The Info List - Alte Pinakothek

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The Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek
(German: [ˈʔaltə pinakoˈteːk], Old Pinakothek) is an art museum located in the Kunstareal
area in Munich, Germany.[1] It is one of the oldest galleries in the world and houses one of the most famous collections of Old Master
Old Master
paintings. The name Alte (Old) Pinakothek refers to the time period covered by the collection—from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. The Neue Pinakothek covers nineteenth-century art, and the recently opened Pinakothek der Moderne
Pinakothek der Moderne
exhibits modern art. All three galleries are part of the Bavarian State Painting Collections, an organization of the Free state of Bavaria.[2]


1 The building 2 History 3 Collection 4 Gallery 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links

The building[edit] King Ludwig I of Bavaria
Ludwig I of Bavaria
(1825–1848) ordered Leo von Klenze
Leo von Klenze
to erect a new building for the gallery for the Wittelsbach
collection in 1826. The Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek
was the largest museum in the world and structurally and conceptually well advanced through the convenient accommodation of skylights for the cabinets. Even the neo-renaissance exterior of the Pinakothek clearly stands out from the castle-like museum type usual in the early 19th Century. It is closely associated with the function and structure of the building as a museum. Very modern in its day, the building became exemplary for museum buildings in Germany
and all of Europe after its inauguration in 1836, and thus became a model for new galleries in Rome, St Petersburg, Brussels
and Kassel.

Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek

The museum galleries were designed to display Rubens's Last Judgment (1617), one of the largest canvasses ever painted. The museum building was severely damaged by bombing in World War II
World War II
but was reconstructed and reopened to the public in the late 1950s. The ornate, pre-war interior including the large loggia facing the south façade in the upper floor were not restored. A new wall covering was created in 2008 for the rooms on the upper floor of the Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek
with a woven and dyed silk from Lyon. The new color scheme of green and red draws on the design of the rooms, dates back to the time of construction of the Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek
and was predominant until the 20th Century. Already for King Ludwig I and his architect Leo von Klenze
Leo von Klenze
the use of a wall covering alternately in red and green, showed the continuation of a tradition that dates back to the exhibition of the old masters of the late 16th Century in many of the major art galleries in Europe (Florence, London, Madrid, St. Petersburg, Paris, Vienna) and there exists to this day. History[edit]

Alte Pinakothek, hand-painted photograph, c. 1890

The Wittelsbach
collection was begun by Duke Wilhelm IV (1508–1550) who ordered important contemporary painters to create several history paintings, including The Battle of Alexander at Issus
The Battle of Alexander at Issus
of Albrecht Altdorfer. Elector Maximilian I (1597–1651) commissioned in 1616 four hunt paintings from Peter Paul Rubens[3] and acquired many other paintings, especially the work of Albrecht Dürer. He even obtained The Four Apostles
The Four Apostles
in the year 1627 due to pressure on the Nuremberg city fathers. A few years later however 21 paintings were confiscated and moved to Sweden during the occupation of Munich
in the Thirty Years war. Maximilian's grandson Maximilian II Emanuel (1679–1726) purchased a large number of Dutch and Flemish paintings when he was Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. So he bought for example in 1698 in Antwerp from Gisbert van Colen 12 pictures of Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
and 13 of Van Dyck, with the pictures of Rubens from the personal estate of the artist which were therefore not intended for sale. Under Max Emanuel's successors, the purchases were largely discontinued due to the tight budget.[4] Also Max Emanuel's cousin Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (1690–1716) collected Netherlandish paintings. He ordered from Peter Paul Rubens The Big Last Judgment and received Raphael's Canigiani Holy Family as a dowry of his wife. Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria
(1742-1799) had a strong preference for Netherlandish paintings as well, among other paintings he acquired Rembrandt's The Holy Family. By the late 18th century a large number of the paintings were displayed in Schleissheim Palace, and accessible to the public.

