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The ALVARS, also spelt as ALWARS or AZHWARS (āḻvārkaḷ , ‘those immersed in god’) were Tamil poet-saints of South India
South India
who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu
Hindu
Supreme god Vishnu
Vishnu
or his avatar Krishna
Krishna
in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service. They are venerated especially in Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
, which regards Vishnu
Vishnu
or Krishna
Krishna
as the Supreme Being.

Many modern academics place the Alvars
Alvars
date between 5th century to 10th century CE. Orthodoxy posits the number of alvars as ten, though there are other references that include Andal
Andal
and Madhurakavi Alvar , making the number twelve. Andal
Andal
is the only female saint-poet in the 12 Alvars. Together with the contemporary sixty three Shaiva
Shaiva
Nayanars , they are among the most important saints from Tamil Nadu.

The devotional outpourings of Alvars, composed during the early medieval period of Tamil history , helped revive the bhakti movement , through their hymns of worship to Vishnu
Vishnu
and his avatars. They praised the Divya Desams , 108 "abodes" (temples) of these Vaishnava
Vaishnava
deities. The poetry of the Alvars
Alvars
echoes bhakti to God through love, and in the ecstasy of such devotions they sang hundreds of songs which embodied both depth of feeling and felicity of expressions. The collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
. The Bhakti
Bhakti
literature that sprang from Alvars
Alvars
has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that broke away from the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation. In addition they helped to make the Tamil religious life independent of a knowledge of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. As part of the legacy of the Alvars, five Vaishnava
Vaishnava
philosophical traditions (sampradayas) have developed at the later stages.

Part of a series on

VAISHNAVISM

Supreme deity

* Vishnu
Vishnu
* Krishna
Krishna
* Rama
Rama

Important deities Dashavatara
Dashavatara

* Matsya
Matsya
* Kurma
Kurma
* Varaha
Varaha
* Narasimha
Narasimha
* Vamana
Vamana
* Parasurama
Parasurama
* Rama
Rama
* Balarama
Balarama
* Krishna
Krishna
* Buddha * Kalki
Kalki

Other Avatars

* Mohini
Mohini
* Nara-Narayana
Nara-Narayana
* Hayagriva
Hayagriva

Related

* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Sita
Sita
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Shesha
Shesha

Texts

* Vedas
Vedas
* Upanishads
Upanishads
* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
* Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas

Puranas
Puranas

* Vishnu
Vishnu
* Bhagavata
Bhagavata
* Naradiya * Garuda
Garuda
* Padma * Agni
Agni

Sampradayas

* Sri ( Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
) * Brahma
Brahma
( Dvaita
Dvaita
, Acintyabhedabheda ) * Rudra
Rudra
( Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
) * Nimbarka ( Dvaitadvaita )

Philosophers–acharyas

* Nammalvar
Nammalvar
* Yamunacharya
Yamunacharya
* Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Madhva * Chaitanya * Vallabha
Vallabha
* Sankardev * Madhavdev * Nimbarka * Pillai Lokacharya * Prabhupada
Prabhupada
* Vedanta Desika

Related traditions

* Bhagavatism
Bhagavatism
* Pancharatra
Pancharatra
* Tattvavada * Pushtimarg * Radha
Radha
Krishna
Krishna
* ISKCON * Swaminarayan * Ekasarana * Pranami * Ramanandi
Ramanandi
* Vaikhanasas

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Legacy * 3 Summary * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Part of a series on

HINDUISM

* Hindu
Hindu
* History

Concepts GOD / HIGHEST REALITY

* Brahman
Brahman
* Ishvara
Ishvara
* God in Hinduism
Hinduism
* God and gender

LIFE

* Atman * Maya * Karma
Karma
* Samsara
Samsara

* Purusharthas
Purusharthas

* Dharma
Dharma
* Artha
Artha
* Kama
Kama
* Moksha
Moksha

ETHICS

* Niti shastra * Yamas
Yamas
* Niyama
Niyama
* Ahimsa
Ahimsa
* Asteya
Asteya
* Aparigraha
Aparigraha
* Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
* Satya * Damah * Dayā * Akrodha
Akrodha
* Ārjava * Santosha
Santosha
* Tapas * Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
* Shaucha * Mitahara
Mitahara
* Dāna
Dāna

