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The AMERICAN ENLIGHTENMENT was a period of intellectual ferment in the thirteen American colonies in the period 1714–1818, which led to the American Revolution
American Revolution
, and the creation of the American Republic. The American Enlightenment
American Enlightenment
was influenced by the 18th-century European Enlightenment and its own native American philosophy
American philosophy
. It applied scientific reasoning to politics, science, and religion. It promoted religious tolerance. And, it restored literature, arts, and music as important disciplines worthy of study in colleges. "New-model" American style colleges were founded such as King's College New York (now Columbia University
Columbia University
), and the College of Philadelphia (now Penn ). Yale College and the College of William it has been proposed as a date for the triumph if not the end of the American Enlightenment:). The new constitution guaranteed freedom of religion, and disestablished the Congregational church
Congregational church
.

INTELLECTUAL CURRENTS

Between 1714 and 1818 a great intellectual change took place that changed the British Colonies of America from a distant backwater into a leader in the fields of moral philosophy, educational reform, religious revival, industrial technology, science, and, most notably, political philosophy. It saw a consensus on a "pursuit of happiness" based political philosophy.

ARCHITECTURE

After 1780, the Federal-style of American Architecture began to diverge from the Georgian style and became a uniquely American genre; in 1813, the American architect Ithiel Town designed and in 1814–1816 built the first Gothic Style church in North America, Trinity Church on the Green in New Haven, predating the English Gothic revival by a decade. In the fields of literature, poetry, music and drama some nascent artistic attempts were made, particularly in pre-war Philadelphia, but American (non-popular) culture in these fields was largely imitative of British culture for most of the period, and is generally considered not very distinguished.

REPUBLICANISM

Politically, the age is distinguished by an emphasis upon economic liberty , republicanism and religious tolerance , as clearly expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence
. Attempts to reconcile science and religion resulted in a rejection of prophecy, miracle, and revealed religion, resulting in an inclination toward deism among some major political leaders of the age. American republicanism emphasized consent of the government, riddance of aristocracy, and fear of corruption. It represented the convergence of classical republicanism and English republicanism (of 17th century Commonwealthmen and 18th century English Country Whigs ).

J.G.A. Pocock explained the intellectual sources in America:

“ The Whig canon and the neo-Harringtonians, John Milton
John Milton
, James Harrington and Sidney , Trenchard , Gordon and Bolingbroke , together with the Greek, Roman, and Renaissance masters of the tradition as far as Montesquieu
Montesquieu
, formed the authoritative literature of this culture; and its values and concepts were those with which we have grown familiar: a civic and patriot ideal in which the personality was founded in property, perfected in citizenship but perpetually threatened by corruption; government figuring paradoxically as the principal source of corruption and operating through such means as patronage, faction, standing armies (opposed to the ideal of the militia); established churches (opposed to the Puritan and deist modes of American religion); and the promotion of a monied interest—though the formulation of this last concept was somewhat hindered by the keen desire for readily available paper credit common in colonies of settlement. ”

EUROPEAN SOURCES

Sources of the American Enlightenment
American Enlightenment
are many and vary according to time and place. As a result of an extensive book trade with Great Britain, the colonies were well acquainted with European literature almost contemporaneously. Early influences were English writers, including James Harrington , Algernon Sidney
Algernon Sidney
, the Viscount Bolingbroke , John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon (especially the two's Cato\'s Letters ), and Joseph Addison
Joseph Addison
(whose tragedy Cato was extremely popular). A particularly important English legal writer was Sir William Blackstone
Sir William Blackstone
, whose Commentaries on the Laws of England served as a major influence on the American Founders and is a key source in the development Anglo-American common law . Although John Locke\'s Two Treatises of Government has long been cited as a major influence on American thinkers, historians David Lundberg and Henry F. May demonstrate that Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
was far more widely read than were his political Treatises.

The Scottish Enlightenment also influenced American thinkers. David Hume's Essays and his History of England were widely read in the colonies, and Hume's political thought had a particular influence on James Madison
James Madison
and the Constitution. Another important Scottish writer was Francis Hutcheson . Hutcheson's ideas of ethics, along with notions of civility and politeness developed by the Earl of Shaftesbury , and Addison and Richard Steele
Richard Steele
in their Spectator , were a major influence on upper-class American colonists who sought to emulate European manners and learning.

By far the most important French sources to the American Enlightenment, however, were Montesquieu\'s Spirit of the Laws and Emer de Vattel\'s Law of Nations . Both informed early American ideas of government and were major influences on the Constitution. Voltaire 's histories were widely read but seldom cited. Rousseau 's influence was marginal. Noah Webster
Noah Webster
used Rousseau's educational ideas of child development to structure his famous Speller. A German influence includes Samuel Pufendorf
Samuel Pufendorf
, whose writings were also commonly cited by American writers.

