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Aliyah
Aliyah
(US: /ˌælɪˈɑː/, UK: /ˌɑːli-/; Hebrew: עֲלִיָּה‬ aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews
Jews
from the diaspora to the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
(Eretz Israel
Israel
in Hebrew). Also defined as "the act of going up"—that is, towards Jerusalem—"making Aliyah" by moving to the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism. The opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida ("descent").[1] The State of Israel's Law of Return
Law of Return
gives Jews
Jews
and their descendants automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship. For much of Jewish history
Jewish history
most Jews
Jews
have lived in the diaspora where aliyah was developed as a national aspiration for the Jewish people, although it was not usually fulfilled until the development of the Zionist movement in the late nineteenth century.[2] The large-scale immigration of Jews
Jews
to Palestine began in 1882.[3] Since the establishment of the State of Israel
Israel
in 1948, more than 3 million Jews
Jews
have moved to Israel.[4] As of 2014, Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian territories together contain 42.9% of the world's Jewish population.[5]

Contents

1 Historical overview 2 Etymology 3 Religious, ideological and cultural concept 4 Historical background 5 Pre-Zionist Aliyah

5.1 Biblical 5.2 Second Temple
Second Temple
period 5.3 200–500 AD 5.4 10th–11th century 5.5 1200–1882

6 Zionist Aliyah
Aliyah
(1882 on)

6.1 First Aliyah
First Aliyah
(1882–1903) 6.2 Second Aliyah
Second Aliyah
(1904–1914) 6.3 Third Aliyah
Third Aliyah
(1919–1923) 6.4 Fourth Aliyah
Fourth Aliyah
(1924–1929) 6.5 Fifth Aliyah
Fifth Aliyah
(1929–1939) 6.6 Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet: Illegal immigration (1933–1948) 6.7 Early statehood (1948–1960) 6.8 Aliyah
Aliyah
from Arab
Arab
countries 6.9 Aliyah
Aliyah
from Iran 6.10 Aliyah
Aliyah
from Ethiopia 6.11 Aliyah
Aliyah
from the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states 6.12 Aliyah
Aliyah
from Latin America 6.13 Aliyah
Aliyah
from France 6.14 Aliyah
Aliyah
from North America 6.15 Since the 1990s 6.16 Paternity testing

7 Statistics 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Historical overview See also: Pre-Modern Aliyah Throughout the 2,000 years of dispersion, a small-scale return migration of Diaspora
Diaspora
Jews
Jews
to the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
is characterized as the Pre-Modern Aliyah. Successive waves of Jewish settlement are an important aspect of the history of Jewish life in Israel. The 'Land of Israel' (Eretz Yisrael) is the Hebrew name for the region known in English as Israel. This traditional Hebrew toponym, in turn, has lent its name to the modern State of Israel. Since the birth of Zionism
Zionism
in the late 19th century, the advocates of Aliyah
Aliyah
have striven to facilitate the settlement of Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
in Ottoman Palestine, Mandatory Palestine, and the sovereign State of Israel. The following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah
Aliyah
and the Second Aliyah
Second Aliyah
to Ottoman Palestine; the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Aliyah
Fifth Aliyah
to Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
including Aliyah Bet
Aliyah Bet
between 1934 and 1948 and the Bericha of the Holocaust survivors; the Aliyah from elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa
North Africa
as well as the Aliyah
Aliyah
from western and Communist countries
Communist countries
following the Six-Day War with the 1968 Polish political crisis, as well as the Aliyah
Aliyah
from post-Soviet states to the State of Israel
Israel
in the 1990s. Today, most aliyah consists of voluntary migration for ideological, economic, or family reunification purposes. Etymology Aliyah
Aliyah
in Hebrew means "ascent" or "going up". Jewish tradition views traveling to the land of Israel
Israel
as an ascent, both geographically and metaphysically. Anyone traveling to Eretz Israel
Israel
from Egypt, Babylonia or the Mediterranean basin, where many Jews
Jews
lived in early rabbinic times, climbed to a higher altitude. Visiting Jerusalem, situated 2,700 feet above sea level, also involved an "ascent".[6] Religious, ideological and cultural concept "Olim" redirects here. For other uses, see Olim (other). Aliyah
Aliyah
is an important Jewish cultural concept and a fundamental component of Zionism. It is enshrined in Israel's Law of Return, which accords any Jew (deemed as such by halakha and/or Israeli secular law) and eligible non- Jews
Jews
(a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew), the legal right to assisted immigration and settlement in Israel, as well as Israeli citizenship. Someone who "makes aliyah" is called an oleh (m.; pl. olim) or olah (f.; pl. olot). Many religious Jews
Jews
espouse aliyah as a return to the Promised land, and regard it as the fulfillment of God's biblical promise to the descendants of the Hebrew patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Nachmanides
Nachmanides
(the Ramban) includes making aliyah in his enumeration of the 613 commandments.[7] In the Talmud, at the end of tractate Ketubot, the Mishnah
Mishnah
says: "A man may compel his entire household to go up with him to the land of Israel, but may not compel one to leave." The discussion on this passage in the Mishnah
Mishnah
emphasizes the importance of living in Israel: "One should always live in the Land of Israel, even in a town most of whose inhabitants are idolaters, but let no one live outside the Land, even in a town most of whose inhabitants are Israelites; for whoever lives in the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
may be considered to have a God, but whoever lives outside the Land may be regarded as one who has no God." Sifre
Sifre
says that the mitzvah (commandment) of living in Eretz Yisrael is as important as all the other mitzvot put together. There are many mitzvot such as shmita, the sabbatical year for farming, which can only be performed in Israel.[8] In Zionist discourse, the term aliyah (plural aliyot) includes both voluntary immigration for ideological, emotional, or practical reasons and, on the other hand, mass flight of persecuted populations of Jews. The vast majority of Israeli Jews
Jews
today trace their family's recent roots to outside the country. While many have actively chosen to settle in Israel
Israel
rather than some other country, many had little or no choice about leaving their previous home countries. While Israel
Israel
is commonly recognized as "a country of immigrants", it is also, in large measure, a country of refugees, including internal refugees. Israeli citizens who marry individuals of Palestinian heritage, born within the Israeli-occupied territories and carrying Palestinian IDs, must renounce Israeli residency themselves in order to live and travel together with their spouses.[9] According to the traditional Jewish ordering of books of the Tanakh (Old Testament), the very last word of the last book in the original Hebrew (2 Chronicles 36:23) is veya‘al, a jussive verb form derived from the same root as aliyah, meaning "and let him go up" (to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Judah).[10]

2 Chronicles 36:23 (KJV) Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God
God
of heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem, which [is] in Judah. Who [is there] among you of all his people? The LORD his God [be] with him, and let him go up.

