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Algiers
Algiers
(Arabic: الجزائر العاصمة‎ ( Algeria
Algeria
capital city), Berber languages: ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, French: Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers
Algiers
is located on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and in the north-central portion of Algeria.[2] Sometimes nicknamed El-Behdja (البهجة) or alternatively Alger la Blanche (" Algiers
Algiers
the White") for the glistening white of its buildings as seen rising up from the sea, Algiers
Algiers
is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea. The modern part of the city is built on the level ground by the seashore; the old part, the ancient city of the deys, climbs the steep hill behind the modern town and is crowned by the casbah or citadel, 122 metres (400 ft) above the sea. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle.[3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ottoman rule 2.2 French rule 2.3 Algerian War 2.4 Independence 2.5 Crisis of the 1990s

3 Geography

3.1 Districts of Algiers 3.2 Climate

4 Government 5 Local architecture 6 Monuments 7 Demographics 8 Economy 9 Tourist installations 10 Education 11 Public transport 12 Province projects 13 Sports

13.1 Football clubs

14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns – Sister cities 14.2 Cooperation agreements

15 Films about Algiers 16 See also 17 References

17.1 Notes

18 Bibliography

Etymology[edit] The city name is derived (via French Alger and Catalan Alger[4]) from the Arabic name الجزائر al-Jazā’ir, which translates as "The Islands", referring to the four islands which used to lie off the city's coast until becoming part of the mainland in 1525. Al-Jazā’ir is itself a truncated form of the city's older name جزائر بني مزغانة Jaza'ir Bani Mazghana, "The Islands of the Sons of Mazghana", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Algiers A Phoenician commercial outpost called Ikosim which later developed into a small Roman town called Icosium
Icosium
existed on what is now the marine quarter of the city. The rue de la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued
Bab-el-Oued
and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium
Icosium
are mentioned as late as the 5th century.[5] The present-day city was founded in 944 by Bologhine
Bologhine
ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid– Sanhaja
Sanhaja
dynasty. He had earlier (935) built his own house and a Sanhaja
Sanhaja
center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. Although his Zirid
Zirid
dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, the Zirids had already lost control of Algiers
Algiers
to their cousins the Hammadids in 1014.[6] The city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads
Almohads
in 1159, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers
Algiers
had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran
Oran
being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids.[5] The Peñón of Algiers, an islet in front of Algiers
Algiers
harbour had been occupied by the Spaniards as early as 1302. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers
Algiers
and Spain. However, Algiers
Algiers
continued to be of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors
Moors
from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran
Oran
and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the islet of Peñon[5] and imposed a levy intended to suppress corsair activity.[7] Ottoman rule[edit]

Abraham Duquesne
Abraham Duquesne
delivering Christian captives in Algiers
Algiers
after the bombing in 1683.

In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj
Aruj
and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards. Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, and seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers
Algiers
(1516). Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj
Aruj
after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen
Tlemcen
(1517), was the founder of the pashaluk, which subsequently became the beylik, of Algeria. Barbarossa lost Algiers
Algiers
in 1524 but regained it with the Capture of Algiers
Algiers
(1529), and then formally invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers
Algiers
to the Ottoman Empire.

Historic map of Algiers
Algiers
by Piri Reis

Algiers
Algiers
from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. In October 1541 in the Algiers
Algiers
expedition, the King of Spain
Spain
and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, and his army of some 30,000, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their Pasha, Hassan.[5]

The bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
by Lord Exmouth, August 1816, painted by Thomas Luny

Ornate Ottoman cannon found in Algiers
Algiers
on 8 October 1581 by Ca'fer el-Mu'allim. Length: 385 cm, cal:178 mm, weight: 2910 kg, stone projectile. Seized by France
France
during the invasion of Algiers
Algiers
in 1830. Musée de l'Armée, Paris.

Formally part of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
but essentially free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers
Algiers
turned to piracy and ransoming. Due to its location on the periphery of both the Ottoman and European economic spheres, and depending for its existence on a Mediterranean that was increasingly controlled by European shipping, backed by European navies, piracy became the primary economic activity. Repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland.[8] The United States fought two wars (the First and Second Barbary Wars) over Algiers' attacks on shipping. Among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes, who was captive in Algiers
Algiers
almost five years, and who wrote two plays set in Algiers
Algiers
of the period. The primary source for knowledge of Algiers
Algiers
of this period, since there are no contemporary local sources, is the Topografía e historia general de Argel (1612, but written earlier), published by Diego de Haedo, but whose authorship is disputed.[9][10] This work describes in detail the city, the behavior of its inhabitants, and its military defenses, with the unsuccessful hope of facilitating an attack by Spain
Spain
so as to end the piracy. A significant number of renegades lived in Algiers
Algiers
at the time, Christians converted voluntarily to Islam, many fleeing the law or other problems at home. Once converted to Islam, they were safe in Algiers. Many occupied positions of authority, such as Samson Rowlie, an Englishman who became Treasurer of Algiers.[11] The city under Ottoman control was enclosed by a wall on all sides, including along the seafront. In this wall, five gates allowed access to the city, with five roads from each gate dividing the city and meeting in front of the Ketchaoua Mosque. In 1556, a citadel was constructed at the highest point in the wall. A major road running north to south divided the city in two: The upper city (al-Gabal, or 'the mountain') which consisted of about fifty small quarters of Andalusian, Jewish, Moorish and Kabyle communities, and the lower city (al-Wata, or 'the plains') which was the administrative, military and commercial centre of the city, mostly inhabited by Turkish dignitaries and other upper-class families.[12] In August 1816, the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth (a descendant of Thomas Pellew, taken in an Algerian slave raid in 1715[citation needed]), assisted by Dutch men-of-war, destroying the corsair fleet harboured in Algiers.[5] French rule[edit]

