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Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminium oxides, and specifically identified as aluminium(III) oxide. It is commonly called alumina (regardless of whether the element is spelled aluminum or aluminium), and may also be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications. It occurs naturally in its crystalline polymorphic phase α-Al2O3 as the mineral corundum, varieties of which form the precious gemstones ruby and sapphire. Al2O3 is significant in its use to produce aluminium metal, as an abrasive owing to its hardness, and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point.[6]

Contents

1 Natural occurrence 2 Properties

2.1 Amphoteric nature

3 Structure 4 Production 5 Applications

5.1 Filler 5.2 Glass 5.3 Catalysis 5.4 Purification 5.5 Abrasive 5.6 Paint 5.7 Composite fiber 5.8 Abrasion protection 5.9 Other

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Natural occurrence[edit] Corundum
Corundum
is the most common naturally occurring crystalline form of aluminium oxide.[7] Rubies and sapphires are gem-quality forms of corundum, which owe their characteristic colors to trace impurities. Rubies are given their characteristic deep red color and their laser qualities by traces of chromium. Sapphires come in different colors given by various other impurities, such as iron and titanium. Properties[edit]

Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide in its powdered form.

Al2O3 is an electrical insulator but has a relatively high thermal conductivity (30 Wm−1K−1)[3] for a ceramic material. Aluminium oxide is insoluble in water. In its most commonly occurring crystalline form, called corundum or α-aluminium oxide, its hardness makes it suitable for use as an abrasive and as a component in cutting tools.[6] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide is responsible for the resistance of metallic aluminium to weathering. Metallic aluminium is very reactive with atmospheric oxygen, and a thin passivation layer of aluminium oxide (4 nm thickness) forms on any exposed aluminium surface.[8] This layer protects the metal from further oxidation. The thickness and properties of this oxide layer can be enhanced using a process called anodising. A number of alloys, such as aluminium bronzes, exploit this property by including a proportion of aluminium in the alloy to enhance corrosion resistance. The aluminium oxide generated by anodising is typically amorphous, but discharge assisted oxidation processes such as plasma electrolytic oxidation result in a significant proportion of crystalline aluminium oxide in the coating, enhancing its hardness. Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide was taken off the United States Environmental Protection Agency's chemicals lists in 1988. Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide is on the EPA's Toxics Release Inventory
Toxics Release Inventory
list if it is a fibrous form.[9] Amphoteric nature[edit] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide is an amphoteric substance, meaning it can react with both acids and bases, such as hydrofluoric acid and sodium hydroxide, acting as an acid with a base and a base with an acid, neutralising the other and producing a salt.

Al2O3 + 6 HF → 2 AlF3 + 3 H2O Al2O3 + 2 NaOH + 3 H2O → 2 NaAl(OH)4 (sodium aluminate)

Structure[edit]

Corundum
Corundum
from Brazil, size about 2×3 cm.

The most common form of crystalline aluminium oxide is known as corundum, which is the thermodynamically stable form.[10] The oxygen ions form a nearly hexagonal close-packed structure with the aluminium ions filling two-thirds of the octahedral interstices. Each Al3+ center is octahedral. In terms of its crystallography, corundum adopts a trigonal Bravais lattice
Bravais lattice
with a space group of R-3c (number 167 in the International Tables). The primitive cell contains two formula units of aluminium oxide. Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide also exists in other phases, including the cubic γ and η phases, the monoclinic θ phase, the hexagonal χ phase, the orthorhombic κ phase and the δ phase that can be tetragonal or orthorhombic.[10][11] Each has a unique crystal structure and properties. Cubic γ-Al2O3 has important technical applications. The so-called β-Al2O3 proved to be NaAl11O17.[12] Molten aluminium oxide near the melting temperature is roughly 2/3 tetrahedral (i.e. 2/3 of the Al are surrounded by 4 oxygen neighbors), and 1/3 5-coordinated, very little (<5%) octahedral Al-O is present.[13] Around 80% of the oxygen atoms are shared among three or more Al-O polyhedra, and the majority of inter-polyhedral connections are corner-sharing, with the remaining 10–20% being edge-sharing.[13] The breakdown of octahedra upon melting is accompanied by a relatively large volume increase (~20%), the density of the liquid close to its melting point is 2.93 g/cm3.[14] Production[edit] Aluminium hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide
minerals are the main component of bauxite, the principal ore of aluminium. A mixture of the minerals comprise bauxite ore, including gibbsite (Al(OH)3), boehmite (γ-AlO(OH)), and diaspore (α-AlO(OH)), along with impurities of iron oxides and hydroxides, quartz and clay minerals.[15] Bauxites are found in laterites. Bauxite is purified by the Bayer process:

