The Info List - American (word)

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The meaning of the word AMERICAN in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used. _American_ is derived from _America_, a term originally denoting all of the New World (also called _the Americas _). In some expressions, it retains this Pan-American sense, but its usage has evolved over time and, for various historical reasons, the word came to denote people or things specifically from the United States of America .

In modern English, _ Americans
_ generally refers to persons or things related to the United States
United States
of America; among native English speakers this usage is almost universal, with any other use of the term requiring specification. However, this usage is seen by some as a semantic "misappropriation" by those who argue that "American" should be widened in English to also include people or things from anywhere in the American continents.

The word can be used as either an adjective or a noun (viz. a demonym ). In adjectival use, it means "of or relating to the United States"; for example, " Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
was an American singer" or "the man prefers American English ". In its noun form, the word generally means a resident or citizen of the US, or occasionally someone whose ethnic identity is simply "American" . The noun is rarely used in American English to refer to people not connected to the United States. When used with a grammatical qualifier , the adjective _American_ can mean "of or relating to the Americas", as in Latin American or Indigenous American . Less frequently, the adjective can take this meaning without a qualifier, as in "American Spanish dialects and pronunciation differ by country", or the name of the Organization of American States . A third use of the term pertains specifically to the indigenous peoples of the Americas
, for instance, "In the 16th century, many Americans
died from imported diseases during the European conquest".

Compound constructions such as "African Americans
" likewise refer exclusively to people in or from the United States
United States
of America, as does the prefix "Americo-". For instance, the Americo-Liberians and their language Merico derive their name from the fact that they are descended from African American settlers , i.e. former slaves in the United States
United States
of America.


* 1 Other languages * 2 History * 3 Usage at the United Nations
United Nations

* 4 Cultural views

* 4.1 Spain and Hispanic America * 4.2 Canada * 4.3 Portugal
and Brazil

* 5 In other contexts

* 5.1 International law * 5.2 U.S. commercial regulation

* 6 Alternatives * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Works cited * 11 External links


French , German , Italian , Japanese , Hebrew , Arabic , and Russian speakers may use cognates of _American_ to refer to inhabitants of the Americas
or to U.S. nationals. They generally have other terms specific to U.S. nationals, such as the German _US-Amerikaner_, French _étatsunien_, Japanese _beikokujin_ (米国人), Arabic _amrīkānī_ (أمريكاني‎ as opposed to _amrīkī_ أمريكي‎), and Italian _statunitense_. These specific terms may be less common than the term _American_.

In French, _états-unien_, _étas-unien_ or _étasunien_, from _États-Unis d'Amérique_ (" United States
United States
of America"), is a rarely used word that distinguishes U.S. things and persons from the adjective _américain_, which denotes persons and things from the United States, but may also refer to "the Americas".

Likewise, German's use of _U.S.-amerikanisch_ and _U.S.-Amerikaner_ observe said cultural distinction, solely denoting U.S. things and people. Note that these are "politically correct" terms and that in normal parlance, the adjective "American" and its direct cognates are usually used if the context renders the nationality of the person clear.

This differentiation is prevalent in German-speaking countries, as indicated by the style manual of the _ Neue Zürcher Zeitung _ (one of the leading German-language newspapers in Switzerland) which dismisses the term _U.S.-amerikanisch_ as both ′unnecessary′ and ′artificial′ and recommends replacing it with _amerikanisch_. The respective guidelines of the foreign ministries of Austria, Germany and Switzerland all prescribe _Amerikaner_ and _amerikanisch_ in reference to the United States
United States
for official usage, making no mention of _U.S.-Amerikaner_ or _U.S.-amerikanisch_.

Portuguese has _americano_, denoting both a person or thing from the Americas
and a U.S. national. For referring specifically to a U.S. national and things, some words used are _estadunidense_ (also spelled _estado-unidense_, " United States
United States
person"), from _Estados Unidos da América_, and _ianque_ ("Yankee")—both usages exist in Brazil, but are uncommon in Portugal—but the term most often used, and the only one in Portugal, is _norte-americano_, even though it could, as with its Spanish equivalent, apply to Canadians, Mexicans, etc. as well.

In Spanish, _americano_ denotes geographic and cultural origin in the New World, as well as (infrequently) a U.S. citizen; the more common term is _estadounidense_ (" United States
United States
person"), which derives from _Estados Unidos de América_ (" United States
United States
of America"). The Spanish term _norteamericano_ ("North American") is frequently used to refer things and persons from the United States, but this term can also denote people and things from Canada and Mexico. Among Spanish-speakers, North America generally doesn't include Central America or the Caribbean.

