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B. b. athabascae B. b. bison

Synonyms

Bos
Bos
americanus Bos
Bos
bison Bison
Bison
americanus Bison
Bison
bison montanae

The American bison
American bison
or simply bison ( Bison
Bison
bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America
North America
in massive herds. They became nearly extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle, and have made a recent resurgence largely restricted to a few national parks and reserves. Their historical range roughly comprised a triangle between the Great Bear Lake in Canada's far northwest, south to the Mexican states of Durango and Nuevo León, and east to the Atlantic Seaboard
Atlantic Seaboard
of the United States (nearly to the Atlantic
Atlantic
tidewater in some areas) from New York to Georgia and per some sources down to Florida. Bison
Bison
were seen in North Carolina
North Carolina
near Buffalo Ford on the Catawba River
Catawba River
as late as 1750.[2][3][4] Two subspecies or ecotypes have been described: the plains bison (B. b. bison), smaller in size and with a more rounded hump, and the wood bison (B. b. athabascae)—the larger of the two and having a taller, square hump.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Furthermore, the plains bison has been suggested to consist of a northern plains (B. b. montanae) and a southern plains (B. b. bison) subspecies, bringing the total to three.[8] However, this is generally not supported. The wood bison is one of the largest wild species of bovid in the world, surpassed by only the Asian gaur and wild water buffalo. It is the largest extant land animal in the Americas. The American bison
American bison
is the national mammal of the United States.

Male plains bison in the Wichita Mountains
Wichita Mountains
of Oklahoma

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Description

2.1 Differences from European bison

3 Evolution 4 Range and population 5 Habitat 6 As livestock 7 Behavior and ecology

7.1 Social behavior and reproduction 7.2 Horning 7.3 Wallowing behavior 7.4 Predation 7.5 Dangers to humans

8 Hunting 9 Genetics 10 Bison
Bison
trails 11 As a symbol

11.1 Native Americans 11.2 North America

12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Etymology[edit] The term buffalo is sometimes considered to be a misnomer for this animal, and could be confused with "true" buffalos, the Asian water buffalo and the African buffalo. However, bison is a Greek word meaning ox-like animal, while buffalo originated with the French fur trappers who called these massive beasts bœufs, meaning ox or bullock—so both names, bison and buffalo, have a similar meaning. The name buffalo is listed in many dictionaries as an acceptable name for American buffalo or bison. In reference to this animal, the term buffalo dates to 1625 in North American usage when the term was first recorded for the American mammal.[11] It thus has a much longer history than the term bison, which was first recorded in 1774.[citation needed] The American bison
American bison
is very closely related to the wisent or European bison. In Plains Indian
Plains Indian
languages in general, male and female buffaloes are distinguished, with each having a different designation rather than there being a single generic word covering both sexes. Thus:

in Arapaho: bii (buffalo cow), henéécee (buffalo bull) in Lakota: pté (buffalo cow), tȟatȟáŋka (buffalo bull)

Such a distinction is not a general feature of the language (for example, Arapaho possesses gender-neutral terms for other large mammals such as elk, mule deer, etc.), and so presumably is due to the special significance of the buffalo in Plains Indian
Plains Indian
life and culture. Description[edit]

Adult male (farther) and adult female (closer) with a background of rich autumn colors, in Yellowstone National Park

A bison has a shaggy, long, dark-brown winter coat, and a lighter-weight, lighter-brown summer coat. As is typical in ungulates, the male bison is slightly larger than the female and, in some cases, can be considerably heavier. Plains bison
Plains bison
are often in the smaller range of sizes, and wood bison in the larger range. Head-and-body lengths range from 2 to 3.5 m (6.6 to 11.5 ft) long, the tail adding 30 to 91 cm (12 to 36 in). Shoulder heights in the species can range from 152 to 186 cm (60 to 73 in). Weights can range from 318 to 1,000 kg (701 to 2,205 lb)[12][13][14] Typical weight ranges in the species were reported as 460 to 988 kg (1,014 to 2,178 lb) in males and 360 to 544 kg (794 to 1,199 lb) in females, the lowest weights probably representing typical weight around the age of sexual maturity at 2 to 3 years of age.[15] Mature bulls tend to be considerably larger than cows. Cow weights have had reported medians of 450 to 495 kg (992 to 1,091 lb), with one small sample averaging 479 kg (1,056 lb), whereas bulls may reportedly weigh a median of 730 kg (1,610 lb) with an average from a small sample of 765 kg (1,687 lb).[16][17][18][19] The heaviest wild bull ever recorded weighed 1,270 kg (2,800 lb).[20] When raised in captivity and farmed for meat, the bison can grow unnaturally heavy and the largest semidomestic bison weighed 1,724 kg (3,801 lb).[12] The heads and forequarters are massive, and both sexes have short, curved horns that can grow up to 2 ft (61 cm) long, which they use in fighting for status within the herd and for defense. Bison
Bison
are herbivores, grazing on the grasses and sedges of the North American prairies. Their daily schedule involves two-hour periods of grazing, resting, and cud chewing, then moving to a new location to graze again. Bison
Bison
bulls of that age may try to mate with cows, but if more mature bulls are present, they may not be able to compete until they reach five years of age. For the first two months of life, calves are lighter in color than mature bison. One very rare condition is the white buffalo, in which the calf turns entirely white. Differences from European bison[edit] Although they are superficially similar, the American and European bison exhibit a number of physical and behavioral differences. Adult American bison
American bison
are slightly heavier on average because of their less rangy build, and have shorter legs, which render them slightly shorter at the shoulder.[21] American bison
American bison
tend to graze more, and browse less than their European relatives, because their necks are set differently. Compared to the nose of the American bison, that of the European species is set farther forward than the forehead when the neck is in a neutral position. The body of the American bison
American bison
is hairier, though its tail has less hair than that of the European bison. The horns of the European bison
European bison
point forward through the plane of its face, making it more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison which favors charging.[22] American bison
American bison
are more easily tamed than the European, and breed more readily with domestic cattle.[23] Evolution[edit] The bovine family (taurids and bisonids) diverged from the common ancestral line with water buffalo and African buffalo
African buffalo
about 5 to 10 million years ago.[24] Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree" structure as is often depicted in much evolution, because evidence exists of interbreeding and crossbreeding between different species and members within this family, even many millions of years after their ancestors separated into different species. This cross breeding was not sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such relationships would otherwise not be apparent. A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in tribe Bovini:

