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The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers
Central Powers
in the First World War. The members of the original Triple Entente
Triple Entente
of 1907 were the French Republic, the British Empire
British Empire
and the Russian Empire. Italy
Italy
ended its alliance with the Central Powers, arguing that Germany and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
started the war without prior consultation with all allies and that the alliance was only defensive in nature; it entered the war on the side of the Entente in 1915. Japan
Japan
was another important member. Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Romania[2] were affiliated members of the Entente.[3] The 1920 Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
defines the Principal Allied Powers as the British Empire, French Republic, Italy
Italy
and Japan. The Allied Powers comprised, together with the Principal Allied Powers, Armenia, Belgium, Greece, Hejaz, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene state and Czechoslovakia.[4] The U.S. declaration of war on Germany, on 6 April 1917 was on the grounds that Germany had violated its neutrality by attacking international shipping, sabotaging munitions on American soil and the Zimmermann Telegram
Zimmermann Telegram
sent to Mexico.[5] It declared war on Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in December 1917.[6][7] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than as a formal ally of France
France
and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[8] Although the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.[9] The Dominions
Dominions
and Crown Colonies of the British Empire
British Empire
made great contributions to the Allied war effort, but did not have independent foreign policies in World War I
World War I
with the British War Cabinet exercising operational control of British Empire
British Empire
forces. The Dominion governments did control recruiting, and removed personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit. From early 1917, the War Cabinet was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion representation. The Australian Corps and Canadian Corps
Canadian Corps
were placed under the command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenant Generals John Monash and Arthur Currie,[10] respectively, who reported in turn to British generals.[citation needed] In April 1918, operational control of all Entente forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander, Ferdinand Foch
Ferdinand Foch
of France.

Contents

1 History 2 Major affiliated state combatants

2.1 United Kingdom

2.1.1 War justifications 2.1.2 Colonies and dependencies

2.1.2.1 In Europe 2.1.2.2 In Africa 2.1.2.3 In North America 2.1.2.4 In Asia 2.1.2.5 In Oceania

2.2 Russia 2.3 France 2.4 Japan 2.5 Italy 2.6 Serbia 2.7 Romania

3 Other affiliated state combatants

3.1 Belgium 3.2 Brazil 3.3 Montenegro 3.4 Nejd and Hasa 3.5 Idrisid Emirate of Asir

4 Major co-belligerent state combatants

4.1 United States

5 Non-state combatants 6 Leaders

6.1 Serbia 6.2 Montenegro 6.3 Russia
Russia
(1914–1917) 6.4 Belgium 6.5 France 6.6 British Empire

6.6.1 Dominion
Dominion
of Canada 6.6.2 Commonwealth of Australia 6.6.3 Empire of India 6.6.4 Union of South Africa 6.6.5 New Zealand 6.6.6 Dominion
Dominion
of Newfoundland

6.7 Japan 6.8 Italy
Italy
(1915–1918) 6.9 Romania (1916–1918) 6.10 Portugal
Portugal
(1916–1918) 6.11 Greece (1917–1918) 6.12 United States
United States
(1917–1918) 6.13 Siam
Siam
(Thailand) (1917–1918) 6.14 Brazil
Brazil
(1917–1918) 6.15 Armenia
Armenia
(1918)

7 Personnel and casualties 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 Sources

History[edit]

A 1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente

The original alignment opposed to the Central Powers
Central Powers
was the Triple Entente, which was formed by three Great European Powers:

 British Empire French Republic  Russian Empire

The war began with the Austrian attack invasion of Serbia on 28 July 1914, in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Austrian Empire followed with an attack on the Serbian ally Montenegro on 8 August.[citation needed] On the Western Front, the two neutral States of Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
were immediately occupied by German troops as part of the German Schlieffen Plan. Of the two Low Countries
Low Countries
involved in the war, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
chose to capitulate, and was viewed as a collaborationist state by the Entente powers: Luxembourg
Luxembourg
never became part of the Allies, and only narrowly avoided Belgium's efforts of annexation, at the conclusion of hostilities in 1919. On 23 August Japan
Japan
joined the Entente, which then counted seven members.[citation needed]. The entrance of the British Empire brought Nepal
Nepal
into the war. On 23 May 1915, Italy
Italy
entered the war on the Entente side and declared war on Austria; previously, Italy
Italy
had been a member of the Triple Alliance but had remained neutral since the beginning of the conflict. In 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente, and two nations joined, Portugal
Portugal
and Romania.[citation needed] On 6 April 1917, the United States
United States
entered the war. Liberia, Siam
Siam
and Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia
Russia
left the alliance and ended formal involvement in the war, by the signing of the treaty of Brest Litovsk in November effectively creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers
Central Powers
again on 10 November 1918. The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five Great Powers:

French Republic  British Empire  United States  Italy  Japan

Following the Versailles conference, Britain, France, Italy
Italy
and Japan became the permanent members of the League of Nations
League of Nations
council. The United States, meant to be the fifth permanent member, left because the US Senate voted on 19 March 1920 against the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, thus preventing American participation in the League.

Statistics of the Allied Powers (1913) and enlisted soldiers during the war[11]

Population (millions) Land (million km2) GDP ($ billion) Mobilized personnel

First Wave: 1914

Russia Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(inc. Poland) 173.2 21.7 257.7 12,000,0003

Finland 3.2 0.4 6.6

Total 176.4 22.1 264.3

French Third Republic France 39.8 0.5 138.7 8,410,0003

French colonies 48.3 10.7 31.5

Total 88.1 11.2 170.2

British Empire United Kingdom 46.0 0.3 226.4 6,211,9222

British colonies 380.2 13.5 257 1,440,4371[12]

British Dominions 19.9 19.5 77.8 1,307,0001

Total 446.1 33.3 561.2 8,689,000[13]

Empire of Japan Japan 55.1 0.4 76.5 800,0003

Japanese colonies[14] 19.1 0.3 16.3

Total 74.2 0.7 92.8

Yugoslav states[15] 7.0 0.2 7.2 760,0003

Second Wave (1915–16)

Kingdom of Italy Italy 35.6 0.3 91.3 5,615,0003

Italian colonies 2.0 2.0 1.3

Total 37.6 2.3 92.6

Portugal Portugal 6.0 0.1 7.4 100,0003

Portuguese colonies 8.7 2.4 5.2

Total 14.7 2.5 12.6

Kingdom of Romania 7.7 0.1 11.7 750,0003

Third Wave (1917–18)

