Allah (/ˈælə, ˈɑːlə, əlˈlɑː/; Arabic: الله,
pronounced [ɑɫˈɫɑː(h)] ( listen)) is the Arabic
God in Abrahamic religions. In the English language, the word
generally refers to
God in Islam. The word is thought to be
derived by contraction from al-ilāh, which means "the god", and is
related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and
Aramaic words for God.
Allah has been used by
Arabic people of different religions
since pre-Islamic times. More specifically, it has been used as a
God by Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) and Arab
Christians. It is also often, albeit not exclusively, used in this
way by Bábists, Bahá'ís, Mandaeans, Indonesian and Maltese
Christians, and Mizrahi Jews. Similar usage by
West Malaysia has recently led to political
and legal controversies.
2.1 Pre-Islamic Arabians
3 As a loanword
3.1 English and other European languages
3.2 Malaysian and Indonesian language
3.3 In other scripts and languages
5 See also
8 External links
Arabic components that build up the word "Allah":
hamzat waṣl (همزة وصل)
dagger alif (ألف خنجرية)
The etymology of the word Allāh has been discussed extensively by
classical Arab philologists. Grammarians of the Basra school
regarded it as either formed "spontaneously" (murtajal) or as the
definite form of lāh (from the verbal root lyh with the meaning of
"lofty" or "hidden"). Others held that it was borrowed from Syriac
or Hebrew, but most considered it to be derived from a contraction of
Arabic definite article
Arabic definite article al- "the" and ilāh "deity, god" to
al-lāh meaning "the deity", or "the God". The majority of modern
scholars subscribe to the latter theory, and view the loanword
hypothesis with skepticism.
Cognates of the name "Allāh" exist in other Semitic languages,
including Hebrew and Aramaic. The corresponding
Aramaic form is
Elah (אלה), but its emphatic state is Elaha (אלהא). It is
written as ܐܠܗܐ (ʼĔlāhā) in Biblical
ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ (ʼAlâhâ) in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church,
both meaning simply "God".
Biblical Hebrew mostly uses the plural
(but functional singular) form
Elohim (אלהים), but more rarely
it also uses the singular form
Main article: Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia
Regional variants of the word
Allah occur in both pagan and Christian
pre-Islamic inscriptions. Different theories have been proposed
regarding the role of
Allah in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults. Some
authors have suggested that polytheistic
Arabs used the name as a
reference to a creator god or a supreme deity of their
pantheon. The term may have been vague in the Meccan
religion. According to one hypothesis, which goes back to
Allah (the supreme deity of the tribal federation
around Quraysh) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of
Hubal (the supreme deity of Quraysh) over the other gods. However,
there is also evidence that
Hubal were two distinct
deities. According to that hypothesis, the
Kaaba was first
consecrated to a supreme deity named
Allah and then hosted the
Quraysh after their conquest of Mecca, about a century
before the time of Muhammad. Some inscriptions seem to indicate the
Allah as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but we
know nothing precise about this use. Some scholars have suggested
Allah may have represented a remote creator god who was gradually
eclipsed by more particularized local deities. There is
disagreement on whether
Allah played a major role in the Meccan
religious cult. No iconic representation of
Allah is known to
have existed. Muhammad's father's name was ʿAbd-Allāh
meaning "the slave of Allāh".
Aramaic word for "God" in the language of
Assyrian Christians is
ʼĔlāhā, or Alaha. Arabic-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths,
including Christians and Jews, use the word "Allah" to mean "God".
Arabs of today have no other word for "God" than
"Allah". (Even the Arabic-descended
Maltese language of Malta,
whose population is almost entirely Roman Catholic, uses Alla for
"God".) Arab Christians, for example, use the terms Allāh al-ab
(الله الأب) for
God the Father, Allāh al-ibn (الله
God the Son, and Allāh al-rūḥ al-quds (الله
الروح القدس) for
God the Holy Spirit. (See
Christianity for the Christian concept of God.)
Arab Christians have used two forms of invocations that were affixed
to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Muslim
bismillāh, and also created their own Trinitized bismillāh as early
as the 8th century. The
Muslim bismillāh reads: "In the name of
God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." The Trinitized bismillāh
reads: "In the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One
God." The Syriac,
Latin and Greek invocations do not have the words
"One God" at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the
monotheistic aspect of Trinitarian belief and also to make it more
palatable to Muslims.
According to Marshall Hodgson, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times,
Arab Christians made pilgrimage to the Kaaba, a pagan temple at
that time, honoring
Allah there as
God the Creator.
Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of
ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by
Arab Christians in
the ruins of a church at
Umm el-Jimal in Northern Jordan, which
contained references to
Allah as the proper name of God, and some of
the graves contained names such as "Abd Allah" which means "the
servant/slave of Allah".
Allah can be found countless times in the reports and the
lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia, as reported by
antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of
A Christian leader named Abd
Allah ibn Abu Bakr ibn
martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a ring that said "
In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references
Allah can be found in both
Arabic and Aramaic, which called him
"Allah" and "Alaha", and the inscription starts with the statement "By
Help of Allah".
In pre-Islamic Gospels, the name used for
God was "Allah", as
evidenced by some discovered
Arabic versions of the New Testament
Arab Christians during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and
Arab Christians have been reported to have raised the
battle cry "Ya La Ibad Allah" (O slaves of Allah) to invoke each other
"Allah" was also mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems by some
Ghassanid and Tanukhid poets in
Syria and Northern Arabia.
God in Islam
See also: Names of
God in Islam
Medallion showing "
Allah Jalla Jalaluhu" in the Hagia Sophia,
Allah script outside Eski Cami (The Old Mosque) in Edirne, Turkey.
Allah is the unique, omnipotent and only deity and creator
of the universe and is equivalent to
God in other Abrahamic
According to Islamic belief,
Allah is the most common word to
represent God, and humble submission to his will, divine
ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the
Muslim faith. "He
is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of
humankind." "He is unique (wāḥid) and inherently one
(aḥad), all-merciful and omnipotent." The Qur'an declares "the
reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His
actions on behalf of His creatures."
In Islamic tradition, there are
99 Names of God
99 Names of God (al-asmā’
al-ḥusná lit. meaning: 'the best names' or 'the most beautiful
names'), each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of
Allah. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and
all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most
famous and most frequent of these names are "the Merciful"
(al-Raḥmān) and "the Compassionate" (al-Raḥīm).
Most Muslims use the untranslated
Arabic phrase in shā’ Allāh
God wills') after references to future events. Muslim
discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of
bismillāh (meaning 'in the name of God').
There are certain phrases in praise of
God that are favored by
Muslims, including "Subḥān Allāh" (Holiness be to God),
"al-ḥamdu lillāh" (Praise be to God), "lā ilāha illā Allāh"
(There is no deity but God) and "Allāhu akbar" (
God is greater) as a
devotional exercise of remembering
God (dhikr). In a
known as dhikr
Allah (lit. remembrance of God), the
Sufi repeats and
contemplates on the name
Allah or other divine names while controlling
his or her breath.
According to Gerhard Böwering, in contrast with pre-Islamic Arabian
God in Islam
God in Islam does not have associates and companions, nor
is there any kinship between
God and jinn. Pre-Islamic pagan Arabs
believed in a blind, powerful, inexorable and insensible fate over
which man had no control. This was replaced with the Islamic notion of
a powerful but provident and merciful God.
According to Francis Edward Peters, "The Qur’ān insists, Muslims
believe, and historians affirm that
Muhammad and his followers worship
God as the Jews (29:46). The Qur’an's
Allah is the same
God who covenanted with Abraham". Peters states that the
Allah as both more powerful and more remote than
Yahweh, and as a universal deity, unlike
Yahweh who closely follows
As a loanword
English and other European languages
The history of the name Allāh in English was probably influenced by
the study of comparative religion in the 19th century; for example,
Thomas Carlyle (1840) sometimes used the term
Allah but without any
Allah was anything different from God. However, in
his biography of Muḥammad (1934),
Tor Andræ always used the term
Allah, though he allows that this "conception of God" seems to imply
that it is different from that of the Jewish and Christian
Languages which may not commonly use the term
Allah to denote
still contain popular expressions which use the word. For example,
because of the centuries long
Muslim presence in the Iberian
Peninsula, the word ojalá in the
Spanish language and oxalá in the
Portuguese language exist today, borrowed from
Arabic (Arabic: إن
شاء الله). This phrase literally means 'if
God wills' (in the
sense of "I hope so"). The German poet Mahlmann used the form
"Allah" as the title of a poem about the ultimate deity, though it is
unclear how much Islamic thought he intended to convey.
Some Muslims leave the name "Allāh" untranslated in English. The
word has also been applied to certain living human beings as
personifications of the term and concept.