Algiers
Algiers
depot and station grounds of Algerian Railway, 1894

The history of Algiers
Algiers
from 1830 to 1962 is bound to the larger history of Algeria
Algeria
and its relationship to France. On July 4, 1830, under the pretext of an affront to the French consul—whom the dey had hit with a fly-whisk when the consul said the French government was not prepared to pay its large outstanding debts to two Algerian merchants—a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city in the 1830 invasion of Algiers. The city capitulated the following day. Algiers
Algiers
became the capital of French Algeria. Many Europeans settled in Algiers, and by the early 20th century they formed a majority of the city's population.[13] During the 1930s, the architect Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
drew up plans for a complete redesign of the colonial city. Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
was highly critical of the urban style of Algiers, describing the European district as "nothing but crumbling walls and devastated nature, the whole a sullied blot". He also criticised the difference in living standards he perceived between the European and African residents of the city, describing a situation in which "the 'civilised' live like rats in holes" whereas "the 'barbarians' live in solitude, in well-being".[14] However, these plans were ultimately ignored by the French administration. During World War II, Algiers
Algiers
was the first city to be seized from the Germans by the Allies during Operation Torch.

City
City
and harbour of Algiers, c. 1921

In 1962, after a bloody independence struggle in which hundreds of thousands (estimates range between 350,000 and 1,500,000) died (mostly Algerians but also French and Pieds-Noirs) during fighting between the French Army
French Army
and the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale, Algeria gained its independence, with Algiers
Algiers
as its capital. Since then, despite losing its entire pied-noir population, the city has expanded massively. It now has about five million inhabitants, or 10 percent of Algeria's population—and its suburbs now cover most of the surrounding Mitidja plain. Algerian War[edit]

Play media

The "tense truce" between Algerian rebels, French army and the OAS in 1962

Algiers
Algiers
also played a pivotal role in the Algerian War
Algerian War
(1954–1962), particularly during the Battle of Algiers
Algiers
when the 10th Parachute Division of the French Army, starting on January 7, 1957, and on the orders of the French Minister of Justice François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
(who authorized any means "to eliminate the insurrectionists"[citation needed]), led attacks against the Algerian fighters for independence. Algiers
Algiers
remains marked by this battle, which was characterized by merciless fighting between FLN forces which carried out a guerrilla campaign against the French military and police and pro-French Algerian soldiers, and the French Army
French Army
which responded with a bloody repression, torture and blanket terrorism against the native population. The demonstrations of May 13 during the crisis of 1958 provoked the fall of the Fourth Republic
Republic
in France, as well as the return of General de Gaulle to power. Independence[edit] Algeria
Algeria
achieved independence on July 5, 1962. Run by the FLN that had secured independence, Algiers
Algiers
became a member of Non-Aligned Movement during the Cold War. In October 1988, one year before the fall of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall, Algiers
Algiers
was the site of demonstrations demanding the end of the single-party system and the creation of a real democracy baptized the "Spring of Algier". The demonstrators were repressed by the authorities (more than 300 dead), but the movement constituted a turning point in the political history of modern Algeria. In 1989, a new constitution was adopted that put an end to the one-party rule and saw the creation of more than fifty political parties, as well as official freedom of the press. Crisis of the 1990s[edit] The city became the theatre of many political demonstrations of all descriptions until 1993. In 1991, a political entity dominated by religious conservatives called the Islamic Salvation Front
Islamic Salvation Front
engaged in a political test of wills with the authorities. In the 1992 elections for the Algerian National Assembly, the Islamists garnered a large amount of support in the first round, helped by a massive abstention from disillusioned Algerian voters by the turn of events. Fearing an eventual win by the Islamists, the army canceled the election process, setting off a civil war between the State and armed religious conservatives which would last for a decade. On December 11, 2007, two car bombs exploded in Algiers. One bomb targeted two United Nations buildings and the other targeted a government building housing the Supreme Court. The death toll was at least 62, with over two hundred injured in the attacks.[15] However, only 26 remained hospitalized the following day.[16] As of 2008[update], it is speculated that the attack was carried out by the Al Qaida cell within the city.[17] Indigenous terrorist groups have been actively operating in Algeria since around 2002. Geography[edit] Districts of Algiers[edit]

Notre Dame d'Afrique, built by European settlers in 1872[18]