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v t e

Return to the land of Israel
Israel
is a recurring theme in Jewish prayers recited every day, three times a day, and holiday services on Passover and Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
traditionally conclude with the words "Next year in Jerusalem". Because Jewish lineage can provide a right to Israeli citizenship, aliyah (returning to Israel) has both a secular and a religious significance. For generations of religious Jews, aliyah was associated with the coming of the Jewish Messiah. Jews
Jews
prayed for their Messiah to come, who was to redeem the land of Israel
Israel
from gentile rule and return world Jewry to the land under a Halachic theocracy.[11] Pre-Zionist Aliyah Main article: Pre-Zionist Aliyah Biblical The Hebrew Bible
Bible
relates that the patriarch Abraham
Abraham
came to the Land of Canaan
Canaan
with his family and followers in approximately 1800 BC. His grandson Jacob
Jacob
went down to Egypt
Egypt
with his family, and after several centuries there, the Israelites
Israelites
went back to Canaan
Canaan
under Moses
Moses
and Joshua, entering it in about 1300 BC. A few decades after the fall of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
and the Babylonian exile
Babylonian exile
of the Jewish people, approximately 50,000 Jews returned to Zion
Zion
following the Cyrus Declaration from 538 BC. The Jewish priestly scribe Ezra
Ezra
led the Jewish exiles living in Babylon
Babylon
to their home city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 459 BC. Second Temple
Second Temple
period Jews
Jews
returned to the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
throughout the era of the Second Temple. Herod the Great
Herod the Great
also encouraged aliyah and often gave key posts, such as the position of High Priest
High Priest
to returnees.[12] 200–500 AD In late antiquity, the two hubs of rabbinic learning were Babylonia and the land of Israel. Throughout the Amoraic period, many Babylonian Jews
Jews
immigrated to the land of Israel
Israel
and left their mark on life there, as rabbis and leaders.[13] 10th–11th century In the 10th century, leaders of the Karaite Jewish community, mostly living under Persian rule, urged their followers to settle in Eretz Yisrael. The Karaites established their own quarter in Jerusalem, on the western slope of the Kidron Valley. During this period, there is abundant evidence of pilgrimages to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by Jews
Jews
from various countries, mainly in the month of Tishrei, around the time of the Sukkot
Sukkot
holiday.[14] 1200–1882 See also: Old Yishuv The number of Jews
Jews
migrating to the land of Israel
Israel
rose significantly between the 13th and 19th centuries, mainly due to a general decline in the status of Jews
Jews
across Europe and an increase in religious persecution. The expulsion of Jews
Jews
from England (1290), France (1391), Austria
Austria
(1421), and Spain (the Alhambra decree
Alhambra decree
of 1492) were seen by many as a sign of approaching redemption and contributed greatly to the messianic spirit of the time.[15] Aliyah
Aliyah
was also spurred during this period by the resurgence of messianic fervor among the Jews
Jews
of France, Italy, the Germanic states, Poland, Russia, and North Africa.[citation needed] The belief in the imminent coming of the Jewish Messiah, the ingathering of the exiles and the re-establishment of the kingdom of Israel
Israel
encouraged many who had few other options to make the perilous journey to the land of Israel. Pre-Zionist resettlement in Palestine met with various degrees of success. For example, little is known of the fate of the 1210 "aliyah of the three hundred rabbis" and their descendants. It is thought that few survived the bloody upheavals caused by the Crusader invasion in 1229 and their subsequent expulsion by the Muslims in 1291. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1453 and the expulsion of Jews
Jews
from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1498), many Jews
Jews
made their way to the Holy Land. Then the immigration in the 18th and early 19th centuries of thousands of followers of various Kabbalist and Hassidic rabbis, as well as the disciples of the Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
and the disciples of the Chattam Sofer, added considerably to the Jewish populations in Jerusalem, Tiberias, Hebron, and Safed. The messianic dreams of the Gaon of Vilna
Gaon of Vilna
inspired one of the largest pre-Zionist waves of immigration to Eretz Yisrael. In 1808 hundreds of the Gaon's disciples, known as Perushim, settled in Tiberias
Tiberias
and Safed, and later formed the core of the Old Yishuv
Old Yishuv
in Jerusalem.[16][17] This was part of a larger movement of thousands of Jews
Jews
from countries as widely spaced as Persia and Morocco, Yemen
Yemen
and Russia, who moved to Israel
Israel
beginning in the first decade of the nineteenth century—and in even larger numbers after the conquest of the region by Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
in 1832—all drawn by the expectation of the arrival of the Messiah in the Jewish year 5600, Christian year 1840, a movement documented in Arie Morgenstern's Hastening Redemption. There were also those who like the British mystic Laurence Oliphant tried to lease Northern Palestine to settle the Jews
Jews
there (1879). Zionist Aliyah
Aliyah
(1882 on) Further information: Zionism

Aliyah
Aliyah
by numbers and by source

In Zionist history, the different waves of aliyah, beginning with the arrival of the Biluim from Russia
Russia
in 1882, are categorized by date and the country of origin of the immigrants. The first modern period of immigration to receive a number in common speech was the Third Aliya, which in the World War I period was referred to as the successor to the First and Second Aliyot from Babylonia in the Biblical period. Reference to earlier modern periods as the First and Second Aliyot appeared first in 1919 and took a while to catch on.[18] First Aliyah
First Aliyah
(1882–1903) Main article: First Aliyah Between 1882 and 1903, approximately 35,000 Jews
Jews
immigrated to the southwestern area of Syria, then a province of the Ottoman Empire. The Jews
Jews
immigrating arrived in groups that had been assembled, or recruited. Most of these groups had been arranged in the areas of Romania
Romania
and Russia
Russia
in the 1880s. The migration of Jews
Jews
from Russia correlates with the end of the Russian pogroms, with about 3 percent of Jews
Jews
emigrating from Europe to Palestine. The groups who arrived in Palestine around this time were called Hibbat Tysion, which is a Hebrew word meaning "fondness for Zion." they were also called Hovevei Tysion or "enthusiasts for Zion" by the members of the groups themselves. While these groups expressed interest and "fondness" for Palestine, they were not strong enough in number to encompass an entire mass movement as would appear later on in other waves of migration.[19] The majority, belonging to the Hovevei Zion and Bilu movements, came from the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
with a smaller number arriving from Yemen. The migration of Jews
Jews
from Russia
Russia
correlates with the end of the Russian pogroms, with about 3 percent of Jews
Jews
emigrating from Europe to Palestine. Many established agricultural communities. Among the towns that these individuals established are Petah Tikva
Petah Tikva
(already in 1878), Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, and Zikhron Ya'akov. In 1882 the Yemenite Jews
Jews
settled in the Arab
Arab
village of Silwan
Silwan
located south-east of the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on the slopes of the Mount of Olives.[20] Second Aliyah
Second Aliyah
(1904–1914) Main article: Second Aliyah Between 1904 and 1914, 40,000 Jews
Jews
immigrated mainly from Russia
Russia
to southwestern Syria
Syria
following pogroms and outbreaks of anti-Semitism in that country. This group, greatly influenced by socialist ideals, established the first kibbutz, Degania Alef, in 1909 and formed self-defense organizations, such as Hashomer, to counter increasing Arab
Arab
hostility and to help Jews
Jews
to protect their communities from Arab marauders.[21] Ahuzat Bayit, a new suburb of Jaffa established in 1909, eventually grew to become the city of Tel Aviv. During this period, some of the underpinnings of an independent nation-state arose: Hebrew, the ancient national language, was revived as a spoken language; newspapers and literature written in Hebrew were published; political parties and workers organizations were established. The First World War effectively ended the period of the Second Aliyah. Third Aliyah
Third Aliyah
(1919–1923) Main article: Third Aliyah