Malaysian and Indonesian language
The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by A.C. Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and
Caspar Wiltens in 1650 recorded "Allah" as the translation of the
Dutch word "Godt"
Main articles: Titular Roman Catholic Archbishop of Kuala Lumpur v.
Menteri Dalam Negeri and 2010 attacks against places of worship in
Gereja Kalam Kebangunan
Allah (Word of
God Revival Church) in
Allah is the word for "God" in the
Indonesian language -
even in Alkitab (Christian Bible, from الكتاب al-kitāb = the
book) translations, while Tuhan is the word for "Lord".
Christians in Malaysia also use the word
Allah for "God".
Christians in Malaysia and
Allah to refer to
God in the
Malaysian and Indonesian languages (both of them standardized forms of
the Malay language). Mainstream
Bible translations in the language use
Allah as the translation of Hebrew
Elohim (translated in English
Bibles as "God"). This goes back to early translation work by
Francis Xavier in the 16th century. The first dictionary of
Dutch-Malay by Albert Cornelius Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar
Wiltens in 1650 (revised edition from 1623 edition and 1631 Latin
edition) recorded "Allah" as the translation of the Dutch word
"Godt". Ruyl also translated the
Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew in 1612 into
Malay language (an early
Bible translation into a non-European
language, made a year after the publication of the King James
Version), which was printed in the Netherlands in 1629. Then
he translated the Gospel of Mark, published in 1638.
The government of Malaysia in 2007 outlawed usage of the term
any other but
Muslim contexts, but the Malayan High Court in 2009
revoked the law, ruling it unconstitutional. While
Allah had been used
for the Christian
God in Malay for more than four centuries, the
contemporary controversy was triggered by usage of
Allah by the Roman
Catholic newspaper The Herald. The government appealed the court
ruling, and the High Court suspended implementation of its verdict
until the hearing of the appeal. In October 2013 the court ruled in
favor of the government's ban. In early 2014 the Malaysian
government confiscated more than 300 bibles for using the word to
refer to the Christian
God in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the
Allah is not prohibited in the two Malaysian states of Sabah
and Sarawak. The main reason it is not prohibited in these two
states is that usage has been long-established and local Alkitab
(Bibles) have been widely distributed freely in East Malaysia without
restrictions for years. Both states also do not have similar
Islamic state laws as those in West Malaysia.
In reaction to some media criticism, the Malaysian government has
introduced a "10-point solution" to avoid confusion and misleading
information. The 10-point solution is in line with the spirit
of the 18- and 20-point agreements of
Sarawak and Sabah.
In other scripts and languages
Allāh in other languages that use
Arabic script is spelled in the
same way. This includes Urdu, Persian/Dari, Uyghur among others.
Assamese, Bengali: আল্লাহ Allah
Chinese (Mandarin): 真主 Zhēnzhǔ (semantic translation as "the
true lord"), 安拉 Ānlā, 阿拉 Ālā; or 胡大 Húdà (Khoda,
from Farsi: خدا "God")
Czech, Slovak: Alláh
Greek: Αλλάχ Allách
Filipino: Alā or Allah
Hebrew: אללה Allah
Hindi: अल्लाह Allāh
Malayalam: അള്ളാഹ് Aḷḷāh
Japanese: アラー Arā, アッラー Arrā, アッラーフ Arrāfu
Korean: 알라 Alla
Polish: Allah, also archaic Allach or Ałłach
Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian: Алла́х Allakh
Serbian, Belarusian, Macedonian: Алах Alah
Spanish, Portuguese: Alá
Sylheti: আল্লা Alla
Thai: อัลลอฮ์ Anláw
Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਅੱਲਾਹ Allāh, archaic ਅਲਹੁ Alahu
(in Sikh scriptures)
Vietnamese: Thánh A-la
Allah written in different writing systems.
The word Allāh is always written without an alif to spell the ā
vowel. This is because the spelling was settled before
started habitually using alif to spell ā. However, in vocalized
spelling, a small diacritic alif is added on top of the shaddah to
indicate the pronunciation.
One exception may be in the pre-Islamic Zabad inscription, where
it ends with an ambiguous sign that may be a lone-standing h with a
lengthened start, or may be a non-standard conjoined l-h:-
الاه: This reading would be Allāh spelled phonetically with alif
for the ā.
الإله: This reading would be al-Ilāh = 'the god' (an older form,
without contraction), by older spelling practice without alif for ā.
Arabic type fonts feature special ligatures for Allah.
