24,374 captured or missing)
(15 September 1944 – 21 March 1945)
Western Front of
World War II
The Heligoland Bight
German bombing of Rotterdam
Italian Invasion of France
The Hardest Day
Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain Day
Cerberus and Donnerkeil
St Nazaire Raid
Invasion of Germany
Defence of the Reich
Raids on the Atlantic Wall
Battle of Atlantic
West European Campaign (1944–45)
Paris to the Rhine
Invasion of Germany
World War II
World War II in Europe
Siegfried Line Campaign
The Allied advance from Paris to the
Rhine was a phase in the Western
European Campaign of World War II.
This phase spans from the end of the Battle of Normandy, or Operation
Overlord, (25 August 1944) incorporating the German winter
counter-offensive through the
Ardennes (commonly known as the Battle
of the Bulge) and
Operation Nordwind (in
Alsace and Lorraine) up to
the Allies preparing to cross the
Rhine in the early months of 1945.
This roughly corresponds with the official
United States military
European Theater of Operations
Rhineland and Ardennes-Alsace
1.1 Logistics and supply
2 Northern Group of Armies (21st Army Group)
2.1 Channel ports
2.2 Market Garden
2.3 Battle of the Scheldt
2.4 Veritable and Grenade
3 Central Group of Armies (12th Army Group)
3.3 Hürtgen Forest
3.4 Operation Queen
4 Winter counter-offensives
Germany west of the Rhine
10 Further reading
11 External links
M4 and M4A3 Sherman tanks and infantrymen of the U.S. 4th Armored
Division advancing through Coutances.
German forces had been routed during the Allied break-out from
Normandy. The Allies advanced rapidly against an enemy that put up
little resistance. But after the liberation of Paris in late August
1944, the Allies paused to re-group and organise before continuing
their advance from Paris to the River Rhine. The pause allowed the
Germans to solidify their lines—something they had been unable to do
west of Paris.
By the middle of September 1944, the three Western Allied army groups;
21st Army Group
21st Army Group (Field Marshal Sir Bernard
Montgomery) in the north, the
United States U.S. 12th Army Group
(Lieutenant General Omar Bradley) in the center, and the
Franco-American 6th Army Group (Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers) in
the south, formed a broad front under the Supreme Allied Commander,
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower and his headquarters SHAEF (Supreme
Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force).
While Montgomery and Bradley each favored relatively direct thrusts
Germany (with Montgomery and Bradley each offering to be the
spearhead of such an assault), General Eisenhower disagreed. Instead,
he chose a "broad-front" strategy, which allowed the Allies to gain
ground from the beaten Germans in all sectors, allowed the advancing
Allied forces to support each other, and minimized the difficulty of
supplying the most advanced forces.
The rapid advance through
France had caused considerable logistical
strain, made worse by the lack of any major port other than the
relatively distant Cherbourg in western France. Although
seen as the key to solving the Allied logistics problems, its port was
not open to Allied shipping until the
Scheldt estuary was clear of
German forces. As the campaign progressed, all the belligerents,
Allied as well as German, felt the effects of the lack of suitable
replacements for front-line troops.
There were two major defensive obstacles to the Allies. The first was
the natural barriers made by the rivers of eastern France. The second
was the Siegfried Line, which fell under the command, along with all
Wehrmacht forces in the west, of
Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von
Logistics and supply
Although the breakout from Normandy had taken longer than planned, the
advances until September had far exceeded expectations. Bradley, for
example, by September had four more divisions than planned and all of
his forces were 150 miles (240 km) ahead of their expected
position. One effect was that insufficient supplies could be delivered
to the various fronts to maintain the advance: demand had exceeded the
Mulberry 'A' off
Omaha Beach was critical in the early days for Allied
Much war material still had to be brought ashore across the invasion
beaches and through the one remaining
Mulberry harbour (The other had
been destroyed in an
English Channel storm). Although small harbours,
such as Isigny, Port-en-Bessin, and Courcelles, were being used, the
major forward ports such as Calais, Boulogne,
Dunkirk and Le Havre
either remained in German hands as "fortresses" or had been
systematically destroyed. The availability of Cherbourg had been
valuable until the breakout, but then the shortage of transport to
carry supplies to the rapidly advancing armies became the limiting
Although fuel was successfully pumped from Britain to Normandy via the
Pluto pipeline, this still had to reach the fronts, which were
advancing faster than the pipelines could be extended. The railways
had been largely destroyed by Allied attacks and would take much
effort to repair, so fleets of trucks were needed in the interim.