Al2O3 + H2O + NaOH → NaAl(OH)4 Al(OH)3 + NaOH → NaAl(OH)4

Except for SiO2, the other components of bauxite do not dissolve in base. Upon filtering the basic mixture, Fe2O3 is removed. When the Bayer liquor is cooled, Al(OH)3 precipitates, leaving the silicates in solution.

NaAl(OH)4 → NaOH + Al(OH)3

The solid Al(OH)3 Gibbsite
Gibbsite
is then calcined (heated to over 1100 °C) to give aluminium oxide:[6]

2 Al(OH)3 → Al2O3 + 3 H2O

The product aluminium oxide tends to be multi-phase, i.e., consisting of several phases of aluminium oxide rather than solely corundum.[11] The production process can therefore be optimized to produce a tailored product. The type of phases present affects, for example, the solubility and pore structure of the aluminium oxide product which, in turn, affects the cost of aluminium production and pollution control.[11] For its application as an electrical insulator in integrated circuits, where conformal growth of thin film is a prerequisite and the preferred growth mode is atomic layer deposition, Al2O3 films were prepared by the chemical exchange between trimethylaluminum Al(CH3)3 and H2O:[16]

2 Al(CH3)3 + 3 H2O → Al2O3 + 6 CH4

H2O in the above reaction was subsequently replaced by ozone (O3) as the active oxidant and the following reaction took place:[17][18]

2 Al(CH3)3 + O3 → Al2O3 + 3 C2H6

The Al2O3 films prepared using O3 show 10–100 times lower leakage current density compared with those prepared by H2O. Known as alundum (in fused form) or aloxite[19] in the mining, ceramic, and materials science communities, aluminium oxide finds wide use. Annual world production of aluminium oxide in 2015 was approximately 115 million tonnes, over 90% of which is used in the manufacture of aluminium metal.[6] The major uses of speciality aluminium oxides are in refractories, ceramics, polishing and abrasive applications. Large tonnages of aluminium hydroxide, from which alumina is derived, are used in the manufacture of zeolites, coating titania pigments, and as a fire retardant/smoke suppressant. Applications[edit] Over 90% of the aluminium oxide, normally termed Smelter Grade Alumina (SGA), produced is consumed for the production of aluminium, usually by the Hall–Héroult process. The remainder, normally called speciality alumina is used in a wide variety of applications which reflect its inertness, temperature resistance and electrical resistance.[20] Filler[edit] Being fairly chemically inert and white, aluminium oxide is a favored filler for plastics. Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide is a common ingredient in sunscreen and is sometimes also present in cosmetics such as blush, lipstick, and nail polish. Glass[edit] Many formulations of glass have aluminium oxide as an ingredient.[21] Catalysis[edit] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide catalyses a variety of reactions that are useful industrially. In its largest scale application, aluminium oxide is the catalyst in the Claus process
Claus process
for converting hydrogen sulfide waste gases into elemental sulfur in refineries. It is also useful for dehydration of alcohols to alkenes. Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide serves as a catalyst support for many industrial catalysts, such as those used in hydrodesulfurization and some Ziegler-Natta
Ziegler-Natta
polymerizations. Purification[edit] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide is widely used to remove water from gas streams.[22] Abrasive[edit] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide is used for its hardness and strength. It is widely used as an abrasive, including as a much less expensive substitute for industrial diamond. Many types of sandpaper use aluminium oxide crystals. In addition, its low heat retention and low specific heat make it widely used in grinding operations, particularly cutoff tools. As the powdery abrasive mineral aloxite, it is a major component, along with silica, of the cue tip "chalk" used in billiards. Aluminium oxide powder is used in some CD/ DVD
DVD
polishing and scratch-repair kits. Its polishing qualities are also behind its use in toothpaste. Paint[edit] Main article: Alumina effect pigment Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide flakes are used in paint for reflective decorative effects, such as in the automotive or cosmetic industries. Composite fiber[edit] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide has been used in a few experimental and commercial fiber materials for high-performance applications (e.g., Fiber FP, Nextel 610, Nextel 720).[23] Alumina nanofibers in particular have become a research field of interest. Abrasion protection[edit] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide can be grown as a coating on aluminium by anodizing or by plasma electrolytic oxidation (see the "Properties" above). Both the hardness and abrasion-resistant characteristics of the coating originate from the high strength of aluminium oxide, yet the porous coating layer produced with conventional direct current anodizing procedures is within a 60-70 Rockwell hardness C range [24] which is comparable only to hardened carbon steel alloys, but considerably inferior to the hardness of natural and synthetic corundum. Instead, with plasma electrolytic oxidation, the coating is porous only on the surface oxide layer while the lower oxide layers are much more compact than with standard DC anodizing procedures and present a higher crystallinity due to the oxide layers being remelted and densified to obtain α-Al2O3 clusters[25] with much higher coating hardness values circa 2000 Vickers hardness.

Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide output in 2005

Alumina is used to manufacture tiles which are attached inside pulverized fuel lines and flue gas ducting on coal fired power stations to protect high wear areas. They are not suitable for areas with high impact forces as these tiles are brittle and susceptible to breakage. Other[edit]

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In lighting, transparent aluminium oxide is used in some sodium vapor lamps.[26] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide is also used in preparation of coating suspensions in compact fluorescent lamps. In chemistry laboratories, aluminium oxide is a medium for chromatography, available in basic (pH 9.5), acidic (pH 4.5 when in water) and neutral formulations. Health and medical applications include it as a material in hip replacements[6] and birth control pills.[27] It is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties.[citation needed] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide is an electrical insulator used as a substrate (silicon on sapphire) for integrated circuits but also as a tunnel barrier for the fabrication of superconducting devices such as single electron transistors and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Aluminum oxide being a dielectric with relatively large band gap is used as an insulating barrier in capacitors.[28] Insulation for high-temperature furnaces is often manufactured from aluminium oxide. Sometimes the insulation has varying percentages of silica depending on the temperature rating of the material. The insulation can be made in blanket, board, brick and loose fiber forms for various application requirements. Small pieces of aluminium oxide are often used as boiling chips in chemistry. It is also used to make spark plug insulators.[29] Using a plasma spray process and mixed with titania, it is coated onto the braking surface of some bicycle rims to provide abrasion and wear resistance.[citation needed] Most ceramic eyes on fishing rods are circular rings made from aluminium oxide.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide nanoparticle Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE) List of alumina refineries Micro-Pulling-Down Transparent alumina Bauxite
Bauxite
tailings

References[edit]