LIBERALISM AND REPUBLICANISM

Since the 1960s, historians have debated the Enlightenment's role in the American Revolution. Before 1960 the consensus was that liberalism , especially that of John Locke
John Locke
, was paramount; republicanism was largely ignored. The new interpretations were pioneered by J.G.A. Pocock who argued in The Machiavellian Moment (1975) that, at least in the early eighteenth-century, republican ideas were just as important as liberal ones. Pocock's view is now widely accepted. Bernard Bailyn and Gordon Wood pioneered the argument that the Founding Fathers of the United States were more influenced by republicanism than they were by liberalism . Cornell University Professor Isaac Kramnick, on the other hand, argues that Americans have always been highly individualistic and therefore Lockean.

In the decades before the American Revolution
American Revolution
(1776), the intellectual and political leaders of the colonies studied history intently, looking for guides or models for good (and bad) government. They especially followed the development of republican ideas in England. Pocock explained the intellectual sources in the United States:

The Whig canon and the neo-Harringtonians, John Milton
John Milton
, James Harrington and Sidney , Trenchard , Gordon and Bolingbroke , together with the Greek, Roman, and Renaissance masters of the tradition as far as Montesquieu
Montesquieu
, formed the authoritative literature of this culture; and its values and concepts were those with which we have grown familiar: a civic and patriot ideal in which the personality was founded in property, perfected in citizenship but perpetually threatened by corruption; government figuring paradoxically as the principal source of corruption and operating through such means as patronage, faction, standing armies (opposed to the ideal of the militia), established churches (opposed to the Puritan and deist modes of American religion) and the promotion of a monied interest—though the formulation of this last concept was somewhat hindered by the keen desire for readily available paper credit common in colonies of settlement. A neoclassical politics provided both the ethos of the elites and the rhetoric of the upwardly mobile, and accounts for the singular cultural and intellectual homogeneity of the Founding Fathers and their generation.

The commitment of most Americans to these republican values made inevitable the American Revolution
American Revolution
, for Britain was increasingly seen as corrupt and hostile to republicanism, and a threat to the established liberties the Americans enjoyed.

Leopold von Ranke
Leopold von Ranke
, a leading German historian, in 1848 claims that American republicanism played a crucial role in the development of European liberalism:

By abandoning English constitutionalism and creating a new republic based on the rights of the individual, the North Americans introduced a new force in the world. Ideas spread most rapidly when they have found adequate concrete expression. Thus republicanism entered our Romanic/Germanic world.... Up to this point, the conviction had prevailed in Europe that monarchy best served the interests of the nation. Now the idea spread that the nation should govern itself. But only after a state had actually been formed on the basis of the theory of representation did the full significance of this idea become clear. All later revolutionary movements have this same goal.... This was the complete reversal of a principle. Until then, a king who ruled by the grace of God had been the center around which everything turned. Now the idea emerged that power should come from below.... These two principles are like two opposite poles, and it is the conflict between them that determines the course of the modern world. In Europe the conflict between them had not yet taken on concrete form; with the French Revolution it did.

"LIFE, LIBERTY AND THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS"

Many historians find that the origin of this famous phrase derives from Locke's position that "no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions." Others suggest that Jefferson took the phrase from Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England. Others note that William Wollaston 's 1722 book The Religion of Nature Delineated describes the "truest definition" of "natural religion" as being "The pursuit of happiness by the practice of reason and truth."

The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Virginia Declaration of Rights
, which was written by George Mason and adopted by the Virginia Convention of Delegates on June 12, 1776, a few days before Jefferson's draft, in part reads:

That all men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights, of which, when they enter into a state of society, they cannot, by any compact, deprive or divest their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.

The United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence
, which was primarily written by Jefferson, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. The text of the second section of the Declaration of Independence reads:

We hold these Truths to be self-evident , that all Men are created equal , that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights , that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness .

DEISM

Both the Moderate Enlightenment and a Radical or Revolutionary Enlightenment were reactions against the authoritarianism , irrationality, and obscurantism of the established churches. Philosophers such as Voltaire
Voltaire
depicted organized Christianity
Christianity
as a tool of tyrants and oppressors and as being used to defend monarchism, it was seen as hostile to the development of reason and the progress of science and incapable of verification.

An alternative religion was deism , the philosophical belief in a deity based on reason, rather than religious revelation or dogma. It was a popular perception among the philosophes, who adopted deistic attitudes to varying degrees. Deism
Deism
greatly influenced the thought of intellectuals and Founding Fathers , including John Adams
John Adams
, Benjamin Franklin , perhaps George Washington
George Washington
and, especially, Thomas Jefferson . The most articulate exponent was Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
, whose The Age of Reason
Reason
was written in France in the early 1790s, and soon reached the United States. Paine was highly controversial; when Jefferson was attacked for his deism in the 1800 election , Democratic-Republican politicians took pains to distance their candidate from Paine. Unitarianism and Deism
Deism
were strongly connected, the former being brought to America by Joseph Priestley, the oxygen scientist. Doctor Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson
called Lord Edward Herbert the "father of English Deism".

