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Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
(/ˌæmɛnˈhoʊtɛp/[3]) from Ancient Egyptian "jmn-ḥtp" or "yamānuḥātap" meaning " Amun
Amun
is satisfied" or Amenophis I, (/əˈmɛnoʊfɪs/,[4]), from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις ,[5] additionally King Zeserkere (transliteration: Ḏśr-k-R),[6] was the second Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. He was a son of Ahmose I
Ahmose I
and Ahmose-Nefertari, but had at least two elder brothers, Ahmose-ankh and Ahmose Sapair, and was not expected to inherit the throne. However, sometime in the eight years between Ahmose I's 17th regnal year and his death, his heir apparent died and Amenhotep became crown prince.[5] He then acceded to the throne and ruled for about 21 years.[1] Although his reign is poorly documented, it is possible to piece together a basic history from available evidence. He inherited the kingdom formed by his father's military conquests and maintained dominance over Nubia
Nubia
and the Nile Delta
Nile Delta
but probably did not attempt to maintain Egyptian power in the Levant. He continued the rebuilding of temples in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
and revolutionized mortuary complex design by separating his tomb from his mortuary temple, setting a trend in royal funerary monuments which would persist throughout the New Kingdom. After his death, he was deified as a patron god of Deir el-Medina.[7]

Contents

1 Family 2 Dates and length of reign 3 Foreign policy 4 Cultural and intellectual developments 5 Building projects

5.1 Mortuary complex

6 Burial, succession, and legacy

6.1 Burial 6.2 Succession 6.3 Legacy: Funerary cult

7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Print sources

9 External links

Family[edit] Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
was the son of Ahmose I
Ahmose I
and Ahmose-Nefertari. His elder brothers, the crown prince Ahmose Sapair and Ahmose-ankh, died before him, thus clearing the way for his ascension to the throne.[8] Amenhotep probably came to power while he was still young himself, and his mother, Ahmose-Nefertari, appears to have been regent for him for at least a short time.[9] The evidence for this regency is that both he and his mother are credited with founding a settlement for workers in the Theban Necropolis
Theban Necropolis
at Deir el-Medina.[9] Amenhotep took his sister Ahmose-Meritamon
Ahmose-Meritamon
as his Great Royal Wife.[10] Another wife's name, Sitkamose, is attested on a nineteenth dynasty stele.[11] Beyond this, the relationships between Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
and other possible family members are unclear. Ahhotep II
Ahhotep II
is usually called his wife and sister,[10] despite an alternate theory that she was his grandmother.[11] He is thought to have had one son by Ahhotep II, Amenemhat, who died while still very young.[10] This remains the consensus, although there are arguments against that relationship as well.[11] With no living heirs, Amenhotep was succeeded by Thutmose I, whom he married to his "sister", Aahmes.[10] Since Aahmes
Aahmes
is never given the title "King's Daughter" in any inscription, some scholars doubt whether she was a sibling of Amenhotep I.[11] Dates and length of reign[edit]

Osiride statue of Amenhotep I, currently housed in the British Museum

In Amenhotep I's ninth regnal year, a heliacal rise of Sothis was observed on the ninth day of the third month of summer.[12] Modern astronomers have calculated that, if the observation was made from Memphis or Heliopolis, such an observation could only have been made on that day in 1537 BC. If the observation was made in Thebes, however, it could only have taken place in 1517 BC.[13] The latter choice is usually accepted as correct since Thebes was the capital during the early 18th dynasty; hence, Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
is usually given an accession date in 1526 BC,[12] although the possibility of 1546 BC is not entirely dismissed. Manetho's Epitome states that Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
ruled Egypt for twenty years and seven months or twenty-one years, depending on the source.[14] While Amenhotep I's highest attested regnal year is only his Year 10, Manetho's statement is confirmed by a passage in the tomb autobiography of a magician named Amenemhet. This explicitly states that he served under Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
for 21 Years.[15] Thus, in the high chronology, Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
is given a reign from around 1546 to 1526 BC and, in the low chronology, from around 1526 to 1506 BC or 1525 to 1504 BC,[16] though individual scholars may ascribe dates to his reign that vary from these by a few years. Foreign policy[edit]

Relief of Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
from Karnak.