In other languages, however, there is no possibility for confusion. For example, the Chinese word for "U.S. national" is _měiguórén_ (simplified Chinese : 美国人; traditional Chinese : 美國人) is derived from a word for the United States, _měiguó_, where _měi_ is an abbreviation for _Yàměilìjiā_ ("America") and _guó_ is "country". The name for the American continents is _měizhōu_, from _měi_ plus _zhōu_ ("continent"). Thus, a _měiZHōUrén_ is an American in the continent sense, and a _měiGUórén_ is an American in the U.S. sense.

Conversely, in Czech , there is no possibility for disambiguation. _Američan_ (m.) and _američanka_ (f.) can refer to persons from the United States
United States
or from the continents of the Americas, and there is no specific word capable of distinguishing the two meanings. For this reason, the latter meaning is very rarely used, and word _američan(ka)_ is used almost exclusively to refer to persons from the United States. The usage is exactly parallel to the English word.

Korean and Vietnamese also use unambiguous terms, with Korean having _Migug_ (미국(인)) for the country versus _Amerika_ (아메리카) for the continents, and Vietnamese having _Hoa Kỳ_ for the country versus _Châu Mỹ_ for the continents. Japanese has such terms as well (_beikoku(jin)_ ), but they are found more in newspaper headlines than in speech, where _amerikajin_ predominates.

In Swahili , _Marekani_ means specifically the United States, and _Mwamarekani_ is a U.S. national, whereas the international form _Amerika_ refers to the continents, and _Mwaamerika_ would be an inhabitants thereof. Likewise, the Esperanto word _Ameriko_ refers to the continents. For the country there is the term _Usono_. Thus, a citizen of the United States
United States
is an _usonano_, whereas an _amerikano_ is an inhabitant of the Americas.

In Hungarian the term amerikai (American) refers to a person or a thing from the United States
United States


British map of the Americas
in 1744.

The name _America_ was coined by Martin Waldseemüller from _Americus Vespucius_, the Latinized version of the name of Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512), the Italian explorer who mapped South America's east coast and the Caribbean
Sea in the early 16th century. Later, Vespucci's published letters were the basis of Waldseemüller\'s 1507 map , which is the first usage of _America_. The adjective _American_ subsequently denoted the New World.

16th-century European usage of _American_ denoted the native inhabitants of the New World. The earliest recorded use of this term in English is in Thomas Hacket 's 1568 translation of André Thévet 's book _ France Antarctique _; Thévet himself had referred to the natives as _Ameriques_. In the following century, the term was extended to European settlers and their descendants in the Americas. The earliest recorded use of "English-American" dates to 1648, in Thomas Gage 's _The English-American his travail by sea and land: or, a new survey of the West India's_.

In English, _American_ was used especially for people in the British America . Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson
, the leading English lexicographer, wrote in 1775, before the United States
United States
declared independence: "That the Americans
are able to bear taxation is indubitable." The Declaration of Independence of July 1776 refers to " unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States
United States
of America" adopted by the "Representatives of the United States
United States
of America" on July 4, 1776. The official name of the country was reaffirmed on November 15, 1777, when the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation , the first of which says, "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'". The Articles further state:

In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and in the Third Year of the independence of America.

Sam Haselby, a history professor in Lebanon and Egypt, claims it was British officials who first called the colonists "Americans". When the drafters of the _Declaration_ — Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
from Virginia, for example, or John Adams
John Adams
from Massachusetts — talked about "my country", they meant Virginia or Massachusetts, respectively. This situation was changed by the Revolution and the impulse toward nationalism. Jefferson, newly elected president in May 1801 wrote, "I am sure the measures I mean to pursue are such as would in their nature be approved by every American who can emerge from preconceived prejudices; as for those who cannot, we must take care of them as of the sick in our hospitals. The medicine of time and fact may cure some of them."

In _The Federalist_ Papers (1787–88), Alexander Hamilton and James Madison used the adjective _American_ with two different meanings: one political and one geographic; "the American republic" in Federalist No. 51 and in Federalist No. 70 , and, in Federalist No. 24 , Hamilton used _American_ to denote the lands beyond the U.S.'s political borders.

