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The Info List - Allies Of World War II


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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations
United Nations
from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers
Axis powers
during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France, Poland and the United Kingdom, and dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions
Dominions
of the British Commonwealth: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.[1] After the start of the German invasion of North Europe till the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium, Greece, and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany. The United States
United States
provided war material and money all along, and officially joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. China had already been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
of 1937, but officially joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations
United Nations
was rarely used to describe the Allies during the war. The leaders of the "Big Three"—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States—controlled Allied strategy; relations between the United Kingdom and the United States
United States
were especially close. China and the Big Three were referred as a "trusteeship of the powerful",[2] then were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in a Declaration by United Nations[3] and later as the "Four Policemen" of the United Nations. In 1945, the Allied nations became the basis of the United Nations.[4]

Contents

1 Origins and creation 2 Major affiliated state combatants

2.1 United Kingdom

2.1.1 War declared

2.1.1.1 Colonies and dependencies

2.1.1.1.1 In Africa 2.1.1.1.2 In the Americas 2.1.1.1.3 In Asia 2.1.1.1.4 In Europe

2.2 China

2.2.1 Factions

2.2.1.1 Nationalists 2.2.1.2 Communists

2.3 France

2.3.1 War declared 2.3.2 Colonies and dependencies

2.3.2.1 In Africa 2.3.2.2 In Asia and Oceania 2.3.2.3 In the Americas

2.4 Soviet Union

2.4.1 Outbreak 2.4.2 History

2.5 United States

2.5.1 War justifications 2.5.2 History 2.5.3 Colonies and dependencies

2.5.3.1 In the Americas and the Pacific 2.5.3.2 In Asia

3 Minor affiliated state combatants

3.1 Australia 3.2 Belgium

3.2.1 Colonies and dependencies

3.3 Brazil 3.4 Canada 3.5 Cuba 3.6 Czechoslovakia 3.7 Dominican Republic 3.8 Greece 3.9 Luxembourg 3.10 Mexico 3.11 Netherlands

3.11.1 Colonies and dependencies

3.12 New Zealand 3.13 Norway 3.14 Poland 3.15 Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea 3.16 South Africa 3.17 Yugoslavia

3.17.1 Resistance factions

3.17.1.1 Partisans 3.17.1.2 Chetniks

4 Client states

4.1 British

4.1.1 Egypt 4.1.2 British Raj
British Raj
(India) 4.1.3 Iraq 4.1.4 Iran

4.2 Soviet

4.2.1 Bulgaria 4.2.2 Mongolia 4.2.3 Poland (Gomułka regime) 4.2.4 Romania 4.2.5 Tannu Tuva

5 Co-belligerent state combatants

5.1 Italy

6 Associated power

6.1 Albania

7 United Nations

7.1 Declaration by United Nations 7.2 Alliance growing 7.3 Charter of the United Nations

8 Timeline of nations entering war on the Allied Powers

8.1 1939 8.2 1940 8.3 1941 8.4 Provisional governments or governments-in exile that declared war against the Axis in 1941 8.5 1942 8.6 1943 8.7 1944 8.8 1945

9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Origins and creation Main articles: Causes of World War II
World War II
and Grand Alliance (World War II) The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles. The new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. With the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression, political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles. By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
led by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, and German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia. The likelihood of war was high, and the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria
Manchuria
in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations
League of Nations
in March 1933. After four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China. The League of Nations
League of Nations
condemned Japan's actions and initiated sanctions on Japan. The United States, in particular, was angered at Japan and sought to support China.

Poland first to fight — British wartime poster supporting Poland after the German invasion, 1939

In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, and demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war. On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country. Also, the French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland; two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany. Then, on 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile
Polish government-in-exile
was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and quickly defeated Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and France. Britain and its Empire stood alone against Hitler and Mussolini. In June 1941, Hitler broke the non-aggression agreement with Stalin and Germany invaded the Soviet Union. In December, Japan attacked the US and Britain. The main lines of World War II
World War II
had formed. Major affiliated state combatants Main articles: Four Policemen
Four Policemen
and Diplomatic history of World War II During December 1941, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
devised the name "United Nations" for the Allies and proposed it to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.[5][6] He referred to the Big Three and China as a "trusteeship of the powerful", and then later the "Four Policemen".[2] The Declaration by United Nations
United Nations
on 1 January 1942 was the basis of the modern United Nations
United Nations
(UN).[7] At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States
United States
"should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", and soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC.[8] United Kingdom Further information: Military history of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during World War II

British Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
fighter aircraft (bottom) flying past a German Heinkel He-111
Heinkel He-111
bomber aircraft (top) during the Battle of Britain (1940)

British Crusader tanks during the North African Campaign

British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal under attack from Italian aircraft during the Battle of Cape Spartivento
Battle of Cape Spartivento
(Nov. 27, 1940)

British soldiers of the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
in Elst, Netherlands
Netherlands
on 2 March 1945

War declared Great Britain
Great Britain
and other members of the British Commonwealth, most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September 1939 with the UK first, all within one week of each other; these countries were Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India
India
and South Africa. Colonies and dependencies Further information: British Empire in World War II In Africa Further information: Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
in World War II British West Africa
British West Africa
and the British colonies in East and Southern Africa participated, mainly in the North African, East African and Middle-Eastern theatres. Two West African and one East African division served in the Burma
Burma
Campaign. Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
was a self-governing colony, having received responsible government in 1923. It was not a sovereign dominion. It governed itself internally and controlled its own armed forces, but had no diplomatic autonomy, and, therefore, was officially at war as soon as Britain was at war. The Southern Rhodesian colonial government issued a symbolic declaration of war nevertheless on 3 September 1939, which made no difference diplomatically, but preceded the declarations of war made by all other British dominions and colonies.[9] In the Americas These included: the British West Indies, British Honduras, British Guiana and the Falkland Islands. Newfoundland was ruled as a royal colony in 1933–49, with a governor appointed by London who made the decisions. In Asia Further information: India
India
in World War II
World War II
and Indian Army during World War II British India
India
included the areas and peoples covered by later India, Bangladesh, Pakistan
Pakistan
and (until 1937) Burma/Myanmar, which later became a separate colony. British Malaya
British Malaya
covers the areas of Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia
and Singapore, while British Borneo
British Borneo
covers the area of Brunei, including Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
of Malaysia. Territories controlled by the Colonial Office, namely the Crown Colonies, were controlled politically by the UK and therefore also entered hostilities with Britain's declaration of war. At the outbreak of World War II, the British Indian Army
British Indian Army
numbered 205,000 men. Later during World War II, the Indian Army became the largest all-volunteer force in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in size.[10] These forces included tank, artillery and airborne forces. Indian soldiers earned 30 Victoria Crosses during the Second World War. It suffered 87,000 military casualties (more than any Crown colony but fewer than the United Kingdom). The UK suffered 382,000 military casualties. Protectorates included: Kuwait was a protectorate of the United Kingdom formally established in 1920. The Trucial States
Trucial States
were protectorates in the Persian Gulf. Palestine was a mandate dependency created in the peace agreements after World War I
World War I
from former territory of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq. In Europe The Cyprus Regiment
Cyprus Regiment
was formed by the British Government during the Second World War and made part of the British Army structure. It was mostly Greek Cypriot volunteers and Turkish speaking Cypriot inhabitants of Cyprus but also included other Commonwealth nationalities. On a brief visit to Cyprus in 1943, Winston Churchill praised the "soldiers of the Cyprus Regiment
Cyprus Regiment
who have served honourably on many fields from Libya to Dunkirk". About 30,000 Cypriots served in the Cyprus Regiment. The regiment was involved in action from the very start and served at Dunkirk, in the Greek Campaign (Battle of Greece) (about 600 soldiers were captured in Kalamata
Kalamata
in 1941), North Africa (Operation Compass), France, the Middle East and Italy. Many soldiers were taken prisoner especially at the beginning of the war and were interned in various POW camps (Stalag) including Lamsdorf ( Stalag
Stalag
VIII-B), Stalag
Stalag
IVC at Wistritz bei Teplitz and Stalag
Stalag
4b near Most in the Czech Republic. The soldiers captured in Kalamata
Kalamata
were transported by train to prisoner of war camps. China Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War In the 1920s the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
provided military assistance to the Kuomintang, or the Nationalists and helped reorganize their party along Leninist
Leninist
lines: a unification of party, state, and army. In exchange the Nationalists agreed to let members of the Chinese Communist
Communist
Party join the Nationalists on an individual basis. However, following the nominal unification of China at the end of the Northern Expedition in 1928, Generalissimo
Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
purged leftists from his party and fought against the revolting Chinese Communist
Communist
Party, former warlords, and other militarist factions. A fragmented China provided easy opportunities for Japan to gain territories piece by piece without engaging in total war. Following the 1931 Mukden Incident, the puppet state of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was established. Throughout the early to mid-1930s, Chiang's anti-communist and anti-militarist campaigns continued while he fought small, incessant conflicts against Japan, usually followed by unfavorable settlements and concessions after military defeats. In 1936 Chiang was forced to cease his anti-communist military campaigns after his kidnap and release by Zhang Xueliang, and reluctantly formed a nominal alliance with the Communists, while the Communists agreed to fight under the nominal command of the Nationalists against the Japanese. Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 7 July 1937, China and Japan became embroiled in a full-scale war. The Soviet Union, wishing to keep China in the fight against Japan, supplied China with military assistance until 1941, when it signed a non-aggression pact with Japan. Continuous clashes between the Communists and Nationalists behind enemy lines cumulated in a major military conflict between these two former allies that effectively ended their cooperation against the Japanese, and China had been divided between the internationally recognized Nationalist China under the leadership of Generalissimo
Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and Communist
Communist
China under the leadership of Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
until the Japanese surrendered in 1945. Factions Nationalists Main article: Nationalist Government

Soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
associated with Nationalist China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War

Prior to the alliance of Germany and Italy to Japan, the Nationalist Government held close relations with both Germany and Italy. In the early 1930s, Sino-German cooperation
Sino-German cooperation
between the Nationalist Government and Germany in military and industrial matters. Nazi Germany provided the largest proportion of Chinese arms imports and technical expertise. Relations between the Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
and Italy during the 1930s varied, however even after the Nationalist Government followed League of Nations
League of Nations
sanctions against Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia, the international sanctions proved unsuccessful, and relations between the Fascist
Fascist
government in Italy and the Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
in China returned to normal shortly afterwards.[10] Up until 1936, Mussolini had provided the Nationalists with Italian military air and naval missions to help the Nationalists fight against Japanese incursions and communist insurgents.[10] Italy also held strong commercial interests and a strong commercial position in China supported by the Italian concession in Tianjin.[10] However, after 1936 the relationship between the Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
and Italy changed due to a Japanese diplomatic proposal to recognize the Italian Empire
Italian Empire
that included occupied Ethiopia within it in exchange for Italian recognition of Manchukuo, Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
accepted this offer by Japan, and on 23 October 1936 Japan recognized the Italian Empire
Italian Empire
and Italy recognized Manchukuo, as well as discussing increasing commercial links between Italy and Japan.[11] The Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
held close relations with the United States. The United States
United States
opposed Japan's invasion of China in 1937 that it considered an illegal violation of China's sovereignty, and offered the Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
diplomatic, economic, and military assistance during its war against Japan. In particular, the United States sought to bring the Japanese war effort to a complete halt by imposing a full embargo on all trade between the United States
United States
to Japan, Japan was dependent on the United States
United States
for 80 percent of its petroleum, resulting in an economic and military crisis for Japan that could not continue its war effort with China without access to petroleum.[12] In November 1940, American military aviator Claire Lee Chennault upon observing the dire situation in the air war between China and Japan, set out to organize a volunteer squadron of American fighter pilots to fight alongside the Chinese against Japan, known as the Flying Tigers.[13] US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
accepted dispatching them to China in early 1941.[13] However, they only became operational shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
recognised the Republic of China but urged reconciliation with the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
and inclusion of Communists in the government.[14] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
also urged military and cooperation between Nationalist China and Communist
Communist
China during the war.[14] Even though China had been fighting the longest among all the Allied powers, it only officially joined the Allies after the attack on Pearl Harbor, on 7 December 1941. China fought the Japanese Empire before joining the Allies In the Pacific War. Generalissimo
Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek thought Allied victory was assured with the entrance of the United States into the war, and he declared war on Germany and the other Axis nations. However, Allied aid remained low because the Burma Road
Burma Road
was closed and the Allies suffered a series of military defeats against Japan early on in the campaign. General Sun Li-jen
Sun Li-jen
led the R.O.C. forces to the relief of 7,000 British forces trapped by the Japanese in the Battle of Yenangyaung. He then reconquered North Burma
Burma
and re-established the land route to China by the Ledo Road. But the bulk of military aid did not arrive until the spring of 1945. More than 1.5 million Japanese troops were trapped in the China Theatre, troops that otherwise could have been deployed elsewhere if China had collapsed and made a separate peace. Communists Main article: Communist-controlled China (1927–49)

Soldiers of the First Workers' and Peasants' Army associated with Communist
Communist
China, during the Sino-Japanese War

Victorious Chinese Communist
Communist
soldiers holding the flag of the Republic of China during the Hundred Regiments Offensive

Communist
Communist
China had been tacitly supported by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
since the 1920s, though the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
diplomatically recognised the Republic of China, Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
supported cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists—including pressuring the Nationalist Government to grant the Communists state and military positions in the government.[14] This was continued into the 1930s that fell in line with the Soviet Union's subversion policy of popular fronts to increase communists' influence in governments.[14] The Soviet Union urged military and cooperation between Soviet China and Nationalist China during China's war against Japan.[14] Initially Mao Zedong accepted the demands of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and in 1938 had recognized Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
as the "leader" of the "Chinese people".[15] In turn, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
accepted Mao's tactic of "continuous guerilla warfare" in the countryside that involved a goal of extending the Communist
Communist
bases, even if it would result in increased tensions with the Nationalists.[15] After the breakdown of their cooperation with the Nationalists in 1941, the Communists prospered and grew as the war against Japan dragged on, building up their sphere of influence wherever opportunities were presented, mainly through rural mass organizations, administrative, land and tax reform measures favoring poor peasants; while the Nationalists attempted to neutralize the spread of Communist influence by military blockade and fighting the Japanese at the same time.[16] The Communist
Communist
Party's position in China was boosted further upon the Soviet invasion of Manchuria
Soviet invasion of Manchuria
in August 1945 against the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and the Japanese Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
in China and Manchuria. Upon the intervention of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
against Japan in World War II
World War II
in 1945, Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
in April and May 1945 had planned to mobilize 150,000 to 250,000 soldiers from across China to work with forces of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in capturing Manchuria.[17] France Main article: France during World War II Further information: Free France
Free France
and Military history of France during World War II

Free French
Free French
forces at the Battle of Bir Hakeim
Battle of Bir Hakeim
(1942)

War declared

FAFL Free French
Free French
GC II/5 "LaFayette" receiving ex-USAAF Curtiss P-40 fighters at Casablanca, French Morocco

The French fleet scuttled itself rather than fall into the hands of the Axis after their invasion of Vichy France
Vichy France
on 11 November 1942.

After Germany invaded Poland, France declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939.[18] In January 1940, French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier made a major speech denouncing the actions of Germany:

At the end of five months of war, one thing has become more and more clear. It is that Germany seeks to establish a domination of the world completely different from any known in world history. The domination at which the Nazis aim is not limited to the displacement of the balance of power and the imposition of the supremacy of one nation. It seeks the systematic and total destruction of those conquered by Hitler and it does not treaty with the nations which it has subdued. He destroys them. He takes from them their whole political and economic existence and seeks even to deprive them of their history and culture. He wishes only to consider them as vital space and a vacant territory over which he has every right. The human beings who constitute these nations are for him only cattle. He orders their massacre or migration. He compels them to make room for their conquerors. He does not even take the trouble to impose any war tribute on them. He just takes all their wealth and, to prevent any revolt, he scientifically seeks the physical and moral degradation of those whose independence he has taken away.[18]

France experienced several major phases of action during World War II:

The "Phoney War" of 1939–1940, also called drôle de guerre in France, dziwna wojna in Poland (both meaning "Strange War"), or the "Sitzkrieg" ("Sitting War") in Germany. The Battle of France
Battle of France
in May–June 1940, which resulted in the defeat of the Allies, the fall of the French Third Republic, the German occupation of northern and western France, and the creation of the rump state Vichy France, which received diplomatic recognition from the Axis and most neutral countries including the United States.[19] The period of resistance against the occupation and Franco-French struggle for control of the colonies between the Vichy regime and the Free French, who continued the fight on the Allies' side after the Appeal of 18 June
Appeal of 18 June
by General Charles de Gaulle, recognized by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as France's government-in-exile. It culminated in the Allied landings in North Africa
Allied landings in North Africa
on 11 November 1942, when Vichy ceased to exist as an independent entity after having been invaded by both the Axis and the Allies simultaneously, being thereafter only the nominal government in charge during the occupation of France. Vichy forces in French North Africa switched allegiance and merged with the Free French
Free French
to participate in the campaigns of Tunisia and of Italy and the invasion of Corsica in 1943–44. The liberation of mainland France beginning with D-Day
D-Day
on 6 June 1944 and operation Overlord, and then with operation Dragoon on 15 August 1944, leading to the Liberation of Paris
Liberation of Paris
on 25 August 1944 by the Free French
Free French
2e Division Blindée
2e Division Blindée
and the installation of the Provisional Government of the French Republic
Provisional Government of the French Republic
in the newly liberated capital. Participation of the re-established provisional French Republic's First Army in the Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine
Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine
and the Western Allied invasion of Germany
Western Allied invasion of Germany
until V-E Day on 8 May 1945.

