Amazon parrot is the common name for a parrot of the genus Amazona. These are medium-sized parrots native to the New World ranging from South America to Mexico and the Caribbean. Most amazon parrots are predominantly green, with accenting colors that depend on the species and can be quite vivid. They feed primarily on seeds, nuts, and fruits, supplemented by leafy matter. Many amazon parrots have a remarkable ability to mimic human speech and other sounds. Partly because of this, they are popular as pets or companion parrots, and a small industry has developed in breeding parrots in captivity for this market. This popularity has led to many parrots being taken from the wild to the extent that some species have become threatened. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora treaty has made the capture of wild parrots for the pet trade illegal in an attempt to help protect wild populations.
1 Taxonomy and naming
1.1 List of species 1.2 Reclassification of the yellow-faced parrot 1.3 Hypothetically extinct species
2 Aviculture 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External links
Taxonomy and naming The genus Amazona (to which amazons belong) was established by René Lesson in 1830. It was a Latinized version of the name Amazone given to them in the 18th century by the Comte de Buffon, who believed they were native to Amazonian jungles. List of species Further information: List of amazon parrots
Cuban amazon, Amazona leucocephala Yellow-billed amazon, Amazona collaria Hispaniolan amazon, Amazona ventralis Puerto Rican amazon, Amazona vittata Yucatan amazon, Amazona xantholora White-fronted amazon, Amazona albifrons Black-billed amazon, Amazona agilis Tucumán amazon, Amazona tucumana Red-spectacled amazon, Amazona pretrei Red-crowned amazon, Amazona viridigenalis Lilac-crowned amazon, Amazona finschi Red-lored amazon, Amazona autumnalis
Lilacine amazon, Amazona autumnalis lilacina
Diademed amazon, Amazona diadema Blue-cheeked amazon, Amazona dufresniana Red-browed amazon, Amazona rhodocorytha Red-tailed amazon, Amazona brasiliensis Festive amazon, Amazona festiva Yellow-shouldered amazon, Amazona barbadensis Turquoise-fronted amazon, Amazona aestiva Yellow-crowned amazon, Amazona ochrocephala
Panama amazon, Amazona ochrocephala panamensis
Yellow-naped amazon, Amazona auropalliata Yellow-headed amazon, Amazona oratrix Tres Marías amazon, Amazona tresmariae Kawall's amazon, Amazona kawalli Orange-winged amazon, Amazona amazonica Scaly-naped amazon, Amazona mercenarius Southern mealy amazon, Amazona farinosa Northern mealy amazon, Amazona guatemalae Vinaceous-breasted amazon, Amazona vinacea Saint Lucia amazon, Amazona versicolor Red-necked amazon, Amazona arausiaca Saint Vincent amazon, Amazona guildingii Imperial amazon, Amazona imperialis Blue-winged amazon, Amazona gomezgarzai
The taxonomy of the yellow-crowned amazon (Amazona ochrocephala complex) is disputed, with some authorities only listing a single species (A. ochrocephala), while others split it into as many as three species (A. ochrocephala, A. auropalliata and A. oratrix). The split is primarily based on differences related to extension of yellow to the plumage and the colour of bill and legs. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA do not support the traditional split. Reclassification of the yellow-faced parrot The yellow-faced parrot (Alipiopsitta xanthops) was traditionally placed within this genus of amazon parrots, but recent research has shown that it is closer to the short-tailed parrot and the species from the genus Pionus, resulting in it being transferred to the monotypic genus Alipiopsitta. Hypothetically extinct species
Unidentified Jamaican parrot, possibly belonging to this genus, 1764
Populations of amazon parrots that lived on the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe are now extinct. It is not known if they were separate species, subspecies, or if they originated from parrots introduced to the islands by humans, so they are regarded as hypothetical extinct species. No evidence of them remains, and their taxonomy may never be established. Populations of several parrot species were described mainly in the unscientific writings of early travelers, and subsequently scientifically described by several naturalists (to have their names linked to the species that they were proposing) mainly in the 20th century, with no more evidence than the earlier observations and without specimens. An illustration of a specimen termed "George Edwards' parrot" has sometimes been considered a possibly distinct, extinct species, but it may also have been a yellow-billed or Cuban amazon with aberrant colouration.
