Almanach de Gotha
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The ''Almanach de Gotha'' (german: Gothaischer Hofkalender) is a directory of Europe's
royalty Royalty may refer to: * Kingship of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg"> Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of conte ...
and higher
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
, also including the major
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
al,
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
and
diplomatic corps The diplomatic corps (french: corps diplomatique) is the collective body of foreign diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of lang ...
, as well as statistical data by country. First published in 1763 by C.W. Ettinger in
Gotha Gotha () is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazi ...
in
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
, Germany at the
ducal A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the f ...

ducal
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...

court
of
Frederick IIIFrederick III may refer to: * Frederick III, Duke of Upper Lorraine (died 1033) * Frederick III, Duke of Swabia (1122–1190) * Friedrich III, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1220–1297) * Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1240–1302) * Frederick III of Sici ...

Frederick III
, Duke of
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg () was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany. The extinction of the line in 1825 led to a major re-organisation of the Thuringian states. History In 1640 ...
, it came to be regarded as an authority in the classification of monarchies and their courts, reigning and former dynasties, princely and ducal families, and the genealogical, biographical and titulary details of Europe's highest level of aristocracy. It was published from 1785 annually by
Justus Perthes Johann Georg Justus Perthes (11 September 1749, Rudolstadt Rudolstadt is a town in the German States of Germany, federal state Thuringia, with the Thuringian Forest to the southwest, and to Jena and Weimar to the north. The former capital of ...
Publishing House in Gotha, until 1944. The
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
s destroyed the ''Almanach de Gotha's'' archives in 1945. In 1992, the family of Justus Perthes re-established its right to use the name ''Almanach de Gotha''. In 1998, a London-based publisher, John Kennedy, acquired the rights for use of the title of ''Almanach de Gotha'' from Justus Perthes Verlag Gotha GmbH, then a 100% daughter of Ernst Klett Schulbuchverlag GmbH, Stuttgart. The last edition produced by Justus Perthes was the 181st, produced in 1944. After a gap of 54 years the first of the new editions (the 182nd) was published in 1998 with English, the new diplomatic language, used as the ''lingua franca'' in the place of French or German. Perthes regards the resultant volumes as new works, and not as a continuation of the editions which Perthes had published from 1785 to 1944. Two volumes have been printed since 1998, with Volume I containing lists of the sovereign, formerly sovereign and
mediatised In politics and law, mediatisation () is the loss of Imperial immediacy, immediacy, the status of persons not subject to local lords but only to a higher authority directly, such as the Holy Roman Emperor. In a Feudalism, feudal context, it is the ...

mediatised
houses of Europe, and a diplomatic and statistical directory; and Volume II containing lists of the non-sovereign princely and ducal houses of Europe.


Gotha publication, 1763–1944

The original ''Almanach de Gotha'' provided detailed facts and statistics on nations of the world, including their
reign A reign is the period of a person's or dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university pres ...
ing and formerly reigning houses, those of Europe being more complete than those of other continents. It also named the highest incumbent officers of state, members of the
diplomatic corps The diplomatic corps (french: corps diplomatique) is the collective body of foreign diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of lang ...
, and Europe's upper nobility with their families. At its most extensive the ''Almanach'' had more than 1200 pages, fewer than half of which were dedicated to monarchical or aristocratic data.Almanach de Gotha.
Justus Perthes Johann Georg Justus Perthes (11 September 1749, Rudolstadt Rudolstadt is a town in the German States of Germany, federal state Thuringia, with the Thuringian Forest to the southwest, and to Jena and Weimar to the north. The former capital of ...

