AMAZON.COM, INC. (/ˈæməzɒn/ ) is an American electronic commerce
and cloud computing company that was founded on July 5, 1994 by Jeff
Bezos and is based in
Seattle , Washington . The tech giant is the
largest Internet-based retailer in the world by total sales and market
.com started as an online bookstore and later
diversified to sell DVDs , Blu-rays , CDs , video downloads/streaming,
MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, software ,
video games , electronics , apparel, furniture, food, toys, and
jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics —notably,
Kindle e-readers , Fire tablets ,
Fire TV , and Echo —and is the
world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services (IaaS and
PaaS ). Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables
under its in-house brand AmazonBasics.
Amazon has separate retail websites for the United States, the United
Kingdom and Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain,
Netherlands, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India, and Mexico.
Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries
for some of its products. In 2016, Dutch, Polish, and Turkish
language versions of the German Amazon website were launched.
In 2015, Amazon surpassed
Walmart as the most valuable retailer in
United States by market capitalization . Amazon is the fourth
most valuable public company in the world, the largest Internet
company by revenue in the world and the eighth largest employer in the
United States . In 2017, Amazon announced their plans to acquire
Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion by the end of the year, vastly
increasing Amazon's presence as a physical retailer. The acquisition
was interpreted as a direct attempt to challenge
Walmart as a physical
* 1 History
* 1.1 Mergers and acquisitions
* 1.2 Investment
* 1.3 Subsidiaries
* 2 Board of directors
* 3 Merchant partnerships
* 4 Products and services
* 5 Subsidiaries
* 5.1 Amazon Maritime, Inc.
* 5.3 Brilliance Audio
* 5.7 Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services
* 6 Website
* 6.1 Reviews
* 6.2 Content search
* 6.3 Third-party sellers
* 7 Amazon sales rank
* 8 Amazon\'s technology
* 9 Multi-level sales strategy
* 10 Revenue
* 11 Controversies
* 11.1 Selling counterfeit items
* 11.2 Sales and use taxes
* 11.3 Poor working conditions
* 12 Lobbying
* 13 Notable businesses founded by former employees
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 16 Further reading
* 17 External links
Jeff Bezos Further information: Timeline of
The company was founded in 1994, spurred by what Amazon founder Jeff
Bezos called his "regret minimization framework," which described his
efforts to fend off any regrets for not participating sooner in the
Internet business boom during that time. In 1994, Bezos left his
employment as vice-president of D. E. Shaw ">
Bezos incorporated the company as Cadabra, Inc. on July 5, 1994.
Bezos changed the name to Amazon.com, Inc. a few months later, after a
lawyer misheard its original name as "cadaver". In September 1994,
Bezos purchased the URL Relentless
.com and briefly considered naming
his online store Relentless, but friends told him the name sounded a
bit sinister. The domain is still owned by Bezos and still redirects
to the retailer. The company went online as Amazon
.com in 1995.
Bezos selected the name Amazon by looking through the dictionary; he
settled on "Amazon" because it was a place that was "exotic and
different", just as he envisioned for his Internet enterprise. The
Amazon river , he noted, was the biggest river in the world, and he
planned to make his store the biggest in the world. Bezos placed a
premium on his head start in building a brand, telling a reporter,
"There's nothing about our model that can't be copied over time. But
you know, McDonald\'s got copied. And it still built a huge,
multibillion-dollar company. A lot of it comes down to the brand name.
Brand names are more important online than they are in the physical
world." Additionally, a name beginning with "A" was preferential due
to the probability it would occur at the top of any list that was
Since June 19, 2000, Amazon's logotype has featured a curved arrow
leading from A to Z, representing that the company carries every
product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile.
After reading a report about the future of the Internet that
projected annual Web commerce growth at 2,300%, Bezos created a list
of 20 products that could be marketed online. He narrowed the list to
what he felt were the five most promising products, which included:
compact discs, computer hardware, computer software, videos, and
books. Bezos finally decided that his new business would sell books
online, due to the large worldwide demand for literature, the low
price points for books, along with the huge number of titles available
in print. Amazon was founded in the garage of Bezos' home in
The company began as an online bookstore , which was an idea spurred
off with a discussion with John Ingram of Ingram
Book (now called
Ingram Content Group ), along with Keyur Patel who still holds a stake
in Amazon. Amazon was able to access books at wholesale from Ingram.