United States United States 96.5 7.8 511.6 4,355,0003

overseas dependencies[16] 9.8 1.8 10.6

Total 106.3 9.6 522.2

Central American states[17] 9.0 0.6 10.6

Brazil 25.0 8.5 20.3 1,702[citation needed]

Kingdom of Greece 4.8 0.1 7.7 230,0003

Siam 8.4 0.5 7.0 1,2842

Republic of China 441.0 11.1 243.7

Liberia 1.5 0.1 0.9

Aggregate statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[18]

Population (millions) Territory (million km2) GDP ($ billion)

November 1914

Allies, total 793.3 67.5 1,096.5

UK, France
France
and Russia
Russia
only 259.0 22.6 622.8

November 1916

Allies, total 853.3 72.5 1,213.4

UK, France
France
and Russia
Russia
only 259.0 22.6 622.8

November 1918

Allies, total 1,271.7 80.8 1,760.5

Percentage of world 70% 61% 64%

UK, France
France
and USA only 182.3 8.7 876.6

Percentage of world 10% 7% 32%

Central Powers[19] 156.1 6.0 383.9

World, 1913 1,810.3 133.5 2,733.9

Major affiliated state combatants[edit]

The Council of Four (from left to right): David Lloyd George, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
and Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
in Versailles

United Kingdom[edit] Main article: History of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during the First World War

British Empire
British Empire
in 1914

British soldiers in a trench during the Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme
in 1916

British battlecruiser HMS Lion hit by shell fire during the Battle of Jutland

British Sopwith Camel
Sopwith Camel
fighter aircraft during the war

War justifications[edit] In response to the Germans invasion of neutral Belgium, the United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.[20] The British Empire held several semi-autonomous dominions that were automatically brought into the war effort as a result of the British declaration of war, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Newfoundland, and South Africa. Colonies and dependencies[edit] Main article: British Empire In Europe[edit] Gibraltar, Cyprus
Cyprus
and Malta
Malta
were British dependencies in Europe. In Africa[edit] The UK held several colonies, protectorates, and semi-autonomous dependencies at the time of World War I. In Eastern Africa the East Africa Protectorate, Nyasaland, both Northern and Southern Rhodesia, the Uganda Protectorate, were involved in conflict with German forces in German East Africa. In Western Africa, the colonies of Gold Coast and Nigeria were involved in military actions against German forces from Togoland
Togoland
and Kamerun. In Southwestern Africa, the semi-autonomous dominion of South Africa
South Africa
was involved in military actions against German forces in German South-West Africa. In North America[edit] Canada
Canada
and Newfoundland were two autonomous dominions during the war that made major military contributions to the British war effort. Other British dependent territories in the Americas included: British Honduras, the Falkland Islands, British Guiana, and Jamaica. In Asia[edit] The UK held large possessions in Asia, including the Indian Empire which was an assortment of British imperial authorities in the territory now defined as India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Pakistan. Other British territories at the time included: British Malaya
British Malaya
– referring to several Malay states under British control as a result of the Straits Settlements, North Borneo, Sri Lanka, and Hong Kong. In Oceania[edit] Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
were two autonomous dominions of the UK in Oceania during the war. Australia
Australia
had become an independent nation state in 1901. Having strong cultural ties with the United Kingdom, the nations declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914. Russia[edit] Main article: Russian Empire

Russian artillery firing

In response to Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia in 1914, Russian government officials denounced the Austro-Hungarian invasion as an "ignoble war" on a "weak country".[21] Russian government official Nikolaĭ N. Shebeko stated: "the attack on Serbia by a powerful empire such as Austria, supposedly in order to defend its existence, cannot be understood by anyone in my country; it has been considered simply as a means of delivering a death-blow to Serbia."[21] Russia
Russia
held close diplomatic relations with Serbia, and Russian foreign minister Sergey Sazonov
Sergey Sazonov
suspected the events were a conspiracy between Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Germany to expel Russian influence in the Balkans.[21] On 30 July 1914, Russia
Russia
enacted a general mobilization. The day after general mobilization was enacted, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on Russia
Russia
prior to expected Russian intervention against Austria-Hungary. Following a raid by Ottoman warships on the Russian port of Odessa, Russia
Russia
declared war on the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in November 1914.[22] France[edit] Main articles: French Third Republic
French Third Republic
and French colonial empire

French soldiers crossing a river on their way to Verdun during the Battle of Verdun

After Germany declared war on Russia, France
France
with its alliance with Russia
Russia
prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France.[23] Japan[edit] Main article: Empire of Japan

Japanese soldiers landing in Tsingtao during the Siege of Tsingtao, in which Allied forces seized control of Germany's Kiautschou Bay concession

Japan
Japan
declared war on Germany after it did not accept an ultimatum sent by Japan
Japan
to Germany, demanding that Germany would remove armed German Merchant ships from Japanese and Chinese waters[24] Japan
Japan
did this to honor the alliance that they had with Great Britain. The Japanese government appealed to the Japanese public that Japan
Japan
was not merely entering a "European War" on behalf of European powers, but that Japan
Japan
was fighting on behalf of Asians against a belligerent European power, Germany, that Japan
Japan
identified as the "source of evil in the Far East".[25] Thus as a result of this, Japan
Japan
was following through with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.[25] Italy[edit] Main articles: Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
and Italian Empire

Italian alpine troops

Italy
Italy
had been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
since the 1880s, however the Triple Alliance stipulated that all parties must be consulted in the event of one country engaging in war and Italy
Italy
was not informed of this.[26] As such Italy
Italy
claimed that it was not obligated to join their war effort.[26] Italy's relations with Germany and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in contrast to the Allies were additionally affected by the fact that in 1913, Britain supplied Italy
Italy
with 90 percent of its annual imports of coal.[26] The war effort of the Central Powers
Central Powers
meant that Germany and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
were using their coal supplies for the war, and little was available to be exported to Italy.[26] Italy
Italy
initially attempted to pursue neutrality from 1914 to 1915.[26] After diplomatic negotiations, Britain and France
France
convinced Italy
Italy
to join the war effort with promises that Italy
Italy
would gain favourable territorial concessions from the Central Powers, including Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary.[27] Italy
Italy
ordered mobilization on 22 May 1915, and issued an ultimatum to Austria-Hungary, and then declared war on Austria-Hungary, though it did not declare war on Germany.[27] Serbia[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Serbia