Colonies and dependencies In Africa In Africa these included: French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa, the League of Nations
League of Nations
mandates of French Cameroun
French Cameroun
and French Togoland, French Madagascar, French Somaliland, and the protectorates of French Tunisia
French Tunisia
and French Morocco. French Algeria
French Algeria
was then not a colony or dependency but a fully-fledged part of metropolitan France. In Asia and Oceania

The fall of Damascus
Damascus
to the Allies, late June 1941. A car carrying Free French
Free French
commanders General Georges Catroux
Georges Catroux
and General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme enters the city, escorted by French Circassian cavalry (Gardes Tcherkess).

In Asia and Oceania these included: French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna, New Caledonia, the New Hebrides, French Indochina, French India, the mandates of Greater Lebanon
Greater Lebanon
and French Syria. The French government in 1936 attempted to grant independence to its mandate of Syria in the Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence of 1936 signed by France and Syria. However, opposition to the treaty grew in France and the treaty was not ratified. Syria had become an official republic in 1930 and was largely self-governing. In 1941, a British-led invasion supported by Free French
Free French
forces expelled Vichy French forces in operation Exporter. In the Americas In the Americas these included: Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Soviet Union

Soviet soldiers and T-34
T-34
tanks advance in skirmish near Bryansk in 1942.

Soviet soldiers fighting in the ruins of Stalingrad
Stalingrad
during the Battle of Stalingrad

Soviet Il-2
Il-2
ground attack aircraft attacking German ground forces during the Battle of Kursk
Battle of Kursk
(1943)

Outbreak The German invasion of the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa, began on 22 June 1941. General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and the government of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
described the Soviet war effort as a war being fought by the Soviet people
Soviet people
for their survival.[20] Stalin had supported popular front movements of anti-fascists including communists and non-communists from 1935 to 1939.[21] The popular front strategy was terminated from 1939 to 1941 when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
cooperated with Germany in 1939 in the occupation and partitioning of Poland while the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
refused to endorse either the Allies or the Axis from 1939 to 1941, as it called the Allied-Axis conflict an "imperialist war".[21] After the invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1941, Stalin endorsed the Western Allies as part of a renewed popular front strategy against Germany and called for the international communist movement to make a coalition with all those who opposed the Nazis.[21] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
intervened against Japan and its client state in Manchuria
Manchuria
in 1945, cooperating with the Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
of China and the Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek; though also cooperating, preferring, and encouraging the Communist
Communist
Party led by Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
to take effective control of Manchuria
Manchuria
after expelling Japanese forces.[22] History In the lead up to the war between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Germany, relations between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Germany underwent several stages. Stalin studied Hitler, including reading Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
and from it knew of Hitler's desire to destroy the Soviet Union.[23] In 1933, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had immediate concerns with the threat of a potential German invasion of the country should Germany attempt a conquest of the Baltic states, and in December of that year, Polish-Soviet negotiations began for the issuing of a joint declaration by the two countries guaranteeing the sovereignty of the Baltic states.[24] However, Poland withdrew from the negotiations following German and Finnish objections.[24] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Germany at this time competed with each other for influence in Poland.[25] The Soviet government also was concerned with the anti-Soviet sentiment in Poland and particularly Józef Piłsudski's proposed Polish federation that would include the territories of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine within it that threatened the territorial integrity of the Soviet Union.[26] On 20 August 1939, forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics under General Georgy Zhukov, together with the People's Republic of Mongolia eliminated the threat of conflict in the east with a decisive victory over Japan at the Battle of Khalkhin Gol
Battle of Khalkhin Gol
in eastern Mongolia. On the same day, Soviet party leader Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
received a telegram from German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, suggesting that German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop
fly to Moscow for diplomatic talks. (After receiving a lukewarm response throughout the spring and summer, Stalin abandoned attempts for a better diplomatic relationship with France and the United Kingdom.)[27] On 23 August, Ribbentrop and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov signed the non-aggression pact including secret protocols dividing Eastern Europe into defined "spheres of influence" for the two regimes, and specifically concerning the partition of the Polish state in the event of its "territorial and political rearrangement".[28] On 15 September 1939, Stalin concluded a durable ceasefire with Japan, to take effect the following day (it would be upgraded to a non-aggression pact in April 1941).[29] The day after that, 17 September, Soviet forces invaded Poland from the east. Although some fighting continued until 5 October, the two invading armies held at least one joint military parade on 25 September, and reinforced their non-military partnership with the German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation
German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation
on 28 September. On 30 November, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
attacked Finland, for which it was expelled from the League of Nations. In the following year of 1940, while the world's attention was focused upon the German invasion of France and Norway,[30] the USSR
USSR
militarily[31] occupied the Baltic states[32] of Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
as well as parts of Romania. German-Soviet treaties were brought to an end by the German surprise attack on the USSR
USSR
on 22 June 1941. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
soon entered in alliance with the United Kingdom. Following the USSR, a number of other communist, pro-Soviet or Soviet-controlled forces fought against the Axis powers
Axis powers
during the Second World War. They were as follows: the Albanian National Liberation Front, the Chinese Red Army, the Greek National Liberation Front, the Hukbalahap, the Malayan Communist Party, the People's Republic of Mongolia, the Polish People's Army, the Tuvan People's Republic
Tuvan People's Republic
(annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1944),[33] the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
and the Yugoslav Partisans. United States Further information: Military history of the United States
United States
during World War II

American Douglas SBD Dauntless
Douglas SBD Dauntless
dive-bomber aircraft attacking the Japanese cruiser Mikuma
Japanese cruiser Mikuma
during the Battle of Midway
Battle of Midway
in June 1942

American Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign
Guadalcanal Campaign
in November 1942

American Consolidated B-24 Liberator
Consolidated B-24 Liberator
bomber aircraft during the bombing of oil refineries in Ploiești, Romania on 1 August 1943 during Operation Tidal Wave

American soldiers depart landing craft during the Normandy landings
Normandy landings
on 6 June 1944 known as D-Day, in the Battle of Normandy.

War justifications The United States
United States
had indirectly supported Britain's war effort against Germany up to 1941 and declared its opposition to territorial aggrandizement. Materiel
Materiel
support to Britain was provided while the U.S. was officially neutral via the Lend Lease Act
Lend Lease Act
starting in 1941. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Prime Minister Winston Churchill in August 1941 promulgated the Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter
that pledged commitment to achieving "the final destruction of Nazi tyranny".[34] Signing the Atlantic
Atlantic
Charter, and thereby joining the "United Nations" was the way a nation joined the Allies, and also became eligible for membership in the United Nations
United Nations
world body that formed in 1945. The US strongly supported the Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
in China in its war with Japan, and provided military equipment, supplies, and volunteers to the Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
of China to assist in its war effort.[35] In December 1941 Japan opened the war with its attack on Pearl Harbor, the US declared war on Japan, and Japan's allies Germany and Italy declared war on the US, bringing the US into World War II. History On 8 December 1941, following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Congress declared war on Japan at the request of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This was followed by Germany and Italy declaring war on the United States
United States
on 11 December, bringing the country into the European theatre. The US-led Allied forces in the Pacific theatre against Japanese forces from 1941 to 1945. From 1943 to 1945, the US led and coordinated the Western Allies' war effort in Europe under the leadership of General Dwight Eisenhower. The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor followed by Japan's swift attacks on Allied locations throughout the Pacific, resulted in major US losses in the first several months in the war, including losing control of the Philippines, Guam, Wake Island
Wake Island
and several Aleutian islands including Attu and Kiska
Kiska
to Japanese forces. American naval forces attained some early successes against Japan. One was the bombing of Japanese industrial centres in the Doolittle Raid. Another was repelling a Japanese invasion of Port Moresby
Port Moresby
in New Guinea
New Guinea
during the Battle of the Coral Sea.[36] A major turning point in the Pacific War was the Battle of Midway
Battle of Midway
where American naval forces were outnumbered by Japanese forces that had been sent to Midway to draw out and destroy American aircraft carriers in the Pacific and seize control of Midway that would place Japanese forces in proximity to Hawaii.[37] However American forces managed to sink four of Japan's six large aircraft carriers that had initiated the attack on Pearl Harbor along with other attacks on Allied forces. Afterwards the US began an offensive against Japanese-captured positions. The Guadalcanal Campaign
Guadalcanal Campaign
from 1942 to 1943 was a major contention point where Allied and Japanese forces struggled to gain control of Guadalcanal. Colonies and dependencies In the Americas and the Pacific The United States
United States
held multiple dependencies in the Americas, such as Alaska, the Panama
Panama
Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In the Pacific it held multiple island dependencies such as American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, Midway Islands, Wake Island
Wake Island
and others. These dependencies were directly involved in the Pacific campaign of the war. In Asia

Philippine Scouts at Fort William McKinley
Fort William McKinley
firing a 37 mm anti-tank gun in training