Taurine cattle and zebu Wisent (European bison) American bison
American bison
and yak[25] Banteng, gaur, and gayal

However, Y chromosome
Y chromosome
analysis associated wisent and American bison.[26] An earlier study using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting showed a close association of wisent and American bison
American bison
and probably with yak, but noted that the interbreeding of Bovini
Bovini
species made determining relationships problematic.[27] It is shown, however, the wisent may have emerged by species divergence initiated by the introgression of bison bulls in a separate ancestral species,[28] the aurochs.[29]

Last of the Canadian Bisons, 1902, photograph: Steele and Company

The steppe bison ( Bison
Bison
priscus) diverged from the lineage that led to cattle ( Bos
Bos
taurus) about 2 to 5 million years ago. The bison genus is clearly in the fossil record by 2 million years ago.[13] The steppe bison spread across Eurasia and was the bison that was pictured in the ancient cave paintings of Spain and Southern France. The European bison
European bison
arose from the steppe bison, without fossil evidence of other ancestral species between the steppe bison and the European bison, though the European bison
European bison
might have arisen from the lineage that led to American bison
American bison
if that lineage backcrossed with the steppe bison. Again, the web of relationships is confusing, but some evidence shows the European bison
European bison
is descended from bison that had migrated from Asia to North America, and then back to Europe, where they crossbred with existing steppe bison.[13] At one point, some steppe bison crossbred with the ancestors of the modern yak. After that cross, a population of steppe bison (Bison priscus) crossed the Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge
to North America. Evidence has been found of multiple crossings of bison to and from Asia starting before 500,000 years ago and continuing until at least 220,000 years ago. The steppe bison spread through the northern parts of North America and lived in Eurasia until roughly 11,000 years ago[30] and North America
North America
until 4,000 to 8,000 years ago.[13] Bison
Bison
latifrons (giant bison or longhorn bison) is thought to have evolved in midcontinent North America
North America
from B. priscus, after the steppe bison crossed into North America.[31][32][33] Giant bison (B. latifrons) appeared in the fossil record around 500,000 years ago.[13] B. latifrons was one of many species of North American megafauna which became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event. It is thought to have disappeared some 21,000–30,000 years ago, during the late Wisconsin glaciation.[34] The B. latifrons species was replaced by the smaller Bison
Bison
antiquus. B. antiquus appeared in the North American fossil record approximately 250,000 years ago.[35] B. antiquus, in turn, evolved into B. occidentalis, then into the yet smaller B. bison—the modern American bison—some 5,000 to 10,000 years ago.[36][37] Some researchers consider B. occidentalis to be a subspecies of B. antiquus.[38]

Pile of American bison
American bison
skulls to be used for fertilizer in the mid-1870s

During the population bottleneck, after the great slaughter of American bison
American bison
during the 1800s, the number of bison remaining alive in North America
North America
declined to as low as 541. During that period, a handful of ranchers gathered remnants of the existing herds to save the species from extinction. These ranchers bred some of the bison with cattle in an effort to produce "cattlo".[39] Accidental crossings were also known to occur. Generally, male domestic bulls were crossed with buffalo cows, producing offspring of which only the females were fertile. The crossbred animals did not demonstrate any form of hybrid vigor, so the practice was abandoned. The proportion of cattle DNA that has been measured in introgressed individuals and bison herds today is typically quite low, ranging from 0.56 to 1.8%.[39][40] In the United States, many ranchers are now using DNA testing to cull the residual cattle genetics from their bison herds. The U.S. National Bison
Bison
Association has adopted a code of ethics which prohibits its members from deliberately crossbreeding bison with any other species. Range and population[edit]

Bison
Bison
herd grazing at the National Bison
Bison
Range in Montana

Despite being the closest relatives of domestic cattle native to North America, bison were never domesticated by Native Americans. Later attempts of domestication by Europeans prior to the 20th century met with limited success. Bison
Bison
were described as having a "wild and ungovernable temper";[41] they can jump close to 6 ft (1.8 m) vertically,[42] and run 35–40 mph (56–64 km/h) when agitated. This agility and speed, combined with their great size and weight, makes bison herds difficult to confine, as they can easily escape or destroy most fencing systems, including most razor wire. About 500,000 bison currently exist on private lands and around 30,000 on public lands which includes environmental and government preserves.[43] According to the IUCN, roughly 15,000 bison are considered wild, free-range bison not primarily confined by fencing.[44] In 2009, bison were reintroduced to the Janos Biosphere Reserve in northern Chihuahua; this is the only free-roaming herd on Mexican federal land. Efforts to bring back the bison population have recently reintroduced bison to Indiana,[45] which included the introduction of a herd consisting of 23 bison. In 2014, U.S Tribes and Canadian First Nations signed a treaty to help with the restoration of bison, the first to be signed in nearly 150 years.[46] Habitat[edit]

A group of bison trudge across the landscape at the National Elk Refuge.

See also: Great bison belt American bison
American bison
live in river valleys, and on prairies and plains. Typical habitat is open or semiopen grasslands, as well as sagebrush, semiarid lands, and scrublands. Some lightly wooded areas are also known historically to have supported bison. Bison
Bison
also graze in hilly or mountainous areas where the slopes are not steep. Though not particularly known as high-altitude animals, bison in the Yellowstone Park bison herd are frequently found at elevations above 8,000 feet and the Henry Mountains bison herd
Henry Mountains bison herd
is found on the plains around the Henry Mountains, Utah, as well as in mountain valleys of the Henry Mountains to an altitude of 10,000 feet. As livestock[edit] Bison
Bison
are increasingly raised for meat and hides; the majority of American bison
American bison
in the world are raised for human consumption. Bison meat is generally considered to taste very similar to beef, but is lower in fat and cholesterol, yet higher in protein than beef,[47][48] which has led to the development of beefalo, a fertile hybrid of bison and domestic cattle.[citation needed] In 2005, about 35,000 bison were processed for meat in the U.S., with the National Bison
Bison
Association and USDA providing a "Certified American Buffalo" program with birth-to-consumer tracking of bison via RFID ear tags. A market even exists for kosher bison meat; these bison are slaughtered at one of the few kosher mammal slaughterhouses in the U.S., and the meat is then distributed nationwide.