In the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and
over 45 countries. Within two months, Amazon's sales were up to
$20,000/week. While the largest brick and mortar bookstores and mail
order catalogs might offer 200,000 titles, an online bookstore could
"carry" several times more, since it would have a practically
unlimited virtual (not actual) warehouse: those of the actual product
Amazon was incorporated in 1994 in Washington State . In July 1995,
the company began service and sold its first book on Amazon.com:
Douglas Hofstadter 's Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer
Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought . In October 1995,
the company announced itself to the public. In 1996, it was
Delaware . Amazon issued its initial public offering
of stock on May 15, 1997, trading under the
NASDAQ stock exchange
symbol AMZN, at a price of US$ 18.00 per share ($1.50 after three
stock splits in the late 1990s).
Amazon's initial business plan was unusual; it did not expect to make
a profit for four to five years. This "slow" growth caused
stockholders to complain that the company was not reaching
profitability fast enough to justify their investment or even survive
in the long-term. When the dot-com bubble burst at the start of the
21st century and destroyed many e-companies in the process, Amazon
survived and grew on past the tech crash to become a huge player in
online sales. The company finally turned its first profit in the
fourth quarter of 2001: $5 million (i.e., 1¢ per share), on revenues
of more than $1 billion. This profit margin, though extremely modest,
proved to skeptics that Bezos' unconventional business model could
succeed. In 1999, Time magazine named Bezos the Person of the Year
when it recognized the company's success in popularizing online
Barnes created by the internal merger of CustomFlix (on-demand DVDs
for independent filmmakers) and BookSurge (self-publishing, on-demand
printing, online distribution), both originally acquired 2005.
Amazon owns over 40 subsidiaries, including Zappos, Shopbop,
Diapers.com, Kiva Systems, Goodreads, Teachstreet and IMDb.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
As of February 2016, the board of directors is:
Jeff Bezos , President, CEO, and Chairman
Tom Alberg , Managing partner,
Madrona Venture Group
John Seely Brown , Visiting Scholar and Advisor to the Provost at
University of Southern California
University of Southern California
Bing Gordon , partner,
Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers
Jamie Gorelick , partner, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, and Dorr
Judy McGrath , former CEO,
Alain Monié , CEO,
Jon Rubinstein , former Chairman, and CEO,
Thomas O. Ryder , former Chairman, and CEO, Reader\'s Digest
Patty Stonesifer , President, and CEO, Martha\'s Table
* Wendell P. Weeks, Chairman, President, and CEO,
Until June 30, 2006, typing ToysRUs
.com into a browser would bring up
Amazon.com's "Toys however, this relationship was terminated due to a
lawsuit. Amazon also hosted and managed the website for Borders
bookstores but this ceased in 2008. From 2001 until August 2011,
Amazon hosted the retail website for Target .
.com operates retail websites for
Sears Canada ,
Bebe Stores ,
Marks & Spencer ,
Mothercare , and
Lacoste . For a growing number of
enterprise clients, including the UK merchants Marks ">
On October 18, 2011, Amazon
.com announced a partnership with DC
Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics,
Green Lantern , The Sandman , and
Watchmen . The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like
Barnes & Noble
Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves.
In November 2013, Amazon
.com announced a partnership with the United
States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays. The
service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in
metropolitan areas of
Los Angeles and New York due to the high-volume
and inability to deliver timely, with plans to expand into Dallas ,
New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014.
In July 2016, Amazon
.com announced a partnership with the U.K. Civil
Aviation Authority to test some of the technologies and may use
delivery service via prime air drone in the future.
In June 2017, Nike confirmed a partnership with Amazon, stating it to
be in an initial phase where they'll be selling goods on Amazon.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
List of Amazon.com products and services
Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several
media (books , DVDs, music CDs, videotapes and software), apparel,
baby products, consumer electronics , beauty products , gourmet food,
groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific
supplies, kitchen items, jewelry , watches, lawn and garden items,
musical instruments, sporting goods , tools, automotive items and toys
In India, Amazon is now gearing up to play a role in the grocery
retail sector aimed at delivering customer needs.
.com has a number of products and services available,
Amazon Web Services
Amazon Web Services
* Fire tablets
* Music Unlimited
Amazon Digital Game Store
List of Amazon.com locations
AMAZON MARITIME, INC.