Abba Hushi
Abba Hushi
during his Hachshara, circa 1920

Between 1919 and 1923, 40,000 Jews, mainly from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
arrived in the wake of World War I. The British occupation of Palestine and the establishment of the British Mandate created the conditions for the implementation of the promises contained in the Balfour Declaration of 1917. Many of the Jewish immigrants were ideologically driven pioneers, known as halutzim, trained in agriculture and capable of establishing self-sustaining economies. In spite of immigration quotas established by the British administration, the Jewish population reached 90,000 by the end of this period. The Jezreel Valley and the Hefer Plain marshes were drained and converted to agricultural use. Additional national institutions arose such as the Histadrut
Histadrut
(General Labor Federation); an elected assembly; national council; and the Haganah, the forerunner of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces. Fourth Aliyah
Fourth Aliyah
(1924–1929) Main article: Fourth Aliyah Between 1924 and 1929, 82,000 Jews
Jews
arrived, many as a result of increasing Anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
in Poland
Poland
and throughout Europe. The immigration quotas of the United States
United States
kept Jews
Jews
out. This group contained many middle-class families that moved to the growing towns, establishing small businesses, and light industry. Of these approximately 23,000 left the country.[22] Fifth Aliyah
Fifth Aliyah
(1929–1939) Main article: Fifth Aliyah

Survey of Palestine, showing place of origin of immigrants between 1922 and 1944

Certificate issued by the Jewish Agency
Jewish Agency
in Warsaw, Poland, for immigrant to Mandatory Palestine, September 1935.

Between 1929 and 1939, with the rise of Nazism
Nazism
in Germany, a new wave of 250,000 immigrants arrived; the majority of these, 174,000, arrived between 1933 and 1936, after which increasing restrictions on immigration by the British made immigration clandestine and illegal, called Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet. The Fifth Aliyah
Fifth Aliyah
was again driven almost entirely from Europe, mostly from Central Europe
Central Europe
(particularly from Poland, Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia), but also from Greece. A small number of Jewish immigrants also came from Yemen. The Fifth Aliyah contained large numbers of professionals, doctors, lawyers, and professors, from Germany. Refugee architects and musicians introduced the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
style (the White City of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has the highest concentration of International Style architecture in the world with a strong element of Bauhaus) and founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra. With the completion of the port at Haifa
Haifa
and its oil refineries, significant industry was added to the predominantly agricultural economy. The Jewish population reached 450,000 by 1940. At the same time, tensions between Arabs and Jews
Jews
grew during this period, leading to a series of Arab
Arab
riots against the Jews
Jews
in 1929 that left many dead and resulted in the depopulation of the Jewish community in Hebron. This was followed by more violence during the "Great Uprising" of 1936–1939. In response to the ever-increasing tension between the Arabic and Jewish communities married with the various commitments the British faced at the dawn of World War II, the British issued the White Paper of 1939, which severely restricted Jewish immigration to 75,000 people for five years. This served to create a relatively peaceful eight years in Palestine while the Holocaust unfolded in Europe. Shortly after their rise to power, the Nazis negotiated the Ha'avara or "Transfer" Agreement with the Jewish Agency
Jewish Agency
under which 50,000 German Jews
Jews
and $100 million worth of their assets would be moved to Palestine.[23] Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet: Illegal immigration (1933–1948) Main article: Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet

Buchenwald
Buchenwald
survivors arrive in Haifa
Haifa
to be arrested by the British, July 15, 1945

The British government limited Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine with quotas, and following the rise of Nazism
Nazism
to power in Germany, illegal immigration to Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
commenced.[24] The illegal immigration was known as Aliyah Bet
Aliyah Bet
("secondary immigration"), or Ha'apalah, and was organized by the Mossad
Mossad
Le'aliyah Bet, as well as by the Irgun. Immigration was done mainly by sea, and to a lesser extent overland through Iraq
Iraq
and Syria. During World War II and the years that followed until independence, Aliyah Bet
Aliyah Bet
became the main form of Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine. Following the war, Berihah
Berihah
("escape"), an organization of former partisans and ghetto fighters was primarily responsible for smuggling Jews
Jews
from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
through Poland. In 1946 Poland
Poland
was the only Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
country to allow free Jewish Aliyah
Aliyah
to Mandate Palestine without visas or exit permits.[25] By contrast, Stalin forcibly brought Soviet Jews
Jews
back to USSR, as agreed by the Allies during the Yalta Conference.[26] The refugees were sent to the Italian ports from which they traveled to Mandatory Palestine. More than 4,500 survivors left the French port of Sète
Sète
aboard President Warfield (renamed Exodus). The British turned them back to France from Haifa, and forced them ashore in Hamburg. Despite British efforts to curb the illegal immigration, during the 14 years of its operation, 110,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine. In 1945 reports of the Holocaust with its 6 million Jewish killed, caused many Jews
Jews
in Palestine to turn openly against the British Mandate, and illegal immigration escalated rapidly as many Holocaust survivors joined the Aliyah. Early statehood (1948–1960) Main article: Bricha After Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet, the process of numbering or naming individual aliyot ceased, but immigration did not. A major wave of Jewish immigration, mainly from post-Holocaust Europe and the Arab
Arab
and Muslim world took place from 1948 to 1951. In three and a half years, the Jewish population of Israel, which was 650,000 at the state's founding, was more than doubled by an influx of about 688,000 immigrants.[27] In 1949, the largest-ever number of Jewish immigrants in a single year - 249,954 - arrived in Israel.[4] This period of immigration is often termed kibbutz galuyot (literally, ingathering of exiles), due to the large number of Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
communities that made aliyah. However, kibbutz galuyot can also refer to aliyah in general. The data below shows the immigration to Israel
Israel
in the years following the May 1948 Israeli Declaration of Independence.[28]