Canned Bison
Bison
meat for sale

Bison
Bison
are found in publicly and privately held herds. Custer State Park in South Dakota
South Dakota
is home to 1,500 bison, one of the largest publicly held herds in the world, but some question the genetic purity of the animals. Wildlife officials believe that free roaming and genetically pure herds on public lands in North America
North America
can be found only in the Yellowstone Park bison herd,[49] the Henry Mountains
Henry Mountains
bison herd at the Book Cliffs
Book Cliffs
and Henry Mountains
Henry Mountains
in Utah, at Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota, Fort Peck Indian Reservation
Fort Peck Indian Reservation
in Montana, Mackenzie Bison
Bison
Sanctuary in the Northwest Territories, Elk Island National Park and Wood Buffalo National Park
Wood Buffalo National Park
in Alberta, and Prince Albert National Park
Prince Albert National Park
in Saskatchewan. Another population, the Antelope Island bison herd
Antelope Island bison herd
on Antelope Island
Antelope Island
in Utah, consisting of 550 to 700 bison, is also one of the largest and oldest public herds in the United States, but the bison in that herd are considered to be only semifree roaming, since they are confined to the Antelope Island. In addition, recent genetic studies indicate that, like most bison herds, the Antelope Island bison herd
Antelope Island bison herd
has a small number of genes from domestic cattle. In 2002, the United States
United States
government donated some bison calves from South Dakota
South Dakota
and Colorado to the Mexican government. Their descendants live in the Mexican nature reserves El Uno Ranch at Janos and Santa Elena Canyon, Chihuahua, and Boquillas del Carmen, Coahuila, located near the southern banks of the Rio Grande, and around the grassland state line with Texas
Texas
and New Mexico. Recent genetic studies of privately owned herds of bison show that many of them include animals with genes from domestic cattle.[49] For example, the herd on Santa Catalina Island, California, isolated since 1924 after being brought there for a movie shoot, were found to have cattle introgression.[50] As few as 12,000 to 15,000 pure bison are estimated to remain in the world. The numbers are uncertain because the tests used to date—mitochondrial DNA analysis—indicate only if the maternal line (back from mother to mother) ever included domesticated bovines, thus say nothing about possible male input in the process. Most hybrids were found to look exactly like purebred bison; therefore, appearance is not a good indicator of genetics. The size of the Canadian domesticated herd (genetic questions aside) grew dramatically through the 1990s and 2000s. The 2006 Census of Agriculture reported the Canadian herd at 195,728 head, a 34.9% increase since 2001.[51] Of this total, over 95% was located in Western Canada, and less than 5% in Eastern Canada. Alberta
Alberta
was the province with the largest herd, accounting for 49.7% of the herd and 45.8% of the farms. The next-largest herds were in Saskatchewan (23.9%), Manitoba
Manitoba
(10%), and British Columbia (6%). The main producing regions were in the northern parts of the Canadian prairies, specifically in the parkland belt, with the Peace River region
Peace River region
(shared between Alberta
Alberta
and British Columbia) being the most important cluster, accounting for 14.4% of the national herd.[51] Canada also exports bison meat, totaling 2,075,253 kilograms (4,575,150 lb) in 2006.[52] A proposal known as Buffalo Commons
Buffalo Commons
has been suggested by a handful of academics and policymakers to restore large parts of the drier portion of the Great Plains
Great Plains
to native prairie grazed by bison.[49] Proponents argue that current agricultural use of the shortgrass prairie is not sustainable, pointing to periodic disasters, including the Dust Bowl, and continuing significant human population loss over the last 60 years. However, this plan is opposed by some who live in the areas in question.[citation needed] Behavior and ecology[edit]

Herd
Herd
of bison in Yellowstone National Park

Play media

Grazing
Grazing
in winter, Yellowstone National Park: Bison
Bison
use their heads to clear out snow for the grass.

American bison
American bison
galloping, photos by Eadweard Muybridge, first published in 1887 in Animal
Animal
Locomotion

Bison
Bison
are migratory and herd migrations can be directional as well as altitudinal in some areas.[53][54][55] Bison
Bison
have usual daily movements between foraging sites during the summer. In a montane valley, bison have been recorded traveling, on average, 2 miles (3.2 km) per day.[55] The summer ranges of bison appear to be influenced by seasonal vegetation changes, interspersion and size of foraging sites, the rut, and the number of biting insects.[53] The size of preserve and availability of water may also be a factor.[55] Bison
Bison
are largely grazers, eating primarily grasses and sedges. On shortgrass pasture, bison predominately consume warm-season grasses.[56] On mixed prairie, cool-season grasses, including some sedges, apparently compose 79–96% of their diet.[57] In montane and northern areas, sedges are selected throughout the year.[53] Bison also drink water or consume snow on a daily basis.[55] Social behavior and reproduction[edit]

Bison
Bison
fighting in Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park
in Moose, Wyoming

Female bison live in maternal herds which include other females and their offspring. Male offspring leave their maternal herd when around three years old and either live alone or join other males in bachelor herds. Male and female herds usually do not mingle until the breeding season, which can occur from July through September.[58] However, female herds may also contain a few older males. During the breeding season, dominant bulls maintain a small harem of females for mating. Individual bulls "tend" cows until allowed to mate, by following them around and chasing away rival males. The tending bull shields the female's vision with his body so she will not see any other challenging males. A challenging bull may bellow or roar to get a female's attention and the tending bull has to bellow/roar back.[59] The most dominant bulls mate in the first 2–3 weeks of the season.[59] More subordinate bulls mate with any remaining estrous cow that has not mated yet. Male bison play no part in raising the young. Bison
Bison
herds have dominance hierarchies that exist for both males and females. A bison's dominance is related to its birth date.[60] Bison born earlier in the breeding season are more likely to be larger and more dominant as adults.[60] Thus, bison are able to pass on their dominance to their offspring as dominant bison breed earlier in the season. In addition to dominance, the older bison of a generation also have a higher fertility rate than the younger ones.[60]