The Commonwealth of the Philippines
Commonwealth of the Philippines
was a sovereign protectorate referred to as an "associated state" of the United States. From late 1941 to 1944, the Philippines was occupied by Japanese forces, who established the Second Philippine Republic
Second Philippine Republic
as a client state that had nominal control over the country. Minor affiliated state combatants Australia Further information: Military history of Australia
Australia
during World War II Australia
Australia
was a sovereign Dominion
Dominion
under the Australian monarchy, as per the Statute of Westminster 1931. At the start of the war Australia followed Britain's foreign policies, and accordingly declared war against Germany on 3 September 1939. Australian foreign policy became more independent after the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
formed government in October 1941, and Australia
Australia
separately declared war against Finland, Hungary and Romania on 8 December 1941 and against Japan the next day.[38] Belgium Main article: Belgium
Belgium
in World War II

Members of the Belgian Resistance
Belgian Resistance
with a Canadian soldier in Bruges, September 1944 during the Battle of the Scheldt

Before the war, Belgium
Belgium
had pursued a policy of neutrality and only became an Allied member after being invaded by Germany on 10 May 1940. During the ensuing fighting, Belgian forces fought alongside French and British forces against the invaders. While the British and French were struggling against the fast German advance elsewhere on the front, the Belgian forces were pushed into a pocket to the north. Finally, on 28 May, the King Leopold III surrendered himself and his military to the Germans, having decided the Allied cause was lost. The legal Belgian government was reformed as a government in exile in London. Belgian troops and pilots continued to fight on the Allied side as the Free Belgian Forces. Belgium
Belgium
itself was occupied, but a sizeable Resistance was formed and was loosely coordinated by the government in exile and other Allied powers. British and Canadian troops arrived in Belgium
Belgium
in September 1944 and the capital, Brussels, was liberated on 6 September. Because of the Ardennes Offensive, the country was only fully liberated in early 1945. Colonies and dependencies Belgium
Belgium
had the colony of the Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
and the League of Nations mandate of Ruanda-Urundi. The Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
was not occupied and remained loyal to the Allies as an important economic asset while its deposits of uranium were useful to the Allied efforts to develop the atomic bomb. Troops from the Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
participated in the East African Campaign against the Italians. The colonial Force Publique also served in other theatres including Madagascar, the Middle-East, India
India
and Burma
Burma
within British units. Brazil Main article: Brazilian Expeditionary Force

Brazilian soldiers of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force
Brazilian Expeditionary Force
greet civilians in the city of Massarosa, Italy, September 1944.

Initially, Brazil maintained a position of neutrality, trading with both the Allies and the Axis Powers, while Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas's quasi- Fascist
Fascist
policies indicated a leaning toward the Axis powers. However, as the war progressed, trade with the Axis countries became almost impossible and the United States
United States
initiated forceful diplomatic and economic efforts to bring Brazil onto the Allied side. At the beginning of 1942, Brazil permitted the United States
United States
to set up air bases on its territory, especially in Natal, strategically located at the easternmost corner of the South American
South American
continent, and on 28 January the country severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Japan and Italy. After that, 36 Brazilian merchant ships were sunk by the German and Italian navies, which led the Brazilian government to declare war against Germany and Italy on 22 August 1942. Brazil then sent a 25,700 strong Expeditionary Force to Europe that fought mainly on the Italian front, from September 1944 to May 1945. Also, the Brazilian Navy
Brazilian Navy
and Air Force acted in the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean from the middle of 1942 until the end of the war. Brazil was the only South American
South American
country to send troops to fight in the European theatre in the Second World War. Canada Main articles: Declaration of war by Canada
Canada
§ Germany, and Military history of Canada
Canada
during World War II Canada
Canada
was a sovereign Dominion
Dominion
under the Canadian monarchy, as per the Statute of Westminster 1931. In a symbolic statement of autonomous foreign policy Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King
delayed parliament's vote on a declaration of war for seven days after Britain had declared war. Canada
Canada
was the last member of the Commonwealth to declare war on Germany on 10 September 1939.[39] Cuba Main article: Cuba in World War II Because of Cuba's geographical position at the entrance of the Gulf of Mexico, Havana's role as the principal trading port in the West Indies, and the country's natural resources, Cuba was an important participant in the American Theater of World War II, and subsequently one of the greatest beneficiaries of the United States' Lend-Lease program. Cuba declared war on the Axis powers
Axis powers
in December 1941,[40] making it one of the first Latin American countries to enter the conflict, and by the war's end in 1945 its military had developed a reputation as being the most efficient and cooperative of all the Caribbean nations.[41] On 15 May 1943, the Cuban patrol boat CS-13 sank the German submarine U-176.[42][43] Czechoslovakia

Ludvík Svoboda
Ludvík Svoboda
with Czechoslovak soldiers of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps on the Eastern Front in 1943

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
along with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France attempted to resolve German irredentist claims to the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
region in 1938 with the Munich Agreement, however in March 1939, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was invaded by Germany and partitioned between Germany, Hungary, Poland, and a German client state of Slovakia. The Czechoslovak government-in-exile joined the Allies, the occupation and partition of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
amongst the Axis powers
Axis powers
was not accepted by the Allied powers. Czechoslovakian military units took part in the war. Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
was one of the very few countries willing to accept mass Jewish immigration during World War II. At the Évian Conference, it offered to accept up to 100,000 Jewish refugees.[44] The DORSA ( Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
Settlement Association) was formed with the assistance of the JDC, and helped settle Jews in Sosúa, on the northern coast. About 700 European Jews of Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jewish descent reached the settlement where each family received 33 hectares (82 acres) of land, 10 cows (plus 2 additional cows per children), a mule and a horse, and a US$10,000 loan (about 166,000 dollars at 2018 prices) at 1% interest.[45][46] The Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
officially declared war on the Axis powers
Axis powers
on December 11, 1941, after the attack on Pearl Harbor. However, the Caribbean nation had already been engaged in war actions since before the formal declaration of war. Dominican sailboats and schooners had been attacked on previous occasions by German submarines as, highlighting the case of the 1,993-ton merchant ship, "San Rafael", which was making a trip from Tampa, Florida
Tampa, Florida
to Kingston, Jamaica, when 80 miles away from its final destination, it was torpedoed by the German submarine U-125, causing the command to abandon the ship by the commander. Although the crew of San Rafael managed to escape the event, it would be remembered by the Dominican press as a sign of the infamy of the German submarines and the danger they represented in the Caribbean.[47] Recently, due to a research work carried out by the Embassy of the United States
United States
of America in Santo Domingo and the Institute of Dominican Studies of the City of New York (CUNY), documents of the Department of Defense were discovered in which it was confirmed that Around 340 men and women of Dominican origin were part of the US Armed Forces during the World War II. Many of them received medals and other recognitions for their outstanding actions in combat.[48] Greece Further information: Military history of Greece during World War II and Axis occupation of Greece

Greek soldiers in March 1941 during the Greco-Italian War

Greece was invaded by Italy on 28 October 1940 and subsequently joined the Allies. The Greek Army managed to stop the Italian offensive from Italy's protectorate of Albania, and Greek forces pushed Italian forces back into Albania. However, after the German invasion of Greece in April 1941, German forces managed to occupy mainland Greece and, a month later, the island of Crete. The Greek government went into exile, while the country was placed under a puppet government and divided into occupation zones run by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria. From 1942, a strong resistance movement appeared, chiefly in the mountainous interior, where it established a "Free Greece" by mid-1943. Following the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the Italian zone was taken over by the Germans. Axis forces left mainland Greece in October 1944, although some Aegean islands, notably Crete, remained under German occupation until the end of the war. Luxembourg Main article: Luxembourg
Luxembourg
in World War II Free Luxembourgish Forces and the Government in Exile