Martinique amazon, Amazona martinica (hypothetical extinct species). A.H. Clark, 1905. Guadeloupe amazon, Amazona violacea (hypothetical extinct species). Originally called Psittacus violaceus by J.F. Gmelin in 1789.
Aviculture The yellow-headed amazon, yellow-naped amazon, orange-winged amazon, and turquoise-fronted amazon are some of the amazon parrot species which are commonly kept as pets. Amazon parrots, together with macaws and the African grey parrot, are all known for their exceptional vocal abilities, playfulness, and dexterity with their feet. Well-trained parrots can be loyal companions, and they can live for 50 years or sometimes more in captivity. However, some amazons - even well-trained ones - can become aggressive, possibly during mating season. To maintain health and happiness, pet parrots require much more training than domesticated animals such as dogs or even cats. They require understanding, manipulative toys, and rewards for good pet-like behavior, or they can develop quite aggressive behaviors. They have a strong, innate need to chew, thus require safe, destructible toys. Gallery
Yellow-headed amazon (Amazona oratrix)
Cuban amazon (Amazona leucocephala)
Red-lored amazon (Amazona autumnalis)
Saint Vincent amazon (Amazona guildingii)
White-fronted amazon male (Amazona albifrons)
Red-crowned amazon (Amazona viridigenalis)
Lilac-crowned amazon (Amazona finschi)
Puerto Rican amazon (Amazona vittata)
Hypothetical extinct species
Martinique amazon (Amazona martinica)
Guadeloupe amazon (Amazona violacea)
^ ITIS standard report page: Amazona record last updated 1998 (URL accessed May 22, 2006) ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. ^ Eberhard, J., & E. Bermingham. 2004. Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) Complex. Auk 121(2): 318-332 ^ Duarte JMB and Caparroz R (1995) Cytotaxonomic analysis of Brazilian species of the genus Amazona (Psittacidae, Aves) and confirmation of the genus Salvatoria (Ribeiro, 1920). Braz J Genet 18:623-628. ^ Russello, M.A. & Amato, G (2004) A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 30: 421-437. ^ a b c Fuller, Errol (1987). Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England). p. 131. ISBN 0-670-81787-2. ^ Hume, J. P.; van Grouw, H. (2014). "Colour aberrations in extinct and endangered birds". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 134: 168–193.
Caparroz, R. and J.F. Pacheco, 2006: A homonymy in Psittacidae a new name for Salvatoria Miranda-Ribeiro. Ararajuba: Rev. Brasileira de Ornitologia. V. 14, n 2, pp. 91–93.
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Amazon parrots (genus: Amazona)
Cuban amazon (or rose-throated amazon) Yellow-billed amazon (or Jamaican amazon) Hispaniolan amazon Puerto Rican amazon Yucatan amazon (or yellow-lored amazon) White-fronted amazon Black-billed amazon Tucuman amazon Red-spectacled amazon Red-crowned amazon Lilac-crowned amazon Red-lored amazon (supporting page: lilacine amazon) Blue-cheeked amazon Red-browed amazon Red-tailed amazon Festive amazon Yellow-shouldered amazon Turquoise-fronted amazon (or blue-fronted amazon) Yellow-crowned amazon (supporting page: Panama amazon) Yellow-naped amazon Yellow-headed amazon Kawall's amazon Orange-winged amazon Scaly-naped amazon Northern mealy amazon Southern mealy amazon Vinaceous-breasted amazon (or vinaceous amazon) St. Lucia amazon Red-necked amazon St. Vincent amazon Imperial amazon
Hypothetical extinct species
Guadeloupe amazon Martinique amazon
Neotropical parrots (tribe: Arini) List of amazon parrots
Wd: Q456513 EoL: 14403 GBIF: 2479603 iNaturalist: 18975 ITIS: 177782