Calf

Bison
Bison
mate in August and September; gestation is 285 days. A single reddish-brown calf nurses until the next calf is born. If the cow is not pregnant, a calf will nurse for 18 months. Cows nurse their calves for at least 7 or 8 months, but most calves seem to be weaned before the end of their first year.[55] At three years of age, bison cows are mature enough to produce a calf. Bison
Bison
have a life expectancy around 15 years in the wild and up to 25 years in captivity. Bison
Bison
have been observed to display homosexual behaviors, males much more so than females. In the case of males, it is unlikely to be related to dominance, but rather to social bonding or gaining sexual experience.[61] Horning[edit] Bison
Bison
mate in late spring and summer in more open plain areas. During fall and winter, bison tend to gather in more wooded areas. During this time, bison partake in horning behaviors. They rub their horns against trees, young saplings, and even utility poles. Aromatic trees like cedars and pine seem to be preferred. Horning appears to be associated with insect defense, as it occurs most often in the fall when the insect population is at its highest.[62] Cedar and pines emit an aroma after bison horn them and this seems to be used as a deterrent for insects.[62] Wallowing behavior[edit] A bison wallow is a shallow depression in the soil, which bison use either wet or dry. Bison
Bison
roll in these depressions, covering themselves with dust or mud. Past and current hypotheses to explain the purpose of wallowing include grooming associated with shedding, male-male interaction (typically rutting), social behavior for group cohesion, play, relief from skin irritation due to biting insects, reduction of ectoparasite (tick and lice) load, and thermoregulation.[63] Predation[edit]

American bison
American bison
standing its ground against a wolf pack.

Wolf- Bison
Bison
Demonstration at Wolf Park, Indiana.

While often secure from predation because of their size and strength, in some areas, bison are regularly preyed upon by wolves. Wolf predation typically peaks in late spring and early summer, with attacks usually being concentrated on cows and calves. Wolves more actively target herds with calves than those without. The length of a predation episode varies, ranging from a few minutes to over nine hours.[64][65] Bison
Bison
display five apparent defense strategies in protecting calves from wolves: running to a cow, running to a herd, running to the nearest bull, running in the front or center of a stampeding herd, and entering water bodies such as lakes or rivers. When fleeing wolves in open areas, cows with young calves take the lead, while bulls take to the rear of the herds, to guard the cows' escape. Bison
Bison
typically ignore wolves not displaying hunting behavior.[66] Wolf packs specializing in bison tend to have more males, because their larger size than females allows them to wrestle prey to the ground more effectively.[67] Healthy, mature bulls in herds rarely fall prey. Grizzly bears can also pose a threat to calves and sometimes old, injured, or sick adult bison. Dangers to humans[edit] Bison
Bison
are among the most dangerous animals encountered by visitors to the various North American national parks and will attack humans if provoked. They appear slow because of their lethargic movements, but can easily outrun humans; bison have been observed running as fast as 40 mph (64 km/h). Between 1980 and 1999, more than three times as many people in Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park
were injured by bison than by bears. During this period, bison charged and injured 79 people, with injuries ranging from goring puncture wounds and broken bones to bruises and abrasions. Bears injured 24 people during the same time. Three people died from the injuries inflicted—one person by bison in 1983, and two people by bears in 1984 and 1986.[68] Hunting[edit] Main article: Bison
Bison
hunting

Map from 1889 by William T. Hornaday, illustrating the Extermination of the American Bison

Bison
Bison
hunt under the wolf-skin mask, 1832–33

Bison
Bison
being chased off a cliff as “seen” and painted by Alfred Jacob Miller

Buffalo hunting (hunting of the American bison) was an activity fundamental to the Midwestern Native Americans, which was later adopted by American professional hunters, leading to the near-extinction of the species around 1890. It has since begun to recover.

Year American bison (est)

Pre-1800 60,000,000[69]

1830 40,000,000[69]

1840 35,650,000[70]

1870 5,500,000[69]

1880 395,000[70]

1889 541 (U.S.)[71]

1900 300 (U.S.)[69]

1944–47 5,000 (U.S.)[72] 15,000 (Canada)[70]

1951 23,340[73]

2000 360,000

Range history of bison in North America

Original distribution of plains bison and wood bison in North America along the "Great bison belt". Holocene
Holocene
bison ( Bison
Bison
occidentalis) is an earlier form at the origin of plains bison and wood bison.    Holocene
Holocene
bison   Wood bison   Plains bison

Map of the extermination of the bison to 1889. This map based on William Temple Hornaday's late-19th century research.   Original range   Range as of 1870   Range as of 1889

Distribution of public herds of plains bison and of free-ranging or captive breeding wood bison in North America
North America
as of 2003.   Wood bison   Plains bison