Soldiers from Luxembourg
Luxembourg
training in Britain, 1943

See also: Luxembourgish government-in-exile
Luxembourgish government-in-exile
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Resistance Before the war, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
had pursued a policy of neutrality and only became an Allied member after being invaded by Germany on 10 May 1940. The Government in Exile fled, winding up in England. It made Luxembourgish language broadcasts to the occupied country on BBC radio.[49] In 1944, the government in exile signed a treaty with the Belgian and Dutch governments, creating the Benelux
Benelux
Economic Union and also signed into the Bretton Woods system. See also: Battle of the Bulge
Battle of the Bulge
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
American Cemetery and Memorial Mexico Mexico
Mexico
declared war on Germany in 1942 after German submarines attacked the Mexican oil tankers Potrero del Llano and Faja de Oro that were transporting crude oil to the United States. These attacks prompted President Manuel Ávila Camacho
Manuel Ávila Camacho
to declare war on the Axis powers. Mexico
Mexico
formed Escuadrón 201
Escuadrón 201
fighter squadron as part of the Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana (FAEM—"Mexican Expeditionary Air Force"). The squadron was attached to the 58th Fighter Group of the United States
United States
Army Air Forces and carried out tactical air support missions during the liberation of the main Philippine island of Luzon in the summer of 1945.[50] Some 300,000 Mexican citizens went to the United States
United States
to work on farms and factories. Some 15,000 US nationals of Mexican origin and Mexican residents in the US enrolled in the US Armed Forces and fought in various fronts around the world.[51] Netherlands Main article: Netherlands
Netherlands
in World War II The Netherlands
Netherlands
became an Allied member after being invaded on 10 May 1940 by Germany. During the ensuing campaign, the Netherlands
Netherlands
were defeated and occupied by Germany. The Netherlands
Netherlands
was liberated by Canadian, British, American and other allied forces during the campaigns of 1944 and 1945. The Princess Irene Brigade, formed from escapees from the German invasion, took part in several actions in 1944 in Arromanches and in 1945 in the Netherlands. Navy vessels saw action in the British Channel, the North Sea
North Sea
and the Mediterranean, generally as part of Royal Navy units. Dutch airmen flying British aircraft participated in the air war over Germany. Colonies and dependencies The Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(modern-day Indonesia) was the principal Dutch colony in Asia, and was attacked by Japan in 1942. During the Dutch East Indies Campaign, the Netherlands
Netherlands
played a significant role in the Allied effort to halt the Japanese advance as part of the American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command. The ABDA fleet finally encountered the Japanese surface fleet at the Battle of Java Sea, at which Doorman gave the order to engage. During the ensuing battle the ABDA fleet suffered heavy losses, and was mostly destroyed after several naval battles around Java; the ABDA Command was later dissolved. The Japanese finally occupied the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
in February–March 1942. Dutch troops, aircraft and escaped ships continued to fight on the Allied side and also mounted a guerrilla campaign in Timor. New Zealand Further information: Military history of New Zealand during World War II New Zealand was a sovereign Dominion
Dominion
under the New Zealand monarchy, as per the Statute of Westminster 1931. It quickly entered World War II, officially declaring war on Germany on 3 September 1939, just hours after Britain.[52] Unlike Australia, which had felt obligated to declare war, as it also had not ratified the Statute of Westminster, New Zealand did so as a sign of allegiance to Britain, and in recognition of Britain's abandonment of its former appeasement policy, which New Zealand had long opposed. This led to then Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage
Michael Joseph Savage
declaring two days later:

With gratitude for the past and confidence in the future we range ourselves without fear beside Britain. Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand. We are only a small and young nation, but we march with a union of hearts and souls to a common destiny.[53]

Norway

Norwegian soldiers on the Narvik front, May 1940

Because of its strategic location for control of the sea lanes in the North Sea
North Sea
and the Atlantic, both the Allies and Germany worried about the other side gaining control of the neutral country. Germany ultimately struck first with operation Weserübung on 9 April 1940, resulting in the two-month-long Norwegian Campaign, which ended in a German victory and their war-long occupation of Norway. Units of the Norwegian Armed Forces evacuated from Norway
Norway
or raised abroad continued participating in the war from exile. The Norwegian merchant fleet, then the fourth largest in the world, was organized into Nortraship
Nortraship
to support the Allied cause. Nortraship was the world's largest shipping company, and at its height operated more than 1000 ships. Norway
Norway
was neutral when Germany invaded, and it is not clear when Norway
Norway
became an Allied country. Great Britain, France and Polish forces in exile supported Norwegian forces against the invaders but without a specific agreement. Norway's cabinet signed a military agreement with Britain on 28 May 1941. This agreement allowed all Norwegian forces in exile to operate under UK command. Norwegian troops in exile should primarily be prepared for the liberation of Norway, but could also be used to defend Britain.[54] Poland Further information: Polish contribution to World War II, Polish resistance movement in World War II, Polish Armed Forces in the West, and Polish Armed Forces in the East

Pilots of the No. 303 "Kościuszko" Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain

The invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939, started the war in Europe, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France declared war on Germany on 3 September. Poland fielded the third biggest army[55] among the European Allies, after the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and United Kingdom, but before France. The country never officially surrendered to the Third Reich, nor to the Soviet Union, primarily because neither of the totalitarian powers requested an official surrender, and continued the war effort under the Polish government in exile. However, the Soviet Union unilaterally considered the flight to Romania of President Ignacy Mościcki and Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
on 17 September as an evidence of debellatio causing the extinction of the Polish state, and consequently declared itself allowed to invade (according to the Soviet position: "to protect") Eastern Poland starting from the same day.[56] It must be noted that the Red Army
Red Army
had invaded the Second Polish Republic several hours before the Polish president fled to Romania. The Soviets invaded on 17 September at 3 a.m.,[57] while president Mościcki crossed the Polish-Romanian border at 21:45 on the same day.[58] The Polish military continued to fight, and the last major battle of the war, the Battle of Kock, ended at 1 a.m. on 6 October 1939 with the Independent Operational Group "Polesie," a field army, surrendering due to lack of ammunition.

Polish Home Army
Home Army
resistance fighters from the "Kiliński" Battalion during the Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
(1944)

Polish soldiers fought under their own flag but under the command of the British military. They were major contributors to the Allies in the theatre of war west of Germany and in the theatre of war east of Germany, with the Soviet Union. The Polish armed forces in the West created after the fall of Poland played minor roles in the Battle of France, and important ones in the Italian and North African Campaigns.[59] The Polish People's Army took part in the Battle of Berlin, the closing battle of the European theater of war. They occupied the city alongside the Soviet Red Army. The Home Army, the largest underground force in Europe, and other resistance organizations in occupied Poland provided intelligence that enabled successful operations later in the war and led to uncovering of Nazi war crimes
Nazi war crimes
(i.e., death camps) to the Western Allies. Notable Polish units fought in every campaign in North Africa and Europe (outside the Balkans). The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
recognized the London-based government at first. But it broke diplomatic relations after the Katyn massacre of Polish nationals was revealed. In 1943, the Soviet Union organized the Polish People's Army under Zygmunt Berling, around which it constructed the post-war successor state People's Republic of Poland. Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea Further information: Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea and Korean Liberation Army The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
was established on April 13, 1919. During the time when the Provisional Government was created, Korea
Korea
was under the Japanese rule. The Provisional Government had governmental tasks and created important organizations for their independence movement, such as the Korean Liberation Army(KLA) on September 17, 1940. The Provisional Government also declared war against the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
on December 10, 1941. The Provisional Government is also the first democratic government of Korea. The KLA participated in the battles ongoing in China with the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
forces. In 1943, KLA underground activists, cooperating with British forces in Burma
Burma
and India, initiated joint operations with British forces. The KLA failed to initiate Operation Eagle, a plan to liberate the Korean Peninsula by first attacking the capital region ( Seoul
Seoul
and Incheon), on August 18, 1945. The Office of Strategic Services
Office of Strategic Services
of the United States
United States
also promised to assist the KLA with warplanes, submarines, and airborne troops during the operation. However, the plan failed due to the early surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945. The Provisional Government also faced heavy oppositions against the United States
United States
Army Military Government in Korea
Korea
after World War II. In addition, other governments in the Treaty of San Francisco
Treaty of San Francisco
did not recognize the Provisional Government as a member of the Allies. The government of the Republic of Korea
Korea
was established on August 15, 1948, under President Syngman Rhee, and the Provisional Government was disbanded officially. South Africa Further information: Military history of South Africa during World War II South Africa was a sovereign Dominion
Dominion
under the South African monarchy, as per the Statute of Westminster 1931. South Africa held authority over the mandate of South-West Africa. Yugoslavia Main article: World War II
World War II
in Yugoslavia

The Partisans and the Chetniks
Chetniks
carried captured Germans through Užice, autumn 1941.

Yugoslavia entered the war on the Allied side after the invasion of Axis powers
Axis powers
on 6 April 1941. The Royal Yugoslav Army
Royal Yugoslav Army
was thoroughly defeated in less than two weeks and the country was occupied. The Italian-backed Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
declared the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
before the invasion was over. King Peter II and much of the Yugoslavian government had left the country. In the United Kingdom, they joined numerous other governments in exile from Nazi-occupied Europe. Beginning with the uprising in Herzegovina in June 1941, there was continuous anti-Axis resistance in Yugoslavia until the end of the war. Resistance factions

Partisan leader Marshal Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
with Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
in 1944

Before the end of 1941, the anti-Axis resistance movement split between the royalist Chetniks
Chetniks
and the communist Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
of Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
who fought both against each other during the war and against the occupying forces. The Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
managed to put up considerable resistance to the Axis occupation, forming various liberated territories during the war. In August 1943, there were over 30 Axis divisions on the territory of Yugoslavia, not including the forces of the Croatian puppet state and other quisling formations.[60] In 1944, the leading Allied powers persuaded Tito's Yugoslav Partisans and the royalist Yugoslav government led by Prime Minister Ivan Šubašić to sign the Treaty of Vis that created the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. Partisans The Partisans were a major Yugoslav resistance movement against the Axis occupation and partition of Yugoslavia. Initially the Partisans were in rivalry with the Chetniks
Chetniks
over control of the resistance movement. However, the Partisans were recognized by both the Eastern and Western Allies as the primary resistance movement in 1943. After that, their strength increased rapidly, from 100,000 at the beginning of 1943 to over 648,000 in September 1944. In 1945 they were transformed into the Yugoslav army, organized in 4 field armies with 800,000[61] fighters. Chetniks

Chetniks
Chetniks
leader General Mihailovic with the members of the US military mission, Operation Halyard
Operation Halyard
1944