SEE ALSO

* Book: Enlightenment

* Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
* American Revolution
American Revolution
* Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
* Common Sense pamphlet – by Thomas Paine * Deism
Deism
* Jefferson Bible
Jefferson Bible
* Liberal democracy
Liberal democracy
* Liberalism
Liberalism
* Republicanism
Republicanism
* Secular state
Secular state
* Separation of Church and State
Separation of Church and State
* The Age of Reason
The Age of Reason
– by Thomas Paine * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
* George Mason
George Mason
* Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
* United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence

REFERENCES

* ^ Caroline Winterer, American Enlightenments: Pursuing Happiness in the Age of Reason, Yale University
Yale University
Press, 2016 * ^ Winterer, What Was the American Enlightenment? in The Worlds of American Intellectual History, eds. Joel Isaac, James Kloppenberg, and Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen, Oxford University Press, 2016 * ^ Ferguson Robert A., The American Enlightenment, 1750–1820, Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, 1994 * ^ Adrienne Koch, referenced by Woodward, C. Vann, The Comparative Approach to American History, Oxford University Press, 1997 * ^ Henry F. May, referenced by Byrne, James M., Religion and the Enlightenment: From Descartes to Kant, Westminster John Knox Press, 1996, p. 50 * ^ Olsen,Neil C., Pursuing Happiness: The Organizational Culture of the Continental Congress, Nonagram Publications, ISBN 978-1480065505 ISBN 1480065501 , 2013, p. 145 * ^ Johnson, Samuel, and Schneider, Herbert, Samuel Johnson, President of King's College; His Career and Writings, editors Herbert and Carol Schneider, New York: Columbia University
Columbia University
Press, 1929, Volume 1, p. 7 * ^ Johnson and Schneider * ^ Joseph J. Ellis, The New England Mind in Transition: Samuel Johnson of Connecticut, 1696–1772, Yale University
Yale University
Press, 1973, Chapter II and p. 45 * ^ Bryan-Paul Frost and Jeffrey Sikkenga, History of American political thought (2003) p. 152 * ^ Olsen, p. 16 * ^ Linda K. Kerber, "The Republican Ideology of the Revolutionary Generation," pp. 474–95 in JSTOR * ^ J.G.A. Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment p. 507 * ^ See David Lundberg and Henry F. May, "The Enlightened Reader in America," American Quarterly, vol. 28, no. 2 (1976): 267. * ^ See Mark G. Spencer, David Hume
David Hume
and Eighteenth-Century America (2005). * ^ See Douglass Adair, "'That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science': David Hume, James Madison, and the Tenth Federalist," Huntington Library Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 4 (1957): 343–60; and Mark G. Spencer, "Hume and Madison on Faction," The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., vol. 59, no. 4 (2002): 869–96. * ^ See for example, Vernon L. Parrington, Main Currents in American Thought (1927) online at * ^ Shalhope (1982) * ^ Isaac Kramnick, Ideological Background," in Jack. P. Greene and J. R. Pole, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (1994) ch. 9; Robert E. Shallhope, "Republicanism," ibid ch. 70. * ^ Trevor Colbourn, The Lamp of Experience: Whig History and the Intellectual Origins of the American Revolution
American Revolution
(1965) online version * ^ Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment p. 507 * ^ Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1967) * ^ Adams, Willi Paul (2001). The First American Constitutions: Republican Ideology and the Making of the State Constitutions in the Revolutionary Era. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 128–29. * ^ J. R. Pole, The pursuit of equality in American history (1978) p. 9 * ^ Locke, John (1690). Two Treatises of Government (10th edition). Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
. Retrieved January 21, 2009. * ^ Paul Sayre, ed., Interpretations of modern legal philosophies (1981) p. 189 * ^ James W. Ely, Main themes in the debate over property rights (1997) p. 28 * ^ Sanford, Charles B. The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson (1987) University of Virginia Press, ISBN 0-8139-1131-1 * ^ Eric Foner, Tom Paine and Revolutionary America (1977) p. 257

FURTHER READING

BIOGRAPHIES

* Aldridge, A. Owen , (1959). Man of Reason: The Life of Thomas Paine. Lippincott. * Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason
Reason
(1988) well-reviewed short biography of Jefferson. * Weinberger, Jerry Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Unmasked: On the Unity of His Moral, Religious, and Political Thought (University Press of Kansas, 2008) ISBN 0-7006-1584-9