In an attempt to address this acute shortage of transport, three newly
arrived U.S. infantry divisions—the 26th, 95th, and 104th—were
stripped of their trucks in order to haul supplies. Advancing
divisions of the U.S. 12th Army Group left all their heavy artillery
and half their medium artillery west of the Seine, freeing their
trucks to move supplies for other units. Four British truck
companies were loaned to the Americans. Unfortunately, 1,500 other
British trucks were found to have critical engine faults and were
unusable, limiting assistance from that quarter. The Red Ball
Express was an attempt to expedite deliveries by truck but capacity
was inadequate for the circumstances.
The 6th Army Group advancing from southern
France were supplied
Marseille because it had captured ports
intact and the local railway system was less damaged. This source
supplied about 25% of the Allied needs.
The U.S. supply organization—
Communications Zone (COMZ)—is
perceived to have failed to expedite solutions and to have been far
too bureaucratic, employing 11,000 staff. COMZ and its commander,
General John C. H. Lee, were roundly criticised by other American
generals. Failure to supply forward units led to unofficial
arrangements, with pressed units "diverting" supplies intended for
others. General Eisenhower felt he could not exert authority since
COMZ was directly answerable to Washington and not to SHAEF, but
General Eisenhower has been criticised for not exerting more pressure
and influence than he did.
At this time the main Allied supply lines still ran back to Normandy,
presenting serious logistical problems. The solution was to get
Antwerp into operation quickly. Although this major port had been
captured almost intact, the mere occupation of
Antwerp was not enough,
21st Army Group
21st Army Group failed to gain sea access by clearing the
The delay in securing this area has been blamed on General Eisenhower
21st Army Group
21st Army Group commander, Field Marshal Montgomery, who
Operation Market-Garden over clearing the
Scheldt when it was
weakly held. This allowed the German 15th Army to dig in there,
requiring a protracted campaign by the Canadian First Army that
delayed the use of
Antwerp for months (see below).
The German armies had lost large numbers of troops in Normandy and the
subsequent pursuit. To counteract this, about 20,000 Luftwaffe
personnel were reallocated to the German Army, invalided troops were
redrafted into the front line and
Volkssturm units were formed using
barely trained civilians.
British manpower resources were limited after five years of war and
through worldwide commitments. Replacements were no longer adequate to
cover losses and some formations were disbanded to maintain the
strength of others. The Canadians were also short of manpower, due to
a reluctance to require conscripts to serve outside
Canada or Canadian
waters. This had arisen from internal Canadian political difficulties
World War I
World War I and there had been a wide consensus against
conscription for overseas service.[note 1]
American losses now called on replacements direct from the United
States. They were often inexperienced and not used to the harsh
conditions of the latter part of the campaign. There were also
complaints about the poor quality of troops released into the infantry
from less-stressed parts of the U.S. Army. At one point, after the
Battle of the Bulge
Battle of the Bulge had highlighted the shortage of infantrymen, the
army relaxed its embargo on the use of black soldiers in combat
formations. Black volunteers performed well and prompted a
permanent change in military policy.
By the beginning of the next year, the war's outcome was clear. It
became increasingly difficult to persuade Allied troops to risk their
lives when peace was in sight. No one wished to be the last man
Northern Group of Armies (21st Army Group)
Main articles: Clearing the Channel Coast, Operation Astonia,
Operation Fusilade, Operation Wellhit, Operation Undergo, and Siege of
British infantry of the 1st Battalion, Hampshire Regiment crossing the
Seine at Vernon, 28 August 1944.
Channel ports were urgently needed to maintain the Allied armies.
By the time that
Brussels was liberated, it had become difficult to
21st Army Group
21st Army Group adequately. Indeed, one corps—VIII
Corps—was withdrawn from active service to free its transport for
general use. The Canadian First Army was tasked with liberating the
ports during its advance along the French coast. The ports
involved were Le Havre, Dieppe, Boulogne, Calais, and
France, as well as
Ostend in Belgium.
Adolf Hitler had appreciated
their strategic value. He issued a Führer Order declaring them to be
"fortresses" that must receive adequate materiel for a siege and be
held to the last man.