Room IX

After the reunion of Bavaria
and the Electorate of the Palatinate
Electorate of the Palatinate
in 1777, the galleries of Mannheim, Düsseldorf
and Zweibrücken
were moved to Munich, in part to protect the collections during the wars which followed the French revolution. Even though 72 paintings including The Battle of Alexander at Issus
The Battle of Alexander at Issus
were taken to Paris in 1800 by the invading armies of Napoleon I
Napoleon I
(1769–1821),[5] who was a noted admirer of Alexander the Great. The Louvre
held it until 1804, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor of France and took it for his own use. When the Prussians captured the Château de Saint-Cloud
Château de Saint-Cloud
in 1814 as part of the War of the Sixth Coalition, they supposedly found the painting hanging in Napoleon's bathroom.[6] Most of the paintings have not been returned. With the secularisation many paintings from churches and former monasteries entered into state hands. King Ludwig I of Bavaria collected especially Early German and Early Dutch paintings but also masterpieces of the Italian renaissance. In 1827 he acquired the collection Boisserée with 216 Old German and Old Dutch masters; in 1828, the king managed to also purchase the collection of the Prince Wallerstein, with 219 Upper German and Upper Swabian paintings. In 1838 Johann Georg von Dillis
Johann Georg von Dillis
issued the first catalogue. After the times of King Ludwig I the acquisitions almost ended. Only from 1875 the directors Franz von Reber
Franz von Reber
and Hugo von Tschudi
Hugo von Tschudi
secured important new acquisitions, such as the Madonna of the Carnation
Madonna of the Carnation
of Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and The Disrobing of Christ of El Greco. The predilection of the Wittelsbach
rulers for some painters made the collection quite strong in those areas but neglected others. Since the 1960s the Pinakothek has filled some of these gaps: for example, a deficit of 18th-century paintings was addressed by the integration into the collection of works loaned from two Bavarian banks. Among these paintings were Nicolas Lancret's The Bird Cage and François Boucher's Madame Pompadour. In April 1988, the serial vandal Hans-Joachim Bohlmann splashed acid on three paintings by Albrecht Dürer, namely Lamentation for Christ, Paumgartner Altar and Mater Dolarosa[7] inflicting damage estimated at 35 million euros. In 1990 Dierick Bouts' Ecce agnus dei was acquired.[8] On 5 August 2014, the museum rejected a request by a descendant of the banker Carl Hagen for the repatriation of Jacob Ochtervelt's Das Zitronenscheibchen (The Lemon Slice) on the grounds that it had been unlawfully acquired as a result of Nazi persecution. An investigation by the museum established that it had been lawfully purchased at the time for a fair price and that the Hagen family's interest extended only to a security on the painting.[9] Collection[edit]

Kreuzigung Christi (English: Crucifixion of Christ) by Lucas Cranach the Elder

The museum is under the supervision of the Bavarian State Painting Collections which also owns an expanded collection of several thousand European paintings from the 13th to 18th centuries. Especially its collection of Early Italian, Old German, Old Dutch and Flemish paintings is one of the most important in the world. More than 800 of these paintings are exhibited at the Old Pinakothek. Due to limited space in the building, some associated galleries throughout Bavaria
such as the baroque galleries in Schleissheim Palace and Neuburg Palace additionally have works by the Old Masters on display. From 2014 through 2017, wings of the museum will be sequentially closed for renovation, and the artworks in closed sections will be unavailable for viewing.[10]

German paintings 14th–17th century:

The Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek
comes with the most comprehensive collection of German Old Masters worldwide. Among many others, the Pinakothek shows works of Stefan Lochner
Stefan Lochner
(Adoration of the Christ Child by the Virgin (The Nativity)), Michael Pacher
Michael Pacher
(Altarpiece of the Church Fathers), Martin Schongauer
Martin Schongauer
(Holy Family), Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
(The Four Apostles, Paumgartner Altar, Self-portrait
in Fur Coat), Hans Baldung Grien (Margrave Christoph of Baden), Albrecht Altdorfer
Albrecht Altdorfer
(The Battle of Issus), Cranach (Lamentation Beneath the Cross), Holbein (St. Sebastian Altar; Central panel: Martyrdom of St. Sebastian), Matthias Grünewald (SS. Erasmus und Maurice), Hans von Aachen
Hans von Aachen
(The Triumph of Truth), Adam Elsheimer
Adam Elsheimer
(The Flight into Egypt), and Johann Liss
Johann Liss
(Death of Cleopatra).

Early Netherlandish paintings 15th–16th century:

One of the most impressive collections worldwide especially for Early Netherlandish paintings with masterpieces for example of Rogier van der Weyden (Saint Columba altarpiece), Dieric Bouts
Dieric Bouts
(Ecce Agnus Dei), Lucas van Leyden
Lucas van Leyden
(Virgin and Child with Mary Magdalen and a Donor), Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
(Fragment from the Last Judgment), Hans Memling
Hans Memling
(The Seven Joys of the Virgin), and Jan Gossaert, aka. Mabuse (Danae).

Dutch paintings 17th–18th century:

Due to the passion of the Wittelsbach
rulers this section contains numerous exquisite paintings. Among the masters are Rembrandt
van Rijn (The Deposition, The Holy Family), Frans Hals
Frans Hals
(Portrait of Willem Croes), Pieter Lastman
Pieter Lastman
(Odysseus and Nausikaa), Carel Fabritius (Self-Portrait), Gerard Terborch
Gerard Terborch
(The Flea-Catcher (Boy with His Dog)), Jacob van Ruisdael
Jacob van Ruisdael
(Torrent with Oak Trees) and many others.

Flemish paintings 16th–18th century:

The collection contains masterpieces of painters like Jan Mabuse (Danae), Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
(Harbour Scene with Christ Preaching, The Land of Cockaigne), Jan Brueghel the Elder
Jan Brueghel the Elder
(Harbour Scene with Christ Preaching), Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
(Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower) (The Fall of the Damned) (The Great Last Judgement), van Dyck (Deposition; Self-Portrait, "Susanna and the Elders"), Jacob Jordaens
Jacob Jordaens
(Satyr with Peasants) and Adriaen Brouwer (Village Barbar's Shop).

The Rubens Collection is the largest one worldwide.