Justus Perthes
, Gotha, 1944, pp. 7-12, 131, 169, 363-364, 558, 581-584. French.
It acquired a reputation for the breadth and precision of its information on royalty and nobility compared to other
almanac An almanac (also spelled ''almanack'' and ''almanach'') is an annual publication Annual publications, more often simply called annuals, are periodical publications appearing regularly once per year."Annuals", in ''Encyclopedia of library and info ...
s. The ''Almanachs publication by
Justus Perthes Johann Georg Justus Perthes (11 September 1749, Rudolstadt Rudolstadt is a town in the German States of Germany, federal state Thuringia, with the Thuringian Forest to the southwest, and to Jena and Weimar to the north. The former capital of ...

Justus Perthes
began at the ducal court of
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine, Thuringian states, Thuringian duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day ...
in Germany. The almanac listed the reigning dynasty of that court first well into the 19th century, usually followed by kindred sovereigns of the
House of Wettin The House of Wettin () is a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of th ...
and then, in alphabetical order, other families of princely rank, reigning and non-reigning. Although always published in French, other almanacs in French and English were more widely sold internationally. The almanac's structure changed and its scope expanded over the years. The second portion, called the ''Annuaire diplomatique et statistique'' ("Diplomatic and Statistical Yearbook"), provided
demographic Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period ...

demographic
and governmental information by nation, similar to other
almanac An almanac (also spelled ''almanack'' and ''almanach'') is an annual publication Annual publications, more often simply called annuals, are periodical publications appearing regularly once per year."Annuals", in ''Encyclopedia of library and info ...
s. Its first portion, called the ''Annuaire généalogique'' ("Genealogical Yearbook"), came to consist essentially of three sections: reigning and formerly reigning families, mediatized families and non-sovereign families at least one of whose members bore the title of prince or duke. The first section always listed Europe's
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''superānus'', meaning "above". The roles of a sovereign v ...
houses, whether they reigned as emperor, king, grand duke, duke, prince, or some other title such as
prince elector Choosing the king. Above: the three ecclesiastical princes choosing the king, pointing at him. Middle: the Count Palatine of the Rhine hands over a golden bowl, acting as a servant. Behind him, the Duke of Saxony with his marshal's staff and th ...
,
margrave Margrave was originally the medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the ...
,
landgrave Landgrave (german: Landgraf, nl, landgraaf, sv, lantgreve, french: landgrave; la, comes magnus, ', ', ', ', ') was a noble title Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility Nobility is a social class normall ...
,
count palatine A count palatine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
or
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
. Until 1810 these sovereign houses were listed alongside such families and entities as Barbiano-Belgiojoso, Clary, Colloredo, Furstenberg, the Emperor, Genoa, Gonzaga, Hatzfeld, Jablonowski, Kinsky, Ligne, Paar, Radziwill, Starhemberg, Thurn and Taxis, Turkey, Venice, the
Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta ( it, Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta; ...
and the
Teutonic Knights The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: la, Ordo domus Sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum; german: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly known ...
. In 1812, these entries began to be listed in groups: first were German sovereigns who held the rank of grand duke or prince elector and above (the Duke of Saxe-Gotha was, however, listed here along with, but before, France—see below). Listed next were Germany's reigning ducal and princely dynasties under the heading "College of Princes", e.g.
Hohenzollern The House of Hohenzollern (, also , , german: Haus Hohenzollern, ro, Casa de Hohenzollern) is a German royal dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford ...

Hohenzollern
, Isenburg, Leyen,
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein ( ; ), officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (german: link=no, Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europ ...