LIBERATION

* Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga * Jnana yoga * Karma
Karma
yoga

Schools SIX ASTIKA SCHOOLS

* Samkhya
Samkhya
* Yoga
Yoga
* Nyaya
Nyaya
* Vaisheshika * Mimamsa
Mimamsa

* Vedanta
Vedanta

* Advaita * Dvaita
Dvaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Pasupata
Pasupata
* Saiva * Pratyabhijña * Raseśvara * Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana * Charvaka

Deities TRIMURTI

* Brahma
Brahma
* Vishnu
Vishnu
* Shiva
Shiva

------------------------- OTHER MAJOR DEVIS / DEVAS

* Vedic * Indra
Indra
* Agni
Agni
* Prajapati
Prajapati
* Rudra
Rudra
* Devi
Devi
* Saraswati
Saraswati
* Ushas
Ushas
* Varuna
Varuna
* Vayu
Vayu

* Post-Vedic * Durga
Durga
* Ganesha
Ganesha
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Kali
Kali
* Kartikeya
Kartikeya
* Krishna
Krishna
* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Parvati
Parvati
* Radha
Radha
* Rama
Rama
* Shakti
Shakti
* Sita
Sita

Texts SCRIPTURES VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda
Yajurveda
* Samaveda
Samaveda
* Atharvaveda

DIVISIONS

* Samhita * Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka * Upanishad
Upanishad

UPANISHADS

* Rigveda: * Aitareya * Kaushitaki

* Yajurveda: * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Shvetashvatara * Maitri

* Samaveda: * Chandogya * Kena

* Atharvaveda: * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna

OTHER SCRIPTURES

* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Agama (Hinduism)

OTHER TEXTS VEDANGAS

* Shiksha * Chandas * Vyakarana
Vyakarana
* Nirukta * Kalpa * Jyotisha
Jyotisha

PURANAS

* Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana * BHAGAVATA PURANA * Nāradeya Purana * Vāmana Purana * Matsya
Matsya
Purana * Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
* Brahma
Brahma
Purana * Brahmānda Purana * Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana * Bhavishya Purana
Bhavishya Purana
* Padma Purana
Padma Purana
* Agni Purana
Agni Purana
* Shiva
Shiva
Purana * Linga Purana * Kūrma Purana * Skanda Purana * Varaha
Varaha
Purana * Mārkandeya Purana

ITIHASAS

* Ramayana
Ramayana
* Mahabharata
Mahabharata

UPAVEDAS

* Ayurveda
Ayurveda
* Dhanurveda
Dhanurveda
* Gandharvaveda * Sthapatyaveda

SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Dharma
Dharma
Shastra * Artha
Artha
Śastra * Kamasutra
Kamasutra
* Brahma
Brahma
Sutras * Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras * Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra * Yoga
Yoga
Sutras * Pramana Sutras * Charaka Samhita
Charaka Samhita
* Sushruta Samhita
Sushruta Samhita
* Natya Shastra
Natya Shastra
* Panchatantra
Panchatantra
* Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
* Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
* Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
* Swara yoga * Shiva
Shiva
Samhita * Gheranda Samhita * Panchadasi
Panchadasi
* Stotra
Stotra
* Sutras

TEXT CLASSIFICATION

* Śruti
Śruti
Smriti

* TIMELINE OF HINDU TEXTS

Practices WORSHIP

* Puja * Temple * Murti
Murti
* Bhakti
Bhakti
* Japa
Japa
* Bhajana
Bhajana
* Yajna
Yajna
* Homa * Vrata
Vrata
* Prāyaścitta * Tirtha * Tirthadana * Matha
Matha
* Nritta-Nritya