Dieppe was evacuated by the Germans before Hitler's order had been
received and, consequently, the Canadians took it with little trouble
and with the port installations largely intact.
Ostend had been
omitted from the Führer Order and was also undefended, although
demolitions delayed its use. The other ports were defended to varying
degrees, however, and they required substantial work to bring them
into use, except for
Dunkirk which was sealed off to the rear of the
Main article: Operation Market Garden
The first operation of the
Rhineland Campaign, Market Garden, was
commanded by Montgomery and was to secure a bridgehead over the Rhine
in the north, at Arnhem, which would outflank the Siegfried Line.
Market Garden had two distinct parts. Market was to be the largest
airborne operation in history, dropping three and a half divisions of
American, British, and Polish paratroopers to capture key bridges and
prevent their demolition by the Germans. Garden was a ground attack by
the British Second Army across the bridges. It was assumed that the
German forces would still be recovering from the previous campaign and
opposition would not be very stiff for either operation.
If successful, the Allies would have a direct route into
bypassed the main German defenses and also seize territory from which
the Germans launched V-1s and V-2s against London,
General Eisenhower approved Market Garden. He gave supply priority to
21st Army Group
21st Army Group and diverted the U.S. First Army to the north of
Ardennes to stage limited attacks to draw German defenders south,
away from the target sites.
The operation was launched on 17 September. At first, it went well.
The U.S. 101st and 82nd Airborne Divisions took their objectives at
Veghel and Nijmegen. Although their landings outside Arnhem
were on target, the British 1st Airborne Division landing zones were
some distance from
Arnhem bridge and only on the north side of the
river. Problems arose when the British 1st Airborne Division lost
vital equipment—jeeps and heavy anti-tank guns—when gliders
crashed. There had also been a severe underestimation of German
strength in the area. To make matters worse, poor weather prevented
aerial reinforcements and drastically reduced resupply. German
resistance to the forces driving to
Arnhem was highly effective, and a
copy of the Allied battle plan had been captured.
In the end, Market Garden was unsuccessful.
Arnhem bridge was not held
and the British paratroops suffered tremendous
casualties—approximately 77% by 25 September.
Battle of the Scheldt
Main article: Battle of the Scheldt
The logistics situation was becoming critical, so opening the Port of
Antwerp was now a high priority. On 12 September 1944, the Canadian
First Army was given the task of clearing the
Scheldt of German
forces. The 1st Army comprised the II Canadian Corps, which included
the Polish 1st Armoured Division, the British 49th and 52nd Divisions
and the British I Corps.
The task involved four main operations: The first was to clear the
area north of
Antwerp and secure access to South Beveland. The second
was to clear the
Breskens pocket north of the Leopold Canal (Operation
Switchback). The third—Operation Vitality—was the capture of South
Beveland. The final phase was the capture of
Walcheren Island, which
had been fortified into a powerful German stronghold.
On 21 September 1944, the advance began. The 4th Canadian Armoured
Division, moving north toward the south shore of the
the Dutch town of
Breskens were the first Allied troops to face the
formidable obstacle of the double line of the Leopold and Dérivation
de la Lys Canals. The canals were crossed and a bridgehead
established, but fierce counter-attacks by the Germans forced them to
withdraw with heavy casualties. The 1st Polish Armoured Division had
greater success, moving northeast to the coast, occupying Terneuzen
and clearing the south bank of the
Scheldt eastward to Antwerp. It was
by then clear, however, that any further advances would be at
British assault troops advancing near Flushing with shells bursting
ahead during the
The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division began its advance north from
Antwerp on 2 October. Heavy casualties ensued, including the almost
total destruction of the 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade's Black Watch
Battalion on 13 October. However, on 16 October
Woensdrecht was taken,
following an immense artillery barrage which forced the Germans back.
South Beveland and
Walcheren off from the mainland and
achieved the objective of the first operation.
Montgomery issued a directive that made the opening of the Scheldt
estuary the top priority. To the east, the British Second Army
attacked westward to clear the
Netherlands south of the
This helped secure the
Scheldt region from counter-attack.