The Casbah
Casbah
(of Al Qasbah, “the Citadel”), Ier District of Algiers: called Al-Djazaïr Al Mahroussa (“Well Kept Algiers”), it is founded on the ruins of old Icosium. It is a small city which, built on a hill, goes down towards the sea, divided in two: the High city and the Low city. One finds there masonries and mosques of the 17th century; Ketchaoua mosque (built in 1794 by the Dey
Dey
Baba Hassan) flanked by two minarets, mosque el Djedid (built in 1660, at the time of Turkish regency) with its large finished ovoid cupola points some and its four coupolettes, mosque El Kébir (oldest of the mosques, it was built by Almoravid
Almoravid
Youssef Ibn Tachfin and rebuilt later in 1794), mosque Ali Betchnin (Raïs, 1623), Dar Aziza, palate of Jénina. In the Kasbah, there are also labyrinths of lanes and houses that are very picturesque, and if one gets lost there, it is enough to go down again towards the sea to reposition oneself. Bab El Oued: Literally the River's Gate, the popular district which extends from the Casbah
Casbah
beyond "the gate of the river". It is the capital's darling and best liked borough. Famous for its square with “the three clocks” and for its “market Triplet”, it is also a district of workshops and manufacturing plants. Edge of sea: from 1840, the architects Pierre-August Guiauchain and Charles Frédéric Chassériau
Charles Frédéric Chassériau
designed new buildings apart from the Casbah, town hall, law courts, buildings, theatre, palace of the Governor, and casino, to form an elegant walk bordered by arcades which is today the boulevard Che Guevara
Che Guevara
(formerly the Boulevard of the Republic). Kouba (will daira of Hussein-dey): Kouba is an old village which was absorbed by the expansion of the town of Algiers. Of village, Kouba quickly developed under the French colonial era then continued growing due to formidable demographic expansion that Algiers
Algiers
saw after the independence of Algeria
Algeria
in 1962. It is today a district of Algiers which is largely made up of houses, villas and buildings not exceeding five stories. El Harrach, a suburb of Algiers, is located about 10 kilometres (6 miles) to the east of the city. The communes of Hydra, Ben Aknoun, El-Biar
El-Biar
and Bouzareah
Bouzareah
form what the inhabitants of Algiers
Algiers
call the heights of Algiers. These communes shelter the majority of the foreign embassies of Algiers, of many ministries and university centers, which makes it one of the administrative and policy centers of the country. The Didouche Mourad street is located in the 3rd district Of Algiers. It extends from the Grande Post office to the Heights of Algiers. It crosses in particular the place Audin, the Faculty of Algiers, The Crowned Heart and the park of Galland. It is bordered by smart stores and restaurants along most of its length. It is regarded as the heart of the capital.

Astronautical view of Algiers

Climate[edit] Algiers
Algiers
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen climate classification Csa). Its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
aids in moderating the city's temperatures. As a result, Algiers
Algiers
usually does not see the extreme temperatures that are experienced in the adjacent interior deserts. Algiers
Algiers
on average receives roughly 600 millimetres (24 in) of rain per year, the bulk of which is seen between October and April. The precipitation is very similar to coastal mediterranean Spain
Spain
as opposed to the interior North African arid climate. Snow is very rare; in 2012, the city received 10 centimetres (3.9 in), its first snowfall in eight years.[19]

Climate data for Algiers
Algiers
( Dar El Beïda
Dar El Beïda
international airport) 1976–2005 averages, extremes 1838–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.6 (81.7) 31.4 (88.5) 36.3 (97.3) 36.5 (97.7) 41.1 (106) 44.6 (112.3) 45.2 (113.4) 47.5 (117.5) 44.4 (111.9) 39.5 (103.1) 34.4 (93.9) 30.4 (86.7) 47.5 (117.5)

Average high °C (°F) 16.7 (62.1) 17.4 (63.3) 19.3 (66.7) 20.9 (69.6) 23.9 (75) 28.2 (82.8) 31.2 (88.2) 32.2 (90) 29.6 (85.3) 25.9 (78.6) 20.8 (69.4) 17.9 (64.2) 23.7 (74.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.1 (52) 11.7 (53.1) 13.2 (55.8) 14.9 (58.8) 18.1 (64.6) 22.2 (72) 25.1 (77.2) 26.0 (78.8) 23.6 (74.5) 20.1 (68.2) 15.3 (59.5) 12.6 (54.7) 17.8 (64)

Average low °C (°F) 5.5 (41.9) 5.9 (42.6) 7.1 (44.8) 8.8 (47.8) 12.3 (54.1) 16.1 (61) 18.9 (66) 19.8 (67.6) 17.6 (63.7) 14.2 (57.6) 9.8 (49.6) 7.2 (45) 11.9 (53.4)

Record low °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −1.9 (28.6) −1.0 (30.2) −0.8 (30.6) 2.6 (36.7) 5.5 (41.9) 9.0 (48.2) 9.5 (49.1) 8.2 (46.8) 4.1 (39.4) −0.1 (31.8) −2.3 (27.9) −3.3 (26.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 81.4 (3.205) 72.7 (2.862) 55.0 (2.165) 58.4 (2.299) 41.9 (1.65) 8.5 (0.335) 4.5 (0.177) 8.2 (0.323) 28.3 (1.114) 58.8 (2.315) 89.6 (3.528) 91.0 (3.583) 598.3 (23.555)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.4 10.6 9.7 9.1 7.3 2.5 1.5 2.5 5.3 8.6 11.1 12.1 91.7