Liechtenstein
and the other
Saxon duchies The Ernestine duchies (), also known as the Saxon duchies (''Sächsische Herzogtümer'', although the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg and Zeitz were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changi ...
. They were followed by heads of non-German monarchies, such as Austria, Brazil, and Great Britain. Fourth were listed non-reigning dukes and princes, whether mediatized or not, including
Arenberg Arenberg, also spelled as Aremberg or Ahremberg, is a former county, principality and finally duchy that was located in what is now Germany. The Duke of Arenberg, Dukes of Arenberg remain a prominent Belgian nobility#Dukes in the Belgian nobility ...
, Croy, Furstenberg alongside Batthyany, Jablonowski, Sulkowski, Porcia and
Benevento Benevento (, , ; la, Beneventum; Beneventano: ''Beneviénte'') is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance ...
. In 1841 a third section was added to those of the sovereign dynasties and the non-reigning princely and ducal families. It was composed exclusively of the mediatized families of
comital Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...
rank recognized by the various states of the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
as belonging, since 1825, to the same historical category and sharing some of the same privileges as reigning dynasties; these families were German with a few exceptions (e.g. Bentinck, Rechteren-Limpurg). The 1815 treaty of the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
had authorized – and Article 14 of the German Confederation's ''Bundesakt'' (charter) recognized – retention from the German Imperial regime of equality of birth for marital purposes of mediatized families (called ''Standesherren'') to reigning dynasties. In 1877, the mediatized comital families were moved from section III to section II A, where they joined the princely mediatized families. In the third section were members of such non-reigning but historically notable families as Rohan,
Orsini Orsini is a surname of Italian origin, ultimately derived from Latin ''ursinus'' ("bearlike") and originating as an epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and hav ...
,
Ursel Ursel is a Flemish surname: Place Ursel, town in Flanders, part of Knesselare Knesselare () is a former Municipalities of Belgium, municipality located in the Belgium, Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the towns of Kn ...
,
Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambe ...
,
Czartoryski Czartoryski (feminine form: Czartoryska, plural: Czartoryscy; lt, Čartoriskiai) is a Princely Houses of Poland, Polish princely family of Lithuanian-Ruthenians, Ruthenian origin, also known as the Familia (political party), Familia. The family, ...
,
Galitzine The Golitsyn or Galitzine family was one of the largest princely of the Russian nobility, noble houses in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire. Among them were boyars, voivode, warlords, diplomats, generals (the Mikhailovichs), steward (offic ...
, La Rochefoucauld,
Kinsky The House of Kinsky (formerly Vchynští, sg. ''Vchynský'' in Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a ...
, Radziwill, Merode,
Dohna Dohna is a town in the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge Saxon Switzerland-Eastern Ore Mountains (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ...
and
Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) ...
. Other
deposed Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch.
ORB: The Online Reference for Medi ...
European dynasties (e.g.
Arenberg Arenberg, also spelled as Aremberg or Ahremberg, is a former county, principality and finally duchy that was located in what is now Germany. The Duke of Arenberg, Dukes of Arenberg remain a prominent Belgian nobility#Dukes in the Belgian nobility ...
, Biron,
Dadiani The House of Dadiani ( ka, დადიანი ) was a Georgia (country), Georgian family of nobles, dukes and princes, and a ruling dynasty of the western Georgian province of Principality of Mingrelia, Samegrelo (Mingrelia) or Odishi. The H ...
,
Boncompagni The Boncompagni is an Italian noble family from Assisi Assisi (, also , ; from la, Asisium) is a town and ''comune'' of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria Regions of Italy, region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. It is gen ...
- Ludovisi, Giray,
Murat Murat may refer to: Places Australia *Murat Bay, a bay in South Australia **District Council of Murat Bay, the former name of the District Council of Ceduna ** Tourville and Murat Bays Important Bird Area, South Australia *Murat Marine Park, a ma ...
) did not benefit from a similar interpretation of their historical status in the almanac. Many princely or ducal families were listed only in its third, non-dynastic section or were excluded altogether, evoking criticism in the 20th century from such genealogists as Jean-Engelbert, Duke d'Arenberg, William Addams Reitwiesner and Cyril Toumanoff the latter commenting that the changes displayed "pan-German triumphalism" Even in the early 19th century there were objections to the almanac's retention of
deposed Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch.
ORB: The Online Reference for Medi ...
dynasties, although not necessarily the desired changes. The elected Emperor Napoleon protested in writing to his foreign minister, Jean-Baptiste Nompère de Champagny, Champagny:
''Monsieur de Champagny, this year's "Almanach de Gotha" is badly done. First comes the Comte de Lille [title used in exile by the future King Louis XVIII of France], followed by all the princes of the Confederation of the Rhine, Confederation as if no change has been made in the constitution of Germany; the family of France is named inappropriately therein. Summon the Minister of Gotha, who is to be made to understand that in the next Almanach all of this is to be changed. The House of France must be referred to as in the [French] Imperial Almanac; there must be no further mention of the Comte de Lille, nor of any German prince other than those retained by the Articles of Confederation of the Rhine. You are to insist that the article be transmitted to you prior to publication. If other almanacs are printed in my allies' realms with inappropriate references to the Bourbons and the House of France, instruct my ministers to make it known that you have taken note, and that this is to be changed by next year.''
The response of the publishers was to humour Napoleon by producing two editions: one for France, with the recently ennobled, and another which included dynasties deposed since abolition of the Holy Roman Empire. A merged version, whose first section included recently reigning dynasties but also the titulature of families that lost sovereignty after the fall of Napoleon in 1815, remained in publication until 1944, a format which has since been widely replicated in dynastic compilations (e.g. ''Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels'', ''Fürstliche Häuser'', Burke's Peerage, Burke's Royal Families of the World, ''Le Petit Gotha'', Ruvigny's "Titled Nobility of Europe"). In 1887 the ''Almanach'' began to include non-European dynasties in its first section, with the inclusion of one of the ruling families of India.