Amazon Maritime, Inc. holds a
Federal Maritime Commission license to
operate as a non-vessel-owning common carrier (NVOCC), which enables
the company to manage its own shipments from
China into the United
Audible.com is a seller and producer of spoken audio entertainment,
information and educational programming on the Internet. Audible sells
digital audiobooks , radio and TV programs and audio versions of
magazines and newspapers. Through its production arm, Audible Studios,
Audible has also become the world's largest producer of downloadable
audiobooks. On January 31, 2008, Amazon announced it would buy Audible
for about $300 million. The deal closed in March 2008 and Audible
became a subsidiary of Amazon.
Brilliance Audio is an audiobook publisher founded in 1984 by Michael
Grand Haven, Michigan . The company produced its first 8
audio titles in 1985. The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for
an undisclosed amount. At the time of the acquisition, Brilliance
was producing 12–15 new titles a month. It operates as an
independent company within Amazon.
In 1984, Brilliance Audio invented a technique for recording twice as
much on the same cassette. The technique involved recording on each
of the two channels of each stereo track. It has been credited with
revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since
it made unabridged books affordable.
ComiXology is a cloud -based digital comics platform with over 200
million comic downloads as of September 2013. It offers a selection of
more than 40,000 comic books and graphic novels across Android, iOS,
Fire OS and Windows 8 devices and over a web browser. Amazon bought
the company in April 2014.
Goodreads is a "social cataloging " website founded in December 2006
and launched in January 2007 by Otis Chandler, a software engineer,
and entrepreneur, and Elizabeth Chandler. The website allows
individuals to freely search Goodreads' extensive user-populated
database of books, annotations, and reviews. Users can sign up and
register books to generate library catalogs and reading lists. They
can also create their own groups of book suggestions and discussions.
In December 2007, the site had over 650,000 members and over 10
million books had been added. Amazon bought the company in March 2013.
Shelfari is a social cataloging website for books.
build virtual bookshelves of the titles which they own or have read
and they can rate, review, tag and discuss their books. Users can also
create groups that other members may join, create discussions and talk
about books, or other topics. Recommendations can be sent to friends
on the site for what books to read. Amazon bought the company in
Shelfari continued to function as an independent book
social network within the Amazon until January 2016, when Amazon
announced that it would be merging
Goodreads and closing
BEIJING CENTURY JOYO COURIER SERVICES
Amazon 40' container turnpike double, a Long Combination Vehicle
Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services is a subsidiary of Amazon and
it applied for a Freight forwarding license with the US Maritime
Commission . Amazon is also building out its logistics in trucking and
air freight to potentially compete with UPS and
TYPE OF SITE
Work hard, have fun, make history
.com (original U.S. site)
11 (Global, July 2017 )
C++ and Java
The domain amazon
.com attracted at least 615 million visitors
annually by 2008. Amazon attracts over 130 million customers to its
US website per month by the start of 2016. The company has also
invested heavily on a massive amount of server capacity for its
website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the
Christmas holiday season .
Results generated by Amazon's search engine are partly determined by
promotional fees. Locations of Amazon
Amazon's localized storefronts, which differ in selection and prices,
are differentiated by top-level domain and country code :
See also: Amazon
.com controversies § Amazon reviews
Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each
product. Reviewers must rate the product on a rating scale from one to
five stars. Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which
indicate the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a
credit card account) or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the
top reviewers by popularity. Customers may comment or vote on the
reviews, indicating whether they found a review helpful to them. If a
review is given enough "helpful" hits, it appears on the front page of
the product. In 2010, Amazon was reported as being the largest single
source of Internet consumer reviews.
When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative
reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that Amazon
"taking a different approach ... we want to make every book
available—the good, the bad and the ugly ... to let truth loose".
Although reviews are attributed to the credit-card name of the
reviewer, there have been cases of positive reviews being written and
posted by a public relations company on behalf of its clients, and
instances of writers using pseudonyms to leave negative reviews of
their rivals' works.
Following the listing of Untouchable: The Strange Life and Tragic
Death of Michael Jackson, a disparaging biography of Michael Jackson
by Randall Sullivan, his fans, organized via social media as "Michael
Jackson's Rapid Response Team to Media Attacks", bombarded Amazon with
negative reviews and negative ratings of positive reviews.
"Search Inside the Book" is a feature which allows customers to
search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog.
The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text)
on October 23, 2003. There are about 300,000 books in the program.
Amazon has cooperated with around 130 publishers to allow users to
perform these searches.
To avoid copyright violations, Amazon does not return the
computer-readable text of the book. Instead, it returns a picture of
the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing and
puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access.