1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1948-53

Eastern Europe

Romania 17678 13595 47041 40625 3712 61 122712

Poland 28788 47331 25071 2529 264 225 104208

Bulgaria 15091 20008 1000 1142 461 359 38061

Czechoslovakia 2115 15685 263 150 24 10 18247

Hungary 3463 6842 2302 1022 133 224 13986

Soviet Union 1175 3230 2618 689 198 216 8126

Yugoslavia 4126 2470 427 572 88 14 7697

Total 72436 109161 78722 46729 4880 1109 313037

Other Europe

Germany 1422 5329 1439 662 142 100 9094

France 640 1653 1165 548 227 117 4350

Austria 395 1618 746 233 76 45 3113

United Kingdom 501 756 581 302 233 140 2513

Greece 175 1364 343 122 46 71 2121

Italy 530 501 242 142 95 37 1547

Netherlands 188 367 265 282 112 95 1309

Belgium - 615 297 196 51 44 1203

Total 3851 12203 5078 2487 982 649 25250

Asia

Iraq 15 1708 31627 88161 868 375 122754

Yemen 270 35422 9203 588 89 26 45598

Turkey 4362 26295 2323 1228 271 220 34699

Iran 43 1778 11935 11048 4856 1096 30756

Aden - 2636 190 328 35 58 3247

India 12 856 1105 364 49 650 3036

China - 644 1207 316 85 160 2412

Other - 1966 931 634 230 197 3958

Total 4702 71305 58521 102667 6483 2782 246460

Africa

Tunisia 6821 17353 3725 3414 2548 606 34467

Libya 1064 14352 8818 6534 1146 224 32138

Morocco - - 4980 7770 5031 2990 20771

Egypt - 7268 7154 2086 1251 1041 18800

Algeria - - 506 272 92 84 954

South Africa 178 217 154 35 11 33 628

Other - 382 5 6 3 9 405

Total 8063 39572 25342 20117 10082 4987 108163

Unknown 13827 10942 1742 1901 948 820 30180

All countries 102879 243183 169405 173901 23375 10347 723090

At the beginning of the immigration wave, most of the immigrants to reach Israel
Israel
were Holocaust survivors from Europe, including many from displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy, and from British detention camps on Cyprus. Large sections of shattered Jewish communities throughout Europe, such as those from Poland
Poland
and Romania also immigrated to Israel, with some communities, such as those from Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Yugoslavia, being almost entirely transferred. At the same time, the number of immigrants from Arab
Arab
and Muslim countries increased. Special
Special
operations were undertaken to evacuate Jewish communities perceived to be in serious danger, such as Operation Magic Carpet, which evacuated almost the entire Jewish population of Yemen, and Operation Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah, which airlifted most of the Jews
Jews
of Iraq
Iraq
to Israel.[27] Nearly the entire Jewish population of Libya
Libya
left for Israel
Israel
around this time. This resulted in a period of austerity. To ensure that Israel, which at that time had a small economy and scant foreign currency reserves, could provide for the immigrants, a strict regime of rationing was put in place. Measures were enacted to ensure that all Israeli citizens had access to adequate food, housing, and clothing. Austerity was very restrictive until 1953; the previous year, Israel
Israel
had signed a reparations agreement with West Germany, in which the West German government would pay Israel
Israel
as compensation for the Holocaust, due to Israel's taking in a large number of Holocaust survivors. The resulting influx of foreign capital boosted the Israeli economy and allowed for the relaxing of most restrictions. The remaining austerity measures were gradually phased out throughout the following years. When new immigrants arrived in Israel, they were sprayed with DDT, underwent a medical examination, were inoculated against diseases, and were given food. The earliest immigrants received desirable homes in established urban areas, but most of the immigrants were then sent to transit camps, known initially as immigrant camps, and later as Ma'abarot. Many were also initially housed in reception centers in military barracks. By the end of 1950, some 93,000 immigrants were housed in 62 transit camps. The Israeli government's goal was to get the immigrants out of refugee housing and into society as speedily as possible. Immigrants
Immigrants
who left the camps received a ration card, an identity card, a mattress, a pair of blankets, and $21 to $36 in cash. They settled either in established cities and towns, or in kibbutzim and moshavim.[27][29] Many others stayed in the Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
as they were gradually turned into permanent cities and towns, which became known as development towns, or were absorbed as neighborhoods of the towns they were attached to, and the tin dwellings were replaced with permanent housing. In the early 1950s, the immigration wave subsided, and emigration increased; ultimately, some 10% of the immigrants would leave Israel for other countries in the following years. In 1953, immigration to Israel
Israel
averaged 1,200 a month, while emigration averaged 700 a month. The end of the period of mass immigration gave Israel
Israel
a critical opportunity to more rapidly absorb the immigrants still living in transit camps.[30] The Israeli government built 260 new settlements and 78,000 housing units to accommodate the immigrants, and by the mid-1950s, almost all were in permanent housing.[31] The last ma'abarot closed in 1963. In the mid-1950s, a smaller wave of immigration began from North African countries such as Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Egypt, many of which were in the midst of nationalist struggles. Between 1952 and 1964, some 240,000 North African Jews
Jews
came to Israel. During this period, smaller but significant numbers arrived from other places such as Europe, Iran, India, and Latin America.[31] In particular, a small immigration wave from then communist Poland, known as the "Gomulka Aliyah", took place during this period. From 1956 to 1960, Poland permitted free Jewish emigration, and some 50,000 Polish Jews immigrated to Israel.[32] Since the founding of the State of Israel, the Jewish Agency
Jewish Agency
for Israel
Israel
was mandated as the organization responsible for aliyah in the diaspora.[33] Aliyah
Aliyah
from Arab
Arab
countries Main article: Jewish exodus from Arab
Arab
and Muslim countries See also: Iraqi Jews
Jews
in Israel, Moroccan Jews
Jews
in Israel, and Yemenite Jews
Jews
in Israel

Jewish exodus from Arab
Arab
and Muslim countries

Communities

Mizrahi

Persian Baghdadi

Sephardi

Background

Jews
Jews
under Muslim rule

Ottoman Old Yishuv

Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the Arab
Arab
World

Holocaust in Libya Farhud

Zionism Arab–Israeli conflict

1948 Palestine war Suez Crisis Six-Day War

Algerian War

Main events

Magic Carpet (Yemen) Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah (Iraq) Lebanese exodus Egyptian exodus Moroccan exodus

Operation Yachin

Pied-Noir
Pied-Noir
(Algeria) Day of Revenge
Day of Revenge
(Libya) Exodus of Iran's Jews

Resettlement

Aliyah HIAS •  Mossad
Mossad
Le Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet • JDC

Mizrahi Jews
Jews
in Israel

Iranian • Iraqi • Kurdish • Moroccan Syrian • Turkish • Yemenite

Transition camps Immigrant camps Development towns Austerity

North African Jews
Jews
in France

Advocation

Remembrance Day JIMENA JJAC WOJAC The Forgotten Refugees

Related topics

Arab
Arab
Jews Musta'arabi Maghrebi Jews Berber Jews

v t e

Yemenite Jews
Jews
on their way to Israel

From 1948 until the early 1970s, around 900,000 Jews
Jews
from Arab
Arab
lands left, fled, or were expelled from various Arab nations.[34][35][36][37] In the course of Operation Magic Carpet (1949–1950), nearly the entire community of Yemenite Jews
Jews
(about 49,000) immigrated to Israel. Its other name, Operation On Wings of Eagles (Hebrew: כנפי נשרים, Kanfei Nesharim), was inspired by

Exodus 19:4 - Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself.[38] and Isaiah 40:31 - But they that wait upon the LORD shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint.[39] Some 120,000 Iraqi Jews
Jews
were airlifted to Israel
Israel
in Operation Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah.