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Serbian soldiers during World War I

Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
after Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian government demanding full compliance to an Austro-Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian government in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
invaded. Serbia had the diplomatic support of Russia, and both Serbia and Russia
Russia
resented Austria-Hungary's absorption of Bosnia and Herzegovina that held a substantial Serb population. Serbia had expanded in size through its actions in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 when the Ottoman Empire's control in the Balkans collapsed. During the war, Serbia justified the war as being the result of Austro-Hungarian imperialism towards Serbs and South Slavs, Serbia cooperated with Yugoslavists including the Yugoslav Committee
Yugoslav Committee
who sought pan-South-Slav unification, particularly through liberating South Slavs
South Slavs
from Austria-Hungary. In the Corfu Declaration
Corfu Declaration
in 1917, the Serbian government officially declared its intention to form a state of Yugoslavia. The first two allied victories in the war were won by the Serbian army, on the mountains of Cer and Kolubara, in western Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian army was expelled from the country, suffering heavy losses. Serbia suffered great losses during the war, almost 50% of all men and around 30% of its entire population were killed. Romania[edit] Main articles: Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
and Romania during World War I

Romanian 250 mm Negrei Model 1916 mortar at the National Military Museum

Vlaicu III

Romanian troops at Mărășești

Equal status with the main Allied Powers was one of the primary conditions for Romania's entry into the War. The Powers officially recognized this status through the 1916 Treaty of Bucharest.[28] Romania fought on 3 of the 4 European Fronts: Eastern, Balkan and Italian, fielding in total over 1,200,000 troops.[29] Romanian military industry was mainly focused on converting various fortification guns into field and anti-aircraft artillery. Up to 334 German 53 mm Fahrpanzer
Fahrpanzer
guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Romanian-built carriages and transformed into mobile field artillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being transformed into anti-aircraft artillery. The Romanians also upgraded 120 German Krupp 105 mm howitzers, the result being the most effective field howitzer in Europe at that time. Romania even managed to design and build from scratch its own model of mortar, the 250 mm Negrei Model 1916.[30] Other Romanian technological assets include the building of Vlaicu III, the world's first aircraft made of metal.[31] The Romanian Navy possessed the largest warships on the Danube. They were a class of 4 river monitors, built locally at the Galați shipyard
Galați shipyard
using parts manufactured in Austria-Hungary, and the first one launched was Lascăr Catargiu, in 1907.[32][33] The Romanian monitors displaced almost 700 tons, were armed with three 120 mm naval guns in 3 turrets, two 120 mm naval howitzers, four 47 mm anti-aircraft guns and two 6.5 machine guns.[34] The monitors took part in the Battle of Turtucaia
Battle of Turtucaia
and the First Battle of Cobadin. The Romanian-designed Schneider 150 mm Model 1912 howitzer was considered one of the most modern field guns on the Western Front.[35] Romania's entry into the War in August 1916 provoked major changes for the Germans. General
General
Erich von Falkenhayn
Erich von Falkenhayn
was dismissed and sent to command the Central Powers
Central Powers
forces in Romania, which enabled Hindenburg's subsequent ascension to power.[36] Due to having to fight against all of the Central Powers
Central Powers
on the longest front in Europe (1,600 km) and with little foreign help (only 50,000 Russians aided 650,000 Romanians in 1916),[37] the Romanian capital was conquered that December. Vlaicu III was also captured and shipped to Germany, being last seen in 1942.[38] The Romanian administration established a new capital at Iași
Iași
and continued to fight on the Allied side in 1917.[39] Despite being relatively short, the Romanian campaign of 1916 provided considerable respite for the Western Allies, as the Germans ceased all their other offensive operations in order to deal with Romania.[40] After suffering a tactical defeat against the Romanians (aided by Russians) in July 1917 at Mărăști, the Central Powers launched two counterattacks, at Mărășești and Oituz. The German offensive at Mărășești was soundly defeated, with German prisoners later telling their Romanian captors that German casualties were extremely heavy, and that they "had not encountered such stiff resistance since the battles of Somme and Verdun".[41] The Austro-Hungarian offensive at Oituz also failed. On 22 September, the Austro-Hungarian Enns-class river monitor SMS Inn was sunk by a Romanian mine near Brăila.[42][43] After Russia
Russia
signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and dropped out of the War, Romania was left surrounded by the Central Powers
Central Powers
and eventually signed a similar treaty on 7 May 1918. Despite being forced to cede land to Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Bulgaria, Romania ended up with a net gain in territory due to the Union with Bessarabia. On 10 November, Romania re-entered the War and fought a war with Hungary that lasted until August 1919. Other affiliated state combatants[edit] Belgium[edit] Belgium
Belgium
had declared its neutrality when the war began, but Germany disregarded Belgium's neutrality and invaded the country in order to launch an offensive against the French capital of Paris. As a result, Belgium
Belgium
became a member of the Allies. Brazil[edit] Main article: First Brazilian Republic

Brazilian soldiers in World War I

Brazil
Brazil
entered the war in 1917 after the United States
United States
intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil
Brazil
also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. The First Brazilian Republic sent the Naval Division in War Operations that joined the British fleet in Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and made the first Brazilian naval effort in international waters. In compliance with the commitments made at the Inter-American Conference, held in Paris from November 20 to December 3, 1917, the Brazilian Government sent a medical mission composed of civilian and military surgeons to work in field hospitals of the European theater, a contingent of sergeants and officers to serve with the French army; Airmen from the Army and Navy to join the Royal Air Force, and the employment of part of the Fleet, primarily in the anti-submarine war. Montenegro[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and had cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary. Nejd and Hasa[edit] The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa
Emirate of Nejd and Hasa
agreed to enter the war as an ally of Britain in the Treaty of Darin on December 26, 1915.[44] Idrisid Emirate of Asir[edit] The Idrisid Emirate of Asir
Idrisid Emirate of Asir
participated in the Arab revolt. Its Emir, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, signed an agreement with the British and joined the Allies in May 1915.