ACADEMIC STUDIES

* Allen, Brooke Moral Minority: Our Skeptical Founding Fathers (2007) Ivan R Dee, Inc, ISBN 1-56663-751-1 * Bailyn, Bernard The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1992) Belknap Press of Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, ISBN 0-674-44302-0 * Bedini, Silvio A Jefferson and Science
Science
(2002) The University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 1-882886-19-4 * Cohen, I. Bernard Science
Science
and the Founding Fathers: Science
Science
in the Political Thought of Jefferson, Franklin, Adams and Madison (1995) WW Norton & Co, ISBN 0-393-03501-8 * Dray, Philip Stealing God's Thunder: Benjamin Franklin's Lightning Rod and the Invention of America (2005) Random House, ISBN 1-4000-6032-X * Ellis, Joseph. "Habits of Mind and an American Enlightenment," American Quarterly Vol. 28, No. 2, Special
Special
Issue: An American Enlightenment (Summer, 1976), pp. 150–14 in JSTOR * Ferguson, Robert A. The American Enlightenment, 1750–1820 (1997) Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, ISBN 0-674-02322-6 * Gay, Peter The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism (1995) W. W. Norton The Enlightenment: The Science
Science
of Freedom (1996) W. W. Norton * Koch, Adrienne. "Pragmatic Wisdom and the American Enlightenment," William and Mary Quarterly Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1961), pp. 313–329 in JSTOR * May, Henry F. The Enlightenment in America (1978) Oxford University Press, U.S., ISBN 0-19-502367-6 ; the standard survey * May, Henry F. The Divided Heart: Essays on Protestantism and the Enlightenment in America (Oxford UP 1991) online * McDonald, Forrest Novus Ordo Seclorum: Intellectual Origins of the Constitution (1986) University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-0311-5 * Meyer D. H. "The Uniqueness of the American Enlightenment," American Quarterly Vol. 28, No. 2, Special
Special
Issue: An American Enlightenment (Summer, 1976), pp. 165–86 in JSTOR * Nelson, Craig Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Birth of Modern Nations (2007) Penguin, ISBN 0-14-311238-4 * Ralston, Shane " American Enlightenment
American Enlightenment
Thought" (2011), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. * Reid-Maroney, Nina Philadelphia's Enlightenment, 1740–1800: Kingdom of Christ, Empire of Reason
Reason
(2000) * Richard, C.J. Founders and the Classics: Greece, Rome and the American Enlightenment
American Enlightenment
(1995) Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, ISBN 0-674-31426-3 * Sanford, Charles B. The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1987) University of Virginia Press, ISBN 0-8139-1131-1 * Sheridan, Eugene R. Jefferson and Religion, preface by Martin Marty , (2001) University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 1-882886-08-9 * Staloff, Darren Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding. (2005) Hill & Wang, ISBN 0-8090-7784-1 * Winterer, Caroline American Enlightenments: Pursuing Happiness in the Age of Reason
Reason
(2016) Yale University
Yale University
Press, ISBN 0-3001-9257-6 * Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution
American Revolution
(1993) Vintage, ISBN 0-679-73688-3

HISTORIOGRAPHY

* Caron, Nathalie, and Naomi Wulf. "American Enlightenments: Continuity and Renewal." Journal of American History (2013) 99#4 pp: 1072–91. online * Dixon, John M. " Henry F. May and the Revival of the American Enlightenment: Problems and Possibilities for Intellectual and Social History." William & Mary Quarterly (2014) 71#2 pp: 255–80. in JSTOR

PRIMARY SOURCES

* Torre, Jose, ed. Enlightenment in America, 1720–1825 (4 vol. Pickering table of contents online at Pickering ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

The Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment

TOPICS

* Atheism * Capitalism
Capitalism
* Civil liberties
Civil liberties
* Counter-Enlightenment
Counter-Enlightenment
* Critical thinking * Deism
Deism
* Democracy
Democracy
* Empiricism
Empiricism
* Encyclopédistes * Enlightened absolutism
Enlightened absolutism
* Free markets * Haskalah
Haskalah
* Humanism
Humanism
* Human rights
Human rights
* Liberalism
Liberalism
* Liberté, égalité, fraternité
Liberté, égalité, fraternité
* Methodological skepticism * Nationalism
Nationalism
* Natural philosophy
Natural philosophy
* Objectivity * Rationality * Rationalism
Rationalism
* Reason
Reason
* Reductionism * Sapere aude * Science
Science
* Scientific method * Socialism
Socialism
* Universality * Weimar Classicism
Weimar Classicism

THINKERS

FRANCE

* Jean le Rond d\'Alembert * Étienne Bonnot de Condillac * Marquis de Condorcet
Marquis de Condorcet
* Denis Diderot
Denis Diderot
* Claude Adrien Helvétius
Claude Adrien Helvétius
* Baron d\'Holbach * Georges-Louis Leclerc * Montesquieu
Montesquieu
* François Quesnay
François Quesnay
* Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
* Marquis de Sade
Marquis de Sade
* Voltaire
Voltaire

GERMANY

* Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
* Johann Georg Hamann * Johann Gottfried von Herder * Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi * Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
* Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
* Moses Mendelssohn
Moses Mendelssohn
* Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
* Thomas Wizenmann

GREECE

* Neophytos Doukas * Theoklitos Farmakidis
Theoklitos Farmakidis
* Rigas Feraios
Rigas Feraios
* Theophilos Kairis
Theophilos Kairis
* Adamantios Korais
Adamantios Korais

IRELAND

* Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
* Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke

ITALY

* Cesare Beccaria
Cesare Beccaria
* Gaetano Filangieri * Antonio Genovesi * Pietro Verri

POLAND

* Tadeusz Czacki * Hugo Kołłątaj * Stanisław Konarski * Ignacy Krasicki * Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz * Stanisław August Poniatowski
Stanisław August Poniatowski
* Jędrzej Śniadecki
Jędrzej Śniadecki
* Stanisław Staszic * Józef Wybicki * Andrzej Stanisław Załuski
Andrzej Stanisław Załuski
* Józef Andrzej Załuski