Aliyah
Aliyah
from Iran See also: Iranian Jews
Jews
in Israel Following the establishment of Israel, about one-third of Iranian Jews, most of them poor, immigrated to Israel. Following the Islamic Revolution in 1979, most of the Iranian Jewish community left, with some 30,000 Iranian Jews
Jews
immigrating to Israel. Many Iranian Jews
Jews
also settled in the United States
United States
(especially in New York City
New York City
and Los Angeles).[40] Aliyah
Aliyah
from Ethiopia Main article: Aliyah
Aliyah
from Ethiopia See also: Ethiopian Jews
Jews
in Israel The first major wave of aliyah from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
took place in the mid-1970s. The massive airlift known as Operation Moses
Moses
began to bring Ethiopian Jews
Jews
to Israel
Israel
on November 18, 1984, and ended on January 5, 1985. During those six weeks, some 6,500–8,000 Ethiopian Jews
Jews
were flown from Sudan
Sudan
to Israel. An estimated 2,000–4,000 Jews
Jews
died en route to Sudan
Sudan
or in Sudanese refugee camps. In 1991 Operation Solomon was launched to bring the Beta Israel
Israel
Jews
Jews
of Ethiopia. In one day, May 24, 34 aircraft landed at Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and brought 14,325 Jews
Jews
from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to Israel. Since that time, Ethiopian Jews
Jews
have continued to immigrate to Israel
Israel
bringing the number of Ethiopian- Israelis
Israelis
today to over 100,000. Aliyah
Aliyah
from the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states Main articles: Russian immigration to Israel
Israel
in the 1970s, Russian immigration to Israel
Israel
in the 1990s, and Jackson–Vanik amendment See also: Russian Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
and Georgian Jews
Jews
in Israel

Soviet authorities break up a demonstration of Jewish refuseniks in front of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the right to immigrate to Israel, January 10, 1973[41]

A mass emigration was politically undesirable for the Soviet regime. The only acceptable ground was family reunification, and a formal petition ("вызов", vyzov) from a relative from abroad was required for the processing to begin. Often, the result was a formal refusal. The risks to apply for an exit visa compounded because the entire family had to quit their jobs, which in turn would make them vulnerable to charges of social parasitism, a criminal offense. Because of these hardships, Israel
Israel
set up the group Lishkat Hakesher in the early 1950s to maintain contact and promote aliyah with Jews behind the Iron Curtain. From Israel's establishment in 1948 to the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967, Soviet aliyah remained minimal. Those who made aliyah during this period were mainly elderly people granted clearance to leave for family reunification purposes. Only about 22,000 Soviet Jews
Jews
managed to reach Israel. In the wake of the Six-Day War, the USSR broke off the diplomatic relations with the Jewish state. An Anti-Zionist propaganda campaign in the state-controlled mass media and the rise of Zionology were accompanied by harsher discrimination of the Soviet Jews. By the end of the 1960s, Jewish cultural and religious life in the Soviet Union had become practically impossible, and the majority of Soviet Jews
Jews
were assimilated and non-religious, but this new wave of state-sponsored anti-Semitism on one hand, and the sense of pride for victorious Jewish nation over Soviet-armed Arab
Arab
armies on the other, stirred up Zionist feelings. After the Dymshits-Kuznetsov hijacking affair and the crackdown that followed, strong international condemnations caused the Soviet authorities to increase the emigration quota. In the years 1960–1970, the USSR let only 4,000 people leave; in the following decade, the number rose to 250,000.[42] The exodus of Soviet Jews began in 1968.[43]

Year Exit visas to Israel Immigrants
Immigrants
from the USSR[42]

1968 231 231

1969 3,033 3,033

1970 999 999

1971 12,897 12,893

1972 31,903 31,652

1973 34,733 33,277

1974 20,767 16,888

1975 13,363 8,435

1976 14,254 7,250

1977 16,833 8,350

1978 28,956 12,090

1979 51,331 17,278

1980 21,648 7,570

1981 9,448 1,762

1982 2,692 731

1983 1,314 861

1984 896 340

1985 1,140 348

1986 904 201

Between 1968 and 1973, almost all Soviet Jews
Jews
allowed to leave settled in Israel, and only a small minority moved to other Western countries. However, in the following years, the number of those moving to other Western nations increased.[43] Soviet Jews
Jews
granted permission to leave were taken by train to Austria
Austria
to be processed and then flown to Israel. There, the ones who chose not to go to Israel, called "dropouts", exchanged their immigrant invitations to Israel
Israel
for refugee status in a Western country, especially the United States. Eventually, most Soviet Jews
Jews
granted permission to leave became dropouts. In 1989 a record 71,000 Soviet Jews
Jews
were granted exodus from the USSR, of whom only 12,117 immigrated to Israel. According to Israeli Immigrant Absorption Minister Yaakov Zur, over half of Soviet Jewish dropouts who immigrated to the United States assimilated and ceased to live as Jews
Jews
within a short period of time.[44] Israel
Israel
was concerned over the dropout rate, and suggested that Soviet emigres be flown directly to Israel
Israel
from the Soviet Union or Romania. Israel
Israel
argued that it needed highly skilled and well-educated Soviet Jewish immigrants for its survival. In addition to contributing to the country's economic development, Soviet immigration was also seen as a counterweight to the high fertility rate among Israeli-Arabs.[43] In addition, Israel
Israel
was concerned that the dropout rate could result in immigration being banned once again. The Ministry of Immigrant Absorption's position was that "it could jeopardize the whole program if Jews
Jews
supposedly going to Israel
Israel
all wind up in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Los Angeles. How will the Soviets explain to their own people that it's just Jews
Jews
who are allowed to emigrate to the U.S.?"[44] In 1989 the United States
United States
changed its immigration policy of unconditionally granting Soviet Jews
Jews
refugee status. That same year, Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
ended restrictions on Jewish immigration, and the Soviet Union itself collapsed in 1991. Since then, about a million Russians immigrated to Israel,[45] including approximately 240,000 who were not Jewish according to rabbinical law, but were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return. The number of immigrants counted as halachically non-Jewish from the former USSR has been constantly rising ever since 1989. For example, in 1990 around 96% of the immigrants were halachically Jewish and only 4% were non-Jewish family members. However, in 2000, the proportion was: Jews
Jews
(includes children from non-Jewish father and Jewish mother) - 47%, Non-Jewish spouses of Jews
Jews
- 14%, children from Jewish father and non-Jewish mother - 17%, Non-Jewish spouses of children from Jewish father and non-Jewish mother - 6%, non- Jews
Jews
with a Jewish grandparent - 14% & Non-Jewish spouses of non- Jews
Jews
with a Jewish grandparent - 2%.[46] Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Ukrainian Jews
Jews
making aliyah from the Ukraine reached 142% higher during the first four months of 2014 compared to the previous year.[47][48] In 2014, aliyah from the former Soviet Union went up 50% from the previous year with some 11,430 people or approximately 43% of all Jewish immigrants arrived from the former Soviet Union, propelled from the increase from Ukraine with some 5,840 new immigrants have come from Ukraine over the course of the year.[49][50]