Additionally, customers can purchase online access to some of the same
books via the "Amazon Upgrade" program.
Amazon derives many of its sales from third-party sellers who sell
products on Amazon (around 40% in 2008). Associates receive a
commission for referring customers to Amazon by placing links to
Amazon on their websites if the referral results in a sale. Worldwide,
Amazon has "over 900,000 members" in its affiliate programs. In the
middle of 2014, the Amazon Affiliate Program is used by 1.2% of all
websites and it is the second most popular advertising network after
Google Ads. It is frequently used by websites and non-profits to
provide a way for supporters to earn them a commission. Amazon
reported over 1.3 million sellers sold products through Amazon's
websites in 2007. Unlike eBay , Amazon sellers do not have to maintain
separate payment accounts; all payments are handled by Amazon.
Associates can access the Amazon catalog directly on their websites
by using the
Amazon Web Services
Amazon Web Services (AWS)
XML service. A new affiliate
product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon
products within another website, or linked to another website. In June
2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be
internally called "Project Genesis") to provide more transparency to
sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to
sell on Amazon. Products suggested are based on customers' browsing
AMAZON SALES RANK
The Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity
of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of
popularity that is updated hourly. Effectively, it is a "best sellers
list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon. While the ASR
has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is used by Amazon
to determine which products to include in its best-sellers lists.
Products that appear in these lists enjoy additional exposure on the
Amazon website and this may lead to an increase in sales. In
particular, products that experience large jumps (up or down) in their
sales ranks may be included within Amazon's lists of "movers and
shakers"; such a listing provides additional exposure that might lead
to an increase in sales. For competitive reasons, Amazon does not
release actual sales figures to the public. However, Amazon has now
begun to release point of sale data via the
Nielsen BookScan service
to verified authors. While the ASR has been the source of much
speculation by publishers, manufacturers, and marketers, Amazon itself
does not release the details of its sales rank calculation algorithm.
Some companies have analyzed Amazon sales data to generate sales
estimates based on the ASR, though Amazon states:
Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to
be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive
sales information for publishers—we assume you have this information
regularly from your distribution sources — Amazon
Amazon runs data centers for its online services and owns generators
or purchases electricity corresponding to its consumption, mostly
renewable energy . The US Navy has stated that its Relocatable Radar
remains operable regardless of an Amazon wind farm . The company also
records data on customer buyer behavior which enables them to offer or
recommend to an individual specific item or bundles of items based
upon preferences demonstrated through purchases or items visited.
On January 31, 2013 Amazon experienced an outage that lasted
approximately 49 minutes, leaving its site inaccessible to some
On May 5, 2014 Amazon unveiled a partnership with
Twitter . Twitter
users can link their accounts to an Amazon account and automatically
add items to their shopping carts by responding to any tweet with an
Amazon product link bearing the hashtag #AmazonCart. This allows
customers to never leave their
Twitter feed and the product is waiting
for them when they go to the Amazon website.
MULTI-LEVEL SALES STRATEGY
Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started by
focusing on business-to-consumer relationships between itself and its
customers and business-to-business relationships between itself and
its suppliers and then moved to facilitate customer-to-customer with
the Amazon marketplace which acts as an intermediary to facilitate
transactions. The company lets anyone sell nearly anything using its
platform. In addition to an affiliate program that lets anyone
post-Amazon links and earn a commission on click-through sales, there
is now a program which lets those affiliates build entire websites
based on Amazon's platform.
Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products
in addition to selling them through their own websites. The sales are
processed through Amazon
.com and end up at individual sellers for
processing and order fulfillment and Amazon leases space for these
retailers. Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon
Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price. Amazon also employs the
use of drop shippers or meta sellers. These are members or entities
that advertise goods on Amazon who order these goods direct from other
competing websites but usually from other Amazon members. These meta
sellers may have millions of products listed, have large transaction
numbers and are grouped alongside other less prolific members giving
them credibility as just someone who has been in business for a long
time. Markup is anywhere from 50% to 100% and sometimes more, these
sellers maintain that items are in stock when the opposite is true. As
Amazon increases their dominance in the marketplace these drop
shippers have become more and more commonplace in recent years.
In November 2015, Amazon opened its first physical bookstore
location. It is named AMAZON BOOKS and is located in University
Village in Seattle. The store is 5,500 square feet and prices for all
products match those on its website. Amazon will open its tenth
physical book store in 2017; media speculation suggests Amazon plans
to eventually roll out 300 to 400 bookstores around the country.