The Chetniks, the short name given to the movement titled the Yugoslav Army of the Fatherland, were initially a major Allied Yugoslav resistance movement. However, due to their royalist and anti-communist views, Chetniks
Chetniks
were considered to have begun collaborating with the Axis as a tactical move to focus on destroying their Partisan rivals. The Chetniks
Chetniks
presented themselves as a Yugoslav movement, but were primarily a Serb movement. They reached their peak in 1943 with 93,000 fighters.[62] Their major contribution was Operation Halyard
Operation Halyard
in 1944. In collaboration with the OSS, 413 Allied airmen shot down over Yugoslavia were rescued and evacuated. Client states British Egypt Main article: Military history of Egypt during World War II Britain controlled Egypt and used it as a major base for Allied operations throughout the region, especially the battles in North Africa against Italy and Germany. Its highest priorities were control of the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially keeping the Suez Canal open for merchant ships and for military connections with India
India
and Australia.[63] The Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
was nominally an independent state since 1922 but effectively remained in a British sphere of influence with the British Mediterranean fleet being stationed in Alexandria and British army forces being stationed in the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
zone. Egypt never declared war and its army did not fight. Egypt faced an Axis campaign led by Italian and German forces during the war. Frustration by the UK over Egypt's King Farouk's rule resulted in the Abdeen Palace Incident of 1942 where British army forces surrounded the Abdeen palace, a residence of King Farouk, demanding a new government be established, that nearly forced the abdication of Farouk until he submitted to British demands. British Raj
British Raj
(India) Further information: India
India
in World War II At the outbreak of World War II, the Indian army numbered 205,000 men. Later during World War II
World War II
the Indian Army became the largest all-volunteer force in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in size.[10] These forces included tank, artillery and airborne forces. Indian soldiers earned 30 Victoria Crosses during the Second World War. During the war it suffered 1,500,000 civilian casualties (more than the United Kingdom), mainly from the Bengal famine of 1943
Bengal famine of 1943
and 87,000 military casualties (more than any Crown colony but fewer than the United Kingdom). The UK suffered 382,000 military casualties. Iraq Further information: Anglo-Iraqi War

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Iran Further information: Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

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Soviet Bulgaria Main article: Military history of Bulgaria during World War II After a period of neutrality, Bulgaria joined the Axis powers
Axis powers
from 1941 to 1944. The Orthodox Church and others convinced King Boris to not allow the Bulgarian Jews to be exported to concentration camps. The king died shortly afterwards, suspected of being poisoned after a visit to Germany. Bulgaria abandoned the Axis and joined the Allies when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded, offering no resistance to the incoming forces. In the 1947 peace treaties, Bulgaria gained a small area near the Black Sea from Romania, making it the only former German ally to gain territory from WWII. Mongolia Main article: Mongolia in World War II Mongolia fought against Japan during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol
Battles of Khalkhin Gol
in 1939 and the Soviet–Japanese War
Soviet–Japanese War
in August 1945 to protect its independence and to liberate Southern Mongolia from Japan and China. Mongolia had been a Soviet sphere of influence since the 1920s. Poland (Gomułka regime) Main article: Polish Armed Forces in the East By 1944, Poland entered the Soviet sphere of influence with Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
forming a communist government. Polish forces fought alongside Soviet forces against Germany. Romania Main articles: Romania in World War II
World War II
and King Michael's Coup

Romanian soldiers in Transylvania, September-October 1944

Romania had initially been a member of the Axis powers
Axis powers
but switched allegiance upon facing invasion by the Soviet Union. In a radio broadcast to the Romanian people and army on the night of 23 August 1944 King Michael issued a cease-fire,[64] proclaimed Romania's loyalty to the Allies, announced the acceptance of an armistice (to be signed on 12 September)[65] offered by Great Britain, the United States, and the USSR, and declared war on Germany.[66] The coup accelerated the Red Army's advance into Romania, but did not avert a rapid Soviet occupation and capture of about 130,000 Romanian soldiers, who were transported to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
where many perished in prison camps. The armistice was signed three weeks later on 12 September 1944, on terms virtually dictated by the Soviet Union.[64] Under the terms of the armistice, Romania announced its unconditional surrender[67] to the USSR
USSR
and was placed under occupation of the Allied forces with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as their representative, in control of the media, communication, post, and civil administration behind the front.[64] Tannu Tuva Tannu Tuva was a partially recognized state founded from the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia. It was a client state of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and was annexed into the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1944. Co-belligerent state combatants Italy Further information: Italian Civil War, Italian Co-Belligerent Army, and Italian resistance movement

The dead bodies of Benito Mussolini, his mistress Clara Petacci, and several Fascist
Fascist
leaders, hanging for public display after they were executed by Italian partisans in 1945

Italy initially had been a leading member of the Axis powers, however after facing multiple military losses including the loss of all of Italy's colonies to advancing Allied forces, Duce
Duce
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
was deposed and arrested in July 1943 by order of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy in co-operation with members of the Grand Council of Fascism who viewed Mussolini as having led Italy to ruin by allying with Germany in the war. Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
dismantled the remaining apparatus of the Fascist
Fascist
regime and appointed Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Pietro Badoglio as Prime Minister of Italy. On 8 September 1943, Italy signed the Armistice of Cassibile
Armistice of Cassibile
with the Allies, ending Italy's war with the Allies and ending Italy's participation with the Axis powers. Expecting immediate German retaliation, Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
and the Italian government relocated to southern Italy under Allied control. Germany viewed the Italian government's actions as an act of betrayal, and German forces immediately occupied all Italian territories outside of Allied control,[68] in some cases even massacring Italian troops. Italy became a co-belligerent of the Allies, and the Italian Co-Belligerent Army was created to fight against the German occupation of Northern Italy, where German paratroopers rescued Mussolini from arrest and he was placed in charge of a German puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
(RSI). Italy descended into civil war until the end of hostilities after his deposition and arrest, with Fascists loyal to him allying with German forces and helping them against the Italian armistice government and partisans.[69] Associated power Albania Albania was recognized as an "Associated Power" at the 1946 Paris conference[70] and officially signed the treaty ending WWII between the "Allied and Associated Powers" and Italy in Paris, on 10 February 1947.[71][72] United Nations Declaration by United Nations

Wartime poster for the United Nations, created in 1941 by the US Office of War Information

The alliance was formalised in the Declaration by United Nations
United Nations
on 1 January 1942. There were 26 signatories:

 Australia  Belgium  Canada  China  Costa Rica  Cuba  Czechoslovakia  Dominican Republic  El Salvador  Greece  Guatemala  Haiti  Honduras  India  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Nicaragua  Norway  Panama  Poland  Soviet Union  South Africa  United Kingdom  United States  Yugoslavia

Alliance growing

Wartime poster for the United Nations, created in 1943 by the US Office of War Information

The United Nations
United Nations
began growing immediately after their formation. In 1942, Mexico, the Philippines and Ethiopia adhered to the declaration. The African nation had been restored in its independence by British forces after the Italian defeat on Amba Alagi
Amba Alagi
in 1941, while the Philippines, still dependent on Washington but granted international diplomatic recognition, was allowed to join on 10 June despite their occupation by Japan. During 1943, the Declaration was signed by Iraq, Iran, Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. A Tripartite Treaty of Alliance with Britain and the USSR
USSR
formalised Iran's assistance to the Allies.[73] In Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian dictator Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Vargas
was considered near to fascist ideas, but realistically joined the United Nations
United Nations
after their evident successes. In 1944, Liberia
Liberia
and France signed. The French situation was very confused. Free French
Free French
forces were recognized only by Britain, while the United States
United States
considered Vichy France
Vichy France
to be the legal government of the country until Operation Overlord, while also preparing US occupation francs. Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
urged Roosevelt to restore France to its status of a major power after the liberation of Paris in August 1944; the Prime Minister feared that after the war, Britain could remain the sole great power in Europe facing the Communist
Communist
threat, as it was in 1940 and 1941 against Nazism. During the early part of 1945, Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Venezuela, Uruguay, Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria (these latter two French colonies had been declared independent nations by British occupation troops, despite big protests by Pétain before, and De Gaulle after) and Ecuador
Ecuador
became signatories. Ukraine and Belarus, which were not independent nations but parts of the Soviet Union, were accepted as members of the United Nations
United Nations
as way to provide greater influence to Stalin, who had only Yugoslavia as a communist partner in the alliance. Charter of the United Nations Main article: Charter of the United Nations

The first version of the flag of the United Nations, introduced in April 1945

The Charter of the United Nations
United Nations
was agreed to during the war at the United Nations
United Nations
Conference on International Organization, held between April and July 1945. The Charter was signed by 50 nations on 26 June (Poland had its place reserved and later became the 51st "original" signatory),[citation needed] and was formally ratified shortly after the war on 24 October 1945. In 1944, the United Nations was formulated and negotiated among the delegations from the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States
United States
and China at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference[74][75] where the formation and the permanent seats (for the "Big Five", China, France, the UK, US, and USSR) of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council were decided. The Security Council met for the first time in the immediate aftermath of war on 17 January 1946.[76] These are the original 51 signatories (UNSC permanent members are asterisked):