Amenhotep I's Horus and Two Ladies names, "Bull who conquers the lands" and "He who inspires great terror," are generally interpreted to mean that Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
intended to dominate the surrounding nations.[12] Two tomb texts indicate that he led campaigns into Nubia. According to the tomb texts of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Amenhotep later sought to expand Egypt's border southward into Nubia
Nubia
and he led an invasion force which defeated the Nubian army.[17] The tomb biography of Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet says he also fought in a campaign in Kush,[18] however it is quite possible that it refers to the same campaign as Ahmose, son of Ebana.[12] Amenhotep built a temple at Saï, showing that he had established Egyptian settlements almost as far as the third cataract.[9] A single reference in the tomb of Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet indicates another campaign in Iamu in the land of Kehek.[19] Unfortunately, the location of Kehek is unknown. It was long believed that Kehek was a reference to the Libyan tribe, Qeheq, and thus it was postulated that invaders from Libya
Libya
took advantage of the death of Ahmose to move into the western Nile Delta.[20] Unfortunately for this theory, the Qeheq people only appeared in later times, and Kehek's identity remains unknown. Nubia
Nubia
is a possibility, since Amenhotep did campaign there, and the western desert and the oases have also been suggested, since these seem to have fallen under Egyptian control once again.[19] Egypt had lost the western desert and the oases during the second intermediate period, and during the revolt against the Hyksos, Kamose thought it necessary to garrison them.[21] It is uncertain when they were fully retaken, but on one stele, the title "Prince-Governor of the oases" was used,[22] which means that Amenhotep's reign forms the terminus ante quem for the return of Egyptian rule.[21] There are no recorded campaigns in Syro-Palestine during Amenhotep I's reign. However, according to the Tombos Stela
Tombos Stela
of his successor, Thutmose I, when Thutmose led a campaign into Asia all the way to the Euphrates, he found no one who fought against him.[23] If Thutmose did not lead a campaign which has not been recorded into Asia before this recorded one, it would mean that the preceding pharaoh would have had to pacify Syria instead,[24] which would indicate a possible Asiatic campaign of Amenhotep I. Two references to the Levant
Levant
potentially written during his reign might be contemporary witnesses to such a campaign. One of the candidates for Amenhotep's tomb contains a reference to Qedmi, which is somewhere in Canaan
Canaan
or the Transjordan, and Amenemhet's tomb contains a hostile reference to Mitanni.[25] However, neither of these references necessarily refer to campaigning, nor do they even necessarily date to Amenhotep's reign. The location of Amenhotep's tomb is not certain, and Amenemhet lived to serve under multiple kings who are known to have attacked Mitanni.[25] Records from Amenhotep's reign are simply altogether too scant and too vague to reach a conclusion about any Syrian campaign. Cultural and intellectual developments[edit]

Stele
Stele
showing Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
with his mother

Large numbers of statues of Amenhotep have been found, but they are mostly from the Ramesside period and relate to his continuing funerary cult,[11] made for his posthumous funerary cult.[22] This makes study of the art of his reign difficult.[22] Based upon his few authentic statues, it appears that Amenhotep continued the practice of copying Middle Kingdom styles.[26] Art in the early 18th dynasty was particularly similar to that of the early Middle Kingdom,[27] and the statues produced by Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
clearly copied those of Mentuhotep II and Senusret I.[28] The two types are so similar that modern Egyptologists have had trouble telling the two apart.[26] It was probably Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
who founded the artisans village at Deir el-Medina, whose inhabitants were responsible for much of the art which filled the tombs in the Theban Necropolis
Theban Necropolis
for the following generations of New Kingdom
New Kingdom
rulers and nobles.[11] The earliest name found there is that of Thutmose I, however Amenhotep was clearly an important figure to the city's workmen since he and his mother were both its patron deities.[29] Amenhotep's reign saw literary developments. The Book of What is in the Underworld ('the Egyptian Book of the Dead'), an important funerary text used in the New Kingdom, is believed to have reached its final form during Amenhotep's reign, since it first appears in the decoration of the tomb of his successor Thutmose I.[30] The Ebers papyrus, which is the main source for information on ancient Egyptian medicine, also seems to date to this time (the mention of the Heliacal rise of Sothis by which the early New Kingdom
New Kingdom
chronology is usually calculated was found on the back of this document).[30] It appears that during Amenhotep I's reign the first water clock was invented.[31] Amenhotep's court astronomer Amenemheb took credit for creating this device in his tomb biography, although the oldest surviving mechanism dates to the reign of Amenhotep III.[32] This invention was of great benefit for timekeeping, because the Egyptian hour was not a fixed amount of time, but was measured as 1/12 of the night.[32] When the nights were shorter in the summer, these waterclocks could be adjusted to measure the shorter hours accurately.[32] Building projects[edit]