Major co-belligerent state combatants[edit] United States[edit] Main article: United States
United States
in World War I The United States
United States
declared war on Germany in April 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.[5] The remotely connected Zimmermann Telegram
Zimmermann Telegram
of the same period, within which the Germans promised to help Mexico
Mexico
regain some of its territory lost to the U.S nearly eight decades before, was also a contributing factor. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power," rather than a formal ally of France
France
and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements."[8] Although the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war,[9] as did Austria-Hungary. Eventually, however, the United States
United States
also declared war on Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in December 1917, predominantly to help hard-pressed Italy. Non-state combatants[edit] Three non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers
Central Powers
at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:[citation needed]

Armenian irregulars and volunteers: seceded from Soviet Russia
Russia
in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
and fought against the Ottoman Empire. Polish Legions Czechoslovak Legions: armed by France, Italy
Italy
and Russia

Leaders[edit] Main article: Allied leaders of World War I Serbia[edit]

Peter I – King of Serbia Crown Prince Alexander – Regent, Commander-in-Chief Nikola Pašić
Nikola Pašić
– Prime Minister of Serbia Field Marshal Radomir Putnik
Radomir Putnik
– Chief of the General
General
Staff of the Serbian Army
Serbian Army
(1914–1915) General
General
/ Field Marshal Živojin Mišić – Deputy Chief of General Staff (1914), Commander of First Army (1914–1915; 1917), later Chief of General
General
Staff (1918) General
General
/ Field Marshal Petar Bojović
Petar Bojović
– Commander of First Army (1914), Deputy Chief of General
General
Staff (1915–1916), Chief of General Staff (1916–1917) later Commander of First Army (1918) General
General
/ Field Marshal Stepa Stepanović
Stepa Stepanović
– Commander of Second Army (1914–1918) General
General
Pavle Jurišić Šturm – Commander of Third Army (1914–1916) Colonel Dušan Stefanović (sr) – Minister of War (1914) Colonel Radivoje Bojović – Minister of War (1914–1915) Colonel / General
General
Božidar Terzić (sr) – Minister of War (1915–1918) General
General
Mihailo Rašić (sr) – Minister of War (1918) Colonel / General
General
Miloš Vasić (sr) – Commander of First Army (1916; 1917), Commander of Third Army (1916)

Montenegro[edit]

Nicholas I – King of Montenegro, Commander-in-Chief General
General
Serdar Janko Vukotić
Janko Vukotić
– Prime Minister, Commander of 1st Montenegrin Army General
General
Božidar Janković
Božidar Janković
– Chief of the General
General
Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1914–1915) Colonel Petar Pešić (sr) – Deputy Chief of the General
General
Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1914–1915), later Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1915–1916) Crown Prince Danilo II Petrović-Njegoš – In the staff of the 1st Montenegrin Army Brigadier
Brigadier
Krsto Popović
Krsto Popović
– In the staff of the 1st Montenegrin Army, Aide-de-camp
Aide-de-camp
to Serdar Janko Vukotić General
General
Anto Gvozdenović
Anto Gvozdenović
– King's Aide-de-camp General
General
Mitar Martinović (sr) – Commander of several detachments in the Montenegrin army ( Drina and Herzegovina detachments together in 1914–1915, Kotor detachment in 1916 )

Russia
Russia
(1914–1917)[edit]

Nicholas II — Russian Emperor, King of Poland, and Grand Prince of Finland. (Until 15 March 1917) Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich – Commander-in-chief (1 August 1914 – 5 September 1916) and viceroy in the Caucasus Ivan Goremykin
Ivan Goremykin
– Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (1 August 1914 – 2 February 1916) Boris Stürmer
Boris Stürmer
– Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (2 February 1916 – 23 November 1916) Alexander Trepov
Alexander Trepov
– Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (23 November 1916 – 27 December 1916) Nikolai Golitsyn
Nikolai Golitsyn
– Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (27 December 1916 – 9 January 1917) General of the Cavalry Alexander Samsonov
Alexander Samsonov
– Commander of the Russian Second Army for the invasion of East Prussia
East Prussia
(1 August 1914 – 29 August 1914) General of the Cavalry Paul von Rennenkampf
Paul von Rennenkampf
– Commander of the Russian First Army
Russian First Army
for the invasion of East Prussia
East Prussia
(1 August 1914 – November 1914) General
General
of the Artillery Nikolay Ivanov – Commander of the Russian army on the Southwestern Front, (1 August 1914 – March 1916) responsible for much of the action in Galicia General
General
Adjutant Aleksei Brusilov
Aleksei Brusilov
– Commander of the South-West Front, then provisional Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
after the Tsar's abdication (February 1917 – August 1917) General of the Infantry Lavr Georgievich Kornilov – Commander of the South-West Front, then Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
(August 1917) General of the Infantry Aleksey Kuropatkin
Aleksey Kuropatkin
– Commander of the Northern Front (October 1915 – 1917) General of the Infantry Nikolai Yudenich
Nikolai Yudenich
– Commander of the Caucasus (January 1915 – May 1917) Admiral
Admiral
Andrei Eberhardt
Andrei Eberhardt
– Commander of Black Sea Fleet (1914–16) Admiral
Admiral
Alexander Kolchak
Alexander Kolchak
– Commander of Black Sea Fleet (1916–17) Admiral
Admiral
Nikolai Essen
Nikolai Essen
– Commander of Baltic Fleet (1913 – May 1915)

Belgium[edit]

Albert I of Belgium
Belgium
King of the Belgians
King of the Belgians
(23 December 1909 – 17 February 1934) and Commander-in-chief of the Belgian army Charles de Broqueville
Charles de Broqueville
– Prime Minister (1912–1918); replaced by Gérard Cooreman in June 1918 shortly before the end of the war. Félix Wielemans
Félix Wielemans
– Chief of Staff of the Belgian Army Gérard Leman
Gérard Leman
– general commanding the defense of Liège Théophile Figeys – general in the Hundred Days' Offensive Charles Tombeur – commander of the colonial Force Publique
Force Publique
in the East African theater

France[edit]

Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré
– President of France René Viviani
René Viviani
– Prime Minister of France
France
(13 June 1914 – 29 October 1915) Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– Prime Minister of France
France
(29 October 1915 – 20 March 1917) Alexandre Ribot
Alexandre Ribot
– Prime Minister of France
France
(20 March 1917 – 12 September 1917) Paul Painlevé
Paul Painlevé
– Prime Minister of France
France
(12 September 1917 – 16 November 1917) Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
– Prime Minister of France
France
(From 16 November 1917) Divisional General / Marshal Joseph Joffre
Joseph Joffre
Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the French Army
French Army
(3 August 1914 – 13 December 1916) Divisional General Robert Nivelle
Robert Nivelle
Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the French Army (13 December 1916 – April 1917) Divisional General / Marshal Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain
– Commander-in-Chief of the French Army
French Army
(April 1917 – 11 November 1918) Divisional General / Marshal Ferdinand Foch
Ferdinand Foch
– Supreme Allied Commander (26 March 1918 – 11 November 1918) Divisional General Maurice Sarrail
Maurice Sarrail
– Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front
Salonika Front
(1915–1917) Army General
General
Adolphe Guillaumat
Adolphe Guillaumat
– Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front
Salonika Front
(1917–1918) Divisional General / Marshal Louis Franchet d'Espèrey – Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front
Salonika Front
(1918) Brigadier
Brigadier
General
General
Milan Rastislav Štefánik
Milan Rastislav Štefánik
General
General
of French Army, Commander of Czechoslovak Legions