Early official U.S. documents show inconsistent usage; the 1778 Treaty of Alliance with France
used "the United States
United States
of North America" in the first sentence, then "the said United States" afterwards; "the United States
United States
of America" and "the United States
United States
of North America" derive from "the United Colonies of America" and "the United Colonies of North America". The Treaty of Peace and Amity of September 5, 1795, between the United States
United States
and the Barbary States contains the usages "the United States
United States
of North America", "citizens of the United States", and "American Citizens". _ Washington\'s Farewell Address _ (1796)

U.S. President George Washington
George Washington
, in his 1796 _Farewell Address_ , declaimed that "The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation." Political scientist Virginia L. Arbery notes that, in his _Farewell Address_:

"...Washington invites his fellow citizens to view themselves now as Americans
who, out of their love for the truth of liberty, have replaced their maiden names (Virginians, South Carolinians, New Yorkers, etc.) with that of “American”. Get rid of, he urges, “any appellation derived from local discriminations.” By defining himself as an American rather than as a Virginian, Washington set the national standard for all citizens. "Over and over, Washington said that America must be something set apart. As he put it to Patrick Henry , 'In a word, I want an _American_ character, that the powers of Europe may be convinced we act for _ourselves_ and not for _others_.'"

As the historian Garry Wills has noted: "This was a theme dear to Washington. He wrote to Timothy Pickering that the nation 'must never forget that we are Americans; the remembrance of which will convince us we ought not to be French or English'." Washington's countrymen subsequently embraced his exhortation with notable enthusiasm.

This semantic divergence among North American anglophones , however, remained largely unknown in the Spanish-American colonies. In 1801, the document titled _Letter to American Spaniards_—published in French (1799), in Spanish (1801), and in English (1808)—might have influenced Venezuela
's Act of Independence and its 1811 constitution.

The Latter-day Saints ' Articles of Faith refer to the American continents as where they are to build Zion.

Common short forms and abbreviations are the _United States_, the _U.S._, the _U.S.A._, and _America_; colloquial versions include the _U.S. of A._ and _the States_. The term _Columbia _ (from the Columbus surname) was a popular name for the U.S. and for the entire geographic Americas; its usage is present today in the District of Columbia 's name. Moreover, the womanly personification of Columbia appears in some official documents, including editions of the U.S. dollar.


Use of the term _American_ for U.S. nationals is common at the United Nations , and financial markets in the United States
United States
are referred to as "American financial markets".

_ American Samoa
American Samoa
_ is a recognized territorial name at the United Nations.



The use of _American_ as a national demonym for U.S. nationals is challenged, primarily by Hispanic Americans. Spanish speakers in Spain and Latin America
Latin America
use the term _estadounidense_ to refer to people and things from the United States
United States
(from _Estados Unidos_), while _americano_ refers to the continents as a whole. The term _gringo_ is also accepted in many parts of Latin America
Latin America
to refer to a person or something from the United States, however this term may be ambiguous in certain parts. Up to and including the 1992 edition, the _Diccionario de la lengua española_, published by the Real Academia Española , did not include the United States
United States
definition in the entry for _americano_; this was added in the 2001 edition. The Real Academia Española advised against using _americanos_ exclusively for U.S. nationals:

It is common, and thus acceptable, to use _norteamericano_ as a synonym of _estadounidense_, even though strictly speaking, the term _norteamericano_ can equally be used to refer to the inhabitants of any country in North America, it normally applies to the inhabitants of the United States. But _americano_ should not be used to refer exclusively to the inhabitants of the United States, an abusive usage which can be explained by the fact that in the United States, they frequently abbreviate the name of the country to "America" (in English, with no accent).


Modern Canadians typically refer to people from the United States
United States
as _Americans_, though they seldom refer to the United States
United States
as _America_; they use the terms _the United States_, _the U.S._, or (informally) _the States_ instead. Canadians rarely apply the term _American_ to themselves – some Canadians resent either being referred to as Americans
because of mistaken assumptions that they are U.S. citizens or others' inability, particularly of those overseas, to distinguish Canadian from American accents . Some Canadians have protested the use of _American_ as a national demonym. People of U.S. ethnic origin in Canada are categorized as "Other North American origins" by Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada
for purposes of census counts (as opposed to "Canadian").


Generally, _americano_ denotes "U.S. citizen" in Portugal
. Usage of _americano_ to exclusively denote people and things of the U.S. is discouraged by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences , because the specific word _estado-unidense_ (also _estadunidense_) clearly denotes a person from the United States. The term currently used by the Portuguese press is _norte-americano_.