Amenhotep I's reconstructed alabaster chapel at Karnak

Amenhotep began or continued a number of building projects at temple sites in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
but most of the structures he built were later dismantled or obliterated by his successors. From written sources it is known that he commissioned the architect Ineni
Ineni
to expand the Temple of Karnak.[33] Ineni's tomb biography indicates that he created a 20 cubit gate of limestone on the south side of Karnak.[34] He constructed a sacred barque chapel of Amun
Amun
out of alabaster and a copy of the White Chapel
White Chapel
of Senusret III. Sculpted material from these structures has been recovered from the fill of Amenhotep III's third pylon allowing some of these structures to be rebuilt at Karnak.[22] Amenhotep also built structures at Karnak
Karnak
for his Sed festival, a festival by which a pharaoh's strength and vigour was renewed after reigning 30 years, but it seems likely that he died before he could use them.[35] A temple was constructed in Nubia
Nubia
at Saï,[9] and he built temple structures in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
at Elephantine, Kom Ombo, Abydos, and the Temple of Nekhbet. As far as is known Amenhotep did not build anything of significance in Lower Egypt, like his father.[30] Mortuary complex[edit] Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
was the first king of Egypt to separate his mortuary temple from his tomb, probably in an attempt to keep his tomb safe from robbers. This temple was sited at the north end of Deir el-Bahri.[36] Deir el-Bahri
Deir el-Bahri
appears to have had some sort of funerary significance for Amenhotep, since Theban Tomb 358, the tomb of his queen Ahmose-Meritamon, was also found nearby.[37] Amenhotep's mortuary temple was largely demolished to make way for the lower terrace of the mortuary temple constructed approximately 50 years later by Queen Hatshepsut,[38] and only a few bricks inscribed with Amenhotep's name remain.[36] The royal statues inside of the temple were moved to the nearby funerary temple of Mentuhotep II.[37] The original location of Amenhotep's tomb has not been securely identified. A report on the security of royal tombs in the Theban Necropolis commissioned during the troubled reign of Ramesses IX
Ramesses IX
noted that it was then intact, but its location was not specified.[9] Two sites for Amenhotep I's tomb have been proposed, one high up in the Valley of the Kings, KV39
KV39
and the other at Dra' Abu el-Naga', Tomb ANB.[12] Excavations at KV 39 suggest it was used or reused to store the Deir el-Bahri
Deir el-Bahri
Cache, which included the king's well-preserved mummy, before its final reburial.[39] However, Tomb ANB
Tomb ANB
is considered the more likely possibility,[9][30] because it contains objects bearing his name and the names of some family members.[40] Burial, succession, and legacy[edit]

The mummy of Amenhotep I

Burial[edit] Sometime during the 20th or 21st Dynasty Amenhotep's original tomb was either robbed or deemed insecure and emptied and his body was moved for safety, probably more than once. It was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache, hidden with the mummies of numerous New Kingdom
New Kingdom
kings and nobles in or after the late 22nd dynasty above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut[9] and is now in the Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
in Cairo. His mummy had apparently not been looted by the 21st dynasty, and the priests who moved the mummy took care to keep the Cartonnage
Cartonnage
intact. Because of that exquisite face mask, Amenhotep's is the only royal mummy which has not been unwrapped and examined by modern Egyptologists.[9] Succession[edit] Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
is thought to have had only one child, a son who died in infancy (although some sources indicate he had no children).[41] Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
was succeeded by Thutmose I, apparently a senior military figure. It is unclear if there was any blood relationship between the two, although it has been suggested that Thutmose I
Thutmose I
was a son of Amenhotep's elder brother Ahmose Sipairi.[42] Amenhotep may have appointed Thutmose I
Thutmose I
as coregent before his own death as Thutmose I's name appears next to Amenhotep's on a divine barque found by archeologists in the fill of the third pylon at Karnak.[22] However, most scholars consider that this is only evidence of Thutmose associating himself with his royal predecessor.[11] One text has also been interpreted to mean that Amenhotep appointed his infant son as coregent, who then predeceased him.[43] However, the scholarly consensus is that there is too little evidence for either coregency.

