Amazon.com, Inc. (/ˈæməzɒn/), is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle
Seattle that focuses on e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming, and artificial intelligence. It is considered one of the Big Four tech companies, along with Google, Apple, and Facebook. Amazon is known for its disruption of well-established industries through technological innovation and mass scale. It is the world's largest online marketplace, AI assistant
AI assistant provider, and cloud computing platform as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon is the largest Internet
Internet company by revenue in the world. It is the second largest private employer in the United States and one of the world's most valuable companies. Amazon was founded by Jeff Bezos
Jeff Bezos in Bellevue, Washington, in July 1994. The company initially started as an online marketplace for books but later expanded to sell electronics, software, video games, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart
Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States
United States by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for US$13.4 billion, which vastly increased Amazon's presence as a brick-and-mortar retailer. In 2018, Bezos announced that its two-day delivery service, Amazon Prime, had surpassed 100 million subscribers worldwide. Amazon distributes downloads and streaming of video, music, and audiobooks through its Amazon Prime
Amazon Prime Video, Amazon Music, and Audible subsidiaries. Amazon also has a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, a film and television studio, Amazon Studios, and a cloud computing subsidiary, Amazon Web Services. It produces consumer electronics including Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, and Echo devices. In addition, Amazon subsidiaries include Ring, Twitch, Whole Foods Market, and IMDb. Among various controversies, the company has been criticized for technological surveillance overreach, a hyper-competitive and demanding work culture, tax avoidance, and anti-competitive practices.
1 History 2 Board of directors 3 Merchant partnerships 4 Products and services 5 Subsidiaries
5.1 A9.com 5.2 Amazon Maritime 5.3 Audible.com 5.4 Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services 5.5 Brilliance Audio 5.6 ComiXology 5.7 CreateSpace 5.8 Eero 5.9 Goodreads 5.10 Health Navigator 5.11 Lab126 5.12 Kuiper Systems 5.13 Ring 5.14 Shelfari 5.15 Souq 5.16 Twitch 5.17 Whole Foods Market 5.18 Junglee
6 Supply chain 7 Website
7.1 Reviews 7.2 Content search 7.3 Third-party sellers
8 Amazon sales rank 9 Multi-level sales strategy 10 Finances 11 Controversies
11.1 Environmental impact
11.2 Selling counterfeit items
11.3 Sales and use taxes
11.4 Income taxes
11.5 Comments by
12 Lobbying 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links
Further information: History of Amazon
Company's largest campus outside USA inaugurated in Hyderabad, India
in September 2019
Board of directors
Jeff Bezos, President, CEO, and Chairman
Rosalind Brewer, Group President, and COO, Starbucks
Jamie Gorelick, partner, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, and Dorr
Daniel P. Huttenlocher, Dean and Vice Provost, Cornell University
Judy McGrath, former CEO,
Products and services
Main article: List of Amazon products and services
Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several
media (books, DVDs, music CDs, videotapes and software), apparel, baby
products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food,
groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific
supplies, kitchen items, jewelry, watches, lawn and garden items,
musical instruments, sporting goods, tools, automotive items and toys
& games. In August 2019, Amazon applied
to have a liquor store in San Francisco, CA as a means to ship beer
and alcohol within the city. Amazon has separate retail
websites for some countries and also offers international shipping of
some of its products to certain other countries.
AmazonFresh Amazon Prime Amazon Web Services Alexa Appstore Amazon Drive Echo Kindle Fire tablets Fire TV Video Kindle Store Music Music Unlimited Amazon Digital Game Store Amazon Studios AmazonWireless
Subsidiaries See also: List of Amazon locations Amazon owns over 40 subsidiaries, including Zappos, Shopbop, Diapers.com, Kiva Systems (now Amazon Robotics), Audible, Goodreads, Teachstreet, Twitch and IMDb.
A9.com A9.com, a company focused on researching and building innovative technology, has been a subsidiary since 2003.
Amazon Maritime, Inc. holds a
Federal Maritime Commission
Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services Amazon 40' container turnpike double, a long combination vehicle Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services is a subsidiary of Amazon and it applied for a freight forwarding license with the US Maritime Commission. Amazon is also building out its logistics in trucking and air freight to potentially compete with UPS and FedEx.