Average relative humidity (%) 71 66 65 62 66 66 67 65 68 66 68 68 67

Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.5 158.2 207.7 228.0 300.7 300.0 353.4 325.5 267.0 198.4 153.0 145.7 2,777.1

Mean daily sunshine hours 4.5 5.6 6.7 7.6 9.7 10.0 11.4 10.5 8.9 6.4 5.1 4.7 7.6

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(average temperatures and precipitation, 1976–2005)[20]

Source #2: Arab Meteorology Book (humidity and sun),[21] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[22]

Government[edit]

See also: Algiers
Algiers
politics and administration (fr) and List of mayors of Algiers

Local architecture[edit]

Algiers
Algiers
waterfront

Cosmopolitan Algiers

There are many public buildings of interest, including the whole Kasbah
Kasbah
quarter, Martyrs Square (Sahat ech-Chouhada ساحة الشهداء), the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the "Grand", "New", and Ketchaoua Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of Notre Dame d'Afrique, the Bardo Museum (a former Turkish mansion), the old Bibliothèque Nationale d'Alger—a Turkish palace built in 1799–1800[23]—and the new National Library, built in a style reminiscent of the British Library. The main building in the Kasbah
Kasbah
was begun in 1516 on the site of an older building, and served as the palace of the deys until the French conquest. A road has been cut through the centre of the building, the mosque turned into barracks, and the hall of audience allowed to fall into ruin. There still remain a minaret and some marble arches and columns. Traces exist of the vaults in which were stored the treasures of the dey.[23] The Great Mosque
Mosque
(Jamaa-el-Kebir الجامع الكبير) is the oldest mosque in Algiers. It was first built by Yusuf ibn Tashfin, but reconstructed many times. The pulpit (minbar منبر) bears an inscription showing that the building existed in 1097. The minaret was built by the sultan of Tlemcen, in 1324.[24] The interior of the mosque is square and is divided into aisles by columns joined by Moorish arches.[23] The New Mosque
Mosque
(Jamaa-el-Jedid الجامع الجديد), dating from the 17th century, is in the form of a Greek cross, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small cupolas at the corners. The minaret is 27 metres (89 ft) high. The interior resembles that of the Grand Mosque.[23] The church of the Holy Trinity (built in 1870) stands at the southern end of the rue d'Isly near the site of the demolished Fort Bab Azoun باب عزون. The interior is richly decorated with various coloured marbles. Many of these marbles contain memorial inscriptions relating to the British residents (voluntary and involuntary) of Algiers
Algiers
from the time of John Tipton, the first English consul, in 1580 (NB Some sources give 1585). One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in Ireland, sacked Baltimore, and enslaved its inhabitants.[23]

The Ketchaoua Mosque

The Ketchaoua mosque (Djamaa Ketchaoua جامع كتشاوة), at the foot of the Casbah, was before independence in 1962 the cathedral of St Philippe, itself made in 1845 from a mosque dating from 1612. The principal entrance, reached by a flight of 23 steps, is ornamented with a portico supported by four black-veined marble columns. The roof of the nave is of Moorish plaster work. It rests on a series of arcades supported by white marble columns. Several of these columns belonged to the original mosque. In one of the chapels was a tomb containing the bones of San Geronimo.[23] The building seems a curious blend of Moorish and Byzantine styles. Algiers
Algiers
possesses a college with schools of law, medicine, science and letters. The college buildings are large and handsome. The Bardo Museum in Tunisia
Tunisia
holds some of the ancient sculptures and mosaics discovered in Algeria, together with medals and Algerian money.[23] The port of Algiers
Algiers
is sheltered from all winds. There are two harbours, both artificial—the old or northern harbour and the southern or Agha harbour. The northern harbour covers an area of 95 hectares (235 acres). An opening in the south jetty affords an entrance into Agha harbour, constructed in Agha Bay. Agha harbour has also an independent entrance on its southern side. The inner harbour was begun in 1518 by Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa
Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa
(see History, below), who, to accommodated his pirate vessels, caused the island on which was Fort Penon to be connected with the mainland by a mole. The lighthouse which occupies the site of Fort Penon was built in 1544.[23] Algiers
Algiers
was a walled city from the time of the deys until the close of the 19th century. The French, after their occupation of the city (1830), built a rampart, parapet and ditch, with two terminal forts, Bab Azoun باب عزون to the south and Bab-el-Oued
Bab-el-Oued
اد to the north. The forts and part of the ramparts were demolished at the beginning of the 20th century, when a line of forts occupying the heights of Bouzareah
Bouzareah
بوزريعة (at an elevation of 396 metres (1,299 ft) above the sea) took their place.[23] Notre Dame d'Afrique, a church built (1858–1872) in a mixture of the Roman and Byzantine styles, is conspicuously situated overlooking the sea, on the shoulder of the Bouzareah
Bouzareah
hills, 3 km (2 mi) to the north of the city. Above the altar is a statue of the Virgin depicted as a black woman. The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the confraternity of Neapolitan fishermen.[5] Villa Abd-el-Tif, former residence of the dey, was used during the French period, to accommodate French artists, chiefly painters, and winners of the Abd-el-Tif prize, among whom Maurice Boitel, for a while of two years. Nowadays, Algerian artists are back in the villa's studios. Monuments[edit]