Leonardo da Vinci's Virgin and Child (Madonna of the Carnation)

Italian paintings 13th–18th century:

The Italian Gothic paintings are the oldest of the gallery, among them Giotto's famous The Last Supper, then all Schools of Italian Renaissance
and Baroque
Painting are represented with works of Fra Angelico (Entombment of Christ), Domenico Ghirlandaio
Domenico Ghirlandaio
(Virgin and Child with SS. Dominici, Michael, John the Baptist and John the Evangelist), Sandro Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli
(Lamentation of Christ), Fra Filippo Lippi (The Annunciation), Lorenzo Lotto
Lorenzo Lotto
(The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine), Raphael
(The Canigiani Holy Family) (Madonna della tenda), (Madonna Tempi), Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
(Madonna of the Carnation), Antonello da Messina
Antonello da Messina
(Annunciata), Titian
(Vanity) (Charles V), Tintoretto
(Christ in the House of Mary and Martha), Guido Reni
Guido Reni
(The Assumption of the Virgin), Luca Giordano
Luca Giordano
(A cynical philosopher), Tiepolo (The Adoration of the Kings), Francesco Guardi
Francesco Guardi
(Regatta on the Canale della Guidecca), Canaletto
(Piazetta in Venice) and others.

French paintings 16th–18th century:

In spite of the close relationship of the Wittelsbach
to France it is the second smallest section with works, for example, of Claude Lorrain (The Expulsion of Hagar), Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
(Midas and Bacchus), François Boucher
François Boucher
(Madame de Pompadour) (Reclining Girl), Nicolas Lancret (The Bird Cage), Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin
(Woman Cleaning Turnips), Maurice-Quentin de la Tour
Maurice-Quentin de la Tour
(Mademoiselle Ferrand Meditating on Newton), Claude Joseph Vernet
Claude Joseph Vernet
(Eastern Harbour at Dawn) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard
Jean-Honoré Fragonard
(Girl with Dog).

Spanish paintings 16th–18th century:

Though this is the smallest section all major masters are represented, such as El Greco
El Greco
(The Disrobing of Christ), de la Cruz (Infant Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain), Velázquez (Young Spanish Gentleman), Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera
(Saint Bartholomew), Francisco de Zurbarán (The Entombment of St. Catharine of Alexandria on Mount Sinai) and Murillo (Beggar Boys Eating Grapes and Melon). The paintings of Francisco de Goya were moved into the New Pinakothek.

Gallery[edit] Selected pieces:

Giotto di Bondone, Christ on the Cross Between Mary and John, c. 1300

Albrecht Dürer, Self-portrait, 1500

Jacopo de' Barbari
Jacopo de' Barbari
(c. 1440–before 1516), Still-Life with Partridge and Gauntlets, 1504

Raphael, Madonna Tempi, 1508

Titian, Vanity, c. 1516

Pieter Bruegel, The Land of Cockaigne (1567)

Albrecht Altdorfer, The Battle of Issus, 1529

Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia, 1599

Peter Paul Rubens, Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower, 1609

Adam Elsheimer, The Flight into Egypt, c. 1609

Anthony van Dyck, Self Portrait, c. 1621

van Rijn, The Sacrifice of Isaac, 1636

Gerard ter Borch, The Flea-Catcher

Murillo, Beggar Boys Eating Grapes and Melon, c. 1645-1655

François Boucher, Reclining girl (Marie-Louise O'Murphy, 1737-1818)

François Boucher, Madame de Pompadour, 1756

Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Girl with Dog, 1770-1775


^ "Alte Pinakothek". pinakothek.de. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.  ^ "The Pinakothek". Trip advisor. Retrieved 19 July 2014.  ^ "Natural History and History Painting in Rubens' Animals". Max Planck Institute.  ^ "ALTE PINAKOTHEK REVIEW". Fodor's. Retrieved 19 July 2014.  ^ Alte Pinakothek, pp. 24–29 ^ Wood, p. 22 ^ Jane Campbell Hutchison (2000). Albrecht Dürer: a guide to research. Taylor & Francis. p. 283. ISBN 0-8153-2114-7.  ^ "pinakothek.de - Förderer und Partner". Pinakothek.de. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2014.  ^ " Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek
rejects restitution claim for Das Zitronenscheibchen' by Jacob Ochtervelt". codart.nl.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-17. 


Alte Pinakothek. Summary Catalogue. Edition Lipp, 1986. ISBN 3-87490-701-5. Wood, Christopher S. (1993). Albrecht Altdorfer
Albrecht Altdorfer
and the Origins of Landscape. Reaktion Books. ISBN 0-948462-46-9. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alte Pinakothek.

Official website (in German) Panorama Alte Pinakothek

v t e

district in Munich

Königsplatz Glyptothek Staatliche Antikensammlung Lenbachhaus Alte Pinakothek Neue Pinakothek Pinakothek der Moderne Museum Brandhorst Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst

Coordinates: 48°08′54″N 11°34′12″E / 48.14833°N 11.57000°E / 48.14833; 11.57000

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 142985185 LCCN: n50061231 ISNI: 0000 0001 2173 5653 GND: 2003891-4 SELIBR: 227482 SUDOC: 02759162X BNF: cb12042489f (data) ULAN: 50030