of the thirty-nine were baptized, including Tatemima (or Round Wind), who was reprieved at the last minute.  ^ "CWSAC Battle Summary: Sand Creek". National Park Service. Retrieved February 8, 2010.  ^ Life of George Bent: Written From His Letters, by George E. Hyde, edited by Savoie Lottinville, University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press (1968), pp. 148–163, hardcover, 390 pages; trade paperback, 280 pages (March 1983) ISBN 978-0-8061-1577-1 ^ Life of George Bent: Written From His Letters, by George E. Hyde, edited by Savoie Lottinville, University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press (1968), pp. 168–155, hardcover, 390 pages; trade paperback, 280 pages (March 1983) ISBN 978-0-8061-1577-1 ^ "Mud Springs and Rush Creek" Chapter 3 "Mud Springs and Rush Creek" Circle of fire: the Indian war of 1865 by John Dishon McDermott, Stackpole Books (August 2003), pp. 35–44, hardcover, 304 pages, ISBN 978-0-8117-0061-0 ^ Life of George Bent: Written From His Letters, by George E. Hyde, edited by Savoie Lottinville, University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press (1968), pp. 201–207, 212–222, hardcover, 390 pages; trade paperback, 280 pages (March 1983) ISBN 978-0-8061-1577-1 ^ " Hanging
Hanging
of the Chiefs" Circle of fire: the Indian war of 1865 by John Dishon McDermott, Stackpole Books (August 2003), pp. 46–62, Chapter 4, hardcover, 304 pages, ISBN 978-0-8117-0061-0 ^ Roy Morris, Jr., Sheridan: The Life and Wars of General Phil Sheridan (1992) p. 299. ^ a b c Rister, Carl (1944). Border Command: General Phil Sheridan in the West. Westport Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 30–122.  ^ Elliot, Michael (2007). Custerology: The Enduring Legacy of the Indian Wars and George Armstrong Custer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 103–146.  ^ a b Wheelan, Joseph (2012). Terrible Swift Sword: The Life of General Philip H. Sheridan. Cambridge Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. pp. 229–248.  ^ Hutton, Paul Andrew. 1999. Phil Sheridan and His Army. p. 180 ^ a b c Sheridan, Philip (1888). The Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General United States
United States
Army. Volume II. New York: Charles Webster and Company. pp. 307–348.  ^ a b Hutton, Paul (1985). Phil Sheridan and His Army. Lincoln Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 28–120.  ^ Griske, Michael (2005). The Diaries of John Hunton. Heritage Books. pp. 78–79. ISBN 0-7884-3804-2.  ^ "Community – Diversity". Anheuser-Busch. Retrieved 2011-05-28.  ^ "Plains Humanities: Wounded Knee Massacre". Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ ""L. Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux
Sioux
Nation"". Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2007-12-09. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Full text of both, with commentary by professor A. Waller Hastings ^ "Crazy Snake Rebellion" Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society: Oklahoma Journeys. 29 March 2008 (retrieved 5 Sept 2011) ^ "10th Cavalry Squadron History". US Army. Archived from the original on 2005-04-19.  ^ United States
United States
Census Bureau (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 6 July 2012.  ^ Statistics Canada
Canada
(September 2013). "NHS Profile, Canada, 2011". Retrieved 11 September 2013.  ^ Snow, Dean R. (June 16, 1995). "Microchronology and Demographic Evidence Relating to the Size of Pre-Columbian North American Indian Populations". Science. 268 (5217): 1601–1604. doi:10.1126/science.268.5217.1601. ^ Shoemaker, Nancy (2000). American Indian Population Recovery in the Twentieth Century. University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-8263-2289-0.  ^ Thornton, Russell (1990). American Indian holocaust and survival: a population history since 1492. University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press. pp. 26–32. ISBN 0-8061-2220-X.  ^ Flight, Colette (February 17, 2011). "Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge". BBC ^ Aufderheide, Arthur C.; Rodríguez-Martín, Conrado; Langsjoen, Odin (1998). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-521-55203-5 ^ Bureau of the Census (1894). Report on Indians taxed and Indians not taxed in the United States
United States
(except Alaska). pp. 637–38. ISBN 9780883544624.  ^ Lord, Lewis (1997). "How Many People Were Here Before Columbus?" (PDF). U.S. News & World Report.  ^ Bureau of the Census (1894). Report on Indians taxed and Indians not taxed in the United States
United States
(except Alaska). p. 28. ISBN 9780883544624.  ^ Merrell, James H. (1989). "Some Thoughts on Colonial Historians and American Indians". William and Mary Quarterly. 46 (1): 94–119. doi:10.2307/1922410. JSTOR 1922410. 