An image of Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
from his funerary cult

Legacy: Funerary cult[edit] Amenhotep was deified upon his death and made the patron deity of the village which he opened at Deir el-Medina.[11] His mother, who lived at least one year longer than he did, was also deified upon her death and became part of his litany.[8] As previously mentioned, the vast majority of Amenhotep's statuary comes in the form of a funerary idol from this cult during later periods. When being worshiped, he had three deific manifestations: "Amenhotep of the Town," "Amenhotep Beloved of Amun," and "Amenhotep of the Forecourt," and was known as a god who produced oracles.[11] Some of the questions asked of him have been preserved on ostraca from Deir el-Medina, and appear to have been phrased in such a way that the idol of the king could nod (or be caused to nod) the answer.[44] He also had a number of feasts dedicated to him which were held throughout the year.[11] During the first month, a festival was celebrated in honor of the appearance of Amenhotep to the necropolis workmen, which probably means his idol was taken to Deir el-Medina.[45] Another feast was held on the thirtieth of the fourth month, and then two more were held in the seventh month.[45] The first was the "spreading of the funeral couch for king Amenhotep," which probably commemorated the day of his death.[45] The second, celebrated for four days at the very end of the month, was the "great festival of king Amenhotep lord of the town." Later in Egyptian history, the seventh month was named after this festival, "Phamenoth."[45] Another festival was held on the 27th of the ninth month, and the last known festival was held for several days between at least the eleventh and thirteenth days of the eleventh month, which in all probability commemorated the date of Amenhotep's accession to the throne.[45] Further light is shed upon Amenhotep's funerary cult by multiple documents which appear to detail the rituals dedicated to Amenhotep.[46] Three papyri from the time of Ramesses II
Ramesses II
record the liturgy used by the priests, and reliefs at Karnak
Karnak
and Medinet Habu illustrate select rites and spells.[46] The bulk of the rituals concern preparing for and conducting the daily offerings of libations for the idol, including a recitation of a ḥtp-dỉ-nsw formula, and purifying and sealing the shrine at the end of the day.[47] The remainder of the rites concern how to conduct various feasts throughout the year.[48] In these cases, Amenhotep's idol or a priest representing him is actually officiating the worship of Amun
Amun
instead of being worshipped himself, which was not a typical cultic practice in ancient Egypt.[49] Notes[edit]

^ a b Manetho - translated by W.G. Waddell, Loeb Classical Library, 1940, p.109 ^ Clayton, p.100. ^ " Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
or Amenhotpe III". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ "Amenophis III". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ a b Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.126 ^ Ahmose, son of Ebana, James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
(2001), - Biography of Ahmose, son of Ebana
Ahmose, son of Ebana
(Ancient Records of Egypt: The eighteenth dynasty), University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0252069749. Retrieved 2017-02-14 ^ "Amenhotep I". British Museum. Retrieved 2007-05-20. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Grimal, p. 201. ^ a b c d e f g h Shaw and Nicholson, p. 28. ^ a b c d Grimal, p. 190. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bleiberg, p.71. ^ a b c d e Grimal, p.202. ^ Helk, Otto, Drenkhahn, p.969. ^ Fingerson, Manetho's King List. ^ Redford, p.114. ^ von Beckerath, p.189. ^ Breasted, p. 17-18. ^ Breasted, p. 18. ^ a b James, p. 310. ^ Steindorff, Seele, p.33. ^ a b James, p. 311. ^ a b c d e Grimal, p.203. ^ Breasted, p. 30. ^ Breasted, p. 28. ^ a b James, p. 309. ^ a b Freed, p.133. ^ Aldred, p.146. ^ Ashton, Spanel, p.58. ^ Bryan, p.224. ^ a b c d Grimal, p. 206. ^ Helk, pp. 111-112. ^ a b c West, p.63. ^ Breasted, p. 19. ^ Breasted, p. 20. ^ Dunn, J. Amenhotep I. ^ a b Bryan, p.226. ^ a b Dodson, p.42. ^ Dodson, p.43. ^ Andrews, Mark. "KV 39, The Tomb of Amenhotep I?". InterCity Oz, Inc. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-01.  ^ Shaw, p. 136. ^ Dodson p 127 ^ Dodson p 129 ^ Wente, p. 271 ^ Kruchten, p.610. ^ a b c d e Redford, p.115. ^ a b Nelson, Certain Reliefs. p.204. ^ Nelson, Certain Reliefs. p.230. ^ Nelson, Certain Reliefs. p.232. ^ Nelson, Certain Reliefs (Concluded). p.344.