PORTUGAL

* Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo

RUSSIA

* Catherine II

SPAIN

* Charles III * Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro

United Kingdom (Scotland )

* Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
* Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
* Joseph Black
Joseph Black
* James Boswell * Adam Ferguson
Adam Ferguson
* Edward Gibbon * Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
* David Hume
David Hume
* Francis Hutcheson * Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson
* John Locke
John Locke
* Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
* Thomas Reid * Adam Smith
Adam Smith
* Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft

UNITED STATES

* Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
* Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
* James Madison
James Madison
* George Mason
George Mason
* Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine

* v * t * e

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

* 3rd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1801–1809) * 2nd U.S. Vice President (1797–1801) * 1st U.S. Secretary of State (1790–1793) * U.S. Minister to France (1785–1789) * 2nd Governor of Virginia
Governor of Virginia
(1779–1781) * Delegate, Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
(1775–1776)

Founding documents of the United States

* A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774) * Initial draft, Olive Branch Petition
Olive Branch Petition
(1775) * Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (1775)

* 1776 Declaration of Independence

* Committee of Five * authored * physical history * "All men are created equal" * "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" * "Consent of the governed"

* 1786 Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

* freedom of religion

FRENCH REVOLUTION

* Co-author, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789)

PRESIDENCY

* Inaugural Address (1801 * 1805) * Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
* Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase

* Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition

* Corps of Discovery
Corps of Discovery
* timeline * Empire of Liberty

* Red River Expedition * Pike Expedition * Cumberland Road

* Embargo Act of 1807
Embargo Act of 1807

* Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
* Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

* First Barbary War
First Barbary War
* Native American policy * Marbury v. Madison * West Point Military Academy * State of the Union Addresses (texts * 1801 * 1802 * 1805) * Cabinet * Federal judicial appointments

Other noted accomplishments

* Early life and career

* Founder, University of Virginia

* history

* Land Ordinance of 1784

* Northwest Ordinance 1787

* Anti-Administration party * Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party

* Jeffersonian democracy
Jeffersonian democracy

* First Party System * republicanism

* Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measure of the United States (1790) * Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
* A Manual of Parliamentary Practice (1801)

Jeffersonian architecture

* Barboursville * Farmington

* Monticello
Monticello

* gardens

* Poplar Forest

* University of Virginia

* The Rotunda * The Lawn

* Virginia State Capitol * White House
White House
Colonnades

OTHER WRITINGS

* Notes on the State of Virginia (1785) * 1787 European journey memorandums * Indian removal letters * Jefferson Bible
Jefferson Bible
(1895) * Jefferson manuscript collection at the Massachusetts Historical Society

RELATED

* Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
* American Enlightenment * American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* patriots

* Member, Virginia Committee of Correspondence * Committee of the States * Founding Fathers of the United States
Founding Fathers of the United States
* Franco-American alliance * Jefferson and education * Religious views * Jefferson and slavery * Jefferson and the Library of Congress * Jefferson disk * Jefferson Pier
Jefferson Pier
* Pet mockingbird * National Gazette

* Residence Act

* Compromise of 1790

* Sally Hemings

* Jefferson–Hemings controversy * Betty Hemings

* Separation of church and state * Swivel chair * The American Museum magazine * Virginia dynasty

ELECTIONS

* United States Presidential election 1796 * 1800 * 1804

LEGACY

* Bibliography * Jefferson Memorial
Jefferson Memorial
* Mount Rushmore * Birthday * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Building * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Center for the Protection of Free Expression * Jefferson Lecture * Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
* Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Star for Foreign Service * Jefferson Lab * Monticello
Monticello
Association * Jefferson City, Missouri
Jefferson City, Missouri
* Jefferson College * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
School of Law * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
University * Washington and Jefferson National Forests * Other placenames

* Currency depictions

* Jefferson nickel * Two-dollar bill

* U.S. postage stamps

POPULAR CULTURE

* Ben and Me (1953 short) * 1776 (1969 musical * 1972 film ) * Jefferson in Paris (1995 film) * Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1997 film) * Liberty! (1997 documentary series) * Liberty\'s Kids (2002 animated series) * John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) * Jefferson\'s Garden (2015 play) * Hamilton (2015 musical) * Jefferson–Eppes Trophy * Wine bottles controversy

FAMILY

* Peter Jefferson (father) * Jane Randolph Jefferson (mother) * Lucy Jefferson Lewis (sister) * Randolph Jefferson (brother) * Isham Randolph (grandfather) * William Randolph (great-grandfather) * Martha Jefferson (wife) * Martha Jefferson Randolph (daughter) * Mary Jefferson Eppes (daughter) * Harriet Hemings (daughter) * Madison Hemings (son) * Eston Hemings (son) * Thomas J. Randolph (grandson) * Francis Eppes (grandson) * George W. Randolph (grandson) * John Wayles Jefferson (grandson) * Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
(son-in-law) * John Wayles Eppes (son-in-law) * John Wayles (father-in-law) * Dabney Carr (brother-in-law) * Dabney Carr (nephew)

* ← JOHN ADAMS * JAMES MADISON →

* CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin

January 6, 1706 – April 17, 1790

President of Pennsylvania (1785–1788) , Ambassador to France (1779–1785) Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
(1775–1776)