MEDITATION AND CHARITY

* Tapa * Dhyana * Dāna
Dāna

YOGA

* Sadhu
Sadhu
* Yogi
Yogi
* Asana
Asana
* Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
* Jnana yoga * Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga * Karma
Karma
yoga * Raja yoga
Raja yoga
* Kundalini Yoga
Yoga

RITES OF PASSAGE

* Garbhadhana
Garbhadhana
* Pumsavana * Simantonayana * Jatakarma
Jatakarma
* Namakarana * Nishkramana * Annaprashana
Annaprashana
* Chudakarana * Karnavedha * Vidyarambha * Upanayana
Upanayana
* Keshanta * Ritushuddhi * Samavartana * Vivaha * Antyeshti

ASHRAMA DHARMA

* Ashrama : Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
* Grihastha
Grihastha
* Vanaprastha
Vanaprastha
* Sannyasa
Sannyasa

FESTIVALS

* Diwali
Diwali
* Holi
Holi
* Shivaratri

* Navaratri
Navaratri

* Durga
Durga
Puja * Ramlila
Ramlila
* Vijayadashami-Dussehra

* Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
* Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
* Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
* Rama
Rama
Navami * Janmashtami * Onam
Onam
* Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
* Kumbha Mela * Pongal * Ugadi
Ugadi

* Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi

* Bihu
Bihu
* Puthandu
Puthandu
* Vishu
Vishu

* Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers ANCIENT

* Agastya
Agastya
* Angiras * Aruni
Aruni
* Ashtavakra
Ashtavakra
* Atri
Atri
* Bharadwaja
Bharadwaja
* Gotama * Jamadagni
Jamadagni
* Jaimini
Jaimini
* Kanada * Kapila * Kashyapa
Kashyapa
* Pāṇini
Pāṇini
* Patanjali
Patanjali
* Raikva
Raikva
* Satyakama Jabala
Satyakama Jabala
* Valmiki
Valmiki
* Vashistha
Vashistha
* Vishvamitra
Vishvamitra
* Vyasa
Vyasa
* Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya

MEDIEVAL

* Nayanars
Nayanars
* Alvars * Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Basava
Basava
* Akka Mahadevi * Allama Prabhu
Allama Prabhu
* Siddheshwar
Siddheshwar
* Jñāneśvar * Chaitanya * Gangesha Upadhyaya * Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
* Jayanta Bhatta * Kabir
Kabir
* Kumarila Bhatta * Matsyendranath * Mahavatar Babaji * Madhusudana * Madhva * Haridasa Thakur * Namdeva * Nimbarka * Prabhakara * Raghunatha Siromani * Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Sankardev * Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
* Kanaka Dasa
Kanaka Dasa
* Ramprasad Sen
Ramprasad Sen
* Jagannatha Dasa * Vyasaraya * Sripadaraya
Sripadaraya
* Raghavendra Swami * Gopala Dasa * Śyāma Śastri * Vedanta Desika * Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
* Tukaram
Tukaram
* Tulsidas * Vachaspati Mishra * Vallabha
Vallabha
* Vidyaranya

MODERN

* Aurobindo * Coomaraswamy * Bhaktivinoda Thakur * Chinmayananda
Chinmayananda
* Dayananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Mahesh Yogi
Yogi
* Jaggi Vasudev * Krishnananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Narayana Guru
Narayana Guru
* Prabhupada
Prabhupada
* Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Radhakrishnan * Sarasvati * Sivananda * U. G. Krishnamurti * Sai Baba * Vivekananda * Nigamananda * Yogananda * Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade * Tibbetibaba * Trailanga