^ Patnaik, P. (2002). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-049439-8.  ^ Raymond C. Rowe; Paul J. Sheskey; Marian E. Quinn (2009). "Adipic acid". Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-85369-792-3.  ^ a b Material Properties Data: Alumina (Aluminum Oxide) Archived 2010-04-01 at the Wayback Machine.. Makeitfrom.com. Retrieved on 2013-04-17. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-94690-X.  ^ a b "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0021". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  ^ a b c d e "Alumina ( Aluminium
Aluminium
Oxide) – The Different Types of Commercially Available Grades". The A to Z of Materials. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-27.  ^ Elam, J. W. (October 2010). Atomic Layer Deposition Applications 6. The Electrochemical Society. ISBN 9781566778213.  ^ Campbell, Timothy; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Ogata, Shuji; Rodgers, Stephen (1999). "Dynamics of Oxidation of Aluminium
Aluminium
Nanoclusters using Variable Charge Molecular-Dynamics Simulations on Parallel Computers" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 82 (24): 4866. Bibcode:1999PhRvL..82.4866C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.4866. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-07-01.  ^ "EPCRA Section 313 Chemical List For Reporting Year 2006" (PDF). US EPA. Retrieved 2008-09-30. [dead link] ^ a b I. Levin; D. Brandon (1998). "Metastable Alumina Polymorphs: Crystal Structures and Transition Sequences". Journal of the American Ceramic
Ceramic
Society. 81 (8): 1995–2012. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1998.tb02581.x. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29.  ^ a b c Paglia, G. (2004). "Determination of the Structure of γ-Alumina using Empirical and First Principles Calculations Combined with Supporting Experiments" (free download). Curtin University of Technology, Perth. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ Wiberg, E.; Holleman, A. F. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. Elsevier. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.  ^ a b Skinner, L.B.; et al. (2013). "Joint diffraction and modeling approach to the structure of liquid alumina". Phys. Rev. B. 87 (2): 024201. Bibcode:2013PhRvB..87b4201S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.024201. Archived from the original on 2013-02-24.  ^ Paradis, P.-F.; et al. (2004). "Non-Contact Thermophysical Property Measurements of Liquid and Undercooled Alumina". Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43 (4): 1496–1500. Bibcode:2004JaJAP..43.1496P. doi:10.1143/JJAP.43.1496.  ^ " Bauxite
Bauxite
and Alumina Statistics and Information". USGS. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ Higashi GS, Fleming (1989). "Sequential surface chemical reaction limited growth of high quality Al2O3 dielectrics". Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 (19): 1963–65. Bibcode:1989ApPhL..55.1963H. doi:10.1063/1.102337.  ^ Kim JB; Kwon DR; Chakrabarti K; Lee Chongmu; Oh KY; Lee JH (2002). "Improvement in Al2O3 dielectric behavior by using ozone as an oxidant for the atomic layer deposition technique". J. Appl. Phys. 92 (11): 6739–42. Bibcode:2002JAP....92.6739K. doi:10.1063/1.1515951.  ^ Kim, Jaebum; Chakrabarti, Kuntal; Lee, Jinho; Oh, Ki-Young; Lee, Chongmu (2003). "Effects of ozone as an oxygen source on the properties of the Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition". Mater Chem Phys. 78 (3): 733–38. doi:10.1016/S0254-0584(02)00375-9.  ^ "Aloxite". ChemIndustry.com database. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2007.  ^ Evans, K. A. (1993). "Properties and uses of aluminium oxides and aluminium hydroxides". In Downs, A. J. The Chemistry of Aluminium, Indium
Indium
and Gallium. Blackie Academic. ISBN 075140103X.  ^ Akers, Michael J. (2016-04-19). Sterile Drug Products: Formulation, Packaging, Manufacturing and Quality. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420020564.  ^ Hudson, L. Keith; Misra, Chanakya; Perrotta, Anthony J.; Wefers, Karl and Williams, F. S. (2002) "Aluminum Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_557. ^ Mallick, P.K. (2008). Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design (3rd ed., [expanded and rev. ed.] ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. Ch.2.1.7. ISBN 0-8493-4205-8.  ^ Joseph H., Osborn. "understanding and specifying anodizing: what a manufacturer needs to know". OMW Corporation. Archived from the original on 2016-11-20. Retrieved 2014.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Li, Q; Liang, J; Wang, Q. "Modern Surface Engineering Treatments, chapter 4 Plasma Oxidation Coatings on Lightweight Metals" (PDF). INTECH 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04.  ^ "GE Innovation Timeline 1957–1970". Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-12.  ^ "DailyMed - JUNEL FE 1/20- norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol, and ferrous fumarate". dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-03-13. Retrieved 2017-03-13.  ^ Belkin, A.; et., al. (2017). "Recovery of Alumina Nanocapacitors after High Voltage Breakdown". Sci. Rep. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7..932B. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01007-9.  ^ Farndon, John (2001). Aluminum. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9780761409472. Archived from the original on 2017-12-04. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide.

CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

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Aluminium
Aluminium
compounds

Al(I)

AlBr AlCl AlF AlI Al2O

Al(II)

AlB2 AlB12 AlO

Al(III)

AlAs Al(BH4)3 AlBr3 AlCl3 AlF3 AlH3 AlI3 AlN Al(NO3)3 Al2(CO3)3 Al(OH)3 Al(OH)2OAc Al(OH)(OAc)2 Al(OAc)3 Al2SO4(OAc)4 AlP AlPO4 AlSb Al(C5H7O2)3 Al(MnO4)3 Al2(MoO4)3 Al2O3 Al2S3 Al2(SO4)3 Al2Se3 Al2Te3 Al2SiO5 Al4C3 AlOHO Al(OH)2CO2C17H5 NaAlH2(OC2H4OCH3)2 LiAlH2(OC2H4OCH3)2

Alums

(NH4)Al(SO4)2 KAl(SO4)2 NaAl(SO4)2

Organoaluminium(III) compounds

(Al(CH3)3)2 (Al(C2H5)3)2 Al(CH2CH(CH3)2)3 Al(C2H5)2Cl Al(C2H5)2CN Al(CH2CH(CH3)2)2H Al(C2H5)2Cl2C2H5Cl Ti(C5H5)2CH2ClAl(CH3)2

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Oxides

Mixed oxidation states

Antimony tetroxide
Antimony tetroxide
(Sb2O4) Cobalt(II,III) oxide
Cobalt(II,III) oxide
(Co3O4) Europium(II,III) oxide (Eu3O4) Iron(II,III) oxide
Iron(II,III) oxide
(Fe3O4) Lead(II,IV) oxide
Lead(II,IV) oxide
(Pb3O4) Manganese(II,III) oxide (Mn3O4) Silver(I,III) oxide (Ag2O2) Triuranium octoxide
Triuranium octoxide
(U3O8) Carbon suboxide
Carbon suboxide
(C3O2) Mellitic anhydride
Mellitic anhydride
(C12O9) Praseodymium(III,IV) oxide (Pr6O11) Terbium(III,IV) oxide
Terbium(III,IV) oxide
(Tb4O7)

+1 oxidation state

Copper(I) oxide
Copper(I) oxide
(Cu2O) Dicarbon monoxide
Dicarbon monoxide
(C2O) Dichlorine monoxide
Dichlorine monoxide
(Cl2O) Gallium(I) oxide (Ga2O) Lithium oxide
Lithium oxide
(Li2O) Potassium oxide
Potassium oxide
(K2O) Rubidium oxide
Rubidium oxide
(Rb2O) Silver
Silver
oxide (Ag2O) Thallium(I) oxide
Thallium(I) oxide
(Tl2O) Sodium oxide
Sodium oxide
(Na2O) Water
Water
(hydrogen oxide) (H2O)

+2 oxidation state

Aluminium(II) oxide
Aluminium(II) oxide
(AlO) Barium oxide
Barium oxide
(BaO) Beryllium oxide
Beryllium oxide
(BeO) Cadmium oxide
Cadmium oxide
(CdO) Calcium oxide
Calcium oxide
(CaO) Carbon
Carbon
monoxide (CO) Chromium(II) oxide
Chromium(II) oxide
(CrO) Cobalt(II) oxide
Cobalt(II) oxide
(CoO) Copper(II) oxide
Copper(II) oxide
(CuO) Europium(II) oxide (EuO) Germanium monoxide
Germanium monoxide
(GeO)) Iron(II) oxide
Iron(II) oxide
(FeO) Lead(II) oxide
Lead(II) oxide
(PbO) Magnesium oxide
Magnesium oxide
(MgO) Manganese(II) oxide
Manganese(II) oxide
(MnO) Mercury(II) oxide
Mercury(II) oxide
(HgO) Nickel(II) oxide
Nickel(II) oxide
(NiO) Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
(NO) Palladium(II) oxide
Palladium(II) oxide
(PdO) Silicon monoxide
Silicon monoxide
(SiO) Strontium oxide
Strontium oxide
(SrO) Sulfur monoxide
Sulfur monoxide
(SO) Disulfur dioxide
Disulfur dioxide
(S2O2) Tin(II) oxide
Tin(II) oxide
(SnO) Titanium(II) oxide
Titanium(II) oxide
(TiO) Vanadium(II) oxide
Vanadium(II) oxide
(VO) Zinc oxide
Zinc oxide
(ZnO)