 Argentine Republic  Commonwealth of Australia  Kingdom of Belgium  Republic of Bolivia  Republic of the United States
United States
of Brazil  Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic   Dominion
Dominion
of Canada Republic of Chile  Republic of China*  Republic of Colombia  Republic of Costa Rica  Republic of Cuba  Czechoslovak Republic  Kingdom of Denmark  Dominican Republic  Republic of Ecuador Kingdom of Egypt  Republic of El Salvador Ethiopian Empire French Republic* Kingdom of Greece  Republic of Guatemala  Republic of Haiti  Republic of Honduras  Indian Empire

Imperial Kingdom of Iran Kingdom of Iraq  Lebanese Republic  Republic of Liberia  Grand Duchy of Luxembourg  United Mexican States Kingdom of the Netherlands Dominion
Dominion
of New Zealand  Republic of Nicaragua  Kingdom of Norway  Republic of Panama  Republic of Paraguay  Republic of Peru Commonwealth of the Philippines  Republic of Poland  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Union of South Africa Syrian Republic  Republic of Turkey  Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics*   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland*   United States
United States
of America*  Oriental Republic of Uruguay United States
United States
of Venezuela Democratic Federal Yugoslavia

Timeline of nations entering war on the Allied Powers Main article: Declarations of war during World War II The following list denotes dates on which nations declared war on the Axis powers, or on which an Axis power declared war on them. Nepal was formally independent.[citation needed] The Indian Empire
Indian Empire
had a status less independent than the Dominions.[77]

A British poster from 1941, promoting the greater alliance against Germany

1939

 Poland: 1 September 1939[78]  France: 3 September 1939[79] — On 22 June 1940, Vichy France under Marshal Pétain formally capitulated to Germany, and became neutral. This capitulation was denounced by General de Gaulle, who established the Free France
Free France
government-in-exile, which continued to fight against Germany. This led to the Provisional Government of the French Republic, which was officially recognized by the other Allies as the legitimate government of France on 23 October 1944.[80] Pétain's 1940 surrender was also legally nullified, so France is considered an Ally throughout the war.[81]  United Kingdom: 3 September 1939[79]

 India: 3 September 1939[82][83]

 Australia: 3 September 1939[82][84]  New Zealand: 3 September 1939[82][85]  South Africa: 6 September 1939[86]  Canada: 10 September 1939[86] Nepal: 4 September 1939[87]

1940

 Norway: 8 April 1940[86] - German invasion of a neutral country without declaration of war[54][88]   Denmark
Denmark
9 April 1940 - German invasion without declaration of war[citation needed]  Belgium: 10 May 1940[citation needed]  Luxembourg: 10 May 1940[citation needed]  Netherlands: 10 May 1940[citation needed]  Greece: 28 October 1940[citation needed]

1941

 Yugoslavia: 6 April 1941 (Yugoslavia signed the Tripartite Pact, becoming a nominal member of the Axis on 25 March; but was attacked by the Axis on 6 April 1941.)[89]  Soviet Union: 22 June 1941;[citation needed] Despite membership of the Soviet Union, Ukraine and Belarus were recognized as separate fighting States by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States
United States
at the end of the war.[citation needed]  United States: 8 December 1941 (war declared against Japan)[90]

 Philippines: 8 December 1941[91]

 Panama: 7 December 1941[citation needed]  Costa Rica: 8 December 1941[86]  Dominican Republic: 8 December 1941[86]  El Salvador: 8 December 1941[86]  Haiti: 8 December 1941[86]  Honduras: 8 December 1941[86]  Nicaragua: 8 December 1941[86]  China: 9 December 1941[86] (at war with Japan since 1937)[92]  Cuba: 9 December 1941[86]  Guatemala: 9 December 1941[86]  United States: 11 December 1941 (war declared on the U.S. by Germany and Italy)[86]

Provisional governments or governments-in exile that declared war against the Axis in 1941

  Korea
Korea
(government in exile): 10 December 1941[93] Vietnam (Viet Minh): 7 December 1941 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(government-in-exile): 16 December 1941[86][94]

1942

 Peru: 12 February 1942  Mexico: 22 May 1942[86]  Brazil: 22 August 1942[86]  Ethiopia: 14 December 1942[86]

1943

 Iraq: 16 January 1943[86]  Bolivia: 7 April 1943[citation needed]  Colombia: 26 July 1943[citation needed] Iran: 9 September 1943[86]  Italy: 10 October 1943[86]-former Axis power

1944

 Liberia: 27 January 1944[86]  Romania: 25 August 1944[86] — former Axis power  Bulgaria: 8 September 1944[95] — former Axis power

1945

 Hungary: 20 January 1945[86] — former Axis power  Ecuador: 2 February 1945[citation needed]  Paraguay: 7 February 1945[86]  Uruguay: 15 February 1945[citation needed] Venezuela: 15 February 1945[citation needed]  Turkey: 23 February 1945[86]  Egypt: 24 February 1945[86] Syria: 26 February 1945[86]  Lebanon: 27 February 1945[86]  Saudi Arabia: 1 March 1945[86]  Finland: 3 March 1945[86] — former co-belligerent of Germany in the Continuation War. On 3 March 1945, Finland
Finland
retroactively declared war on Germany from 15 September 1944.  Argentina: 27 March 1945[96] Chile: 11 April 1945 declared war on Japan[86]  Mongolia: August 1945 declared war on Japan

See also

World War II
World War II
portal War portal History portal

Allies of World War I Diplomatic history of World War II Free World (World War II) Military production during World War II Neutral powers during World War II Participants in World War II