Over the 2000–2010 decade, Amazon has developed a customer base of
around 30 million people. Amazon
.com is primarily a retail site with a
sales revenue model. Amazon makes its money by taking a small
percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its
website. Amazon also allows companies to advertise their products by
paying to be listed as featured products.
Main article: Amazon
Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and
controversy from multiple sources over its actions. These include:
luring customers away from the site's brick and mortar competitors,
poor warehouse conditions for workers; anti-unionization efforts;
Amazon Kindle remote content removal; taking public subsidies; its
1-Click patent" claims; anti-competitive actions; price
discrimination ; various decisions over whether to censor or publish
content such as the
LGBT book sales rank; and
works containing libel , facilitating dogfight , cockfight , or
pedophile activities. In December 2011, Amazon faced a backlash from
small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price
Check app. Shoppers who used the app to check prices in a
brick-and-mortar store were offered a 5% discount to purchase the same
item from Amazon. Companies like Groupon, eBay and Taap
Amazon's promotion by offering $10 off from their products. The
company has also faced accusations of putting undue pressure on
suppliers to maintain and extend its profitability. One effort to
squeeze the most vulnerable book publishers was known within the
company as the Gazelle Project, after Bezos suggested, according to
Brad Stone , "that Amazon should approach these small publishers the
way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle." In July 2014 the
Federal Trade Commission
Federal Trade Commission launched a lawsuit against the company
alleging it was promoting in-app purchases to children, which were
being transacted without parental consent.
SELLING COUNTERFEIT ITEMS
On October 16, 2016 Apple filed a trademark infringement case against
Mobile Star LLC for selling counterfeit Apple products. In the suit,
Apple provided evidence that Amazon was selling these counterfeit
Apple products on Amazon. Through purchasing, Apple was able to
identify that nearly 90% of the Apple Accessories sold by Amazon were
counterfeit, despite being listed as genuine, using the proper ASIN,
and being sold and fulfilled by Amazon. Amazon was sourcing and
selling items without properly determining if they are genuine. Mobile
Star LLC, settled with Amazon for an undisclosed amount April 27,
SALES AND USE TAXES
Amazon state sales tax collection policy has changed over the years
since in the company's beginning it did not collect any sale taxes. In
the U.S., state and local sales taxes are levied by state and local
governments, not at the federal level. In most countries where Amazon
operates, a sales tax or value added tax is uniform throughout the
country, and Amazon is obliged to collect it from all customers.
Proponents of forcing Amazon
.com to collect sales tax—at least in
states where it maintains a physical presence—argue the corporation
wields an anti-competitive advantage over storefront businesses forced
to collect sales tax.
Many U.S. states in the 21st century have passed online shopping
sales tax laws designed to compel Amazon
.com and other e-commerce
retailers to collect state and local sales taxes from its customers.
.com originally collected sales tax only from five states as of
2011, but as of April 2017 collects sales taxes from customers in all
45 states that have a state sales tax and in
POOR WORKING CONDITIONS
Amazon has attracted widespread criticism by both current employees,
which refer to themselves as Amazonians, and former employees, as
well as the media and politicians for poor working conditions. In 2011
it was publicized that at the Breinigsville, Pennsylvania warehouse,
workers had to carry out work in 100 °F (38 °C) heat, resulting in
employees becoming extremely uncomfortable and suffering from
dehydration and collapse . Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow
in fresh air as "managers were worried about theft". Amazon's initial
response was to pay for an ambulance to sit outside on call to cart
away overheated employees.
Some workers, "pickers", who travel the building with a trolley and a
handheld scanner "picking" customer orders can walk up to 15 miles
during their workday and if they fall behind on their targets, they
can be reprimanded. The handheld scanners feedback to the employee
real-time information on how fast or slowly they are doing; the
scanners also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the
specific locations of employees and how much "idle time" they gain
when not working. In a German television report broadcast in
February 2013, journalists Diana Löbl and Peter Onneken conducted a
covert investigation at the distribution center of Amazon in the town
Bad Hersfeld in the German state of
Hessen . The report highlights
the behavior of some of the security guards, themselves being employed
by a third party company, who apparently either had a Neo-nazi
background or deliberately dressed in Neo-Nazi apparel and who were
intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution
centers. The third party security company involved was delisted by
Amazon as a business contact shortly after that report.