The Monument of the Martyrs (Maquam E’chahid)

Grand Post Office

Notre Dame d'Afrique, accessible by one cable car, is one of the city's most outstanding monuments: located in the district of Z' will ghara, the basilica was built around 1858. Monument des Martyrs
Monument des Martyrs
(Marquand E' chahid): an iconic concrete monument commemorating the Algerian war for independence. The monument was opened in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of Algeria's independence. It is fashioned in the shape of three standing palm leaves which shelter the "Eternal Flame" beneath. At the edge of each palm leaf stands a statue of a soldier, each representing a stage of Algeria's struggle.

The El Jedid mosque at the Place des Martyrs

The El Jedid mosque at the Place des Martyrs near the port. Place of the Emir Abdelkader (formerly Bugeaud): in memory of the famous emir Abd El-Kader, resistant during French conquest of Algeria. Grand Post Office (1910, by Voinot and Tondoire): construction of the neo-Moorish type which is in full centre town of Algiers. The Jardin d'essai (Garden of Test; El-Hamma): situated in the east of Algiers, it extends over 80 hectares (198 acres) and contains exotic plants and gardens. It was created in 1832 by A. Hardy. Villa Abd-el-Hair, with the top of the Garden of test, one of the old residences of the dey, where until 1962, were placed the artists prizes winner of Price Abd-el-Hair, and in particular Maurice Boitel and Andre Hamburg. Citadel. Riadh El-Feth (shopping centre and art gallery). Ketchaoua Mosque
Ketchaoua Mosque
(This mosque became the Saint-Philippe cathedral during colonization before becoming again a mosque). National Library, is in the district of El HAMMA and was built in the 1990s. The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Algiers
Algiers
at the Rue de la Marine. It is the oldest mosque of Algiers
Algiers
and was built during the reign of the Almoravid sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin. Le Bastion 23 - Palais des Rais, built in 1576 by Dey
Dey
Ramdhan Pacha and located in the lower Casbah
Casbah
in the Bab El Oued
Bab El Oued
neighborhood.

Demographics[edit]

Year Population

1977 (Census) 1,353,826

1987 (Census) 1,507,241

1998 (Census) 1,519,570

2007 (Estimate) 2,072,993

Algiers
Algiers
has a population of about 3,335,418(2012 estimate).[25] The ethnic distribution is 53% from an Arabic-speaking background, 44% from a Berber-speaking background and 3% foreign-born.

1940 – 300,000 people lived in Algiers. 1960 – 900,000 people lived in Algiers. 1963 – 600,000 people lived in Algiers.

Economy[edit]

"Centre Commercial Al Qods" in Algiers

Ministry of Finance of Algeria

Algiers
Algiers
is an important economic, commercial and financial center, with in particular a stock exchange with a capitalisation of 60 million euros. The city has the highest cost of living of any city in North Africa, as well as the 50th highest worldwide, as of March 2007, having gained one position compared to the previous year.[26] Mohamed Ben Ali El Abbar, president of the Council of Administration of the Emirate Group EMAAR, presented five "megaprojects" to Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, during a ceremony which took place Saturday, July 15, within the Palace of the People of Algiers. These projects will transform the city of Algiers
Algiers
and its surroundings by equipping them with a retail area and restoration and leisure facilities. The first project will concentrate on the reorganization and the development of the infrastructures of the railway station "Aga" located in the downtown area. The ultramodern station intended to accommodate more than 80.000 passengers per day, will become a center of circulation in the heart of the grid system, surrounded by commercial offices and buildings and hotels intended for travelers in transit. A shopping centre and three high-rise office buildings rising with the top of the commercial zone will accompany the project. The second project will not relate to the bay of Algiers
Algiers
and aims to revitalize the sea front. The development of the 44 km (27 mi) sea front will include marinas, channels, luxury hotels, offices, apartments of great standing, luxury stores and leisure amenities. A crescent-shaped peninsula will be set up on the open sea. The project of the bay of Algiers
Algiers
will also comprise six small islands, of which four of round form, connected to each other by bridges and marinas and will include tourist and residential complexes.