Brilliance Audio Brilliance Audio is an audiobook publisher founded in 1984 by Michael Snodgrass in Grand Haven, Michigan. The company produced its first 8 audio titles in 1985. The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for an undisclosed amount. At the time of the acquisition, Brilliance was producing 12–15 new titles a month. It operates as an independent company within Amazon. In 1984, Brilliance Audio invented a technique for recording twice as much on the same cassette. The technique involved recording on each of the two channels of each stereo track. It has been credited with revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since it made unabridged books affordable.
CreateSpace CreateSpace, which offers self-publishing services for independent content creators, publishers, film studios, and music labels, became a subsidiary in 2009.
Eero Eero is a company that manufactures mesh-capable routers. The company was founded in 2015 and is based in San Francisco. Amazon announced it would buy Eero in 2019.
In October 2019, Amazon finalized the acquisition of Health Navigator,
a startup developing APIs for online health services. The startup will
form part of Amazon Care, which is the company's employee healthcare
service. This follows the 2018 purchase of
Lab126 Main article: Amazon Lab126 Lab126, developers of integrated consumer electronics such as the Kindle became a subsidiary in 2004.
Amazon announced that they would fund and deploy a large broadband
satellite internet constellation called "Project Kuiper" in April
2019. It is expected to take up to a decade to
fully deploy all 3,236 satellites planned for the full constellation
in order to provide internet to "tens of millions of people who lack
basic access to broadband internet." Amazon has not
announced if they intend to sell broadband service directly to
consumers, but they will "offer broadband service through partnerships
with other companies."
The satellites will use an orbit with a height between 590 and
630 km (370 and 390 mi). Kuiper will work in
concert with Amazon's previously announced large network of 12
satellite ground station facilities (the "
Ring Main article: Ring (company) Ring is a home automation company founded by Jamie Siminoff in 2013. It is primarily known for its WiFi powered smart doorbells, but manufactures other devices such as security cameras. Amazon bought Ring for $1 billion USD in 2018.
Main article: Souq.com
Twitch at the Electronic Entertainment Expo.
Twitch is a live streaming platform for video, primarily oriented
towards video gaming content. The service was first established as a
spin-off of a general-interest streaming service known as Justin.tv.
Its prominence was eclipsed by that of Twitch, and
Whole Foods Market
Whole Foods Market
Junglee is a former online shopping service provided by Amazon that
enabled customers to search for products from online and offline
retailers in India. Junglee started off as a virtual database that was
used to extract information off the internet and deliver it to
enterprise applications. As it progressed, Junglee started to use its
database technology to create a single window marketplace on the
internet by making every item from every supplier available for
purchase. Web shoppers could locate, compare and transact millions of
products from across the
Amazon first launched its distribution network in 1997 with two
fulfillment centers in
Amazon .fr fulfillment center LIL1 in Lauwin-Planque, France.
Amazon .es fulfillment center in San Fernando de Henares, Spain
Amazon.co .uk fulfillment center in Glenrothes, Scotland
Amazon .de fulfillment center in Germany
Amazon.co .jp fulfillment center in Ichikawa, Japan
Amazon fulfillment center in Macon, Georgia, United States
Region Country Domain name
United Arab Emirates amazon.ae
United Kingdom amazon.co.uk
United States amazon.com
Oceania Australia amazon.com.au
South America Brazil amazon.com.br
Criticism of Amazon
Content search "Search Inside the Book" is a feature which allows customers to search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog. The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text) on October 23, 2003. There are about 300,000 books in the program. Amazon has cooperated with around 130 publishers to allow users to perform these searches. To avoid copyright violations, Amazon does not return the computer-readable text of the book. Instead, it returns a picture of the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing and puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access. Additionally, customers can purchase online access to some of the same books via the "Amazon Upgrade" program.
Amazon sales rank
The Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity
of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of
popularity that is updated hourly. Effectively, it is a "best sellers
list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon.
While the ASR has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is
used by Amazon to determine which products to include in its
bestsellers lists. Products that appear in these lists
enjoy additional exposure on the Amazon website and this may lead to
an increase in sales. In particular, products that experience large
jumps (up or down) in their sales ranks may be included within
Amazon's lists of "movers and shakers"; such a listing provides
additional exposure that might lead to an increase in
sales. For competitive reasons, Amazon does not release
actual sales figures to the public. However, Amazon has now begun to
release point of sale data via the
.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers—we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources— Amazon.com Help
Multi-level sales strategy
Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started by
focusing on business-to-consumer relationships between itself and its
customers and business-to-business relationships between itself and
its suppliers and then moved to facilitate customer-to-customer with
the Amazon marketplace which acts as an intermediary to facilitate
transactions. The company lets anyone sell nearly anything using its
platform. In addition to an affiliate program that lets anyone
post-Amazon links and earn a commission on click-through sales, there
is now a program which lets those affiliates build entire websites
based on Amazon's platform.
Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products
in addition to selling them through their own websites. The sales are
processed through Amazon
Revenuein mil. USD$
Net incomein mil. USD$
Total Assetsin mil. USD$
Main article: Criticism of Amazon
Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and
controversy for its actions, including: supplying law enforcement with
facial recognition surveillance tools; forming cloud
computing partnerships with the CIA; leading customers
away from bookshops; adversely impacting the
environment; placing a low priority on warehouse
conditions for workers; actively opposing unionization
efforts; remotely deleting content purchased by Amazon
Kindle users; taking public subsidies; seeking to patent its 1-Click
technology; engaging in anti-competitive actions and price
discrimination; and reclassifying
In November 2018, a community action group opposed the construction
permit delivered to
Selling counterfeit items On October 16, 2016, Apple filed a trademark infringement case against Mobile Star LLC for selling counterfeit Apple products to Amazon. In the suit, Apple provided evidence that Amazon was selling these counterfeit Apple products and advertising them as genuine. Through purchasing, Apple found that it was able to identify counterfeit products with a success rate of 90%. Amazon was sourcing and selling items without properly determining if they are genuine. Mobile Star LLC settled with Apple for an undisclosed amount on April 27, 2017.
Sales and use taxes
Main article: Amazon tax
Amazon's state sales tax collection policy has changed over the years
since it did not collect any sales taxes in its early years. In the
U.S., state and local sales taxes are levied by state and local
governments, not at the federal level. In most countries where Amazon
operates, a sales tax or value added tax is uniform throughout the
country, and Amazon is obliged to collect it from all customers.
Proponents of forcing Amazon
Amazon paid no federal income taxes in the U.S. in 2017 and 2018, and
actually received tax refunds worth millions of dollars, despite
recording several billion dollars in profits each year.
Former employees, current employees, the media, and politicians have
criticized Amazon for poor working conditions at the
company. In 2011, it was
publicized that workers had to carry out tasks in 100 °F
(38 °C) heat at the
Conflict of interest
Nashville Operations Center of Excellence The incentives given by the Metropolitan Council of Nashville and Davidson County to Amazon for their new Operations Center of Excellence in Nashville Yards, a site owned by developer Southwest Value Partners, have been controversial, including the decision by the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development to keep the full extent of the agreement secret. The incentives include "$102 million in combined grants and tax credits for a scaled-down Amazon office building" as well as "a $65 million cash grant for capital expenditures" in exchange for the creation of 5,000 jobs over seven years. The Tennessee Coalition for Open Government called for more transparency. Another local organization known as the People's Alliance for Transit, Housing, and Employment (PATHE) suggested no public money should be given to Amazon; instead, it should be spent on building more public housing for the working poor and the homeless and investing in more public transportation for Nashvillians. Others suggested incentives to big corporations do not improve the local economy. In November 2018, the proposal to give Amazon $15 million in incentives was criticized by the Nashville Firefighters Union and the Nashville chapter of the Fraternal Order of Police, who called it "corporate welfare." In February 2019, another $15.2 million in infrastructure was approved by the council, although it was voted down by three council members, including Councilwoman Angie Henderson who dismissed it as "cronyism".
Facial recognition technology and law enforcement While Amazon has publicly opposed secret government surveillance, as revealed by Freedom of Information Act requests it has supplied facial recognition support to law enforcement in the form of the Rekognition technology and consulting services. Initial testing included the city of Orlando, Florida, and Washington County, Oregon. Amazon offered to connect Washington County with other Amazon government customers interested in Rekognition and a body camera manufacturer. These ventures are opposed by a coalition of civil rights groups with concern that they could lead to an expansion of surveillance and be prone to abuse. Specifically, it could automate the identification and tracking of anyone, particularly in the context of potential police body camera integration. Because of the backlash, the city of Orlando has publicly stated it will no longer use the technology.
Amazon lobbies the
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