World War II and aftermath

When
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
troops entered
Gotha Gotha () is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazi ...
in 1945, they systematically destroyed all archives of the ''Almanach de Gotha''. From 1951 to 2013 a different publisher, C.A. Starke, published a multi-volume German-language publication annually entitled the ''Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels'' (:de:Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, GHdA). It was divided into subsets; the ''Fürstliche Häuser'' subset is largely equivalent to the German language ''Gothaischer Hofkalender'' and its ''Fürstlichen Häuser'' volume which was also published by Perthes, or sections 1, 2 and 3 of the ''Almanach de Gotha''. However, no single volume of the ''Fürstliche Häuser'' included all the families included in the ''Hofkalender'' or ''Almanach de Gotha'': It is necessary to use multiple volumes to trace all of Europe's royal families. In 2015 the ''Gothaisches Genealogisches Handbuch'' continued the annual publication of the substantially same content as GHdA.Gothaisches Genealogisches Handbuch der Fürstlchen Häuser, Band I. Verlag des Deutschen Adelsarchivs. Marburg. 2015. (German). .


London publication, since 1998

In 1992 the family of
Justus Perthes Johann Georg Justus Perthes (11 September 1749, Rudolstadt Rudolstadt is a town in the German States of Germany, federal state Thuringia, with the Thuringian Forest to the southwest, and to Jena and Weimar to the north. The former capital of ...

Justus Perthes
re-established its right to the use of the name ''Almanach de Gotha''. The company ''Justus Perthes Verlag Gotha GmbH'' (a subsidiary of ''Ernst Klett Schulbuchverlag GmbH'') then sold these rights in 1995 to a new company, Almanach de Gotha Limited, formed in London. The new publisher launched the 182nd edition on 16 March 1998 at Claridge's Hotel. It was written in English instead of French, as the editor felt that English was now the language of diplomacy. Charlotte Pike served as editor of the 1998 edition only and John Kennedy as managing director and publisher. The new publishers also revived the Committee of Patrons under the presidency of King Juan Carlos I of Spain and chairmanship of King Michael I of Romania. Upon his death, King Michael was succeeded by Albert II, Prince of Monaco. The London publisher produced a further four editions of volume I (1999, 2000, 2003 and 2004), based on the 1998 edition, which included Europe's and South America's reigning, formerly reigning, and German mediatisation, mediatised princely houses, and a single edition of volume II in 2001 edited by John Kennedy and Ghislain Crassard, which included other non-sovereign princely and ducal houses of Europe. A review in ''The Economist'' criticised the low editorial standards and attacked volume II for a lack of genealogical accuracy. A new edition of volume I was published in 2012 under the editorship of John James. A review in ''The Times Literary Supplement'' praised the 2012 volume I for a "punctilious itemisation of titles, lineage and heraldry [aiming] for scholarship rather than sensation ..."