Air Algérie
Air Algérie
head office in Place Audin near the University of Algiers, in Alger-Centre

The third project will relate to restructuring an area of Algiers, qualified by the originators of the project of "city of wellness". El Abbar indicated to the journalists that the complex would be "agreeable for all those which will want to combine tourism and well-being or tourism and relaxation". The complex will include a university, a research center and a medical centre. It should also include a hospital complex, a care centre, a hotel zone, an urban centre and a thermal spa with villas and apartments. The university will include a medical school and a school for care male nurses which will be able to accommodate 500 students. The university campus will have the possibility of seeing setting up broad ranges of buildings of research laboratories and residences. Another project relates to technological implantation of a campus in Sidi Abdellah, 25 km (16 mi) south-east from Algiers. This 90 hectares (222 acres) site will include shopping centres, residential zones with high standard apartments and a golf course surrounded by villas and hotels. Two other residential zones, including 1.800 apartments and 40 high standard villas, will be built on the surrounding hills. The fifth project is that of the tourist complex Colonel Abbès, which will be located 25 km (16 mi) west from Algiers. This complex will include several retail zones, meeting places, and residential zones composed of apartments and villas with views of the sea.[citation needed] Currently there is another project under construction, by the name of Algiers
Algiers
Medina. The first step of the project is nearly complete. A Hewlett Packard
Hewlett Packard
office for French-speaking countries in Africa
Africa
is in Algiers.[27] Tourist installations[edit]

Panorama of the city as seen from Bologhine
Bologhine
district

Some 20 km (12 mi) to the west of Algiers
Algiers
are such seaside resorts as Sidi Fredj (ex-Sidi Ferruch), Palm Beach, Douaouda, Zéralda, and the Club of the Pines (residence of State); there are tourist complexes, Algerian and other restaurants, souvenir shops, supervised beaches, and other amenities. The city is also equipped with important hotel complexes such as the hotel Hilton, El-Aurassi or El Djazair. Algiers
Algiers
also has the first water park in the country. The tourism of Algiers
Algiers
is growing but is not as developed as that of the larger cities in Morocco
Morocco
or Tunisia. Education[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2017)

International schools for foreign residents include:

Lycée International Alexandre Dumas
Lycée International Alexandre Dumas
(French school) Roma Italian School of Algiers Russian Embassy School in Algiers El Kalimat School (English-language school)

There was formerly the École japonaise d'Alger (アルジェ日本人学校 Aruje Nihonjin Gakkō), a school for Japanese children.[28][29] Public transport[edit]

Public transport of Algiers

ETUSA (urban and suburban bus transportation for Algiers) operates bus service in Algiers
Algiers
and the surrounding suburbs. 54 lines are currently operating, with service from 5:30 a.m. to 12:45 a.m. SNTF
SNTF
(national railroad company) operates commuter-rail lines connecting the capital to the surrounding suburbs. Algiers
Algiers
Metro, opened November 1, 2011. Algiers
Algiers
tramway, opened on May 8, 2011. Houari Boumediene Airport
Houari Boumediene Airport
is located 20 km (12 mi) from the city. The airport serves domestics, many European cities, West Africa, the Middle East, Asia
Asia
and North America. On July 5, 2006, a new international air terminal was opened for service. The terminal is managed by Aéroports de Paris.

4 urban ropeways:

El Madania
El Madania
– Belouizdad Notre Dame d’Afrique – Bologhine Memorial des Martyres/Riad el Feth – Jardin d’essais Palais de la culture – Oued Kniss

Province projects[edit] Several ongoing projects aim to solve Algiers
Algiers
deficit and transportation problems. A tram connecting the downtown area to Dergana is expected to open by the end of 2010.[30] Subway lines connecting Tafourah-Large Harrach Post office-El were expected in 2008, in addition to three Regional Express Network (RER) lines: Algiers-Aga-Thenia, Algiers-Aga-Elafroun, Algiers-Aga-Zeralda. Three new cable cars, reconstruction of roads and restoration of the city station—which will accommodate the High-speed rail
High-speed rail
line connecting Annaba, Algiers
Algiers
and Oran—are also ongoing. Congestion control measures including new roundabouts and motorways are also being added to the city. New residential developments aim to solve Algiers
Algiers
current housing shortage. Sports[edit] Algiers
Algiers
is the sporting centre of Algeria. The city has a number of professional clubs in the variety of sports, which have won national and international titles. Among the sports facilities within the city, there is an enormous sporting complex – Complex of OCO – Mohamed Boudiaf. This includes the Stade 5 Juillet 1962
Stade 5 Juillet 1962
(capacity 80,000), a venue for athletics, an Olympic swimming pool, a multisports room (the Cupola), an 18-hole golf course, and several tennis courts. The following major sporting events have been held in Algiers (not-exhaustive list):

Mediterranean Games
Mediterranean Games
1975. All- Africa
Africa
Games 1978, 2007. African Cup of Nations
African Cup of Nations
1990. African Handball Nations Championship
African Handball Nations Championship
1989, 2001.

Pan Arab Games
Pan Arab Games
2004. FIBA Africa
Africa
Championship 2005. Men's U19 World Championship 2005.