Founding of the United States

* Join, or Die (1754 political cartoon)

* Albany Plan of Union

* Albany Congress
Albany Congress

* Hutchinson Letters Affair
Hutchinson Letters Affair
* Committee of Secret Correspondence * Committee of Five * Declaration of Independence

* Model Treaty

* Franco-American alliance * Treaty of Amity and Commerce * Treaty of Alliance

* Staten Island Peace Conference * Treaty of Paris, 1783 * Delegate, 1787 Constitutional Convention * Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly * Postmaster General * Founding Fathers

Inventions, other events

* Franklin\'s electrostatic machine * Bifocals
Bifocals
* Franklin stove * Glass armonica * Gulf Stream exploration, naming, and chart * Lightning rod * Kite experiment * Pay it forward

* Associators
Associators

* 111th Infantry Regiment

* Junto club * American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
* Library Company of Philadelphia * Pennsylvania Hospital

* The Academy and College of Philadelphia

* University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania

* Philadelphia Contributionship
Philadelphia Contributionship
* Union Fire Company
Union Fire Company
* Early American currency
Early American currency
* United States Postal Service * President, Pennsylvania Abolition Society * Master, Les Neuf Sœurs
Les Neuf Sœurs
* Other social contributions and studies * Gravesite

WRITINGS

* Silence Dogood letters (1722) * A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725) * The Busy-Body letters (1729) * Pennsylvania Gazette (1729–1790) * Poor Richard\'s Almanack (1732–1758) * The Drinker\'s Dictionary (1737) * "Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress" (1745) * "The Speech of Polly Baker" (1747) * Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. (1751) * Experiments and Observations on Electricity (1751) * Birch letters (1755) * The Way to Wealth (1758) * Pennsylvania Chronicle (1767) * Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One (1773) * Proposed alliance with the Iroquois (1775) * A Letter To A Royal Academy (1781) * Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America (1784) * The Morals of Chess (1786) * An Address to the Public (1789) * A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks (1789) * The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1771–90, pub. 1791) * Bagatelles and Satires (pub. 1845) * Franklin as a journalist

LEGACY

* Franklin Court * Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
House * Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Institute of Technology * Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
National Memorial * Franklin Institute
Franklin Institute
* Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Medal * Depicted in The Apotheosis of Washington * Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
statue, Washington D.C.

* In popular culture

* Ben and Me (1953 short) * Ben Franklin in Paris (1964 musical play) * 1776 (1969 musical * 1972 film ) * Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1974 miniseries) * Liberty! (1997 documentary series) * Liberty\'s Kids (2002 animated series) * Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(2002 documentary series) * John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) * Sons of Liberty (2015 miniseries) * Sons of Ben (supporters group for the Philadelphia Union soccer club

* Refunding Certificate * Franklin half dollar
Franklin half dollar
* One-hundred dollar bill

* Washington-Franklin stamps

* other stamps

* Cities, counties, schools named for Franklin * Franklin Field
Franklin Field
* State of Franklin
State of Franklin
* Ships named USS Franklin * Ben Franklin effect

RELATED

* Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
* American Enlightenment * The New-England Courant
The New-England Courant
* The American Museum magazine

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* patriots

* Syng inkstand
Syng inkstand

FAMILY

* Deborah Read (wife) * Sarah Franklin Bache (daughter) * Francis Franklin (son) * William Franklin (son) * Richard Bache Jr. (grandson) * Benjamin F. Bache (grandson) * Louis F. Bache (grandson) * William Franklin (grandson) * Andrew Harwood (great-grandson) * Alexander Bache (great-grandson) * Josiah Franklin (father) * Jane Mecom (sister) * James Franklin (brother) * Mary Morrell Folger (grandmother) * Peter Folger (grandfather) * Richard Bache (son-in-law) * Ann Smith Franklin (sister-in-law)

* v * t * e

James Madison
James Madison

* 4th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1809–1817) * 5th U.S. Secretary of State (1801–1809) * United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
(1789–1797) * Congress of the Confederation (1781–1783) * Virginia House of Delegates
Virginia House of Delegates
(1776–1779, 1784–1786)

"Father of the Constitution"

* Co-wrote, 1776 Virginia Constitution * 1786 Annapolis Convention

* 1787 Constitutional Convention

* Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
* Constitution of the United States * Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787

* The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers

* written by Madison * No. 10 * No. 51

* Virginia Ratifying Convention

* United States Bill of Rights
United States Bill of Rights

* 27th amendment

* Constitution drafting and ratification timeline * Founding Fathers

PRESIDENCY

* First inauguration * Second inauguration

* Tecumseh\'s War

* Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Tippecanoe

* War of 1812
War of 1812

* origins * Burning of Washington
Burning of Washington
* The Octagon House
The Octagon House
* Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent
* Seven Buildings
Seven Buildings
residence * results

* Second Barbary War
Second Barbary War
* Era of Good Feelings
Era of Good Feelings
* Second Bank of the United States * State of the Union Address (1810 * 1814 * 1815 * 1816) * Cabinet * Federal judiciary appointments