Unicode has a codepoint reserved for Allāh, ﷲ = U+FDF2, in the
Arabic Presentation Forms-A block, which exists solely for
"compatibility with some older, legacy character sets that encoded
presentation forms directly"; this is discouraged for new
text. Instead, the word Allāh should be represented by its individual
Arabic letters, while modern font technologies will render the desired
The calligraphic variant of the word used as the Coat of arms of Iran
is encoded in Unicode, in the
Miscellaneous Symbols range, at
codepoint U+262B (☫).
Allah as moon god
Names of God
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Allah - definition of
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Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to
God as Allāh.
^ Gardet, L. "Allah". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.;
van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. Encyclopaedia of
Islam Online. Brill
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^ Zeki Saritoprak (2006). "Allah". In Oliver Leaman. The Qur'an: An
Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 34.
^ Vincent J. Cornell (2005). "God:
God in Islam". In Lindsay Jones.
Encyclopedia of Religion. 5 (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference USA.
^ a b c d e f Christian Julien Robin (2012).
Arabia and Ethiopia. In
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^ Merriam-Webster. "Allah". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the
original on 2014-04-20. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
^ a b Columbia Encyclopedia, Allah
^ a b c d e f g "Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia
^ a b c d e Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa,
^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and
Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009
ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 531
Sikhs target of 'Allah' attack, Julia Zappei, 14 January 2010, The
New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2014.
^ Malaysia court rules non-Muslims can't use 'Allah', 14 October 2013,
The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2014.
^ Malaysia's Islamic authorities seize
Allah row deepens,
Niluksi Koswanage, 2 January 2014, Reuters. Accessed on line 15
January 2014. Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b c
Idris Jala (24 February 2014). "The 'Allah'/
10-point solution is key to managing the polarity". The Star.
Retrieved 25 June 2014.
^ a b c D.B. Macdonald. Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed, Brill. "Ilah",
Vol. 3, p. 1093.
^ Gerhard Böwering. Encyclopedia of the Quran, Brill, 2002. Vol. 2,
^ Columbia Encyclopaedia says: Derived from an old Semitic root
referring to the Divine and used in the Canaanite El, the Mesopotamian
ilu, and the biblical
Elohim and Eloah, the word
Allah is used by all
Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other monotheists.
^ The Comprehensive
Aramaic Lexicon – Entry for ʼlh Archived 18
October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Hitti, Philip Khouri (1970). History of the Arabs. Palgrave
Macmillan. pp. 100–101.
^ a b L. Gardet, Allah, Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. by Sir H.A.R. Gibb
^ Zeki Saritopak, Allah, The Qu'ran: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Oliver
Leaman, p. 34
^ a b Gerhard Böwering,
God and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the
Qur'an, ed. by Jane Dammen McAuliffe
^ a b Jonathan Porter Berkey (2003). The Formation of Islam: Religion
and Society in the Near East, 600-1800. Cambridge University Press.
p. 42. ISBN 978-0-521-58813-3.
^ Daniel C. Peterson (26 February 2007). Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm.
B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8028-0754-0.
^ a b Francis E. Peters (1994).
Muhammad and the Origins of Islam.
SUNY Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7914-1875-8.
^ Irving M. Zeitlin (19 March 2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity.
p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7456-3999-4.
^ Lewis, Bernard; Holt, P. M.; Holt, Peter R.; Lambton, Ann Katherine
Swynford (1977). The Cambridge history of Islam. Cambridge, Eng:
University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4.
^ a b Thomas E. Burman, Religious Polemic and the Intellectual History
of the Mozarabs, Brill, 1994, p. 103
^ Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History
in a World Civilization, University of Chicago Press, p. 156
^ James Bellamy, "Two Pre-Islamic
Arabic Inscriptions Revised: Jabal
Ramm and Umm al-Jimal", Journal of the American Oriental Society,
^ Enno Littmann,
Arabic Inscriptions (Leiden, 1949)
^ Rick Brown, Who is "Allah" ? - International Journal of
Frontier Missions, (23:2 Summer 2006), page 80.