British Empire[edit]

George V
George V
– King of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India H. H. Asquith
H. H. Asquith
– Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Until 5 December 1916) David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
– Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(From 7 December 1916) Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener – Secretary of State for War (5 August 1914 – 5 June 1916) General
General
William Robertson – Chief of the Imperial General Staff
Chief of the Imperial General Staff
(23 December 1915 – February 1918) General
General
Henry Wilson – Chief of the Imperial General Staff
Chief of the Imperial General Staff
(February 1918 – February 1922) General
General
John French – Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the British Expeditionary Force (4 August 1914 – 15 December 1915) General
General
/ Field Marshal Douglas Haig – Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the British Expeditionary Force (15 December 1915 – 11 November 1918) General
General
Sir David Henderson - Director- General
General
of Military Aeronautics General
General
Hugh Trenchard – Commander of Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
– (August 1915 – January 1918) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
First Lord of the Admiralty
First Lord of the Admiralty
– (1911 – May 1915) Arthur Balfour- First Lord of the Admiralty
First Lord of the Admiralty
– (May 1915 – December 1916) Edward Carson – First Lord of the Admiralty
First Lord of the Admiralty
– (10 December 1916 – 17 July 1917) Eric Geddes – First Lord of the Admiralty
First Lord of the Admiralty
– (July 1917 – January 1919) Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet John "Jackie" Fisher – First Sea Lord
First Sea Lord
– (1914 – May 1915) Admiral
Admiral
Henry Jackson – First Sea Lord
First Sea Lord
– (May 1915 – November 1916) Admiral
Admiral
John Jellicoe – Commander of the Grand Fleet (August 1914 – November 1916); First Sea Lord
First Sea Lord
(November 1916 – December 1917) Admiral
Admiral
Rosslyn Wemyss – First Sea Lord
First Sea Lord
(December 1917 – November 1919) Admiral
Admiral
David Beatty – Commander of the Grand Fleet (November 1916 – April 1919) General
General
Archibald Murray
Archibald Murray
– Commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (January 1916 – June 1917) General
General
Edmund Allenby – Commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (June 1917 – November 1918) Eric John Eagles Swayne – commander of the British forces in the Somaliland Campaign William Peyton
William Peyton
- commander and military secretary to the British Expeditionary Force

Dominion
Dominion
of Canada[edit]

Robert Borden
Robert Borden
– Prime Minister of Canada
Canada
(1914–18) Sam Hughes
Sam Hughes
– Minister of Militia and Defence (1914 – January 1915) Joseph Flavelle
Joseph Flavelle
– Chairman of Imperial Munitions Board
Imperial Munitions Board
(1915–19) Lieutenant-General
Lieutenant-General
Edwin Alderson
Edwin Alderson
– Commander of the unified Canadian Corps
Canadian Corps
of the Canadian Expeditionary Force
Canadian Expeditionary Force
(26 January 1915 – September 1915) General
General
Julian Byng – Commander of the unified Canadian Corps
Canadian Corps
of the Canadian Expeditionary Force
Canadian Expeditionary Force
(June 1916 – June 1917) General
General
Arthur Currie
Arthur Currie
– Commander of the unified Canadian Corps
Canadian Corps
of the Canadian Expeditionary Force
Canadian Expeditionary Force
(June 1917 –)[45]

Commonwealth of Australia[edit]

Joseph Cook
Joseph Cook
– Prime Minister of Australia
Australia
(until 17 September 1914) Andrew Fisher
Andrew Fisher
– Prime Minister of Australia
Australia
(17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) Billy Hughes
Billy Hughes
– Prime Minister of Australia
Australia
(from 27 October 1915) General
General
William Birdwood
William Birdwood
– Commander of the Australian Corps (all five Australian infantry divisions serving on the Western Front) (November 1917 – May 1918) General
General
John Monash
John Monash
– Commander of the Australian Corps (May 1918 –) Major General
General
William Holmes – Commander of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (August 1914 – February 1915) General
General
Harry Chauvel
Harry Chauvel
– Commander of Desert Mounted Corps
Desert Mounted Corps
(Sinai and Palestine) (August 1917 –)

Empire of India[edit]

Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst
Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst
– Viceroy of India 1910–1916 Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford
Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford
– Viceroy of India 1916–1921 Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe
Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe
– Secretary of State for India
India
(May 1911 – May 1915) Austen Chamberlain
Austen Chamberlain
– Secretary of State for India
India
(May 1915 – July 1917) Edwin Samuel Montagu
Edwin Samuel Montagu
– Secretary of State for India
India
(July 1917 – March 1922) Beauchamp Duff
Beauchamp Duff
- Commander-in-Chief, India
India
(March 1914 - October 1916) Charles Monro - Commander-in-Chief, India
India
(October 1916 - November 1920) Lieutenant-General
Lieutenant-General
John Nixon commander of the British Indian Army (active in the Middle East)

Union of South Africa[edit]

General
General
Louis Botha
Louis Botha
– Prime Minister of South Africa General
General
Jan Smuts
Jan Smuts
– Led forces in South-West Africa Campaign
South-West Africa Campaign
and East African Campaign, later member of the Imperial War Cabinet

New Zealand[edit]

William Massey
William Massey
– Prime Minister of New Zealand General
General
Sir Alexander Godley
Alexander Godley
– Commandant of New Zealand
New Zealand
Military Forces (to October 1914); Commander of the New Zealand
New Zealand
Expeditionary Force Major General
General
Sir Alfred William Robin
Alfred William Robin
– Quartermaster- General
General
and Commandant of New Zealand
New Zealand
Military Forces (from October 1914) Major General
General
Sir Andrew Hamilton Russell
Andrew Hamilton Russell
– Commander of the New Zealand Division