Genetics[edit] A major problem that bison face today is a lack of genetic diversity due to the population bottleneck the species experienced during its near-extinction event. Another genetic issue is the entry of genes from domestic cattle into the bison population, through hybridization.[49] Officially, the "American buffalo" is classified by the United States government as a type of cattle, and the government allows private herds to be managed as such. This is a reflection of the characteristics that bison share with cattle. Though the American bison is not only a separate species, but also is usually regarded as being in a separate genus from domestic cattle ( Bos
Bos
taurus), they clearly have a lot of genetic compatibility and American bison
American bison
can interbreed with cattle, although only the female offspring are fertile in the first generation. These female hybrids can be bred back to either bison or domestic bulls, resulting in either 1/4 or 3/4 bison young. Female offspring from this cross are also fertile, but males are not reliably fertile unless they are either ​7⁄8 bison or ​7⁄8 domestic.[74] Moreover, when they do interbreed, crossbreed animals in the first generation tend to look very much like purebred bison, so appearance is completely unreliable as a means of determining what is a purebred bison and what is a crossbred cow. Many ranchers have deliberately crossbred their cattle with bison, and some natural hybridization could be expected in areas where cattle and bison occur in the same range. Since cattle and bison eat similar food and tolerate similar conditions, they have often been in the same range together in the past, and opportunity for crossbreeding may sometimes have been common. In recent decades, tests were developed to determine the source of mitochondrial DNA in cattle and bison, and most private "buffalo" herds were actually crossbred with cattle, and even most state and federal buffalo herds had some cattle DNA. With the advent of nuclear microsatellite DNA testing, the number of herds known to contain cattle genes has increased. Though about 500,000 bison exist on private ranches and in public herds, perhaps only 15,000 to 25,000 of these bison are pure and not actually bison-cattle hybrids. "DNA from domestic cattle ( Bos
Bos
taurus) has been detected in nearly all bison herds examined to date."[75] Significant public bison herds that do not appear to have hybridized domestic cattle genes are the Yellowstone Park bison herd, the Henry Mountains
Henry Mountains
bison herd, which was started with bison taken from Yellowstone Park, the Wind Cave bison herd, and the Wood Buffalo National Park
Wood Buffalo National Park
bison herd and subsidiary herds started from it, in Canada. A landmark study of bison genetics performed by James Derr of Texas A&M University corroborated this.[76] The Derr study was undertaken in an attempt to determine what genetic problems bison might face as they repopulate former areas, and it noted that bison seem to be adapting successfully, despite their apparent genetic bottleneck. One possible explanation for this might be the small amount of domestic cattle genes that are now in most bison populations, though this is not the only possible explanation for bison success.

A wood bison around Coal River in Canada

In the study, cattle genes were also found in small amounts throughout most national, state and private herds. "The hybridization experiments conducted by some of the owners of the five foundation herds of the late 1800s, have left a legacy of a small amount of cattle genetics in many of our existing bison herds." He also said, "All of the state owned bison herds tested (except for possibly one) contain animals with domestic cattle mtDNA."[76] It appears that the one state herd that had no cattle genes was the Henry Mountains
Henry Mountains
bison herd; the Henry Mountain herd was started initially with transplanted animals from Yellowstone Park. However, the extension of this herd into the Book Cliffs of central Utah involved mixing the founders with additional bison from another source, so it is not known if the Book Cliffs extension of the herd is also free of cattle hybridization. A separate study by Wilson and Strobeck, published in Genome, was done to define the relationships between different herds of bison in the United States
United States
and Canada, and to determine whether the bison at Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada and the Yellowstone Park bison herd were possibly separate subspecies. The Wood Buffalo Park bison were determined to actually be crossbreeds between plains and wood bison, but their predominant genetic makeup was that of the expected "wood buffalo".[9] However, the Yellowstone Park bison herd
Yellowstone Park bison herd
was pure plains bison, and not any of the other previously suggested subspecies. Another finding was that the bison in the Antelope Island
Antelope Island
herd in Utah appeared to be more distantly related to other plains bison in general than any other plains bison group that was tested, though this might be due to genetic drift caused by the small size of only 12 individuals in the founder population. A side finding of this was that the Antelope Island bison herd
Antelope Island bison herd
appears to be most closely related to the Wood Buffalo National Park
Wood Buffalo National Park
bison herd, though the Antelope Island bison are actually plains bison. Bison
Bison
trails[edit] The first thoroughfares of North America, except for the time-obliterated paths of mastodon or muskox and the routes of the mound builders, were the traces made by bison and deer in seasonal migration and between feeding grounds and salt licks. Many of these routes, hammered by countless hoofs instinctively following watersheds and the crests of ridges in avoidance of lower places' summer muck and winter snowdrifts, were followed by the aboriginal North Americans as courses to hunting grounds and as warriors' paths. They were invaluable to explorers and were adopted by pioneers. Bison
Bison
traces were characteristically north and south, but several key east-west trails were used later as railways. Some of these include the Cumberland Gap
Cumberland Gap
through the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
to upper Kentucky. A heavily used trace crossed the Ohio River
Ohio River
at the Falls of the Ohio and ran west, crossing the Wabash River
Wabash River
near Vincennes, Indiana. In Senator Thomas Hart Benton's phrase saluting these sagacious path-makers, the bison paved the way for the railroads to the Pacific.[77] As a symbol[edit] Native Americans[edit] Among Native American tribes, especially the Plains Indians, the bison is considered a sacred animal and religious symbol. According to University of Montana anthropology and Native American studies professor S. Neyooxet Greymorning, "The creation stories of where buffalo came from put them in a very spiritual place among many tribes. The buffalo crossed many different areas and functions, and it was utilized in many ways. It was used in ceremonies, as well as to make tipi covers that provided homes for people, utensils, shields, weapons and parts were used for sewing with the sinew."[78] The Sioux consider the birth of a white buffalo to be the return of White Buffalo Calf Woman, their primary cultural prophet and the bringer of their "Seven Sacred Rites". Among the Mandan
Mandan
and Hidatsa, the White Buffalo Cow Society was the most sacred of societies for women. North America[edit]

Wyoming
Wyoming
uses a bison in its state flag

Manitoba
Manitoba
uses a bison in its provincial flag, as seen inside the Manitoban coat of arms

The 1935 Buffalo nickel—this style of coin featuring an American bison was produced from 1913 to 1938

Series 1901 $10 legal tender depicting military explorers Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and an American bison

First postage stamp with image of bison was issued US in 1898—4¢ "Indian Hunting Buffalo", part of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition commemorative series