In Brazil
, the term _americano_ is used to address both that which pertains to both American continents and, in current speech, that which pertains to the U.S.; the particular meaning is deduced from context. Alternatively, the term _norte-americano_ ("North American") is also used in more informal contexts, while _estadunidense_ (of the U.S.) is the preferred form in academia. Use of the three terms is common in schools, government, and media. The term _América_ is used almost exclusively for the continents, and the U.S. is called _Estados Unidos_ ("United States") or _Estados Unidos da América_ ("United States of America"), often abbreviated _EUA_.

The Getting Through Customs website advises business travelers not to use "in America" as a U.S. reference when conducting business in Brazil.


"American" in the 1994 _Associated Press Stylebook _ was defined as, "An acceptable description for a resident of the United States. It also may be applied to any resident or citizen of nations in North or South America." Elsewhere, the _AP Stylebook_ indicates that "United States" must "be spelled out when used as a noun. Use U.S. (no space) only as an adjective."

The entry for "America" in _The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage _ from 1999 reads:

terms "America", "American(s)" and "Americas" refer not only to the United States, but to all of North America and South America. They may be used in any of their senses, including references to just the United States, if the context is clear. The countries of the Western Hemisphere are collectively 'the Americas'.

Media releases from the Pope
and Holy See
Holy See
frequently use "America" to refer to the United States, and "American" to denote something or someone from the United States.


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At least one international law uses _U.S. citizen_ in defining a citizen of the United States
United States
rather than _American citizen_; for example, the English version of the North American Free Trade Agreement includes:

Only air carriers that are "citizens of the United States" may operate aircraft in domestic air service (cabotage) and may provide international scheduled and non-scheduled air service as U.S. air carriers...

Under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, a "citizen of the United States" means: (a) an individual who is a U.S. citizen; (b) a partnership in which each member is a U.S. citizen; or (c) a U.S. corporation of which the president and at least two-thirds of the board of directors and other managing officers are U.S. citizens, and at least 75 percent of the voting interest in the corporation is owned or controlled by U.S. citizens.

Many international treaties use the terms _American_ and _American citizen_:

* 1796 – The treaty between the United States
United States
and the Dey
of the Regency of Algiers
on March 7, 1796, protected "American citizens". * 1806 – The Louisiana Purchase Treaty between France
and United States referred to "American citizens". * 1825 – The treaty between the United States
United States
and the Cheyenne tribe refers to "American citizen"s. * 1848 – The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
between Mexico
and the U.S. uses "American Government" to refer to the United States, and "American tribunals" to refer to U.S. courts. * 1858 – The Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan
protected "American citizens" and also used "American" in other contexts. * 1898 – The Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish–American War , known in Spanish as the _Guerra Hispano–Estadounidense_ ("Spain– United States
United States
War") uses "American" in reference to United States troops. * 1966 – The United States–Thailand Treaty of Amity protects "Americans" and "American corporations".


Products that are labeled, advertised, and marketed in the U.S. as "Made in the USA " must be, as set by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), "all or virtually all made in the U.S." The FTC, to prevent deception of customers and unfair competition, considers an unqualified claim of "American Made" to expressly claim exclusive manufacture in the U.S: "The FTC Act gives the Commission the power to bring law enforcement actions against false or misleading claims that a product is of U.S. origin."


Main article: Names for United States
United States

There are a number of alternatives to the demonym _American_ as a citizen of the United States
United States
that do not simultaneously mean any inhabitant of the Americas. One uncommon alternative is _ Usonian _, which usually describes a certain style of residential architecture designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
. Other alternatives have also surfaced, but most have fallen into disuse and obscurity. _ Merriam-Webster 's Dictionary of English Usage_ says:

The list contains (in approximate historical order from 1789 to 1939) such terms as Columbian, Columbard, Fredonian, Frede, Unisian, United Statesian, Colonican, Appalacian, Usian, Washingtonian, Usonian, Uessian, U-S-ian, Uesican, United Stater.

Nevertheless, no alternative to _American_ is common.