Dominion
Dominion
of Newfoundland[edit]

Sir Edward Morris – Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1909–1917) Sir John Crosbie – Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1917–1918) Sir William Lloyd – Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1918–1919)

Japan[edit]

Emperor Taishō
Emperor Taishō
– Emperor of Japan Ōkuma Shigenobu
Ōkuma Shigenobu
– Prime Minister of Japan
Japan
(16 April 1914 – 9 October 1916) Terauchi Masatake
Terauchi Masatake
– Prime minister of Japan
Japan
(9 October 1916 – 29 September 1918) Hara Takashi
Hara Takashi
– Prime minister of Japan
Japan
(29 September 1918 – 4 November 1921) Katō Sadakichi
Katō Sadakichi
- Commander-in-chief of the Second Fleet deployed to the Siege of Tsingtao Kōzō Satō
Kōzō Satō
– Commander of the Second Special
Special
Task Fleet Kamio Mitsuomi
Kamio Mitsuomi
– Commander of Allied land forces at Tsingtao

Italy
Italy
(1915–1918)[edit]

Victor Emmanuel III – King of Italy Antonio Salandra
Antonio Salandra
– Prime Minister (until 18 June 1916) Paolo Boselli
Paolo Boselli
– Prime Minister (18 June 1916 – 29 October 1917) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
– Prime Minister (from 29 October 1917) Luigi Cadorna
Luigi Cadorna
Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Royal Italian Army Armando Diaz
Armando Diaz
– Chief of General
General
Staff of the Royal Italian army Luigi, Duke of Abruzzi – Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Adriatic Fleet of Italy
Italy
(1914–17) Paolo Thaon di Revel
Paolo Thaon di Revel
Admiral
Admiral
of the Royal Italian Navy

Romania (1916–1918)[edit]

Ferdinand I – King of Romania General
General
Constantin Prezan
Constantin Prezan
– Chief of the General
General
Staff of Romania Ion I. C. Brătianu
Ion I. C. Brătianu
– Prime Minister of Romania Vintilă Brătianu
Vintilă Brătianu
– Secretary of War Field Marshal Alexandru Averescu
Alexandru Averescu
– Commander of the 2nd Army, 3rd Army, then Army Group South General
General
Eremia Grigorescu
Eremia Grigorescu
– Commander of the 1st Army

Portugal
Portugal
(1916–1918)[edit]

Bernardino Machado
Bernardino Machado
– President of Portugal
Portugal
(until 12 December 1917) Afonso Costa
Afonso Costa
– Prime Minister of Portugal
Portugal
(until 15 March 1916; then again 25 April 1917 – 10 December 1917) António José de Almeida
António José de Almeida
– Prime Minister of Portugal
Portugal
(15 March 1916 – 25 April 1917) Sidónio Pais
Sidónio Pais
– Prime Minister of Portugal
Portugal
and War Minister (11 December 1917 – 9 May 1918) and President of Portugal
Portugal
(from 9 May 1918) José Norton de Matos
José Norton de Matos
– War Minister (until 10 December 1917) João Tamagnini Barbosa
João Tamagnini Barbosa
– Interim War Minister (9 May 1918 – 15 May 1918) Amílcar Mota – Secretary of State for War
Secretary of State for War
(15 May 1918 – 8 October 1918) Álvaro de Mendonça – Secretary of State for War
Secretary of State for War
(from 8 October 1918) Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu – Commander of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP) José Augusto Alves Roçadas
José Augusto Alves Roçadas
– Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Southern Angola José Luís de Moura Mendes – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (until June 1916) José César Ferreira Gil
José César Ferreira Gil
– Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (from June 1916) Sousa Rosa – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (from 1917)

Greece (1917–1918)[edit]

Constantine I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, without formally resigning. George II: Crown Prince of Greece, designated King after his father retired from the throne, he refused to become the new king and followed his father in exile. Alexander: King of Greece, he became King of Greece after his father and brother retired from the throne. Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917. Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general in the Hellenic Army.

United States
United States
(1917–1918)[edit]

The use of naval convoys to transport U.S. troops to France, 1917.

Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
– President of the United States/Commander-In-Chief of the U.S. armed forces Newton D. Baker
Newton D. Baker
– U.S. Secretary of War Josephus Daniels
Josephus Daniels
United States
United States
Secretary of the Navy Major General
General
/ General
General
John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
– Commander of the American Expeditionary Force Rear Admiral
Admiral
/ Vice Admiral
Admiral
William Sims
William Sims
– Commander of U.S. Naval Forces in European Waters Brigadier
Brigadier
General
General
Mason Patrick
Mason Patrick
– Commander of the United States Army Air Service

The Siamese Expeditionary Forces
Siamese Expeditionary Forces
in Paris, 1919.

Siam
Siam
(Thailand) (1917–1918)[edit] See main Article: Siam
Siam
in World War I

Rama VI – King of Siam Field Marshal Chao Phraya Bodindechanuchit – Minister of Defence Prince Chakrabongse Bhuvanath
Chakrabongse Bhuvanath
– Supreme Commander of the Siamese Expeditionary Forces in World War I General
General
Phraya Bijai Janriddhi – Commander of the Siamese Expeditionary Forces in the Western Front

Brazil
Brazil
(1917–1918)[edit] See main Article: Brazil
Brazil
during World War I

Venceslau Brás
Venceslau Brás
– President of Brazil Pedro Frontin, Chief of DNOG (Brazilian Expeditionary Fleet) José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Lieutenant of the Brazilian Army in France Napoleão Felipe Aché, Chief of Brazilian Military Mission in France (1918–1919) M.D. Nabuco Gouveia – Chief of Brazilian Military Medical Commission

Armenia
Armenia
(1918)[edit]

Hovhannes Kajaznuni
Hovhannes Kajaznuni
- President of Armenia Andranik
Andranik
– military commander and statesman of the Caucasus
Caucasus
Campaign Aram Manukian
Aram Manukian
Minister of Internal Affairs of Armenia Drastamat Kanayan
Drastamat Kanayan
– Military commander and member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation Tovmas Nazarbekian
Tovmas Nazarbekian
– Commander-in-chief of the Armenian Republic Movses Silikyan
Movses Silikyan
– Army general and National hero

Personnel and casualties[edit]

A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties)

Allied power Mobilized personnel Military Fatalities Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized

Australia 412,9531 61,928 (14.99%)[46] 152,171 214,099 52%

Belgium 267,0003 38,172 (14.29%)([47] 44,686 82,858 31%

Canada 628,9641 64,944 (10.32%)[48] 149,732 214,676 34%

France 8,410,0003 1,397,800 (16.62%)[49] 4,266,000 5,663,800 67%

Greece 230,0003 26,000 (11.30%)[50] 21,000 47,000 20%

India 1,440,4371 74,187 (5.15%)[51] 69,214 143,401 10%

Italy 5,615,0003 651,010 (11.59%)[52] 953,886 1,604,896 29%

Japan 800,0003 415 (0.05%)[53] 907 1,322 <1%

Monaco 80[54] 8 (10.00%)[54] 0 8[54] 10%

Montenegro 50,0003 3,000 (6.00%) 10,000 13,000 26%

Nepal 200,000[55] 30,670 (15.33%) 21,009 49,823 25%

New Zealand 128,5251 18,050 (14.04%)[56] 41,317 59,367 46%

Portugal 100,0003 7,222 (7.22%)[57] 13,751 20,973 21%

Romania 750,0003 250,000 (33.33%)[58] 120,000 370,000 49%

Russia 12,000,0003 1,811,000 (15.09%)[59] 4,950,000 6,761,000 56%

Serbia 707,3433 275,000 (38.87%)[60] 133,148 408,148 58%

Siam 1,2842 19 (1.48%) 0 19 2%

South Africa 136,0701 9,463 (6.95%)[61] 12,029 21,492 16%

United Kingdom 6,211,9222 886,342 (14.26%)[62] 1,665,749 2,552,091 41%

United States 4,355,0003 53,402 (1.23%)[63] 205,690 259,092 5.9%

Total 42,244,409 5,741,389 12,925,833 18,744,547 49%

See also[edit]

World War I
World War I
portal

Diplomatic history of World War I Triple Entente Participants in World War I Central Powers Home front during World War I, covering all major countries involved Belgium
Belgium
in World War I History of France
France
during World War I History of Germany during World War I British home front during the First World War United States
United States
home front during World War I

Allies of World War II

Footnotes[edit]

^ Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume I: Albania and King Zog ... By Owen Pearson ^ Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24 ^ "First World War.com - Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One".  ^ "Section I, Articles 1 - 260 - World War I
World War I
Document Archive".  ^ a b "First World War.com - Primary Documents - U.S. Declaration of War with Germany, 2 April 1917".  ^ Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications Archived 10 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ H.J.Res.169: Declaration of War with Austria-Hungary, WWI, United States Senate ^ a b Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264 ^ a b Tucker&Roberts p. 1559 ^ Perry (2004), p.xiii ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-03-16.  ^ Indian Army only ^ Baker, Chris. "Some British Army statistics of the Great War". www.1914-1918.net. Archived from the original on 2017-07-18. Retrieved 2017-08-07.  ^ Korea, Formosa, Kwantung and Sakhalin ^ Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina ^ As Hawaii
Hawaii
and Alaska
Alaska
were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the dependencies ^ Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16.  ^ Germany (and colonies), Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562. ^ a b c Jelavich, Barbara. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914. P262 ^ Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556. ^ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/japan-gives-ultimatum-to-germany ^ a b Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P155. ^ a b c d e Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194. ^ a b Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194-198. ^ Charles Upson Clark, United Roumania, p. 135 ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, Encyclopedia of World War I, p. 273 ^ Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), pp. 40, 49, 50, 54, 59, 61, 63, 65 and 66 (in Romanian) ^ Jozef Wilczynski, Technology in Comecon: Acceleration of Technological Progress Through Economic Planning and the Market, p. 243 ^ International Naval Research Organization, Warship International, Volume 21, p. 160 ^ Frederick Thomas Jane, Jane's Fighting Ships, p. 343 ^ Robert Gardiner, Conway's All the World Fighting Ships 1906–1921, p. 422 ^ Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), p. 53 (in Romanian) ^ Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 282 ^ Glenn E. Torrey, Romania and World War I, p. 58 ^ Michael Hundertmark, Holger Steinle, Phoenix aus der Asche – Die Deutsche Luftfahrt Sammlung Berlin, pp. 110–114 (in German) ^ România în anii primului război mondial (Romania in the years of the First World War), Volume II, p. 830 (in Romanian) ^ Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 287 ^ King of Battle: Artillery in World War I, p. 347 ^ Angus Konstam, Gunboats of World War I, p. 29 ^ René Greger, Austro-Hungarian warships of World War I, p. 142 ^ Abdullah I of Jordan; Philip Perceval Graves (1950). Memoirs. p. 186.  ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general ^ Australia
Australia
casualties Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85-. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4- Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–215-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead1,237. ^ Belgium
Belgium
casualties Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." 1,352. ^ Canada
Canada
casualties Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.6,85 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4 Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths5-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office
War Office
report listed 56,639 Army war dead1,237. ^ France
France
casualties Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. 7,414-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.7,414 ^ Greece casualties Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing8,339, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease6,160 ^ India
India
casualties British India
India
included present-day India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh. Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4 Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy
Merchant Navy
dead5. The 1922 War Office
War Office
report listed 64,454 Army war dead1,237 ^ Italy
Italy
casualties Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data9. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army10,111. ^ a b c "Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur".  ^ Jain, G (1954) India
India
Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92 ^ New Zealand
New Zealand
casualties Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4 Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–215. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead1,237. ^ Portugal
Portugal
casualties Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France
France
and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW1,354. ^ Romania casualties Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"6,64. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. ^ Russia
Russia
casualties Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.6,46–57 ^ Serbia casualties Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis6,62–64 ^ South Africa
South Africa
casualties Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4 Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–2115. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead1,237. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4 Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy
Merchant Navy
deaths5. The 1922 War Office
War Office
report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK1,237, 507 from "Other colonies"1,237 and the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
(32,287)1,339. The British Merchant Navy
Merchant Navy
losses of 14,661 were listed separately 1,339; The 1922 War Office
War Office
report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK1,674–678. ^ United States
United States
casualties Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[1], The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead 11,481.