Footnotes

^ Davies 2006, pp 150–151. ^ a b Doenecke, Justus D.; Stoler, Mark A. (2005). Debating Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policies, 1933–1945. Rowman & Littlefield.  ^ Hoopes, Townsend, and Douglas Brinkley. FDR and the Creation of the U.N. (Yale University Press, 1997) ^ Ian C. B. Dear and Michael Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to World War II (2005), pp 29, 1176 ^ Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (2014). "Nothing to Conceal". The Roosevelts: An Intimate History. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 0385353065.  ^ "United Nations". Wordorigins.org. 3 February 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2016.  ^ Douglas Brinkley, FDR & the Making of the U.N. ^ Churchill, Winston S. (1981) [1953]. The Second World War, Volume VI: Triumph and Tragedy. Houghton-Mifflin Company. p. 561.  ^ Wood, J R T (June 2005). So Far And No Further! Rhodesia's Bid For Independence During the Retreat From Empire 1959–1965. Victoria, British Columbia: Trafford Publishing. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-4120-4952-8.  ^ a b c G. Bruce Strang. On the fiery march: Mussolini prepares for war. Westport, Connecticut, US: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2003. Pp. 58–59. ^ G. Bruce Strang. On the fiery march: Mussolini prepares for war. Westport, Connecticut, US: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2003. Pp. 59–60. ^ Euan Graham. Japan's sea lane security, 1940–2004: a matter of life and death? Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, US: Routledge, 2006. Pp. 77. ^ a b Guo wu yuan. Xin wen ban gong shi. Col. C.L. Chennault and Flying Tigers. English translation. State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China. Pp. 16. ^ a b c d e Frederic J. Fleron, Erik P. Hoffmann, Robbin Frederick Laird. Soviet Foreign Policy: Classic and Contemporary Issues. Third paperback edition. New Brunswick, New Jersey, US: Transaction Publishers, 2009. Pp. 236. ^ a b Dieter Heinzig. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and communist China, 1945–1950: the arduous road to the alliance. M.E. Sharpe, 2004. Pp. 9. ^ "Crisis". Time. 13 November 1944.  ^ Dieter Heinzig. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and communist China, 1945–1950: the arduous road to the alliance. M.E. Sharpe, 2004. Pp. 79. ^ a b Speeches that Reshaped the World. ^ "When the US wanted to take over France‑Le Monde diplomatique‑English edition". Le Monde diplomatique. May 2003. Retrieved 10 December 2010.  ^ Helen Rapport. Joseph Stalin: A Biographical Companion. Santa Barbara, California, US: ABC-CLIO, 1999. P. 104. ^ a b c Paul Bushkovitch. A Concise History of Russia. Cambridge, England, UK; New York, New York, US: Cambridge University Press, 2012. P. 390–391. ^ The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Communist
Communist
China, 1945–1950: The Road to Alliance. P. 78. ^ Kees Boterbloem. A History of Russia and Its Empire: From Mikhail Romanov to Vladimir Putin. P235. ^ a b David L. Ransel, Bozena Shallcross. Polish Encounters, Russian Identity. Indiana University Press, 2005. P184. ^ Jan Karski. The Great Powers and Poland: From Versailles to Yalta. Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. P197. ^ David L. Ransel, Bozena Shallcross. Polish Encounters, Russian Identity. Indiana University Press, 2005. P184. ^ Overy 1997, pp 41, 43–7. ^ Davies 2006, pp 148–51. ^ Davies 2006, pp 16, 154. ^ Khudoley, Konstantin K. (2009). "The Baltic factor". In Hiden, John. The Baltic question during the Cold War. Vahur Made, David J. Smith. Psychology Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-415-37100-1.  ^ Geoffrey, Roberts (2004). "Ideology, calculation, and improvisation. Sphere of influence and Soviet foreign policy 1939–1945". In Martel, Gordon. The World War Two reader. Routledge. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-415-22402-4.  ^ Roberts, Geoffrey (1995). "Soviet policy and the Baltic States, 1939–1940 a reappraisal". Diplomacy & Statecraft. Francis & Taylor. 6 (3): 672–700. doi:10.1080/09592299508405982.  ^ Toomas Alatalu. Tuva. A State Reawakens. Soviet Studies, Vol. 44, No. 5 (1992), pp. 881–895 ^ Freidel, Frank (2009). Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny. p. 350.  ^ Jonathan G. Utley (2005). Going to War with Japan, 1937–1941. Fordham Univ Press.  ^ Chris Henry. The Battle of the Coral Sea. London, England, UK: Compendium Publishing; Annapolis, Maryland, US: Naval Institute Press, 2003. P. 84. ^ Keegan, John. "The Second World War." New York: Penguin, 2005. (275) ^ McKeown, Deirdre; Jordan, Roy (2010). "Parliamentary involvement in declaring war and deploying forces overseas" (PDF). Parliamentary Library. Parliament of Australia. pp. 4, 8–11. Retrieved 9 December 2015.  ^ Phillip Alfred Buckner (2008). Canada
Canada
and the British Empire. Oxford U.P. pp. 105–6.  ^ "Second World War and the Cuban Air Force". Retrieved 2013-02-06.  ^ Polmar, Norman; Thomas B. Allen. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years 1941–1945.  ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (2002). History of United States
United States
Naval Operations in World War II: The Atlantic. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-07061-5.  ^ "Cubans Sunk a German Submarine in WWII". Cubanow. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2013.  ^ "German Jewish Refugees, 1933–1939". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 1 June 2017.  ^ Sang, Mu-Kien Adriana (16 November 2012). "Judíos en el Caribe. La comunidad judía en Sosúa
Sosúa
(2)" (in Spanish). El Caribe. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.  ^ " Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
as Haven for Jewish Refugees". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 1 June 2017.  ^ Lajara Solá, Homero Luis (24 de julio de 2012). "El heroe de La Batalla del Caribe". Listín Dairio.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ "Embajada de los Estados Unidos y el Museo Memorial de la Resistencia Abren Exposición en honor a Veteranos Dominicanos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial".  ^ Various (2011). Les Gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Depuis 1848 (PDF). Luxembourg: Government of Luxembourg. p. 112. ISBN 978-2-87999-212-9.  ^ Klemen, L. "201st Mexican Fighter Squadron". The Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indies 1941–1942. 201st Mexican Fighter Squadron ^ Plascencia de la Parra, E. La infantería Invisible:Mexicanos en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.México. Ed. UNAM. Retrieved 27 April 2012 [1] ^ "Fighting for Britain – NZ and the Second World War". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 2 September 2008.  ^ Ministry for Culture and Heritage, "PM Declares NZ's Support for Britain: 5 September 1939," updated 14 October 2014 ^ a b Skodvin, Magne (red.) (1984): Norge i krig. Bind 7. Oslo: Aschehoug. ^ "Military contribution of Poland to World War II
World War II
– Wojsko Polskie – Departament Wychowania i Promocji Obronności". Wojsko-polskie.pl. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2010.  ^ Molotov declaration of 17 September 1939 ^ "73. rocznica sowieckiej napaści na Polskę". rmf24.pl. 17 September 2012.  ^ "Prezydent Ignacy Mościcki
Ignacy Mościcki
cz 3 prof. dr hab. Andrzej Garlicki Uniwersytet Warszawski". Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 2013-01-31. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . ^ At the siege of Tobruk ^ "Basil Davidson: PARTISAN PICTURE". Retrieved 2014-07-11.  ^ Perica, Vjekoslav (2004). Balkan Idols: Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslav States. Oxford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0-19-517429-1.  ^ Borković, Milan (1979). Kontrarevolucija u Srbiji – Kvislinška uprava 1941–1944 (Volume 1, in Serbo-Croatian). Sloboda. p. 9.  ^ Steve Morewood, The British Defence of Egypt, 1935-40: Conflict and Crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean (2008). ^ a b c "Romania – Armistice Negotiations and Soviet Occupation". countrystudies.us.  ^ (in Romanian) Delia Radu, "Serialul 'Ion Antonescu şi asumarea istoriei' (3)", BBC
BBC
Romanian edition, 1 August 2008 ^ (in Romanian) "Dictatura+a+luat+sfarsit+si+cu+ea+inceteaza+toate+asupririle" "The Dictatorship Has Ended and along with It All Oppression" - From The Proclamation to The Nation of King Michael I on The Night of August 23 1944, Curierul Naţional, 7 August 2004 ^ "King Proclaims Nation's Surrender and Wish to Help Allies", The New York Times, 24 August 1944 ^ Josef Becker; Franz Knipping (1986). Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany in a Postwar World, 1945–1950. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 506–7.  ^ Morgan, Philip (2007). The Fall of Mussolini: Italy, the Italians, and the Second World War. Oxford UP. pp. 194–85.  ^ United States
United States
Department of State, Foreign relations of the United States, 1946. Paris Peace Conference : documents (1946), page 802, Article 26.a 'Memoranda submitted by Albanian Government on the Draft Peace Treaty with Italy' "proposed amendment...For the purposes of this Treaty, Albania shall be considered as an Associated Power.", web http://images.library.wisc.edu/FRUS/EFacs/1946v04/reference/frus.frus1946v04.i0011.pdf ^ Treaties in Force, A List of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States
United States
in Force on January 1, 2013, Page 453, accessible online from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/218912.pdf ^ Axelrod, John (5 February 2015). Encyclopedia of World War II. Volume 1. H W Fowler. p. 824. ISBN 978-1-84511-308-7. The first peace treaty concluded between the Allies and a former Axis nation was with Italy . It was signed in Paris on February 10, by representatives from Albania, Australia
Australia
....  ^ Motter, T.H. Vail (2000) [1952]. "Chapter I: Experiment in Co-operation". The Persion Corridor and Aid to Russia. United States Army in World War II. United States
United States
Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 8-1. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2010.  ^ Bohlen, C.E. (1973). Witness to History, 1929–1969. New York. p. 159.  ^ Video: Allies Study Post-War Security Etc. (1944). Universal Newsreel. 1944. Retrieved 28 November 2014.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
Security Council: Official Records: First Year, First Series, First Meeting ^ Ian Dear, Ian. and M.R.D. Foot, eds., The Oxford companion to world war II (1995) ^ Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005) A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II
World War II
(2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 6. ^ a b "1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany". BBC. Retrieved 17 February 2015.  ^ "Ordre de la Libération". ordredelaliberation.fr. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009.  ^ "Ordonnance du 9 août 1944 relative au rétablissement de la légalité républicaine sur le territoire continental. - Legifrance". legifrance.gouv.fr.  ^ a b c Connelly, Mark (2012). The IRA on Film and Television: A History. McFarland. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7864-8961-9.  ^ Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-521-61826-7.  ^ Morgan, Kenneth (2012). Australia: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-19-958993-7.  ^ New Zealand declares war on Germany, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 14-Oct-2014 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Martin, Chris (2011). World War II: The Book of Lists. Stroud: The History Press. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-7524-6704-7.  ^ Selley, Ron; Cocks, Kerrin (2014). I Won't Be Home Next Summer: Flight Lieutenant R.N. Selley DFC (1917Ð1941). Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-928211-19-8.  ^ Tamelander, M. og N. Zetterling (2001): 9. april. Oslo: Spartacus. ^ Sotirović, Vladislav B. (18 December 2011). "Кнез Павле Карађорђевић и приступање Југославије Тројном пакту". NSPM.  (in Serbian)" ^ Kluckhohn, Frank L. (8 December 1941). "U.S. Declares War, Pacific Battle Widens". The New York Times: 1.  ^ Dear and Foot, Oxford Companion to World War II
World War II
pp 878-9 ^ Rana Mitter. "Forgotten ally? China's unsung role in World War II". CNN.  ^ A. Wigfall Green (2007). The Epic Of Korea. Read Books. p. 6. ISBN 1-4067-0320-6.  ^ Dear and Foot, Oxford Companion to World War II
World War II
pp 279-80 ^ A Political Chronology of Europe, Psychology Press, 2001, p.45 ^ Decree 6945/45

Bibliography

Davies, Norman (2006), Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3 Dear, Ian C. B. and Michael Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to World War II (2005), comprehensive encyclopedia for all countries Overy, Richard (1997), Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-027169-4. R. Holland (1981), Britain and the Commonwealth alliance, 1918–1939, London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-27295-4 Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (1994) comprehensive coverage of the war with emphasis on diplomacy excerpt and text search

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Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union German prisoners of war in the United States Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Japanese prisoners of war in World War II German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Soviet prisoners of war in Finland

Bibliography Category Portal

Authority control

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