Football clubs[edit] Major association football club based in Algiers
Algiers
include:

MC Alger USM Alger CR Belouizdad NA Hussein Dey Paradou AC

USM El Harrach RC Kouba OMR El Annasser JH Djazaïr (now defunct)

International relations[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Algeria Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Algiers
Algiers
is twinned with:

Amman, Jordan Beijing, China Berlin, Germany Tunis, Tunisia Pyongyang, North Korea[31]

Montreal, Quebec, Canada[32] London, United Kingdom Moscow, Russia Tyre, Lebanon Sofia, Bulgaria Rome, Italy

Amsterdam, Netherlands São Paulo, Brazil Shanghai, China Tripoli, Libya Surakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Since 2011) Singapore, Singapore

Cooperation agreements[edit] Algiers
Algiers
has cooperation agreements with:

Lisbon, Portugal[33][34] Paris, France[35]

In addition, many of the wards and cities within Algiers
Algiers
maintain sister-city relationships with other foreign cities. Films about Algiers[edit]

Algiers, 1938, directed by John Cromwell; The Battle of Algiers, 1966, directed by Gillo Pontecorvo; Tahya ya Didou, Alger Insolite, 1970, Mohammed Zinet; Bab El-Oued City, 1994, directed by Merzak Allouache; Viva Laldjérie, 2003, directed by Nadir Moknèche, with Biyouna
Biyouna
and Lubna Azabal; Bab el Web, 2004, directed by Merzak Allouache, with Samy Naceri, Julie Gayet, Faudel; Once upon a time in the Oued, 2005, directed by Djamel Bensalah; Beur, White, Red, 2005, directed by Mahmoud Zemmouri. Delice Paloma, 2007, directed by Nadir Moknèche, with Biyouna
Biyouna
and Nadia Kaci. Abbott and Costello in the Foreign Legion, 1950, Bud Abbott and Lou Costello

See also[edit]

Algeria
Algeria
portal

Barbary pirates Botanical Garden Hamma List of Ottoman governors of Algiers

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Algiers". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 653–655.  This article was originally based on a translation of the French Wikipedia's article of the same name.

Notes[edit]

^ "Population of the city proper according to the 2008 census". Citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ a b "UN World Urbanization Prospects". Esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 2009-12-23. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 653. ^ Origins of Algiers
Algiers
by Louis Leschi, speech delivered June 16, 1941 published in El Djezair Sheets, July 1941 History of Algeria
Algeria
(in French). ^ a b c d e f Chisholm 1911, p. 655. ^ Ruedy, John Douglas (2005) Modern Algeria: The origins and development of a nation Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana page 13, ISBN 978-0-253-21782-0 ^ Celik, Zeynep, Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations: Algiers Under French Rule, University of California Press, 1997, p. 13. ^ "Tyrkjaránið – Heimaslóð" (in Icelandic). Heimaslod.is. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ Daniel Eisenberg, Cervantes, autor de la Topografía e historia general de Argel publicada por Diego de Haedo, Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America 16.1 (1996): 32–53, http://www.h-net.org/~cervantes/csa/artics96/topograf.htm, retrieved 11/22/2014. Others have disputed Eisenberg's attribution of the work to Cervantes. ^ Daniel Eisenberg, "“¿Por qué volvió Cervantes de Argel?" ("Why Did Cervantes return from Algiers?", in Ingeniosa invención: Essays on Golden Age Spanish Literature for Geoffrey L. Stagg in Honor of his Eighty-Fifth Birthday, Newark, Delaware: Juan de la Cuesta, 1999, ISBN 0936388838, http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/deisenbe/cervantes/argel.pdfpp[permanent dead link]. 241–253, http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/deisenbe/cervantes/argel.pdf, retrieved 11/21/2014. ^ "The First Muslims in England - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-03-21.  ^ Celik, Zeynep, Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations: Algiers Under French Rule, University of California Press, 1997, pp. 13–14. ^ Albert Habib Hourani, Malise Ruthven (2002). "A history of the Arab peoples". Harvard University Press. p.323. ISBN 0-674-01017-5 ^ Celik, Zeynep, Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations: Algiers Under French Rule, University of California Press, 1997, p. 5. ^ "Les autorités accusent al-Qaïda". RFI. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-11.  ^ "Toll in Algiers
Algiers
bombings rises to 31". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2007-12-12.  ^ "Al Qaeda blamed for Algeria
Algeria
bombs". CNN. 2007-12-12. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-11.  ^ " Notre Dame d'Afrique
Notre Dame d'Afrique
and Carmelite Convent, Algiers, Algeria". World Digital Library. 1899. Retrieved 2013-09-25.  ^ Balmforth, Richard (4 February 2012). "European Chill Moves West, 122 Die in Ukraine". Reuters.  ^ "World Weather Information Service–Algiers". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 16 October 2016.  ^ "Appendix I: Meteorological Data" (PDF). Springer. Retrieved 16 October 2016.  ^ "Station Alger" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 16 October 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Chisholm 1911, p. 654. ^ "Fountain in Mosque
Mosque
of El Kebir, Algiers, Algeria". World Digital Library. 1899. Retrieved 2013-09-24.  ^ " Algiers
Algiers
in the World Gazetteer". World-gazetteer.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ "MERCER Human Resources Consulting – Moscow
Moscow
tops Mercer's cost of living list; London
London
is close behind". Mercerhr.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ "HP Office locations". Welcome.hp.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ Kobori, Iwao (Conseiller aupres del'Universite des Nations Unies). "L'Algerie et moi" ( Archived 2015-01-16 at WebCite). Japan-Algeria Center. Retrieved on 16 January 2015. ^ "過去に指定・認定していた在外教育施設" ( Archived 2015-01-14 at WebCite). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved on January 15, 2015. ^ " Tram
Tram
testing starts in Alger". Railway Gazette. 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-18.  ^ "Anniversary of sister-city relations". KCNA. 6 January 2000. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ "Sherlock, banque d'information de la Ville de Montréal". 1.ville.montreal.qc.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-02-23. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ "Lisboa – Geminações de Cidades e Vilas" [ Lisbon
Lisbon
– Twinning of Cities and Towns]. Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-08-23.  ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [ Lisbon
Lisbon
– Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2013-08-23.  ^ "Friendship and cooperation agreements". Paris: Marie de Paris. Archived from the original on 2016-07-01. Retrieved 2016-09-10. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Algiers