* North America portal * South America portal * Language portal * United States
United States

* Americans

* Hyphenated Americans

* Americas
(terminology) * Names for United States
United States
citizens * Names of the United States
United States


* ^ _A_ _B_ Japanese: "U.S. citizen" is _amerika-jin_ (アメリカ人) * ^ Russian: "U.S. citizen" is _amerikanec_ (американец) for males and _amerikanka_ (американка) for females * ^ The first two definitions in _Diccionario de la lengua española _ (the official dictionary in Spanish) define _americano_ as "Native of America" and "Pertaining or relating to this part of the world" , where _América_ refers to the continent. The fourth definition of _americano_ is defined as " United States
United States
person" . * ^ _Měiguórén_ is the Standard Mandarin pronunciation. * ^ Chinese: _měiguó_ ("United States") is written as 美国, _měizhōu_ ("America the continent") is written as 美洲, _guó_ ("country") is written as 国, and _zhōu_ ("continent") is written as 洲. * ^ In Swahili, adding the prefix _mwa-_ to a word indicates a person (_wa-_ would indicate people). * ^ _A_ _B_ Está muy generalizado, y resulta aceptable, el uso de norteamericano como sinónimo de estadounidense, ya que, aunque en rigor el término norteamericano podría usarse igualmente en alusión a los habitantes de cualquiera de los países de América del Norte o Norteamérica, se aplica corrientemente a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos. Pero debe evitarse el empleo de americano para referirse exclusivamente a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos, uso abusivo que se explica por el hecho de que los estadounidenses utilizan a menudo el nombre abreviado América (en inglés, sin tilde) para referirse a su país.


* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). _The Columbia Guide to Standard American English_. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 0-231-06989-8 . View at Bartleby * ^ _A_ _B_ Mencken, H. L. (December 1947). "Names for Americans". _American Speech_. 22 (4): 241–256. JSTOR 486658 . doi :10.2307/486658 . * ^ Avis, Walter S.; Drysdale, Patrick D.; Gregg, Robert J.; Eeufeldt, Victoria E.; Scargill, Matthew H. (1983). "American". _Gage Canadian Dictionary_ (pbk ed.). Toronto: Gage Publishing Limited. p. 37. ISBN 0-7715-9122-5 . * ^ "American". _WordReference English-Japanese Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ "American". _WordReference English-Russian Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "US-Amerikaner". _Wortschatz_ (in German). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Etats-Uniens ou Américains, that is the question". _ Le Monde _ (in French). July 6, 2007. * ^ "American". _Online English-Japanese Pictorial Dictionary_. Free Light Software. * ^ "Arabic-English translation for "أَمْريكيّ"". _Bab.la Dictionary_. Retrieved 28 November 2016. * ^ "statunitense". _WordReference English-Italiano Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ _Vademecum. Der sprachlich-technische Leitfaden der «Neuen Zürcher Zeitung»_, 13th edition. Verlag Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Zürich 2013, p. 102, s. v. _US-amerikanisch_. * ^ Eidgenössisches Departement für auswärtige Angelegenheiten: „Liste der Staatenbezeichnungen“; Bundesministerium für europäische und internationale Angelegenheiten: „Liste der Staatennamen und deren Ableitungen in den vom Bundesministerium für europäische und internationale Angelegenheiten verwendeten Formen“; Auswärtiges Amt: „Verzeichnis der Staatennamen für den amtlichen Gebrauch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland“ * ^ _A_ _B_ "americano". _Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa_ (in Portuguese). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "americano". _ Diccionario de la lengua española _ (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. * ^ _Pequeño Larousse Ilustrado 1992 edition, look up word Americano: Contains the Observation: Debe evitarse el empleo de americano con el sentido de norteamericano o de los Estados Unidos_ (in Spanish). * ^ "América". _WordReference English-Spanish Dictionary_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "norteamericano". _Diccionario panhispánico de dudas_ (in Spanish). * ^ "美国人". _WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "United States". _WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "America". _WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "country". _WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "continent". _WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ "america". _WordReference English-Korean Dictionary_. 2013. * ^ "United States". _bab.la_. Wasilana & Amana. * ^ "amerika". _bab.la_. Wasilana & Amana. * ^ "American". _bab.la_. Wasilana & Amana. * ^ Youngman, Jeremy. "Introduction to Swahili". _Masai Mara_. * ^ "Ameriko". _Esperanto–English Dictionary_. * ^ "Usono". _Esperanto–English Dictionary_. * ^ "usonano". _Esperanto–English Dictionary_. * ^ (in Esperanto) "Reta Vortaro" . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ (subscription required) "American". _Oxford English Dictionary _. Retrieved November 27, 2008. * ^ "Declaration of Independence". National Archives. July 4, 1776.