References[edit]

^1 The War Office
War Office
(2006) [1922]. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire
British Empire
during the Great War 1914—1920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press. ISBN 1-84734-681-2. OCLC 137236769.  ^2 Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521077-8. OCLC 233987354.  ^3 Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3351-X.  ^4 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Annual Report 2005-2006" (PDF).  ^5 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Debt of Honour Register". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.  ^6 Urlanis Boris (2003) [1971, Moscow]. Wars and Population. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. OCLC 123124938.  ^7 Huber Michel (1931). La population de la France
France
pendant la guerre, avec un appendice sur Les revenus avant et après la guerre (in French). Paris. OCLC 4226464.  ^8 Bujac Jean Léopold Emile (1930). Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique 1918–1922 (in French). Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle. OCLC 10808602.  ^9 Mortara Giorgio (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra (in Italian). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. OCLC 2099099.  ^10 Harries Merion, Harries Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun – The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. OCLC 32615324.  ^11 Clodfelter Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts : A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.). London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. OCLC 48066096. 

Sources[edit] See List of World War I
World War I
books

Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I
World War I
Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002) Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history Gooch, G. P. Recent Revelations Of European Diplomacy (1940), 475pp summarizes memoirs of major participants Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995) Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004) Trask, David F. The United States
United States
in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918 (1961) Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)

v t e

World War I

Home fronts

Theatres

European

Balkans Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front

Middle Eastern

Gallipoli Sinai and Palestine Caucasus Persia Mesopotamia South Arabia

African

South West East Kamerun Togoland North

Asian and Pacific

Tsingtao German New Guinea and Samoa

At sea

North Atlantic U-boat campaign Mediterranean North Sea Baltic

Indian, Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans

Papeete Madras Penang Cocos Coronel Falkland Islands Más a Tierra

Principal participants (people)

Entente powers

Belgium Brazil China France

French Empire

Greece Italy Japan Montenegro Portuguese Empire Romania Russia

Russian Empire Russian Republic

Serbia United Kingdom

British Empire

United States

Central Powers

Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria

Timeline

Pre-War conflicts

Scramble for Africa
Scramble for Africa
(1880–1914) Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1905) First Moroccan (Tangier) Crisis (1905–06) Agadir Crisis
Agadir Crisis
(1911) Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
(1911–12) French conquest of Morocco
French conquest of Morocco
(1911–12) First Balkan War
First Balkan War
(1912–13) Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
(1913)

Prelude

Origins Sarajevo assassination Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo July Crisis

Autumn 1914

Battle of the Frontiers Battle of Cer First Battle of the Marne Siege of Tsingtao Battle of Tannenberg Battle of Galicia Battle of the Masurian Lakes Battle of Kolubara Battle of Sarikamish Race to the Sea First Battle of Ypres

1915

Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes Second Battle of Ypres Battle of Gallipoli Second Battle of Artois Battles of the Isonzo Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive Great Retreat Second Battle of Champagne Kosovo Offensive Siege of Kut Battle of Loos

1916

Erzurum Offensive Battle of Verdun Lake Naroch Offensive Battle of Asiago Battle of Jutland Battle of the Somme

first day

Brusilov Offensive Baranovichi Offensive Battle of Romani Monastir Offensive Battle of Transylvania

1917

Capture of Baghdad First Battle of Gaza Zimmermann Telegram Second Battle of Arras Second Battle of the Aisne Kerensky Offensive Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) Battle of Mărășești Battle of Caporetto Southern Palestine Offensive Battle of Cambrai Armistice of Erzincan

1918

Operation Faustschlag Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Spring Offensive Second Battle of the Marne Battle of Baku Hundred Days Offensive Vardar Offensive Battle of Megiddo Third Transjordan attack Meuse-Argonne Offensive Battle of Vittorio Veneto Battle of Aleppo Armistice of Salonica Armistice of Mudros Armistice of Villa Giusti Armistice with Germany

Other conflicts

Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
(1910–20) Somaliland Campaign
Somaliland Campaign
(1910–20) Libyan resistance movement (1911–43) Maritz Rebellion (1914–15) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914–21) Indo-German Conspiracy (1914–19) Senussi Campaign
Senussi Campaign
(1915–16) Volta-Bani War
Volta-Bani War
(1915–17) Easter Rising
Easter Rising
(1916) Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
(1916) Kaocen Revolt (1916–17) Central Asian Revolt (1916-17) Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
(1917) Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
(1918)

Post-War conflicts

Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–21) Ukrainian–Soviet War
Ukrainian–Soviet War
(1917–21) Armenian–Azerbaijani War
Armenian–Azerbaijani War
(1918–20) Georgian–Armenian War
Georgian–Armenian War
(1918) German Revolution (1918–19) Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20) Hungarian–Romanian War
Hungarian–Romanian War
(1918–19) Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–19) Estonian War of Independence
Estonian War of Independence
(1918–20) Latvian War of Independence
Latvian War of Independence
(1918–20) Lithuanian Wars of Independence
Lithuanian Wars of Independence
(1918–20) Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) Egyptian Revolution (1919) Polish–Ukrainian War
Polish–Ukrainian War
(1918–19) Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
(1919–21) Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
(1919–21) Turkish War of Independence

Greco-Turkish War (1919–22) Turkish–Armenian War
Turkish–Armenian War
(1920)

Iraqi revolt (1920) Polish–Lithuanian War
Polish–Lithuanian War
(1920) Vlora War
Vlora War
(1920) Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
(1920) Soviet–Georgian War (1921) Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
(1922–23)

Aspects

Opposition

Pacifism Anti-war movement

Deployment

Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
(German) Plan XVII
Plan XVII
(French)

Warfare

Military engagements Naval warfare Convoy system Air warfare Cryptography

Room 40

Horse use Poison gas Railways Strategic bombing Technology Trench warfare Total war Christmas truce Last surviving veterans

Civilian impact Atrocities Prisoners

Casualties Economic history 1918 flu pandemic Destruction of Kalisz Rape of Belgium German occupation of Belgium German occupation of Luxembourg German occupation of northeastern France Ober Ost Ottoman people

Armenian Genocide Assyrian genocide Pontic Greek genocide

Urkun (Kyrgyzstan) Blockade of Germany Women

Australia

Popular culture German prisoners of war in the United States

Agreements

Partition of the Ottoman Empire Sykes–Picot Agreement Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne French-Armenian Agreement Damascus Protocol Paris Peace Conference Venizelos–Tittoni agreement

Treaties

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty of Lausanne Treaty of London Treaty of Neuilly Treaty of St. Germain Treaty of Sèvres Treaty of Trianon Treaty of Versailles

Consequences

Aftermath "Fourteen Points" League of Nations World War I
World War I
memorials Centenary

outbreak

Category Portal

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World War I
by region and country

Africa

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North America

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South America

Brazil

Asia

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Europe

Austria-Hungary Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Luxembourg Poland Ottoman Empire Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Oceania

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