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The Info List - Allyl Isothiocyanate





Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(AITC) is the organosulfur compound with the formula CH2CHCH2NCS. This colorless oil is responsible for the pungent taste of mustard, radish, horseradish, and wasabi. This pungency and the lachrymatory effect of AITC are mediated through the TRPA1
TRPA1
and TRPV1
TRPV1
ion channels.[1][2][3] It is slightly soluble in water, but more soluble in most organic solvents.[4]

Contents

1 Biosynthesis and biological functions 2 Commercial and other applications 3 Safety 4 Oncology 5 See also 6 References

Biosynthesis and biological functions[edit] Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
can be obtained from the seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) or brown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). When these mustard seeds are broken, the enzyme myrosinase is released and acts on a glucosinolate known as sinigrin to give allyl isothiocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
serves the plant as a defense against herbivores; since it is harmful to the plant itself, it is stored in the harmless form of the glucosinolate, separate from the myrosinase enzyme. When an animal chews the plant, the allyl isothiocyanate is released, repelling the animal. Commercial and other applications[edit] Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
is produced commercially by the reaction of allyl chloride and potassium thiocyanate:[4]

CH2=CHCH2Cl + KSCN → CH2=CHCH2NCS + KCl

The product obtained in this fashion is sometimes known as synthetic mustard oil. Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
can also be liberated by dry distillation of the seeds. The product obtained in this fashion is known as volatile oil of mustard and is usually around 92% pure. It is used principally as a flavoring agent in foods. Synthetic allyl isothiocyanate is used as an insecticide, bacteriocide,[5] and nematocide, and is used in certain cases for crop protection.[4] Hydrolysis of allyl isothiocyanate gives allylamine.[6] Safety[edit] Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
has an LD50 of 151 mg/kg and is a lachrymator.[4] Oncology[edit] Based on in vitro experiments and animal models, allyl isothiocyanate exhibits many of the desirable attributes of a cancer chemopreventive agent.[7] See also[edit]

Mustard plaster, traditional home remedy Piperine, the active piquant chemical in black pepper Capsaicin, the active piquant chemical in chili peppers Allicin, the active piquant flavor chemical in raw garlic

References[edit]

^ Everaerts, W.; Gees, M.; Alpizar, Y. A.; Farre, R.; Leten, C.; Apetrei, A.; Dewachter, I.; van Leuven, F.; et al. (2011). "The Capsaicin
Capsaicin
Receptor TRPV1
TRPV1
is a Crucial Mediator of the Noxious Effects of Mustard Oil". Current Biology. 21 (4): 316–321. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.01.031. PMID 21315593.  ^ Brône, B.; Peeters, P. J.; Marrannes, R.; Mercken, M.; Nuydens, R.; Meert, T.; Gijsen, H. J. (2008). "Tear gasses CN, CR, and CS are potent activators of the human TRPA1
TRPA1
receptor". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 231 (2): 150–156. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2008.04.005. PMID 18501939.  ^ Ryckmans, T.; Aubdool, A. A.; Bodkin, J. V.; Cox, P.; Brain, S. D.; Dupont, T.; Fairman, E.; Hashizume, Y.; Ishii, N.; et al. (2011). "Design and Pharmacological Evaluation of PF-4840154, a Non-Electrophilic Reference Agonist of the TrpA1 Channel". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 21 (16): 4857–4859. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.06.035. PMID 21741838.  ^ a b c d Romanowski, F.; Klenk, H. (2005), " Thiocyanates
Thiocyanates
and Isothiocyanates, Organic", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a26_749  ^ Shin, I. S.; Masuda, H.; Naohide, K. (2004). "Bactericidal Activity of Wasabi
Wasabi
(Wasabia japonica) against Helicobacter pylori". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 94 (3): 255–261. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00297-6. PMID 15246236.  ^ Leffler, M. T. (1938). "Allylamine". Organic Syntheses. 18: 5. ; Collective Volume, 2, p. 24  ^ Zhang, Y (2010). " Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 54 (1): 127–35. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200900323. PMC 2814364 . PMID 19960458. 

v t e

Cruciferous biochemistry

Types of compounds

Phenylthiocarbamide
Phenylthiocarbamide
(PTC/PTU) Thiocyanates Nitriles Indoles Gibberellin

Glucosinolates

Glucobrassicin Glucocapparin Glucoraphanin Gluconasturtiin Glucotropaeolin Progoitrin Sinigrin Sinalbin

Isothiocyanates
Isothiocyanates
(ITC, mustard oils)

Sulforaphane
Sulforaphane
(SFN) Raphanin Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(AITC) Methyl isothiocyanate
Methyl isothiocyanate
(MITC) Benzyl isothiocyanate
Benzyl isothiocyanate
(BITC) Fluorescein isothiocyanate
Fluorescein isothiocyanate
(FITC) Phenyl isothiocyanate
Phenyl isothiocyanate
(PITC) Phenethyl isothiocyanate
Phenethyl isothiocyanate
(PEITC) 6-MITC