Other noted accomplisments

* Co-founder, American Whig Society * Supervised the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
* Anti-Administration party

* Residence Act

* Compromise of 1790

* Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party

* First Party System * republicanism

* Library of Congress * Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions * Report of 1800

OTHER WRITINGS

* The Papers of James Madison
James Madison

LIFE

* Early life and career * Belle Grove Plantation, birthplace * Montpelier

ELECTIONS

* U.S. House of Representatives election, 1789 * 1790 * 1792 * 1794 * U.S. presidential election, 1808 * 1812

Legacy and popular culture

* James Madison
James Madison
Memorial Building * James Madison
James Madison
University * James Madison
James Madison
College * Madison, Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
* Madison Square
Madison Square
* Madison River * Madison Street * U.S. postage stamps * James Madison
James Madison
Memorial Fellowship Foundation * James Madison
James Madison
Freedom of Information Award * James Madison
James Madison
Award * James Madison
James Madison
Institute * A More Perfect Union (1989 film) * Liberty\'s Kids (2002 miniseries) * Hamilton (2015 musical)

RELATED

* Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
* American Enlightenment * Marbury v. Madison * National Gazette * Paul Jennings * Madisonian Model * American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
* The American Museum magazine * Virginia dynasty

FAMILY

* Dolley Madison
Dolley Madison
(wife) * John Payne Todd (stepson) * James Madison, Sr.
James Madison, Sr.
(father) * Nelly Conway Madison (mother) * William Madison (brother) * Ambrose Madison (paternal grandfather) * James Madison
James Madison
(cousin) * George Madison (paternal second-cousin) * Thomas Madison (paternal second-cousin) * John Madison (great-grandfather) * Lucy Washington (sister-in-law)

* ← THOMAS JEFFERSON * JAMES MONROE →

* CATEGORY

* v * t * e

John Adams
John Adams

* 2nd President of the United States, 1797–1801 * 1st Vice President of the United States, 1789–1797 * U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, 1785–1788 * U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands, 1782–1788 * Delegate, Second Continental Congress, 1775–1778 * Delegate, First Continental Congress, 1774

Founding of the United States

* Braintree Instructions (1765) * Boston Massacre defense * Continental Association
Continental Association
* Novanglus; A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin in 1754 to the Present Time (1775) * Thoughts on Government (1776)

* Declaration of Independence

* May 15 preamble * Committee of Five

* Model Treaty

* Treaty of Amity and Commerce * Treaty of Alliance

* Board of War
Board of War

* Chairman of the Marine Committee, 1775-1779

* Continental Navy
Continental Navy

* Staten Island Peace Conference

* Conference House

* Constitution of Massachusetts
Constitution of Massachusetts
(1780) * Treaty of Paris, 1783

PRESIDENCY

* Inauguration

* Quasi War with France

* XYZ Affair
XYZ Affair
* Commerce Protection Act * United States Marine Corps * Convention of 1800

* Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien and Sedition Acts

* Naturalization Act of 1798
Naturalization Act of 1798

* Navy Department Library * Treaty of Tellico * Treaty of Tripoli

* Midnight Judges Act

* Marbury v. Madison

* State of the Union Address (1797 * 1798 * 1799 * 1800) * Cabinet * Federal judiciary appointments

OTHER WRITINGS

* Massachusetts Historical Society holdings

Life and homes

* Early life and education

* Adams National Historical Park
Adams National Historical Park

* John Adams
John Adams
Birthplace * Family home and John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
birthplace * Peacefield * Presidential Library

* Massachusetts Hall, Harvard University
Harvard University
* Presidents House, Philadelphia * Co-founder and second president, American Academy of Arts and Sciences * United First Parish Church and gravesite

ELECTIONS

* United States presidential election 1788–1789 * 1792 * 1796 * 1800

LEGACY

* Adams House at Harvard University
Harvard University
* John Adams
John Adams
Building * U.S. Postage stamps * Adams Memorial

POPULAR CULTURE

* Profiles in Courage (1964 series) * American Primitive (1969 play) * 1776 (1969 musical * 1972 film) * The Adams Chronicles (1976 miniseries) * Liberty! (1997 documentary series) * Liberty\'s Kids (2002 animated series) * John Adams
John Adams
(2001 book * 2008 miniseries) * Sons of Liberty (2015 miniseries)

RELATED

* "Adams and Liberty" campaign song * Adams\' personal library * American Enlightenment * Congress Hall

* Federalist Party
Federalist Party

* Federalist Era
Federalist Era
* First Party System * republicanism

* American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
* Gazette of the United States
Gazette of the United States
* The American Museum

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* patriots

FAMILY

* Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams

* wife * Quincy family

* Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Smith (daughter)

* John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams

* son * presidency

* Charles Adams (son) * Thomas Boylston Adams (son) * George W. Adams (grandson) * Charles Adams Sr. (grandson) * John Adams
John Adams
II (grandson) * John Q. Adams (great-grandson) * Henry Adams (great-grandson) * Brooks Adams (great-grandson) * John Adams
John Adams
Sr. (father) * Susanna Boylston (mother) * Elihu Adams (brother) * Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
(second cousin)