In Operation Switchback, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division mounted a
two-pronged attack, with the
7th Canadian Infantry Brigade
7th Canadian Infantry Brigade crossing
the Leopold Canal and the
9th Canadian Infantry Brigade
9th Canadian Infantry Brigade launching an
amphibious assault from the coastal side of the pocket. Despite fierce
resistance from the Germans, the 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade
crossed the Leopold Canal and the
8th Canadian Infantry Brigade
8th Canadian Infantry Brigade moved
southwards, opening a supply route into the pocket.
Operation Vitality—the third major phase of the Battle of the
Scheldt—began on 24 October. The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division
began its advance toward South Beveland, but was slowed by mines, mud
and strong enemy defences. The British 52nd Division made an
amphibious attack to get in behind the Germans' Beveland Canal
defensive positions. Thus, this formidable defence was outflanked, and
6th Canadian Infantry Brigade
6th Canadian Infantry Brigade began a frontal attack in assault
boats. The engineers were able to bridge the canal on the main road.
With the canal line gone, the German defence crumbled and South
Beveland was cleared. The third phase of the
Battle of the Scheldt
Battle of the Scheldt was
The final phase, Operation Infatuate was the attack on the heavily
fortified island of
Walcheren at the mouth of the West Scheldt. The
island's dykes were breached by attacks from
RAF Bomber Command
RAF Bomber Command on 3,
7, and 11 October. This flooded the central part of the island,
forcing the German defenders onto the high ground and allowing the use
of amphibious vehicles. Units of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division
attacked the causeway on 31 October, and after a grim struggle,
established a precarious foothold. They were relieved by a battalion
of the British 52nd Division. In conjunction with the waterborne
attacks, the 52nd continued the advance.
The amphibious landings began on 1 November with units of the British
155th Infantry Brigade landing on a beach in the south-eastern area of
Vlissingen. During the next few days, they engaged in heavy street
fighting against the German defenders. Also on 1 November, after a
heavy naval bombardment by the British Royal Navy, troops of 4th
Commando Brigade, (with units of 10th Inter Allied Commando,
consisting mainly of Belgian and Norwegian troops), supported by
specialised armoured vehicles of the British 79th Armoured Division
were landed on both sides of the gap in the sea dyke. Heavy fighting
ensued. A smaller force moved south-eastward, toward Vlissingen, while
the main force went northeast to clear the northern half of Walcheren
to link up with the Canadians who had established a bridgehead on the
eastern part of the island. Fierce resistance was again offered by
German troops defending the area, and fighting continued until 7
November. However, the action ended on 8 November after a force of
amphibious vehicles entered Middelburg, the capital of Walcheren.
Meanwhile, the 4th Canadian Armoured Division had pushed eastwards
Bergen-op-Zoom to Sint Philipsland where it sank several German
Zijpe harbour. With the approaches to
Antwerp free, the
fourth phase of the
Battle of the Scheldt
Battle of the Scheldt was complete; on 28
November, the first convoy entered the port.
Veritable and Grenade
Main articles: Operation Veritable, Operation Grenade, and Rhineland
21st Army Group
21st Army Group were tasked with clearing the west bank
Rhine downstream from the
Krefeld area. The approach was for
the Canadian 1st Army—strengthened by XXX Corps—to advance
south-eastward between the
Maas rivers while the U.S. Ninth
Army advanced north eastwards from the Roer. The two armies would meet
Geldern area. The British Second Army stayed west of the Maas,
apart from two divisions that reinforced the Anglo-Canadian advance,
but the German High Command were initially convinced that they were
the principal threat and deployed their reserves in anticipation of an
assault from Venlo.
The two operations were delayed by the 'Battle of the Bulge' but they
were rescheduled for 8 February 1945. Although the Anglo-Canadian
attack (Operation Veritable) started on time, the US assault
(Operation Grenade) was delayed by the threat and then the danger of
flooding by water released from the
Roer dams. This delay allowed the
Germans to concentrate their defence on the Anglo-Canadian assaults,
but they were unable to do much more than to slow it down in localised
areas. When the Americans were able to advance, some two weeks later,
there were few reserves left to face them and they made rapid progress
until they encountered the German rearguard near the Rhine.
The two prongs met at Geldern, then pushed towards Rees, finally
expelling German forces on 21 March.