* ^ Wood, Gordon S. (2015), "A Different Story of What Shaped America", _ New York Review of Books _, July 9 issue. * ^ Letter TJ to Theodore Foster, May 1801, in Paul Leicester Ford ed., _The Works of Thomas Jefferson_ (1905) 8:50. * ^ Madison, James. "The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments". _The Federalist_. * ^ Hamilton, Alexander. "The Executive Department Further Considered". _The Federalist_. * ^ Hamilton, Alexander. "The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered". The Federalist _Papers_. * ^ "The Barbary Treaties: Treaty of Peace and Amity". * ^ wikisource:Washington\'s Farewell Address * ^ Arbery, Virginia L. (1999), " Washington's Farewell Address and the Form of the American Regime"; In: Gary L. Gregg II and Matthew Spalding, _Patriot Sage: George Washington
George Washington
and the American Political Tradition_, pp. 204, 206. * ^ Wills, Garry (1984), _Cincinnatus: George Washington
George Washington
and the Enlightenment_, pp. 92-93. * ^ Bastin, Georges L. Bastin; Castrillón, Elvia R. (2004). "La "Carta dirigida a los españoles americanos", una carta que recorrió muchos caminos.." . _Hermeneus_ (in Spanish) (6): 276–290. Archived from the original on January 27, 2010. * ^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. "Articles of Faith 1:10". We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the restoration of the Ten Tribes; that Zion (the New Jerusalem) will be built upon the American continent... * ^ "Financial Reform Recommendations to General Assembly". United Nations. March 26, 2009. * ^ "American Samoa". United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved August 6, 2009. * ^ "estadounidense". _Diccionario de la lengua española_ (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. 1. adj. Native of the United States of America "1. adj. Natural de los Estados Unidos de América." * ^ "gringo". _Diccionario de la lengua española_ (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. 3. adj. Bol., Chile, Col., Cuba, Ec., El Salv., Hond., Nic., Par., Peru, Ur. and Ven. Native of the United States of America "3. adj. Bol., Chile, Col., Cuba, Ec., El Salv., Hond., Nic., Par., Perú, Ur. y Ven. estadounidense." * ^ "americano". _Diccionario usual_ (in Spanish) (21st ed.). Real Academia Española. 1992. p. 89. Archived from the original on 2006-05-01. To access, click the magnifying glass in the upper left-hand corner. In the field titled "Lema", type "americano"; for the "Resultados" radio buttons, select "Diccionario"; in the field in the selection field for "Diccionarios", make sure that "1992 Academica Usual" is selected. Then click "Buscar". * ^ "Estados Unidos". Real Academia Española. Retrieved 2015-11-03. * ^ _A_ _B_ Fee, Margery; McAlpine, J. (1997). _Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage_. Toronto: Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-19-541619-8 . * ^ de Ford, Miriam Allen (April 1927). "On the difficulty of indicating nativity in the United States". _American Speech_: 315. * ^ "Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada. * ^ Morrison, Terri. "Doing business abroad – Brazil". Archived from the original on 2007-02-05. * ^ Pope
Paul VI (October 4, 1965). _Homily of the Holy Father Paul VI_ (Speech). Yankee Stadium, New York. * ^ "Annex I: Reservations for Existing Measures and Liberalization Commitments (Chapters 11, 12, and 14)". _North American Free Trade Agreement_. October 7, 1992. * ^ "Treaty between US and the Dey
and Regency of Algiers, March 7, 1796". _Gilder Lehrman Collection Documents_. PBS. * ^ "The Louisiana Purchase Treaty". _Archives of The West_. PBS. * ^ "Treaty with The Cheyenne
Tribe". July 6, 1825. * ^ "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". _La Prensa_. * ^ "The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States
United States
and Japan, 1858 (The Harris Treaty)". * ^ "Treaty of Peace Between the United States
United States
and Spain; December 10, 1898". * ^ "The United States–Thailand Treaty of Amity". _Thailand Business and Legal Guide_. * ^ "Complying with the Made In the USA Standard". Federal Trade Commission. Archived from the original on February 16, 2006. * ^ _Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage_. Merriam-Webster. 1994. p. 88.


* Allen, Irving L. (1983). _The Language of Ethnic Conflict: Social Organization and Lexical Culture_. New York: Columbia University Press. * Condon, J.C. (1986). "...So near the United States". In Valdes, J.M. _Culture bound: Bridging the cultural gap in language teaching_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 85–93. ISBN 978-0-521-31045-1 . * Herbst, Philip H. (1997). _Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States_. ISBN 1-877864-42-0 .


_ Look up AMERICAN _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Ryle, John (September 7, 1998). "The trouble with Americans". The Guardian .

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