References[edit]

"Named Campaigns: Indian Wars". United States
United States
Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 2005-12-13.  Parry, Mae. "The Northwestern Shoshone". In A History of Utah's American Indians, ed. Forrest S. Cuch. Utah State University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-91373-849-8 Parker, Aaron. The Sheepeater Indian Campaign (Chamberlin Basin Country). Idaho
Idaho
Country Free Press, c1968. Raphael, Ray. A People's History of the American Revolution: How Common People Shaped the Fight for Independence. New York: The New Press, 2001. ISBN 0-06-000440-1. Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
and his Indian Wars. New York: Viking, 2001. ISBN 0-670-91025-2. Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-674-00638-0. Thornton, Russell. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8061-2220-X. Utley, Robert M. and Wilcomb E. Washburn. Indian Wars (2002) excerpt and text search Yenne, Bill. Indian Wars: The Campaign for the American West. Yardley, PA: Westholme, 2005. ISBN 1-59416-016-3. Michno, F. Gregory (2009). Encyclopedia of Indian wars: Western battles and skirmishes 1850–1890. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9. 

Further reading[edit]

Barnes, Jeff. Forts of the Northern Plains: Guide to Historic Military Posts of the Plains Indian Wars. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2008. ISBN 0-8117-3496-X. Glassley, Ray Hoard. Indian Wars of the Pacific Northwest, Binfords & Mort, Portland, Oregon 1972 ISBN 0-8323-0014-4 Heard, J. Norman. Handbook of the American Frontier (5 vol Scarecrow Press, 1987–98); Covers "1: The Southeastern Woodlands," "2: The Northeastern Woodlands," "3: The Great Plains", "4: The Far West" and vol 5: "Chronology, Bibliography, Index." Compilation of Indian-white contacts & conflicts Kessel, William and Robert Wooster. Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare (2005) McDermott, John D. A Guide to the Indian Wars of the West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8032-8246-X. Michno, Gregory F. Deadliest Indian War in the West: The Snake Conflict, 1864–1868, 360 pages, Caxton Press, 2007, ISBN 0-87004-460-5. Stannard, David. American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World Oxford, 1992 Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607-1890: A Political, Social, and Military History (3 vol 2012) Wooster, Robert. The Military and United States
United States
Indian Policy, 1865-1903 (1995)

Historiography[edit]

Merrell, James H (1989). "Some Thoughts on Colonial Historians and American Indians". William and Mary Quarterly. 46 (1): 94–119. JSTOR 1922410.  Merrell, James H (2012). "Second Thoughts on Colonial Historians and American Indians". William & Mary Quarterly. 69 (3): 451–512. doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.69.3.0451. JSTOR 10.5309/willmaryquar.69.3.0451.  Smith, Sherry L (1998). "Lost soldiers: Re-searching the Army in the American West". Western Historical Quarterly. 29 (2): 149–63. JSTOR 971327. 

Primary sources[edit]

Greene, Jerome A. Indian War Veterans: Memories of Army Life and Campaigns in the West, 1864–1898. New York: Savas Beatie, 2007. ISBN 1-932714-26-X. Griske, Michael (2005). The Diaries of John Hunton, Chapter 2 – "Frontier Warfare, A Tragic and Fearsome Thing". Heritage Books. ISBN 0-7884-3804-2.  Kip, Lawrence (1859). Army life on the Pacific : a journal of the expedition against the northern Indians, the tribes of the Cour d'Alenes, Spokans, and Pelouzes, in the summer of 1858. Redfield. ISBN 0-548-50401-6.  Available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Native American wars.

Indian Wars National Association Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas by John Henry Brown, published 1880, hosted by the Portal
Portal
to Texas History. The Indian Wars and African American Soldiers, US Army Increase Mather, A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New-England, (1676) Online Edition www.history.com; American-Indian Wars [1] Highlighting Native Nations in the War of 1812

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