References[edit] Print sources[edit]

Aldred, Cyril. Egyptian Art. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. 1980. Ashton, Sally; and Spanel, Donald. "Portraiture," The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 55–59. Oxford University Press, 2001. v. Beckerath, Jürgen. Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1997. Bleiberg, Edward. "Amenhotep I," The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald Redford. Vol. 1, p. 71. Oxford University Press, 2001. Borchardt, Ludwig. Altägyptische Zeitmessung (Die Geschichte der Zeitmessung und der Uhren) I. Berlin and Leipzig, 1920. Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906. ISBN 90-04-12989-8.

University of Illinois Press, 2001 (p.17)

Bryan, Betsy M. "The 18th Dynasty Before the Amarna Period." The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Ian Shaw. pp. 218–271. Oxford University Press, 2000. Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2006. Dodson, Aidan. Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
and Deir el-Bahri. Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum, vol.3, 1989/90 Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London, 2004

reviewed by A.J.Veldmeijer - Netherlands Scientific Journals in Palaeontology & Egyptology > palarch.nl

Freed, Rita E. "Art," The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald Redford. Vol. 1, pp. 127–136. Oxford University Press, 2001. Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988. ISBN 90-04-12989-8. Helk, Wolfgang. Historisch-biographische Texte der 2. Zwischenzeit und neue Texte der 18. Dynastie. Wiesbaden, 1975. Helk, Wolfgang; Otto, Eberhard; Drenkhahn, Rosmarie. Lexikon der Ägyptologie I. Wiesbaden. James, T.G.H. Egypt: From the Expulsion of the Hyksos
Hyksos
to Amenophis I. in The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 2, part 1, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. Cambridge University Press, 1965. Kruchten, Jean Marie. "Oracles," The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 609–612. Oxford University Press, 2001. Lilyquist, Christine. Egyptian Art, Notable Acquisitions, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. Nelson, Harold H. Certain Reliefs at Karnak
Karnak
and Medinet Habu and the Ritual of Amenophis I. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Jul., 1949) Nelson, Harold H. Certain Reliefs at Karnak
Karnak
and Medinet Habu and the Ritual of Amenophis I-(Concluded). Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Oct., 1949) Redford, Donald The Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 25 (1966). Shaw, Ian. Exploring Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2003. Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. The British Museum Press, 1995. Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. University of Chicago, 1942. Wente, Edward F. Thutmose III's Accession and the Beginning of the New Kingdom. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, University of Chicago Press, 1975. West, Stephanie. Cultural Interchange over a Water-Clock. The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 23, No. 1, May, 1973.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amenhotep I.

Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
- The British Museum Accessed June 10, 2010 Dunn, J. Amenhotep I, Accessed August 1, 2006 Andrews, Mark. "KV 39, The Tomb of Amenhotep I?". InterCity Oz, Inc. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-01.  Fingerson, R. Manetho's King List Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
(see index) Routledge, B. (10 September 2007) - Statue of Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I
circa 1510 BC Thebes, National Education Network, Accessed February 14, 2017

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom
New Kingdom
and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 289792189 LCCN: n79028837 GND: 11864878

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