+3 oxidation state

Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide (Al2O3) Antimony
Antimony
trioxide (Sb2O3) Arsenic trioxide
Arsenic trioxide
(As2O3) Bismuth(III) oxide
Bismuth(III) oxide
(Bi2O3) Boron trioxide
Boron trioxide
(B2O3) Cerium(III) oxide
Cerium(III) oxide
(Ce2O3) Dibromine trioxide (Br2O3) Chromium(III) oxide
Chromium(III) oxide
(Cr2O3) Dinitrogen trioxide
Dinitrogen trioxide
(N2O3) Dysprosium(III) oxide
Dysprosium(III) oxide
(Dy2O3) Erbium(III) oxide
Erbium(III) oxide
(Er2O3) Europium(III) oxide
Europium(III) oxide
(Eu2O3) Gadolinium(III) oxide
Gadolinium(III) oxide
(Gd2O3) Gallium(III) oxide
Gallium(III) oxide
(Ga2O3) Holmium(III) oxide
Holmium(III) oxide
(Ho2O3) Indium(III) oxide
Indium(III) oxide
(In2O3) Iron(III) oxide
Iron(III) oxide
(Fe2O3) Lanthanum oxide
Lanthanum oxide
(La2O3) Lutetium(III) oxide (Lu2O3) Manganese(III) oxide
Manganese(III) oxide
(Mn2O3) Neodymium(III) oxide
Neodymium(III) oxide
(Nd2O3) Nickel(III) oxide
Nickel(III) oxide
(Ni2O3) Phosphorus trioxide
Phosphorus trioxide
(P4O6) Praseodymium(III) oxide
Praseodymium(III) oxide
(Pr2O3) Promethium(III) oxide
Promethium(III) oxide
(Pm2O3) Rhodium(III) oxide
Rhodium(III) oxide
(Rh2O3) Samarium(III) oxide
Samarium(III) oxide
(Sm2O3) Scandium oxide
Scandium oxide
(Sc2O3) Terbium(III) oxide
Terbium(III) oxide
(Tb2O3) Thallium(III) oxide
Thallium(III) oxide
(Tl2O3) Thulium(III) oxide
Thulium(III) oxide
(Tm2O3) Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3) Tungsten(III) oxide (W2O3) Vanadium(III) oxide
Vanadium(III) oxide
(V2O3) Ytterbium(III) oxide
Ytterbium(III) oxide
(Yb2O3) Yttrium(III) oxide
Yttrium(III) oxide
(Y2O3)

+4 oxidation state

Americium dioxide (AmO2) Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (CO2) Carbon
Carbon
trioxide (CO3) Cerium(IV) oxide
Cerium(IV) oxide
(CeO2) Chlorine
Chlorine
dioxide (ClO2) Chromium(IV) oxide
Chromium(IV) oxide
(CrO2) Dinitrogen tetroxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide
(N2O4) Germanium
Germanium
dioxide (GeO2) Hafnium(IV) oxide
Hafnium(IV) oxide
(HfO2) Lead
Lead
dioxide (PbO2) Manganese
Manganese
dioxide (MnO2) Neptunium(IV) oxide
Neptunium(IV) oxide
(NpO2) Nitrogen
Nitrogen
dioxide (NO2) Osmium dioxide
Osmium dioxide
(OsO2) Plutonium(IV) oxide
Plutonium(IV) oxide
(PuO2) Praseodymium(IV) oxide (PrO2) Protactinium(IV) oxide (PaO2) Rhodium(IV) oxide
Rhodium(IV) oxide
(RhO2) Ruthenium(IV) oxide
Ruthenium(IV) oxide
(RuO2) Selenium dioxide
Selenium dioxide
(SeO2) Silicon
Silicon
dioxide (SiO2) Sulfur
Sulfur
dioxide (SO2) Tellurium dioxide
Tellurium dioxide
(TeO2) Terbium(IV) oxide (TbO2) Thorium dioxide
Thorium dioxide
(ThO2) Tin
Tin
dioxide (SnO2) Titanium dioxide
Titanium dioxide
(TiO2) Tungsten(IV) oxide
Tungsten(IV) oxide
(WO2) Uranium
Uranium
dioxide (UO2) Vanadium(IV) oxide
Vanadium(IV) oxide
(VO2) Zirconium dioxide
Zirconium dioxide
(ZrO2)