In March 2015, it was reported in
The Verge that Amazon will be
removing 18 months long non-compete clauses from its US employment
contracts for hourly-paid workers, after criticism that it was acting
unreasonably in preventing such employees from finding other work.
Even short-term temporary workers have to sign contracts that prohibit
them from working at any company where they would "directly or
indirectly" support any good or service that competes with those they
helped support at Amazon, for 18 months after leaving Amazon, even if
they are fired or made redundant.
New York Times
New York Times article published on August 16, 2015,
described evidence of an intimidating and confrontational working
culture for the company's office workers.
In an effort to boost employee morale, on November 2, 2015, Amazon
announced that it would be extending 6 weeks of paid leave for new
mothers and fathers. This change includes birth parents and adoptive
parents and can be applied in conjunction with existing maternity
leave and medical leave for new mothers.
Amazon lobbies the
United States federal government and state
governments on issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online
sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection and
intellectual property. According to regulatory filings, Amazon.com
focuses its lobbying on the US Congress, the Federal Communications
Commission and the Federal Reserve. Amazon
.com spent roughly $3.5
million, $5 million and $9.5 million on lobbying, in 2013, 2014 and
.com was a corporate member of the American Legislative
Exchange Council (ALEC) until it dropped membership following protests
at its shareholders' meeting May 24, 2012.
Choice in eCommerce was founded on May 8, 2013, by
several online retailers in Berlin, Germany. The cause was,
in the view of the initiative, sales bans and online restrictions by
individual manufacturers. The dealers felt cut off from their main
sales channel and thus deprived them the opportunity to use online
platforms like Amazon, eBay or
Rakuten in a competitive market for the
benefit of their customers.
In 2014, Amazon expanded its lobbying practices as it prepared to
Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration to approve its drone
delivery program, hiring the Akin Gump Strauss Hauer ">
Flipkart was founded by
Sachin Bansal and
.com was founded by
Hulu was led by
Jason Kilar , a former SVP
Infibeam was founded by Vishal Mehta
Instacart was founded by Apoorva Mehta
SocialGold were co-founded by
Vikas Gupta and Reza
.com was founded by
Nimbula was co-founded by Chris Pinkham, a former VP and Willem
Van Biljon , a former Product Manager
Opscode was co-founded by
Jesse Robbins , a former engineer, and
* Pelago was co-founded by Jeff Holden, a former SVP and Darren
Vengroff, a former Principal Engineer
.com was founded by Matt Williams , former longtime Amazon
executive and 'shadow' to
Quora was co-founded by engineer
TeachStreet was founded by Dave Schappell, an early product
Book Depository was founded by Andrew Crawford ; acquired by
Amazon in 2011.
Trusera was founded by Keith Schorsch, an early Amazonian
Twilio was founded by Jeff Lawson, a former Technical Product
Vittana was founded by Kushal Chakrabarti and Brett Witt
Wikinvest was founded by Michael Sha
* Internet portal
* Companies portal
Amazon Breakthrough Novel Award
Amazon Flexible Payments Service
Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN)
List of book distributors
Statistically improbable phrases – Amazon.com's phrase
extraction technique for indexing books
* ^ A B C D E "AMAZON.COM ANNOUNCES FOURTH QUARTER SALES UP 22% TO
$35.7 BILLION" (XBRL).
United States Securities and Exchange
Commission. January 28, 2016.
* ^ Soper, Spencer. "
Jeff Bezos Sells More Than $500 Million in
* ^ "Amazon soars to more than 341K employees — adding more than
110K people in a single year". February 2, 2017.
* ^ Jopson, Barney (July 12, 2011). "Amazon urges California
referendum on online tax". Financial Times. Archived from the original
on July 14, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
* ^ Synergy Research Group, Reno, NV. "
Microsoft Cloud Revenues
Leap; Amazon is Still Way Out in Front - Synergy Research Group".
srgresearch.com. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ "Amazon.com, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Jan 30,
2013" (PDF). SEC database. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
* ^ "Now you can visit Amazon
.de in Dutch". Amazon news. October 4,
2016. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
* ^ "Amazon jedną nogą w Polsce". Retrieved October 19, 2016.
* ^ "Amazon
Germany now available in Turkish". November 10, 2016.
Retrieved February 20, 2017.
* ^ A B "Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising
Workplace". The New York Times. August 16, 2015.
* ^ Cheng, Evelyn (September 23, 2016). "Amazon climbs into top 5
biggest US companies by market cap".
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