^ a b c Rick Brown, Who was 'Allah' before Islam? Evidence that the
term 'Allah' originated with Jewish and Christian
Arabs (2007), page
^ Ignatius Ya`qub III, The Arab
Himyarite Martyrs in the Syriac
Documents (1966), Pages: 9-65-66-89
^ Alfred Guillaume&
Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, (2002 ). The Life of
Muhammad: A Translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasūl Allāh with
Introduction and Notes. Karachi and New York: Oxford University Press,
^ Adolf Grohmann, Arabische Paläographie II: Das Schriftwesen und die
Lapidarschrift (1971), Wien: Hermann Böhlaus Nochfolger, Page: 6-8
^ Beatrice Gruendler, The Development of the
Arabic Scripts: From the
Nabatean Era to the First Islamic Century according to Dated Texts
(1993), Atlanta: Scholars Press, Page:
^ Rick Brown, Who was 'Allah' before Islam? Evidence that the term
'Allah' originated with Jewish and Christian
Arabs (2007), page 10.
^ Frederick Winnett V,
Allah before Islam-The Moslem World (1938),
^ Michael Macdonald, Personal Names in the Nabataean Realm-Journal of
Semitic Studies (1999), Page: 271
^ Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the
Arabs in the Fourth Century,
Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University-Washington DC, page
^ Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the
Arabs in the Fourth Century,
Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University-Washington DC, Page:
^ A. Amin and A. Harun, Sharh Diwan Al-Hamasa (Cairo, 1951), Vol. 1,
^ Al-Marzubani, Mu'jam Ash-Shu'araa, Page: 302
^ a b Böwering, Gerhard,
God and His Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the
Qurʼān, Brill, 2007.
^ a b Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God
for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library.
^ Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam : a sourcebook on
gender relationships in Islamic thought. Albany NY USA: SUNY.
^ Gary S. Gregg, The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology, Oxford
University Press, p.30
^ Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Islamic Society in Practice, University Press
of Florida, p. 24
^ M. Mukarram Ahmed, Muzaffar Husain Syed, Encyclopaedia of Islam,
Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, p. 144
^ Carl W. Ernst, Bruce B. Lawrence,
Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti
Order in South Asia and Beyond, Macmillan, p. 29
^ F.E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003
^ William Montgomery Watt,
Islam and Christianity today: A
Contribution to Dialogue, Routledge, 1983, p.45
Islam in Luce López Baralt, Spanish Literature: From the Middle
Ages to the Present, Brill, 1992, p.25
^ F. E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in
Conflict and Competition, Princeton University Press, p.12
^ Nation of
Islam – personification of
Allah as Detroit peddler W D
Fard Archived 13 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "A history of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters, referring to
Clarence Smith as Allah". Finalcall.com. Archived from the original on
2013-10-22. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
^ Example: Usage of the word "Allah" from Matthew 22:32 in Indonesian
bible versions (parallel view) as old as 1733 Archived 19 October 2013
at the Wayback Machine.
^ The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society
Sneddon, James M.; University of New South Wales Press; 2004
^ The History of Christianity in India from the Commencement of the
Christian Era: Hough, James; Adamant Media Corporation; 2001
^ Justus Heurnius, Albert Ruyl, Caspar Wiltens. "Vocabularium ofte
Woordenboeck nae ordre van den alphabeth, in 't Duytsch en Maleys".
1650:65. Books.google.co.id. 1650. Archived from the original on
2013-10-22. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
^ But compare: Milkias, Paulos (2011). "Ge'ez Literature (Religious)".
Ethiopia. Africa in Focus. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
p. 299. ISBN 9781598842579. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
Monasticism played a key role in the Ethiopian literary movement. The
Bible was translated during the time of the Nine Saints in the early
sixth century [...].
^ Barton, John (2002–12). The Biblical World, Oxford, UK: Routledge.
^ North, Eric McCoy; Eugene Albert Nida ((2nd Edition) 1972). The Book
of a Thousand Tongues, London: United
^ (in Indonesian) Biography of Ruyl
^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: Albert Cornelius Ruyl". Britannica.com.
Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
^ Roughneen, Simon (14 October 2013). "No more 'Allah' for Christians,
Malaysian court says". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 14
^ "BBC News - More than 300
Bibles are confiscated in Malaysia". BBC.
2 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014.
Retrieved 14 January 2014.
^ a b "Catholic priest should respect court: Mahathir". Daily Express.
9 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014.
Retrieved 10 January 2014.
^ Jane Moh; Peter Sibon (29 March 2014). "Worship without hindrance".
The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014.
Retrieved 29 March 2014.
^ "Bahasa Malaysia Bibles: The Cabinet's 10-point solution".
^ "Najib: 10-point resolution on
Allah issue subject to Federal, state
laws". The Star. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
^ Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of
and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. pp. 379–.
^ "Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek,
Arabic From 512 CE". Islamic Awareness. 17 March 2005.
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