+5 oxidation state

Antimony
Antimony
pentoxide (Sb2O5) Arsenic
Arsenic
pentoxide (As2O5) Dinitrogen pentoxide
Dinitrogen pentoxide
(N2O5) Niobium pentoxide
Niobium pentoxide
(Nb2O5) Phosphorus
Phosphorus
pentoxide (P2O5) Protactinium(V) oxide (Pa2O5) Tantalum pentoxide
Tantalum pentoxide
(Ta2O5) Vanadium(V) oxide
Vanadium(V) oxide
(V2O5)

+6 oxidation state

Chromium
Chromium
trioxide (CrO3) Molybdenum trioxide
Molybdenum trioxide
(MoO3) Rhenium trioxide
Rhenium trioxide
(ReO3) Selenium
Selenium
trioxide (SeO3) Sulfur
Sulfur
trioxide (SO3) Tellurium
Tellurium
trioxide (TeO3) Tungsten
Tungsten
trioxide (WO3) Uranium
Uranium
trioxide (UO3) Xenon trioxide
Xenon trioxide
(XeO3) Iridium
Iridium
trioxide (IrO3)

+7 oxidation state

Dichlorine heptoxide
Dichlorine heptoxide
(Cl2O7) Manganese
Manganese
heptoxide (Mn2O7) Rhenium(VII) oxide
Rhenium(VII) oxide
(Re2O7) Technetium(VII) oxide
Technetium(VII) oxide
(Tc2O7)

+8 oxidation state

Osmium
Osmium
tetroxide (OsO4) Ruthenium
Ruthenium
tetroxide (RuO4) Xenon
Xenon
tetroxide (XeO4) Iridium
Iridium
tetroxide (IrO4) Hassium
Hassium
tetroxide (HsO4)

Related

Oxocarbon Suboxide Oxyanion Ozonide Peroxide Superoxide

Oxides are sorted by oxidation state. Category:Oxides

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Oxygen
Oxygen
compounds

AgO Al2O3 AmO2 Am2O3 As2O3 As2O5 Au2O3 B2O3 BaO BeO Bi2O3 BiO2 Bi2O5 BrO2 Br2O3 Br2O5 CO CO2 C2O3 CaO CaO2 CdO CeO2 Ce3O4 Ce2O3 ClO2 Cl2O Cl2O3 Cl2O4 Cl2O6 Cl2O7 CoO Co2O3 Co3O4 CrO3 Cr2O3 Cr2O5 Cr5O12 CsO2 Cs2O3 CuO D2O Dy2O3 Er2O3 Eu2O3 F2O F2O2 F2O4 FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Ga2O Ga2O3 GeO GeO2 H2O H218O H2O2 HfO2 HgO Hg2O Ho2O3 I2O4 I2O5 I2O6 I4O9 In2O3 IrO2 KO2 K2O2 La2O3 Li2O Li2O2 Lu2O3 MgO Mg2O3 MnO MnO2 Mn2O3 Mn2O7 MoO2 MoO3 Mo2O3 NO NO2 N2O N2O3 N2O4 N2O5 NaO2 Na2O Na2O2 NbO NbO2 Nd2O3

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