Russophone
Russophone
shop in Haifa

Aliyah
Aliyah
from Latin America Main article: Aliyah
Aliyah
from Latin America
Latin America
in the 2000s See also: Argentine Jews
Jews
in Israel In the 1999–2002 Argentine political and economic crisis that caused a run on the banks, wiped out billions of dollars in deposits and decimated Argentina's middle class, most of the country's estimated 200,000 Jews
Jews
were directly affected. Some 4,400 chose to start over and move to Israel, where they saw opportunity. More than 10,000 Argentine Jews
Jews
immigrated to Israel
Israel
since 2000, joining the thousands of previous Argentine immigrants already there. The crisis in Argentina
Argentina
also affected its neighbour country Uruguay, from which about half of its 40,000-strong Jewish community left, mainly to Israel, in the same period. During 2002 and 2003 the Jewish Agency for Israel
Israel
launched an intensive public campaign to promote aliyah from the region, and offered additional economic aid for immigrants from Argentina. Although the economy of Argentina
Argentina
improved, and some who had immigrated to Israel
Israel
from Argentina
Argentina
moved back following South American country's economic growth from 2003 onwards, Argentine Jews
Jews
continue to immigrate to Israel, albeit in smaller numbers than before. The Argentine community in Israel
Israel
is about 50,000-70,000 people, the largest Latin American group in the country. There has also been immigration from other Latin American countries that have experienced crises, though they have come in smaller numbers and are not eligible for the same economic benefits as immigrants to Israel
Israel
from Argentina. In Venezuela, growing antisemitism in the country, including antisemitic violence, caused an increasing number of Jews
Jews
to move to Israel
Israel
during the 2000s. For the first time in Venezuelan history, Jews
Jews
began leaving for Israel
Israel
in the hundreds. By November 2010, more than half of Venezuela's 20,000-strong Jewish community had left the country.[51][52] Aliyah
Aliyah
from France See also: History of the Jews
Jews
in France and French Jews
Jews
in Israel

Part of a series on

Jewish outreach

Core topics

Orthodox outreach

Modern Orthodox outreach

Conservative outreach Reform outreach

Chabad (Noahide campaign)

Jews
Jews
for Judaism Baal teshuva movement Proactive conversion

Related topics

Apostasy in Judaism Jewish assimilation Conversion of the Jews Jewish counter-missionaries Conversion of Jewish orphans Shavei Israel Judaization Reverse Marranos Crypto-Judaism Zera Yisrael

v t e

From 2000 to 2009, more than 13,000 French Jews
Jews
immigrated to Israel, largely as a result of growing anti-semitism in the country. A peak was reached in 2005, with 2,951 immigrants. However, between 20–30% eventually returned to France.[53] After the election of Nicolas Sarkozy, French aliyah dropped due to the Jewish community's comfort with him. In 2010 only 1,286 French Jews
Jews
made aliyah.[54] In 2012, some 200,000 French citizens lived in Israel.[55] During the same year, following the election of François Hollande
François Hollande
and the Jewish school shooting in Toulouse, as well as ongoing acts of anti-semitism and the European economic crisis, an increasing number of French Jews began buying property in Israel.[56] In August 2012, it was reported that anti-semitic attacks had risen by 40% in the five months following the Toulouse
Toulouse
shooting, and that many French Jews
Jews
were seriously considering immigrating to Israel.[57] In 2013, 3,120 French Jews
Jews
immigrated to Israel, marking a 63% increase over the previous year.[58] In the first two months of 2014, French Jewish aliyah increased precipitously by 312% with 854 French Jews
Jews
making aliyah over the first two months. Immigration from France throughout 2014 has been attributed to several factors, of which includes increasing antisemitism, in which many Jews
Jews
have been harassed and attacked by a fusillade of local thugs and gangs, a stagnant European economy and concomitant high youth unemployment rates.[59][60][61][62] During the first few months of 2014, The Jewish Agency
Jewish Agency
of Israel
Israel
has continued to encourage an increase of French aliyah through aliyah fairs, Hebrew-language courses, sessions which help potential immigrants to find jobs in Israel, and immigrant absorption in Israel.[63] A May 2014 survey revealed that 74 percent of French Jews consider leaving France for Israel
Israel
where of the 74 percent, 29.9 percent cited anti-Semitism. Another 24.4 cited their desire to “preserve their Judaism,” while 12.4 percent said they were attracted by other countries. “Economic considerations” was cited by 7.5 percent of the respondents.[64] By June 2014, it was estimated by the end of 2014 a full 1 percent of the French Jewish community will have made aliyah to Israel, the largest in a single year. Many Jewish leaders stated the emigration is being driven by a combination of factors, including the cultural gravitation towards Israel
Israel
and France’s economic woes, especially for the younger generation drawn by the possibility of other socioeconomic opportunities in the more vibrant Israeli economy.[65][66] During the Hebrew year 5774 (September 2013 - September 2014) for the first time ever, more Jews made Aliyah
Aliyah
from France than any other country, with approximately 6,000 French Jews
Jews
making aliyah, mainly fleeing rampant antisemitism, pro-Palestinian and anti-Zionist violence and economic malaise with France becoming the top sending country for aliyah as of late September 2014.[67][68] In January 2015, events such as the Charlie Hebdo shooting
Charlie Hebdo shooting
and Porte de Vincennes hostage crisis created a shock wave of fear across the French Jewish community. As a result of these events, the Jewish Agency planned an aliyah plan for 120,000 French Jews
Jews
who wish to make aliyah.[69][70] In addition, with Europe's stagnant economy as of early 2015, many affluent French Jewish skilled professionals, businesspeople and investors have sought Israel
Israel
as a start-up haven for international investments, as well as job and new business opportunities.[71] In addition, Dov Maimon, a French Jewish émigré who studies migration as a senior fellow at the Jewish People Policy Institute, expects as many as 250,000 French Jews
Jews
to make aliyah by the year 2030.[71] Hours after an attack and an ISIS flag was raised on a gas factory near Lyon where the severed head of a local businessman was pinned to the gates on June 26, 2015, Immigration and Absorption Minister Ze’ev Elkin strongly urged the French Jewish community to move to Israel
Israel
and made it a national priority for Israel
Israel
to welcome the French Jewish community with open arms.[72][73] Immigration from France is on the rise: in the first half of 2015, approximately 5,100 French Jews
Jews
made aliyah to Israel
Israel
marking 25% more than in the same period during the previous year when about 7,000 made aliyah during all of 2014, indicating that about 10,000 should be expected for the full year of 2015.[74][75] Following the November 2015 Paris attacks
November 2015 Paris attacks
committed by suspected ISIS affiliates in retaliation for Opération Chammal, one source reported that 80 percent of French Jews
Jews
were considering making aliyah.[76][77][78] According to the Jewish Agency, nearly 6500 French Jews
Jews
had made aliyah between January and November 2015.[79][80][81]