Central Group of Armies (12th Army Group)
The advance of Allied forces between 26 August and 14 September 1944
Main article: Battle of Aachen
The U.S. First Army was focused on capturing the city of Aachen, which
had to be dealt with before advancing to assault the Siegfried Line
itself. Initially, the city of
Aachen was to be bypassed and cut off
in an attempt by the Allies to imitate the Blitzkrieg tactics the
Germans had so effectively used (see below). However, the city was the
first to be assaulted on German soil and so had huge historical and
cultural significance for the German people.
Adolf Hitler personally
ordered that the garrison there be reinforced and the city held. This
forced the Allied commanders to re-think their strategy.
Some historians, including Stephen E. Ambrose, have suggested that the
Aachen was a mistake. The battle stalled the eastward advance
by the Allies and caused approximately 5,000 Allied casualties. The
fighting was, by all accounts, brutal street-to-street, house-to-house
style urban combat and tied up the available resources of the
advancing Allied armies. Ambrose has suggested that a more effective
strategy would have been to have isolated the garrison at
continue the move east into the heart of Germany. In theory, this
would have eliminated the ability of the German garrison to operate as
a fighting force by cutting off their supply lines. This might have
forced them to surrender or to move out of the city in an attempt to
re-establish their supply lines. In the case of the latter, a
confrontation in a more neutral setting would probably have resulted
in fewer military and civilian casualties.
Main article: Lorraine Campaign
In late August, the U.S. Third Army started to run low on fuel. This
situation was caused by the rapid Allied advance through France, and
compounded by the shift of logistical priority to the northern forces
to secure Antwerp. By 1 September 1944, with the last of its fuel, the
Third Army managed one final push to capture key bridges over the
Meuse River at Verdun and Commercy. Five days after that, however, the
critical supply situation effectively caused the Third Army to grind
to a halt, allowing previously routed German forces to regroup and the
reinforcement of their strongholds in the area.
Soon after, the Third Army came up against Metz, part of the Maginot
Line and one of the most heavily fortified cities in Western Europe.
The city could not be bypassed, as several of its forts had guns
directed at Moselle crossing sites and the main roads in the area. It
could be also be used as a stronghold to organize a German
counter-attack to the Third Army's rear. In the following Battle of
Metz, the Third Army, while victorious, took heavy casualties.
Following Metz, the Third Army continued eastwards to the Saar River
and soon began their assault on the Siegfried Line.
Main article: Battle of Hürtgen Forest
German troops defending the Hürtgen in November 1944.
Hürtgen Forest was seen as a possible location for incursions into
the American flank and the river dams in the area were a threat to the
Allied advance downstream, so an assault to clear the area was started
on 19 September 1944. German defence was more stubborn than expected
and the terrain was highly favourable to defence, largely negating the
American advantages of numbers and quality of troops. The
battle—expected to last a few weeks—continued until February 1945
and cost 33,000 casualties (from all causes).
The value of the battle has been disputed. Modern historians argue
that the outcome was not worth the foreseeable losses and, in any
case, the American tactics played into German hands.
Main article: Operation Queen
Operation Queen was a combined Allied air-ground offensive against the
German forces at the Siegfried Line, which was conducted mainly by the
combined effort of the U.S. Ninth and First Armies. The principal goal
of the operation was to advance to the
Roer River and to establish
several bridgeheads over it, for a subsequent thrust into
Rhine River. Parts of this operation also included further
fighting in the Hurtgen Forest. The offensive commenced on 16 November
with one of the heaviest tactical air bombardments by the western
Allies of the war. Although the German forces were heavily
outnumbered, the Allied advance was very slow. After four weeks of
intensive fighting, the Allies reached the Roer, but were not able to
establish any bridgeheads over it. Fighting in the Hurtgen Forest also
bogged down. The exhaustive fighting during Queen caused the Allied
troops to suffer heavy casualties and eventually the Germans launched
their own counteroffensive—Operation Wacht am Rhein—on 16
December, which would lead to the Battle of the Bulge.
Battle of the Bulge
Battle of the Bulge and Operation Nordwind
American soldiers taking up defensive positions in the
the Battle of the Bulge.
The Germans had been preparing a massive counter-attack in the West
since the Allied breakout from Normandy. The plan called Wacht am
Rhein ("Watch on the Rhine") was to attack through the
swing North to Antwerp, splitting the American and British armies. The
attack started on 16 December in what became known as the Battle of
the Bulge. Defending the
Ardennes were troops of the U.S. First Army.