Society

* VARNA

*

* Brahmin
Brahmin
* Kshatriya * Vaishya
Vaishya
* Shudra

* Dalit
Dalit
* Jati

* Denominations * Persecution * Nationalism * Hindutva
Hindutva

Martial Arts

* Pehlwani
Pehlwani
* Kalarippayattu
Kalarippayattu
* Malla-Yuddha * Vajra Mushti * Chakram
Chakram
* Kabaddi
Kabaddi
* Gatka
Gatka
* Silambam
Silambam
* Thang-Ta
Thang-Ta
* Varma Kalai * Other

Other topics

* HINDUISM BY COUNTRY

* Balinese Hinduism
Hinduism
* Criticism * Calendar * Iconography * Mythology * PILGRIMAGE SITES

* Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism
Jainism
/ and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

* Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms * Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

The word azhwar has traditionally been etymologized as from Tamil. 'Azh' (ஆழ்), 'to immerse oneself' as 'one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god' However recently Indologist S.Palaniappan has shown that what was originally Āļvār (ஆள்வார்) meaning 'One who rules', or '(Spiritual) Master' got changed through hypercorrection and folk etymology to Āzhvār (ஆழ்வார்) meaning 'One who is immersed' Palaniappan cites inscriptional evidence and even literary evidence from Vaisnhavaite tradition itself for a gradual sound change from āļvār to āzhvār over a period of two centuries from the 9th to the 11th century involving references to religious leaders in Vaishnavism, Shaivism
Shaivism
and even Jainism
Jainism
and to political personalities. He states: "āzhvār is but a corrupt form of āļvār which has been used interchangeably with nāyanār in secular and religious contexts in the Tamil land" and "... Notwithstanding the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
claim of unbroken teacher-student tradition, the fact that Nathamuni has used the form āļvār but Piļļān ended up using the form āzhvār suggests that there has been an error in transmission somewhere along the teacher-student chain between the two teachers. This error was obviously due to the influence of the sound variation that has occurred in the Srirangam area and elsewhere". The original word ஆள்வார் compares with the epithet 'Āṇḍãḷ' ((ஆண்டாள்) for the female canonized Vaishnava
Vaishnava
saint Gōdai ((கோதை) and they share the same verb Tamil. āḷ ((ஆள்), the former being the honorific non-past (or present-future) form and the latter the feminine past form of that same verb.

LEGACY

Alvars
Alvars
are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu
Vishnu
, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
in the Tamil-speaking regions. The alvars were influential in promoting the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
cult and the two Hindu
Hindu
epics, namely, Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabaratha . The religious works of these saints in Tamil , songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham
Nalayira Divya Prabandham
containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam
Divya desam
. The verses of the various azhwars were compiled by Nathamuni (824 - 924 AD), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Dravida Veda or Tamil Veda". The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu
Vishnu
temples of South India
South India
daily and also during festivals.

The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three alvars, Poigai, Bhutha and Pey were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage; Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Peria and Andal
Andal
were from brahmin caste ; Kulasekhara was a Kshatria
Kshatria
, Namm was from a cultivator family, Tirupana from Tamil Panar community and Tirumangai from kazhwar community. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda- Vahana
Vahana
Pandita (11th century), Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya, commentaries on Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the alavars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu.

According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal
Manavala Mamunigal
, the first three azhwars namely Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belong to Dwapara Yuga (before 4200 BC). It is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve azhwars. Along with the three Saiva nayanmars , they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti
Bhakti
movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
to these two sects of Hinduism
Hinduism
in the region.

SUMMARY

Some modern scholars suggest that they lived during 5th - 9th century CE, "on the basis of a few historical evidences", although no "clear" evidence exists to fit them between 5th to 9th century CE. The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
says that Alvars
Alvars
lived between 7th-10th century CE. Professor of Religion and Asian Studies, James G. Lochtefeld of Carthage College
Carthage College
, notes in his The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, the first three Alvars
Alvars
Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belonged to the 7th century; while Nammalvar
Nammalvar
and Madhurakavi belonged to the 10th century; while rest of them lived in the 9th century.