Aliyah
Aliyah
from North America See also: History of the Jews
Jews
in the United States
United States
and History of the Jews
Jews
in Canada

Nefesh B'Nefesh
Nefesh B'Nefesh
group welcomes North American immigrants to Israel

More than 200,000 North American immigrants live in Israel. There has been a steady flow of immigration from North America since Israel’s inception in 1948.[82][83] Several thousand American Jews
Jews
moved to Mandate Palestine before the State of Israel
Israel
was established. From Israel's establishment in 1948 to the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967, aliyah from the United States
United States
and Canada was minimal. In 1959, a former President of the Association of Americans and Canadians in Israel
Israel
estimated that out of the 35,000 American and Canadian Jews
Jews
who had made aliyah, only 6,000 remained.[84] Following the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967, and the subsequent euphoria among world Jewry, significant numbers arrived in the late 1960s and 1970s, whereas it had been a mere trickle before. Between 1967 and 1973, 60,000 North American Jews
Jews
immigrated to Israel. However, many of them later returned to their original countries. An estimated 58% of American Jews
Jews
who immigrated to Israel
Israel
between 1961 and 1972 ended up returning to the United States.[85][86] Like Western European immigrants, North Americans tend to immigrate to Israel
Israel
more for religious, ideological, and political purposes, and not financial or security ones.[87] Many immigrants began arriving in Israel
Israel
after the First and Second Intifada, with a total of 3,052 arriving in 2005 — the highest number since 1983.[88] Nefesh B'Nefesh, founded in 2002 by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehoshua Fass and Tony Gelbart, works to encourage Aliyah
Aliyah
from North America and the UK by providing financial assistance, employment services and streamlined governmental procedures. Nefesh B’Nefesh works in cooperation with the Jewish Agency
Jewish Agency
and the Israeli Government in increasing the numbers of North American and British immigrants. Following the Global Financial Crisis in the late 2000s, American Jewish immigration to Israel
Israel
rose. This wave of immigration was triggered by Israel's lower unemployment rate, combined with financial incentives offered to new Jewish immigrants. In 2009, aliyah was at its highest in 36 years, with 3,324 North American Jews
Jews
making aliyah.[89] Since the 1990s

New immigrants in Ben Gurion airport in Israel, 2007

Since the mid-1990s, there has been a steady stream of South African Jews, American Jews, and French Jews
Jews
who have either made aliyah, or purchased property in Israel
Israel
for potential future immigration. Over 2,000 French Jews
Jews
moved to Israel
Israel
each year between 2000 and 2004 due to anti-Semitism in France.[90] The Bnei Menashe
Bnei Menashe
Jews
Jews
from India, whose recent discovery and recognition by mainstream Judaism
Judaism
as descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes
Ten Lost Tribes
is subject to some controversy, slowly started their Aliyah
Aliyah
in the early 1990s and continue arriving in slow numbers.[91] Organizations such as Nefesh B'Nefesh
Nefesh B'Nefesh
and Shavei Israel
Israel
help with aliyah by supporting financial aid and guidance on a variety of topics such as finding work, learning Hebrew, and assimilation into Israeli culture. In early 2007 Haaretz
Haaretz
reported that aliyah for the year of 2006 was down approximately 9% from 2005, "the lowest number of immigrants recorded since 1988".[92] The number of new immigrants in 2007 was 18,127, the lowest since 1988. Only 36% of these new immigrants came from the former Soviet Union (close to 90% in the 1990s) while the number of immigrants from countries like France and the United States is stable.[93] Some 15,452 immigrants arrived in Israel
Israel
in 2008 and 16,465 in 2009.[94] On October 20, 2009, the first group of Kaifeng Jews
Jews
arrived in Israel, in an aliyah operation coordinated by Shavei Israel.[95][96][97] Shalom Life reported that over 19,000 new immigrants arrived in Israel
Israel
in 2010, an increase of 16 percent over 2009.[98] Paternity testing In 2013, the office of the Prime Minister of Israel
Israel
announced that some people born out of wedlock, "wishing to immigrate to Israel
Israel
could be subjected to DNA testing" to prove their paternity is as they claim. A Foreign Ministry spokesman said the genetic paternity testing idea is based on the recommendations of Nativ, an Israeli government organization that has helped Jews
Jews
from Russia
Russia
and rest of the former Soviet Union with Aliyah
Aliyah
since the 1950s.[99] Statistics The number of immigrants since 1882 by period, continent of birth, and country of birth is given in the table below. Continent of birth and country of birth data is almost always unavailable or nonexistent for before 1919.[54][100]

Region/Country 1882– 1918 1919– 1948 1948– 1951 1952– 1960 1961– 1971 1972– 1979 1980– 1989 1990– 2001 2002– 2010 2011– 2012 Total

Africa

4,033 93,282 143,485 164,885 19,273 28,664 55,619 31,558 6,627 547,426

Algeria

994 3,810 3,433 12,857 2,137 1,830 1,682 1,967 324 29,034

Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan

0 16,028 17,521 2,963 535 372 202 166 21 37,808

Ethiopia, Eritrea
Eritrea
and Abyssinia

0 10 59 98 309 16,971 45,131 23,613 5,097 91,288

Libya

873 30,972 2,079 2,466 219 67 94 36 5 36,811

Morocco

0 28,263 95,945 130,507 7,780 3,809 3,276 2,113 384 272,077

South Africa

259 666 774 3,783 5,604 3,575 3,283 1,693 373 20,010

Tunisia

0 13,293 23,569 11,566 2,148 1,942 1,607 1,871 398 56,394

Zimbabwe

0 37 22 145 393 82 26 14 N/A 719

Other (Africa)