After initial successes in bad weather, which gave the Germans cover
from the Allied air forces, the Allies launched a counterattack to
clear them from the Ardennes. The Germans were eventually pushed back
to their starting points by 25 January 1945.
The Germans launched a second, smaller offensive (Nordwind) into
Alsace on 1 January 1945. Aiming to recapture Strasbourg, they
attacked the 6th Army Group at multiple points. Because Allied lines
had become severely stretched in response to the crisis in the
Ardennes, holding and throwing back the Nordwind offensive was a
costly affair that lasted almost four weeks. Allied counter-attacks
restored the front line to the area of the German border and collapsed
the Colmar Pocket.
Germany west of the
Main articles: Operation Veritable, Operation Grenade, Operation
The pincer movement of the Canadian First Army, advancing from the
Nijmegen area in Operation Veritable, and the U.S. Ninth Army,
Operation Grenade was planned to start on 8
February 1945, but it was delayed by two weeks when the Germans
Roer valley by destroying the floodgates of two dams on
Rur Dam and Urft Dam). During the two weeks that the
little river was flooded, Hitler did not allow Rundstedt to withdraw
German forces behind the Rhine, arguing that it would only delay the
inevitable fight. Hitler ordered him to fight where his forces stood.
By the time the water had subsided and the U.S. Ninth Army was able to
Roer on 23 February, other Allied forces were also close to
the Rhine's west bank. German divisions which had remained on the west
bank of the
Rhine were cut to pieces and 280,000 men were taken
prisoner. The stubborn German resistance had been costly to them;
their total losses reached an estimated 400,000 men.
American soldiers cross the
Rhine river in assault boats.
The Allies crossed the
Rhine at four points. One crossing was an
opportunity taken by U.S. forces when the Germans failed to blow up
Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen, one crossing was a hasty assault,
and two crossings were planned.
The U.S. First Army aggressively pursued the disintegrating German
troops and on 7 March unexpectedly captured the Ludendorff Bridge
Rhine River at Remagen. The 9th Armored Division quickly
expanded the bridgehead into a full scale crossing.
Bradley told General George S. Patton—whose U.S. Third Army had been
fighting through the Palatinate—to "take the
Rhine on the run". The
Third Army did just that on the night of 22/23 March, crossing the
river with a hasty assault south of
Mainz at Oppenheim.
In the north, the
Rhine is twice as wide, with a far higher volume of
water, than where the Americans crossed. The 21st Army Group
commander, Montgomery decided it could only be crossed safely with a
carefully prepared attack. This was Operation Plunder, the crossing of
Rhine at Rees and
Wesel on the night of 23/24 March. It included
the largest single drop airborne operation in history, Operation
In the Allied 6th Army Group area, the U.S. Seventh Army assaulted
Rhine in the area between
Mannheim and Worms on 26 March. A
fifth crossing on a smaller scale was later achieved by the French
First Army at Speyer.
After crossing the Rhine, the Allies rapidly advanced into Germany's
heartland. The end of
World War II
World War II in Europe followed soon after.
^ The legal embargo on compulsory overseas service was the subject of
a national plebiscite on 27 April 1942. Around 64% of the population
supported the removal of the restriction, but in
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^ MacDonald, C (2005), The Last Offensive: The European Theater of
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^ De Lattre, p. 398
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Remagen 1945: endgame
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ISBN 1-84603-249-0. Page 88.
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^ Ruppenthal, Logistic Support of the Armies, Vol. I, pp. 547-51
^ Ruppenthal, Logistic Support of the Armies, Vol. II, p. 170
^ Ruppenthal, Logistic Support of the Armies, Vol. I, p. 487
^ Ruppenthal, Logistic Support of the Armies, Vol. I, p. 484
^ Administrative History of the Operations of 21 Army Group, p. 47
^ Ruppenthal, Logistic Support of the Armies, Vol. I, pp. 520
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^ "African American Volunteers as Infantry Replacements". United
States Army Center of Military History. October 2003. Retrieved 4
^ Stacey. "Chapter XIII: Antwerp,
Arnhem and Some Controversies,
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Official History of the Canadian Army. Department of National Defence.
Retrieved 1 July 2009.
^ Weigley (1981), pp. 364-369
^ Zaloga, Dennis p. 88
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Bombing Duren on 16 November 1944 to aid a major breakthrough of the
44th Division: Vosges Mountain &
Siegfried Line Campaign