Traditionally the Alvars
Alvars
are considered to have lived between 4200 BCE - 2700 BCE. Traditional dates take them to the age of Shuka
Shuka
from the period of the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
, many are from Dwaparayuga , while Nammalwar belongs to the early part of Kaliyuga
Kaliyuga
.

The following table shows the place, century and star of birth of each Alvar. Scholarly dating, except that of Kulasekhara Alvar, is based on summary of views of modern scholars by Dr. N Subba Reddiar, although even these dates lack historical evidence. Much effort has went into dating Kulasekhara Alvar recently. The Alvar is now identified as Sthanu Ravi Kulasekhara (reigned 844—883 CE), the second known ruler of the Cheras of Makotai ( Cranganore
Cranganore
) (c. 800—1124 CE).

SL NO

ALWAR SAINT SCHOLARLY DATING TRADITIONAL DATE AND PLACE COMPOSITION MONTH NAKSHATRA AVATAR OF

1

Poigai Alvar
Poigai Alvar
713 CE 4203 BCE, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Mudhal Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Thiruvonam (Sravana) Panchajanya (Vishnu's conch )

2

Bhoothathalvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Thirukadalmallai (Mahabhalipuram) Irandam Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Avittam (Dhanishta) Kaumodaki
Kaumodaki
( Vishnu
Vishnu
's Mace )

3

Peyalvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Mylapore
Mylapore
Moondram Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Sadayam (Satabhishak) Nandaka
Nandaka
(Vishnu's sword)

4

Thirumalisai Alvar 720 CE 4203 BCE Thirumazhisai
Thirumazhisai
Nanmugan Thiruvandhadhi, 96 verses; ThiruChanda Virutham, 120 verses. Thai Magam (Maghā) Sudarshana Chakra
Sudarshana Chakra
(Vishnu's discus )

5

Nammalvar
Nammalvar
798 CE 3102/3059 BCE Azhwar Thirunagari (Kurugur) Thiruvaymozhi, 1102 verses; Thiruvasiriyam, 7 verses; Thiruvirutham, 100 verses; Periya Thiruvandhadhi, 87 verses. Vaikasi Vishaakam (Vishākhā) Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander)

6

Madhurakavi Alvar 800 CE 3102 BCE, Thirukollur Kanninun Siruthambu, 11 verses. Chitthirai Chitthirai (Chithra) Garuda
Garuda
(Vishnu's mount )

7

Kulasekhara Alvar (Sthanu Ravi Kulasekhara ) 9th century CE (reigned 844-883 CE) 3075 BCE, Tiruvancikkulam (Cranganore) , Chera Kingdom of Makotai Perumal Thirumozhi, 105 verses. Maasee Punar Poosam (Punarvasu) Kaustubha (Vishnu's jewel embedded in his necklace)

8

Periyalvar
Periyalvar
785 CE 3056 BCE, Srivilliputhur
Srivilliputhur
Thiruppallaandu, 12 verses; Periyazhwar Thirumozhi, 461 verses. Aani Swathi (Swaathee) Garuda
Garuda
(Vishnu's mount )

9

Andal
Andal
767 CE 3005 BCE, Srivilliputhur Nachiyar Thirumozhi, 143 verses; Thiruppavai , 30 verses. Aadi Pooram ( Pūrva Phalgunī (Pubbha)) Bhudevi
Bhudevi
(Vishnu's wife and the earth goddess)

10

Thondaradippodi Alvar 726 CE 2814 BCE, Thirumandangudi Thirumaalai, 45 verses; Thirupalliezhuchi, 10 verses. Margazhi Kettai (Jyeshta) Vanamalai (Vishnu's garland )

11

Thiruppaan Alvar 781 CE 2760 BCE, Uraiyur
Uraiyur
Amalan Adi Piraan, 10 verses. Karthigai Rogini (Rohinee) Srivatsa
Srivatsa
(An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest)