Bioactive metabolites

Goitrin Indole-3-carbinol

Brassicaceae
Brassicaceae
(Cruciferous vegetables): Brassica Raphanus Cruciferous Biochemistry genera (list)

v t e

TRP channel modulators

TRPA

Activators

4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene
Cannabichromene
(cannabis) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde
(cinnamon) CR gas
CR gas
(dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas
CS gas
(2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin
Curcumin
(turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine
Dicentrine
( Lindera
Lindera
spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool
Linalool
(Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate
Methyl salicylate
(wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Oleocanthal
Oleocanthal
(olive oil) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide
Thiopropanal S-oxide
(onion) Umbellulone
Umbellulone
(Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2

Blockers

Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Ruthenium red

TRPC

Activators

Adhyperforin
Adhyperforin
(St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin
Hyperforin
(St John's wort) Substance P

Blockers

DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid

TRPM

Activators

ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium
Calcium
(intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol
(eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol
Menthol
(mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23

Blockers

Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO

TRPML

Activators

MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22

TRPP

Activators

Triptolide
Triptolide
(Tripterygium wilfordii)

Blockers

Ruthenium red

TRPV

Activators

2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor
Camphor
(camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
(cannabis) Capsaicin
Capsaicin
(chili pepper) Carvacrol
Carvacrol
(oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin
Dihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol
Eugenol
(basil, clove) Evodiamine
Evodiamine
(Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin
Homocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin
Homodihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Incensole
Incensole
(incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol
Menthol
(mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide
Nonivamide
(PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin
Nordihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) Phorbol esters
Phorbol esters
(e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine
Piperine
(black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin
Resiniferatoxin
(RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
(cannabis) Thymol
Thymol
(thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin
Tinyatoxin
(Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin
Vanillin
(vanilla) Zucapsaicin

Blockers

α- Spinasterol
Spinasterol
( Vernonia
Vernonia
tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol
Cannabinol
(cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators

v t e

Xenobiotic-sensing receptor modulators

CAR

Agonists: 6,7-Dimethylesculetin Amiodarone Artemisinin Benfuracarb Carbamazepine Carvedilol Chlorpromazine Chrysin CITCO Clotrimazole Cyclophosphamide Cypermethrin DHEA (prasterone) Efavirenz Ellagic acid Griseofulvin Methoxychlor Mifepristone Nefazodone Nevirapine Nicardipine Octicizer Permethrin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Pregnanedione (5β-dihydroprogesterone) Reserpine TCPOBOP Telmisartan Tolnaftate Troglitazone Valproic acid

Antagonists: 3,17β-Estradiol 3α-Androstanol 3α-Androstenol 3β-Androstanol 17-Androstanol AITC Ethinylestradiol Meclizine Nigramide J Okadaic acid PK-11195 S-07662 T-0901317

PXR

Agonists: 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone Δ4-Androstenedione Δ5-Androstenediol Δ5-Androstenedione AA-861 Allopregnanediol Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone) Allopregnanolone
Allopregnanolone
(brexanolone) Alpha-Lipoic acid Ambrisentan AMI-193 Amlodipine besylate Antimycotics Artemisinin Aurothioglucose Bile acids Bithionol Bosentan Bumecaine Cafestol Cephaloridine Cephradine Chlorpromazine Ciglitazone Clindamycin Clofenvinfos Chloroxine Clotrimazole Colforsin Corticosterone Cyclophosphamide Cyproterone acetate Demecolcine Dexamethasone DHEA (prasterone) DHEA-S (prasterone sulfate) Dibunate sodium Diclazuril Dicloxacillin Dimercaprol Dinaline Docetaxel Docusate calcium Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid Dronabinol Droxidopa Eburnamonine Ecopipam Enzacamene Epothilone B Erythromycin Famprofazone Febantel Felodipine Fenbendazole Fentanyl Flucloxacillin Fluorometholone Griseofulvin Guggulsterone Haloprogin Hetacillin potassium Hyperforin Hypericum perforatum
Hypericum perforatum
(St John's wort) Indinavir sulfate Lasalocid sodium Levothyroxine Linolenic acid LOE-908 Loratadine Lovastatin Meclizine Metacycline Methylprednisolone Metyrapone Mevastatin Mifepristone Nafcillin Nicardipine Nicotine Nifedipine Nilvadipine Nisoldipine Norelgestromin Omeprazole Orlistat Oxatomide Paclitaxel Phenobarbital Piperine Plicamycin Prednisolone Pregnanediol Pregnanedione (5β-dihydroprogesterone) Pregnanolone Pregnenolone Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
16α-carbonitrile Proadifen Progesterone Quingestrone Reserpine Reverse triiodothyronine Rifampicin Rifaximin Rimexolone Riodipine Ritonavir Simvastatin Sirolimus Spironolactone Spiroxatrine SR-12813 Suberoylanilide Sulfisoxazole Suramin Tacrolimus Tenylidone Terconazole Testosterone isocaproate Tetracycline Thiamylal sodium Thiothixene Thonzonium bromide Tianeptine Troglitazone Troleandomycin Tropanyl 3,5-dimethulbenzoate Zafirlukast Zeranol

Antagonists: Ketoconazole Sesamin

See also Receptor/signaling modulators Nuclear recepto

.