* Louisa Adams
Louisa Adams

* daughter-in-law * First Lady

* ← GEORGE WASHINGTON * THOMAS JEFFERSON →

* CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton

* Senior Officer of the United States Army, 1799–1800 * 1st Secretary of the Treasury, 1789–1795 * Delegate, Congress of the Confederation, 1782–1783, 1788–1789

United States founding events

* A Full Vindication of the Measures of Congress (1774) * The Farmer Refuted (1775) * Delegate, 1786 Annapolis Convention * Delegate, 1787 Constitutional Convention

* Initiated, main author, The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers

* written by Hamilton

* Founding Father

Secretary of the Treasury

* First Bank of the United States
First Bank of the United States
* Revenue Marine (United States Coast Guard) * United States Customs Service
United States Customs Service
* Hamiltonian economic program

* Residence Act

* Compromise of 1790

* "First Report on the Public Credit", 1790 * Funding Act of 1790 * "Operations of the Act Laying Duties on Imports", 1790 * "Second Report on Public Credit", a.k.a. "Report on a National Bank", 1790 * "Report On Manufactures", 1791 * Tariff of 1790 * Tariff of 1792

* Coinage Act of 1792

* United States Mint
United States Mint

* Whiskey Rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
* Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty

MILITARY CAREER

* New York Provincial Company of Artillery * In the Revolutionary War * Battles: Harlem Heights * White Plains * Trenton * General Washington\'s Aide-de-Camp * Princeton * Brandywine * Germantown * Monmouth * Siege of Yorktown
Siege of Yorktown

OTHER EVENTS

* Burr–Hamilton duel

* Founder, Federalist Party
Federalist Party

* Federalist Era
Federalist Era

* Founder, Bank of New York
Bank of New York
* Bank of North America * Advisor, George Washington\'s Farewell Address * President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati
Society of the Cincinnati
* Founder, New-York Evening Post * Hamilton–Reynolds sex scandal * Rutgers v. Waddington * Relationship with slavery

Depictions and memorials

* Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(Fraser statue) * Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(Ceracchi bust) * Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(Conrads statue) * Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(Trumbull portrait) * Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Bridge * Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
High School (Los Angeles) * Fort Hamilton * Hamilton Grange National Memorial
Hamilton Grange National Memorial
* Hamilton Hall (Columbia University) * Hamilton Hall (Salem, Massachusetts) * Hamilton Heights, Manhattan * Hamilton, Ohio
Hamilton, Ohio
* Hamilton-Oneida Academy * Postage stamps * Trinity Church Cemetery * United States ten-dollar bill
United States ten-dollar bill

Media and popular culture

* Hamilton (2015 musical) * Hamilton (1917 play) * Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(1931 film) * Liberty! (1997 documentary series) * Liberty\'s Kids (2002 animated series) * John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries)

RELATED

* Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
* American Enlightenment * American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
* Liberty Hall (New Jersey)

* New York Manumission Society

* African Free School

* "American System" economic plan

* American School

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* patriots

FAMILY

* Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton

* wife * Schuyler family

* Philip Hamilton (oldest son) * Angelica Hamilton (daughter) * Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Jr. (son) * James Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(son) * John Church Hamilton (son) * William S. Hamilton (son) * Eliza Hamilton Holly (daughter) * Philip Hamilton (youngest son) * Schuyler Hamilton (grandson) * Alexander Hamilton, Jr. (grandson) * Allan McLane Hamilton
Allan McLane Hamilton
(grandson) * Robert Ray Hamilton (great-grandson)

* v * t * e

George Mason
George Mason

United States Founding events

* Drafted, 1769 Virginia Association
Virginia Association
resolutions * Primary author, 1774 Fairfax Resolves
Fairfax Resolves

* Primary author, 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights
Virginia Declaration of Rights

* " All men are created equal
All men are created equal
" * Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness * Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press
* Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
* Consent of the governed * Baseless search and seizure * Cruel and unusual punishments * Speedy trial

* 1776 Virginia Constitution * 1785 Mount Vernon Conference * 1787 Constitutional Convention * Virginia Ratifying Convention

* Co-father, United States Bill of Rights
United States Bill of Rights

* history

* Founding Father

WRITINGS INSPIRED

* 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(France) * 1789 United States Bill of Rights
United States Bill of Rights

LIFE

* Chopawamsic plantation * Gunston Hall * On slavery * Ohio Company
Ohio Company

LEGACY

* George Mason
George Mason
Memorial

* George Mason
George Mason
University

* George Mason
George Mason
Stadium

* George Mason
George Mason
Memorial Bridge * George Mason
George Mason
High School * 18-cent postage stamp

RELATED

* Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
* American Enlightenment

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* patriots

* Wilson v. Mason * Hollin Hall * Woodbridge plantation * Mason\'s Island

FAMILY

* George Mason
George Mason
V (son) * William Mason (son) * Thomson Mason (son) * John Mason (son) * Thomas Mason (son) * George Mason
George Mason
III (father) * Thomson Mason (brother) * George Mason
George Mason
II (gra

.