12

Thirumangai Alvar
Thirumangai Alvar
776 CE 2706 BCE, Thirukurayalur Periya Thirumozhi, 1084 verses; Thiru Vezhukootru irukkai, 1 verse; Thiru Kurun Thandagam, 20 verses; Thiru Nedun Thandagam, 30 verses; Siriya Thirumadal, 40 verses; Periya Thirumadal, 78 verses; Kaarthigai Krithika (Kṛttikā) Sharanga (Vishnu's bow)

SEE ALSO

* Bhakti
Bhakti
movements * Tamil mythology * Nathamuni

NOTES

* ^ Andrea Nippard. "The Alvars" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-20. * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 131 * ^ "Indian Literature Through the Ages". Indian literature , Govt of India. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-20. * ^ "About Alvars". divyadesamonline.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-02. * ^ Mittal, S. G. R.; Thursby (2006). Religions of South Asia: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 9780203970027 . * ^ "Meaning of Alvar". ramanuja.org. Retrieved 2007-07-02. * ^ Alvar or Nayanar : The Role of Sound Variation, Hypercorrection and Folk Etymology in Interpreting the Nature of Vaisnava Saint-Poets (PDF). South-Indian Horizons, Institut Francais de Pondichéry (French Institute of Pondicherry). 2005. * ^ B.S. 2011, p. 47-48 * ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42 * ^ A B Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha
Narasimha
(2008). Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
– Land of Legends, Saints & Temples. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1 . * ^ A B C Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21 * ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539 . * ^ Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu
Hindu
World: Ak-Aq. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352–354. ISBN 9788170223757 .

* ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450 . * ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804 . * ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism
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in south India. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. * ^ Krishna
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(2009). Book Of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627 . * ^ A B C "Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the Āl̲vārs", by S. M. Srinivasa Chari, publisher = Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120813427 , p. 11 * ^ "Mādhavêndra Purī: A Link between Bengal Vaiṣṇavism and South Indian "Bhakti", by Friedhelm HardyThe Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland No. 1 (1974), pp. 23-41, Published by: Cambridge University Press, URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/25203503 * ^ "Azhvar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica
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Inc., 2014. Web. 30 Dec. 2014 . * ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8 . * ^ "Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the Āl̲vārs", by S. M. Srinivasa Chari, publisher = Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120813427 , p. 10 * ^ "Śrībhāṣyam: Catuḥsūtryātmakaḥ", by Rāmānuja, Raghunath Damodar Karmarkar, p.18, original from = The University of Michigan * ^ Jean Filliozat. Religion, Philosophy, Yoga: A Selection of Articles. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 23. * ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. "Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin
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Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy—Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cera Perumals of Makotai (c. AD 800–AD 1124)" Kerala. Calicut University Press. 1996 * ^ "Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India", by Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar, p. 403-404, publisher = Asian Educational Services * ^ "Music and temples, a ritualistic approach", by L. Annapoorna, p. 23, year = 2000, ISBN 9788175740907 * ^ "History of Classical Sanskrit
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Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy—Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cera Perumals of Makotai (c. AD 800–AD 1124)" Kerala. Calicut University Press. 1996 * ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. "Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin
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Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy—Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cera Perumals of Makotai (c. AD 800–AD 1124)" Kerala. Calicut University Press. 1996

REFERENCES

* Flood, G.D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. * Hymns For The Drowning by A.K. Ramanujan (Penguin),

Nammalvar
Nammalvar
by A.Srinivasa Raghavan (Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi),1975, ISBN 81-260-0416 9 Alwargal - ^Or Eliya Arimugam by Sujatha (Visa Publications, Chennai, India)(in Tamil), 2001

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to AZHWARS .

* The Philosophy of the Āḻvārs, Surendranath Dasgupta, 1940 * The Twelve Alvars * Alvars
Alvars
and Srivaishnavism * The Alvar Saints (ramanuja.org) * The

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