Structure

As it was the practice of the diplomatic corps to employ official titles, to adhere to local Order of precedence, precedence and etiquette, and to tender congratulations and condolences to members of the dynasty of the nation to which they were assigned, the almanac included a ''Calendrier des Diplomates'' ("Diplomats' Calendar") section, which detailed major national holidays, anniversaries, ceremonies and royal birthdates. Following World War I and the fall of many royal houses, fewer regulatory authorities remained to authenticate the use of titles; however the ''Almanach de Gotha'' continued the practice of strict verification of information, requesting certified copies of letters patent, genealogies confirmed by competent authorities, documents, decrees and references for titles claimed. Europe's middle and lower nobility (families whose principal title ranked below that of prince or duke — except German mediatisation, mediatized families, listed in a section of their own) were not included in the almanac. Nor were the grandees or Portuguese dukedoms, ducal families of Portugal and Spain (where titles, being transmissible through both male and cognatic, female lines, were regularly inherited by descendants of non-patrilineality, patrilineal lineage). Families of some Italian and East European nations (e.g. Russia, Romania), where the princely title was claimed by many, were also incomplete. Yet the reigning, formerly reigning and noble families included in the almanac numbered in the hundreds by the time the almanac ceased publication in 1944. In 1890 the almanac renamed II A to section II, and II B to section III. Dynasties reigning over non-European nations were listed in section I B. Families which became extinct were listed for the final time in the year following the death of the last member, male or female, and subsequent editions referred readers to that volume. Families that ceased to be included for other reasons, such as lack of proof of a family's legitimate descendants or discovery that it did not hold a valid princely or ducal title, were omitted from then on, but added, along with dates of previous insertion, to a list after the last section of each ''Annuaire Genealogique'' (Genealogical Yearbook), which page was entitled ''Liste des Maisons authrefois publiées dans la 3e partie de l'Almanach de Gotha'' ("List of Houses formerly published in the 3rd section of the ''Almanach de Gotha''.") From 1927, the almanac ceased to include all families in each year's edition, and instead rotated entries every few years. Where titles and style (manner of address), styles (such as Serene Highness) had ceased to be recognized by national governments (e.g. Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia), the almanac provided associated dates and details, but continued to attribute such titles and styles to individuals and families, consistent with its practice since the French revolution; deposed sovereigns and dynasties continued to be accorded their former titles and rank, but dates of deposition were noted, and titles exclusively associated with sovereignty (e.g. emperor, queen, grand duke, crown princess) were not accorded to those who had not borne them during the monarchy. Titles of pretender, pretence below sovereign rank were accorded to members of formerly reigning dynasties as reported by heads of their houses, otherwise self-assumed titles were not used. The almanac included an explicit disclaimer announcing that known biographical details, such as birth dates and divorces, would not be suppressed.


See also

* Almanach de Bruxelles (defunct) * Burke's Peerage * Debrett's, Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage * Carnet Mondain * High Life de Belgique * Libro d'Oro * Social Register


References


Further reading

*, contains a History of the Almanach de Gotha 1763–2018. * *Thomas Freiherr von Fritsch, ''Die Gothaischen Taschenbucher Hofkalener und Almanach'' (Starke Verlag, Limburg/Lahn, 1968), is a valuable bibliography and index to the families which appeared in various editions of the Almanach de Gotha.


External links


Almanach de Gotha

Scanned versions of the old almanachs

Almanach de Gotha at Internet Archive
{{DEFAULTSORT:Almanach De Gotha Biographical dictionaries European nobility Genealogy publications Directories Publications established in 1763 Almanacs