1,907 203 83 500 148 16 318 85 24 3,284

Americas
Americas
and Oceania

7,579 3,822 6,922 42,400 45,040 39,369 39,662 36,209

221,003

Argentina

238 904 2,888 11,701 13,158 10,582 11,248 9,450

60,169

Australia

0 116 107 742 1,146 835 977 524

4,447

Bolivia

0 0 0 199 94 80 53 84

510

Brazil

0 304 763 2,601 1,763 1,763 2,356 2,037

11,587

Canada

316 236 276 2,169 2,178 1,867 1,963 1,700

10,705

Central America
Central America
(other countries which are not specifically mentioned here)

0 17 43 129 104 8 153 157

611

Chile

0 48 401 1,790 1,180 1,040 683 589

5,731

Colombia

0 0 0 415 552 475 657 965

3,064

Cuba

0 14 88 405 79 42 629 606

1,863

Ecuador

0 0 0 40 38 44 67 69

258

Mexico

0 48 168 736 861 993 1,049 697

4,552

New Zealand

70 0 13 91 129 124 142 42

611

Panama

0 0 0 64 43 48 50 40

245

Peru

0 0 0 269 243 358 612 1,539

3,021

South America
South America
(other countries which are not specifically mentioned here)

0 42 194 89 62 0 66 96

549

United States 2,000[101] 6,635 1,711 1,553 18,671 20,963 18,904 17,512 15,445

103,394

Uruguay

0 66 425 1,844 2,199 2,014 983 1,555

9,086

Venezuela

0 0 0 297 245 180 418 602

1,742

Other (Americas/Oceania)

318 313 0 148 3 8 44 12

846

Asia

40,776 237,704 37,119 56,208 19,456 14,433 75,687 17,300

498,683

Afghanistan

0 2,303 1,106 516 132 57 21 13

4,148

Burma

0 0 0 147 83 383 138 33

784

China

0 504 217 96 43 78 277 74

1,289

Cyprus

0 21 35 28 21 12 32 0

149

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka

0 2,176 5,380 13,110 3,497 1,539 2,055 961

28,718

Indonesia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and the Philippines

0 101 46 54 40 60 205 42

548

Iran

3,536 21,910 15,699 19,502 9,550 8,487 4,326 1,097

84,107

Iraq

0 123,371 2,989 2,129 939 111 1,325 130

130,994

Israel

0 411 868 1,021 507 288 1,148 1,448

5,691

Japan

0 0 9 25 34 57 98 32

255

Jordan

0 6 9 23 6 9 15 0

68

Lebanon

0 235 846 2,208 564 179 96 34

4,162

Mongolia, South Korea, and North Korea

0 0 0 4 5 10 100 36

155

Saudi Arabia

0 177 0 4 0 5 0 0

186

Soviet Union (Asia)[a]

61,988 12,422

74,410

Syria

0 2,678 1,870 0 0 0 1,664 23

6,235

Turkey

8,277 34,547 6,871 14,073 3,118 2,088 1,311 817

71,102

Yemen 2,600[102] 15,838 48,315 1,170 1,066 51 17 683 103

69,843

Other (Asia)

13,125 947 0 60 21 45 205 30

14,433

Europe

377,487 332,802 106,305 162,070 183,419 70,898 888,603 96,165

2,217,749

Albania

0 0 5 8 0 0 376 0

389

Austria

7,748 2,632 610 1,021 595 356 368 150

13,480

Belgium

0 291 394 1,112 847 788 1,053 873

5,358

Bulgaria

7,057 37,260 1,680 794 118 180 3,999 341

51,429

Czechoslovakia

16,794 18,788 783 2,754 888 462 527 217

41,213

Denmark

0 27 46 298 292 411 389 85

1,548

Finland

0 9 20 172 184 222 212 33

852

France

1,637 3,050 1,662 8,050 5,399 7,538 11,986 13,062

52,384

Germany

52,951 8,210 1,386 3,175 2,080 1,759 2,442 866

72,869

Greece

8,767 2,131 676 514 326 147 127 48

12,736

Hungary

10,342 14,324 9,819 2,601 1,100 1,005 2,444 730

42,365

Ireland

0 14 46 145 157 233 136 54

785

Italy

1,554 1,305 414 940 713 510 656 389

6,481

Luxembourg

0 30 15 15 7 12 0 4

83

Netherlands

1,208 1,077 646 1,470 1,170 1,239 997 365

8,172

Norway

0 17 14 36 55 126 120 19

387

Poland

170,127 106,414 39,618 14,706 6,218 2,807 3,064 764

343,718

Portugal

0 16 22 66 56 55 47 28

290

Romania

41,105 117,950 32,462 86,184 18,418 14,607 6,254 711

317,691

Soviet Union (Europe) 47,500[103][b] 52,350 8,163 13,743 29,376 137,134 29,754 844,139 72,520

1,234,679

Spain

0 80 169 406 327 321 269 178

1,750

Sweden

0 32 51 378 372 419 424 160

1,836

Switzerland

0 131 253 886 634 706 981 585

4,176

United Kingdom

1,574 1,907 1,448 6,461 6,171 7,098 5,365 3,725

33,749

Yugoslavia

1,944 7,661 320 322 126 140 2,029 162

12,704

Other (Europe)

2,329 1,281 3 173 32 0 198 93

4,109

Not known

52,982 20,014 3,307 2,265 392 469 422 0

79,851

Total 62,500[104][c] 482,857 687,624 297,138 427,828 267,580 153,833 1,059,993 181,233

3,620,586

See also

Israel
Israel
portal Judaism
Judaism
portal

Galut Yerida History of the Jews
Jews
in the Land of Israel Homeland for the Jewish people Law of Return Jewish population by country Historical Jewish population comparisons Demographics of Israel Olim L'Berlin Visa policy of Israel Israeli passport Israeli identity card Illegal immigration from Africa to Israel Kibbutz
Kibbutz
volunteer

References

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Further reading

Morgenstern, Arie (2002). "Dispersion and the Longing for Zion, 1240-1840". Azure. Shalem Center (12): 71–132. Retrieved 7 October 2012.  Shuval, Judith T. (March 1998). "Migration To Israel: The Mythology of "Uniqueness"". International Migration. International Organization for Migration. 36 (1): 3–26. doi:10.1111/1468-2435.00031. PMID 12293507.  Ben-Gurion, David (19 July 1967). "Ben Gurion on the Pioneer Generations and the Need for U.S. Immigration". Shapell Manuscript Foundation. Retrieved 6 November 2012.  Ben-David, Laura (2006). Moving Up: An Aliyah
Aliyah
Journal. Mazo Publishers. ISBN 978-965-7344-14-9. 

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