The American bison
American bison
is often used in North America
North America
in official seals, flags, and logos. In 2016, the American bison
American bison
became the national mammal of the United States.[79] The bison is a popular symbol in the Great Plains
Great Plains
states: Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming
Wyoming
have adopted the animal as their official state mammal, and many sports teams have chosen the bison as their mascot. In Canada, the bison is the official animal of the province of Manitoba
Manitoba
and appears on the Manitoba
Manitoba
flag. It is also used in the official coat of arms of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Several American coins feature the bison, most famously on the reverse side of the "buffalo nickel" from 1913 to 1938. In 2005, the United States Mint coined a nickel with a new depiction of the bison as part of its "Westward Journey" series. The Kansas and North Dakota state quarters, part of the "50 State Quarter" series, each feature bison. The Kansas state quarter has only the bison and does not feature any writing, while the North Dakota state quarter has two bison. The Montana state quarter prominently features a bison skull over a landscape. The Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park
quarter also features a bison standing next to a geyser. Other institutions which have adopted the bison as a symbol or mascot include:

U.S. Department of the Interior Bethany College (West Virginia) Bucknell University
Bucknell University
and its athletic program, the Bucknell Bison Buffalo, New York Buffalo Bills Buffalo Bisons Buffalo Grove High School Buffalo Sabres University at Buffalo, The State University of New York and its athletic program, the Buffalo Bulls University of Colorado and its athletic program, the Colorado Buffaloes Gallaudet University Harding University
Harding University
and its athletic program, the Harding Bisons Howard University
Howard University
and its athletic program, the Howard Bison Seal of the State of Indiana Lipscomb University
Lipscomb University
and its athletic program, the Lipscomb Bisons Coat of arms of Manitoba Flag of Manitoba University of Manitoba
Manitoba
and its athletic program, the Manitoba
Manitoba
Bisons Marshall University
Marshall University
and its athletic program, the Marshall Thundering Herd Milligan College Independence Party of Minnesota Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
(mascot for his 2008 campaign for president)[80] Nichols College North Dakota State University
North Dakota State University
and its athletic program, the North Dakota State Bison Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Baptist University and its athletic program, the Oklahoma Baptist Bison Point Park University Royal Canadian Mounted Police Rumble the Bison
Bison
(the official mascot of the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Thunder) Southwestern Law School CFB Wainwright West Texas
Texas
A&M University and its athletic program, the West Texas A&M Buffaloes Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo

See also[edit]

American Bison
Bison
Society Buffalo Commons
Buffalo Commons
— proposed multistate nature preserve of Great Plains habitat for American bison The Great Plains
Great Plains
Ecoregion Buffalo Hunters' War Plains hide painting

References[edit]

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Bison
bison". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved November 10, 2008.  Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is "Near Threatened". ^ Project Gutenburg E Book – The Extermination of the American Bison ^ "American Buffalo ( Bison
Bison
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Bison
bison "athabascae" Rhoads 1897, is not a valid taxon, but an ecotype". Arctic. 44 (4): 283–300. doi:10.14430/arctic1552.  ^ Kay, Charles E.; Clifford A. White (2001). "Reintroduction of bison into the Rocky Mountain parks of Canada: historical and archaeological evidence" (PDF). Crossing Boundaries in Park Management: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands. Hancock, Michigan: George Wright Soc. pp. 143–51. Retrieved December 2, 2009.  ^ Bork, A. M.; C. M. Strobeck; F. C. Yeh; R. J. Hudson & R. K. Salmon (1991). "Genetic relationship of wood and plains bison based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms" (PDF). Can J Zool. 69 (1): 43–48. doi:10.1139/z91-007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-27.  ^ a b Halbert, Natalie D.; Terje Raudsepp; Bhanu P. Chowdhary & James N. Derr (2004). "Conservation Genetic Analysis of the Texas State Bison
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North America
(1st ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 295–339. ISBN 0-231-03733-3.  ^ Jefferson, G. (2001). Rancho la Brea Bison. In: J. Harris (ed), Rancho La Brea: Death Trap and Treasure Trove. Terra 30(2): 33. Los Angeles Natural History Museum Foundation. p. 33. ^ Wilson, M.C.; L.V. Hills & B. Shapiro (2008). "Late Pleistocene northward-dispersing Bison
Bison
antiquus from the Bighill Creek Formation, Gallelli Gravel Pit, Alberta, Canada, and the fate of Bison occidentalis". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 45 (7): 827–59. doi:10.1139/E08-027.  ^ Lott, Dale F. (2002). American Bison: A Natural History. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23338-7.  ^ "Ohio Archaeology Blog: Better Than a Pointed Stick in the Eye – Not Really". Ohio-archaeology.blogspot.com. 2011-05-26. Retrieved May 29, 2013.  ^ a b Halbert, N; Gogan, P; Hiebert, R; Derr, J (2007). "Where the buffalo roam: The role of history and genetics in the conservation of bison on U.S. federal lands". Park Science. 24 (2): 22–29.  ^ Polziehn, R; Strobeck, C; Sheraton, J; Beech, R (1995). "Bovine mtDNA Discovered in North American Bison
Bison
Populations". Conservation Biology. 9 (6): 1638–1643 (1642). doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.09061638.x.  ^ Illinois State Museum page. Museum.state.il.us (2011-09-01). Retrieved on January 29, 2012. ^ " Species
Species
Spotlight: American Bison".  ^ staff (March 3, 2010). "Restoring North America's Wild Bison
Bison
to Their Home on the Range". Ens-newswire.com. Retrieved February 19, 2011.  ^ The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
Species
(version 2009.1) – Bison bison ^ " Bison
Bison
Come to Kankakee Sands". The Nature Conservancy.  ^ "Historic Treaty Supports Restoration of Bison". TCA Regional News. September 25, 2014.  ^ " National Bison
Bison
Association". Bisoncentral.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2011.  ^ " Bison
Bison
from Farm to Table". USDA. Retrieved January 6, 2017.  ^ a b c d Staff (November 15, 2011). "Restoring a Prairie
Prairie
Icon". National Wildlife. National Wildlife Federation. 50 (1): 20–25.  ^ Chang, Alicia (September 21, 2007). "Study: Catalina bison aren't purebred". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 14, 2008.  ^ a b "Canadian Agriculture at a Glance: Bison
Bison
on the comeback trail". Statcan.gc.ca. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2013-05-29.  ^ "Table 1 Bison
Bison
meat exports continue to climb, 2001 to 2006". Statcan.gc.ca. 2009-04-03. Retrieved May 29, 2013.  ^ a b c Meagher M (1973). "The bison of Yellowstone National Park". National Park Service
National Park Service
Science Monographs. 1: 1–161. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011.  ^ Van Vuren, D. (1983). "Group dynamics and summer home range of bison in southern Utah". Journal of Mammalogy. 64 (2): 329–332. doi:10.2307/1380570. JSTOR 1380570.  ^ a b c d e McHugh, T. (1958). "Social behavior of the American buffalo ( Bison
Bison
bison bison)". Zoologica. 43: 1–40.  ^ Peden, D. G. Van Dyne; R. Rice; R. Hansen (1974). "The trophic ecology of Bison
Bison
bison L. on shortgrass plains". Journal of Applied Ecology. 11 (2): 489–497. doi:10.2307/2402203. JSTOR 2402203.  ^ Popp, Jewel Kay. (1981). "Range Ecology of Bison
Bison
on Mixed Grass Prairie
Prairie
at Wind Cave National Park". Unpubl. M.S. Thesis. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 59 p. ^ "American Bison
Bison
Bison
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bison – NatureWorks". NatureWorks. Archived from the original on February 17, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.  ^ a b Wolff, J. O. (1998). "Breeding strategies, mate choice, and reproductive success in American bison". Okios. 83 (2): 529–544. doi:10.2307/3546680. JSTOR 3546680.  ^ a b c Green W. C. H. R., Aron (1993). "Persistent influences of birth date on dominance, growth and reproductive success in bison". Journal of Zoology. 230 (2): 177–185. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb02680.x.  ^ Vervaecke H, Roden C. (2006). "Going with the herd: same-sex interaction and competition in American bison". In: Sommer V, Vasey PL, (editors). Homosexual behaviour in animals. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–53 ISBN 0-521-86446-1. ^ a b Coppedge, B. R.; Carter, T.S.; Shaw, J.H.; Hamilton, R.G. (1997). "Agonistic behavior associated with orphan bison ( Bison
Bison
bison) claves released into a mixed resident population". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 55: 1–10. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00035-X.  ^ McMillan, Brock R.; Cottam, Michael R.; Kaufman, Donald W. (2000). "Wallowing Behavior of American Bison
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Bison) in Tallgrass Prairie: An Examination of Alternate Explanations". American Midland Naturalist. 144 (1): 159–67. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2000)144[0159:WBOABB]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0003-0031. JSTOR 3083019.  ^ Mary Ann Franke (2005). To save the wild bison: life on the edge in Yellowstone. University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-8061-3683-7.  ^ Douglas W. Smith; Gary Ferguson (November 1, 2006). Decade of the Wolf: Returning the Wild to Yellowstone. Globe Pequot. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-59228-886-1.  ^ Carbyn LN; Trottier T (1988). "Descriptions of Wolf Attacks on Bison Calves in Wood Buffalo National Park" (pdf). Arctic. 41 (4): 297–302. doi:10.14430/arctic1736.  ^ Smith, Doug (March 1, 2009). "Bigger is better if you're a hungry wolf". Billings Gazette. Retrieved September 7, 2014.  ^ Tom Olliff; Jim Caslick (2003). "Wildlife-Human Conflicts in Yellowstone: When Animals and People Get Too Close" (PDF). Yellowstone Science. Artcraft Inc. 11 (1): 18–22. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 28, 2011.  ^ a b c d Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (January 1965). "The American Buffalo". Conservation Note. 12.  ^ a b c Roe, Frank Gilbert (1951). The North American Buffalo. Toronto Canada: University of Toronto Press.  ^ Hornaday, William T. (1904). The American Natural History. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.  ^ Cahalane, Victor H. (1947). Mammals of North America. New York: The McMillan Company.  ^ Collins, Henry H. (1959). Complete Field Guide to American Wildlife. New York: Harper & Row.  ^ Liberty Hyde Bailey (1908). Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, Volume III: Animals. The MacMillan Company. p. 291.  ^ Remove Threats to Irreplaceable Bison
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at Wind Cave National Park Archived July 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. PDF. FY 2006 Challenge Cost Share Program. Final Project Report. September 30, 2007. Retrieved on September 16, 2011. ^ a b Derr, James (October 24, 2006). American Bison: The Ultimate Genetic Survivor (PDF). The Ecological Future of North American Bison. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011.  ^ Adams, James Truslow (1940). Dictionary of American History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-8226-0349-7.  ^ Jawort, Adrian (May 9, 2011). "Genocide by Other Means: U.S. Army Slaughtered Buffalo in Plains Indian
Plains Indian
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Further reading[edit]

Branch, E. Douglas. (1997) The Hunting of the Buffalo (1929, new ed. University of Nebraska Press,), classic history Dary David A. The Buffalo Book. (Chicago: Swallow Press, 1974) Flores Dan Louie (1991). " Bison
Bison
Ecology and Bison
Bison
Diplomacy: The Southern Plains from 1800 to 1850". Journal of American History. 78 (2): 465–85. doi:10.2307/2079530. JSTOR 2079530.  Gard, Wayne. The Great Buffalo Hunt (University of Nebraska Press, 1954) Isenberg, Andrew C. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750–1920 (Cambridge University press, 2000) Lott, Dale F (2002). American Bison: A Natural History. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24062-6.  McHugh, Tom. The Time of the Buffalo (University of Nebraska Press, 1972). Meagher, Margaret Mary. The Bison
Bison
of Yellowstone National Park. (Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1973) Rister Carl Coke (1929). "The Significance of the Destruction of the Buffalo in the Southwest". Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 33: 34–49.  Roe, Frank Gilbert. The North American Buffalo: A Critical Study of the Species
Species
in Its Wild State (University of Toronto Press, 1951). Shaw, James H. "How Many Bison
Bison
Originally Populated Western Rangelands?" Rangelands, Vol. 17, No. 5 (Oct., 1995), pp. 148–150 Smits, David D. "The Frontier Army and the Destruction of the Buffalo, 1865–1883," Western Historical Quarterly 25 (1994): 313–38 and 26 (1995) 203-8. Zontek Ken (1995). "Hunt, Capture, Raise, Increase: The People Who Saved the Bison". Great Plains
Great Plains
Quarterly. 15: 133–49. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Bison
Bison
bison

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Bison
Bison
bison (category)

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Bison

" Bison
Bison
bison". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved March 18, 2006.  American Bison National Bison
Bison
Association Buffalo Field Campaign Species
Species
profile: American bison
American bison
by The Nature Conservancy Bison
Bison
safety information at Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park
from the National Park Service The Extermination of the American Bison, by William T. Hornaday from Project Gutenberg Wild Bison
Bison
Reference Project -Collaborative Bibliography for the Conservation, Management and Advocacy of Wild Bison American Prairie
Prairie
Foundation Papers, 1871–1917 and undated, of buffalo hunter John Wesley Mooar in the Southwest Collection, Special
Special
Collections Libraries at Texas Tech University Watch the NFB documentary The Great Buffalo Saga Traditional use of Tatanka (buffalo) Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
– North American Mammals: Bison
Bison
bison Bison
Bison
skeletal structure and bones Public television series episode on history of American Bison

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep (O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

v t e

National symbols of the United States

Symbols

Flag of the United States Seal of the United States Bald eagle Uncle Sam Columbia General Grant (tree) American's Creed Pledge of Allegiance Rose Oak American bison Phrygian cap

Songs

"The Star-Spangled Banner" "Dixie" "America the Beautiful" "The Stars and Stripes Forever" "Hail to the Chief" "Hail, Columbia" "My Country, 'Tis of Thee" "God Bless America" "Lift Every Voice and Sing" "The Army Goes Rolling Along" "Anchors Aweigh" "Marines' Hymn" "Semper Fidelis" "The Air Force Song" "Semper Paratus" "National Emblem" "The Washington Post March" "Battle Hymn of the Republic" "Yankee Doodle" "You're a Grand Old Flag" "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" "This Land Is Your Land"

Mottos

In God We Trust E Pluribus Unum Novus ordo seclorum Annuit cœptis

Landmarks

Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(Liberty Enlightening the World) Liberty Bell Mount Rushmore National Mall

West Potomac Park

v t e

Game animals and shooting in North America

Game birds

Bobwhite quail Chukar Hungarian partridge Prairie
Prairie
chicken Mourning dove Ring-necked pheasant Ptarmigan Ruffed grouse Sharp-tailed grouse Snipe (common snipe) Spruce grouse Turkey Woodcock

Waterfowl

Black duck Canada goose Canvasback Gadwall Greater scaup Lesser scaup Mallard Northern pintail Redhead Ross's goose Snow goose Wood duck

Big game

Bighorn sheep Black bear Razorback Brown bear Bison
Bison
(buffalo) Caribou Cougar
Cougar
(mountain lion) Elk Moose White-tailed deer Gray wolf Mountain goat Mule deer Pronghorn Muskox Dall sheep Polar bear

Other quarry

American alligator Bobcat Coyote Fox squirrel Gray fox Gray squirrel Opossum Rabbit Red fox Snowshoe hare

See also

Bear hunting Big game hunting Bison
Bison
hunting Deer
Deer
hunting Waterfowl hunting Whaling Fishing Wolf hunting Upland hunting

v t e

Meat

Main articles Entomophagy Fish Game Livestock Meat Poultry Seafood

Poultry
Poultry
and game

Alligator Bear Chicken Crocodile Duck Goose Grouse Kangaroo Monkey Ostrich Partridge Pheasant Bat Pigeon Quail Rabbit Seal Snake Turkey Turtle Venison

Livestock
Livestock
and minilivestock

Beef Bison Black soldier fly maggots Buffalo Camel Cat Crickets Dog Elephant Frog Goat Grasshoppers Guinea pig Horse Lamb and mutton Llama Mealworm Silkworm Mopane worm Palm grub Pork Veal Yak

Fish and seafood

Abalone Anchovy Basa Bass Calamari Carp Catfish Cod Crab Crappie Crayfish Dolphin Eel Flounder Grouper Haddock Halibut Herring Kingfish Lobster Mackerel Mahi Mahi Marlin Milkfish Mussel Octopus Orange roughy Oyster Pacific saury Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Sardine Scallop Shark Shrimp/prawn Sole Swai Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Sea urchin Walleye Whale

Cuts and preparation

Aged Bacon Barbecued Braised Burger Charcuterie Chop Corned Cured Cutlet Dried Dum Fillet / Supreme Fried Ground Ham Kebab Liver Luncheon meat Marinated Meatball Meatloaf Offal Pickled Poached Roasted Salt-cured Salumi Sausage Smoked Steak Stewed Tandoor Tartare

List articles

Beef
Beef
dishes Chicken dishes Countries by meat consumption Fish dishes Food and drink prohibitions Goat
Goat
dishes Lamb dishes Meatball
Meatball
dishes Pork
Pork
dishes

Ham
Ham
dishes

Sausage
Sausage
dishes Sausages Seafood
Seafood
dishes Smoked foods Steaks Veal
Veal
dishes

Related subjects

Animal
Animal
rights Bushmeat Butcher Cannibalism Carnism Christian vegetarianism Cultured meat Ethics of eating meat Factory farming Feed conversion ratio Environmental impact of meat production List of meat dishes Meat
Meat
cutter Meat
Meat
tenderness Pescetarianism Pink slime Plant-based diet Preservation Psychology of eating meat

Meat
Meat
paradox

Red meat Semi-vegetarianism Slaughter

Slaughterhouse

Veganism Vegetarianism White meat

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q82728 ADW: Bison_bison ARKive: bison-bison BioLib: 33791 EoL: 328109 EPPO: BISOBI Fossilworks: 44511 GBIF: 2441176 iNaturalist: 42408 ITIS: 180706 IUCN: 2815 MSW: 1

.