Nacéra Benseddik, Chronique d’une cité antique, dans Alger. Lumières sur la ville, Actes du colloque de l’EPAU 4–6 May 2001, Alger 2004, p. 29–34.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Algiers.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Algiers.

v t e

Algiers, Algeria

Topics

Buildings Demographics Economy Geography Government

Mayors

History

Timeline

People Sport Transport

See also

Algiers
Algiers
Province

Wikimedia Commons Category Algeria
Algeria
portal

v t e

Algiers
Algiers
Province

Zéralda
Zéralda
District

Zéralda Staouéli Souidania Rahmania Mahelma

Chéraga
Chéraga
District

Chéraga Hammamet Dély Ibrahim Aïn Bénian Ouled Fayet

Draria
Draria
District

Draria Baba Hassen Douéra Khraïcia El Achour

Birtouta
Birtouta
District

Birtouta Ouled Chebel Tessala El Merdja

Bir Mourad Raïs
Bir Mourad Raïs
District

Bir Mourad Raïs Hydra Saoula Birkhadem Djasr Kasentina

Bouzaréah
Bouzaréah
District

Bouzaréah Béni Messous Ben Aknoun El Biar

Bab El Oued
Bab El Oued
District

Bab El Oued Casbah Bologhine Oued Koriche Raïs Hamidou

Hussein Dey
Dey
District

Hussein Dey Kouba El Magharia Mohamed Belouizdad

Sidi M'Hamed
Sidi M'Hamed
District

Sidi M'Hamed El Madania El Mouradia Alger Centre

El Harrach
El Harrach
District

El Harrach Oued Smar Bourouba Bachdjerrah

Baraki District

Baraki Les Eucalyptus Sidi Moussa

Dar El Beïda
Dar El Beïda
District

Dar El Beïda Bab Ezzouar Aïn Taya El Marsa Bordj El Bahri Bordj El Kiffan Mohammedia

Rouïba
Rouïba
District

Rouïba Reghaïa H'raoua

v t e

Provincial seats of Algeria

Adrar Aïn Defla Aïn Témouchent Algiers Annaba Batna Béchar Béjaïa Biskra Blida Bordj Bou Arréridj Bouïra Boumerdès Chlef Constantine Djelfa El Bayadh El Oued El Taref Ghardaïa Guelma Illizi Jijel Khenchela Laghouat Mascara Médéa Mila Mostaganem M'Sila Naâma Oran Ouargla Oum El Bouaghi Relizane Saida Sétif Sidi Bel Abbès Skikda Souk Ahras Tamanrasset Tébessa Tiaret Tindouf Tipasa Tissemsilt Tizi Ouzou Tlemcen

v t e

Phoenician cities and colonies

Algeria

Cirta Malaca Igigili Hippo Regius Icosium Iol Tipasa Timgad

Cyprus

Kition Dhali Marion

Greece

Callista Paxi Rhodes

Italy

Karalis Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Panormus Solki Soluntum Tharros

Lebanon

Amia Ampi Arqa Baalbek Berut Botrys Gebal Sarepta Sur Sydon Tripolis

Libya

Leptis Magna Oea Sabratha

Malta

Gozo Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Maleth Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ

Mauritania / Morocco

Cerne  /  Arambys Caricus Murus Chellah Lixus Tingis

Israel

Achziv Acre Arsuf Caesarea

Portugal

Olissipona Ossonoba

Spain

Abdera Abyla Akra Leuke Gadir Herna Ibossim Sa Caleta, Ibiza Mahón Malaca Onoba Qart Hadašt Rusadir Sexi Tyreche

Syria

Amrit Arwad Safita Shuksi Ugarit

Tunisia

Carthage Hadrumetum Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Kerkouane Leptis Parva Sicca Thanae Thapsus Utica

Turkey / others

Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

v t e

Capitals of Arab countries

Africa Asia

Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti

El Aaiun
El Aaiun
(proclaimed)   Tifariti
Tifariti
(de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1

Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(proclaimed)   Ramallah
Ramallah
(de facto), Palestine1

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

v t e

All- Africa
Africa
Games host cities

   

1965: Brazzaville 1973: Lagos 1978: Algiers 1987: Nairobi

1991: Cairo 1995: Harare 1999: Johannesburg 2003: Abuja

2007: Algiers 2011: Maputo 2015: Brazzaville 2019: Luanda

v t e

Arab Capital of Culture

Cairo
Cairo
1996 (Egypt) Tunis
Tunis
1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah
Sharjah
1998 (United Arab Emirates) Beirut
Beirut
1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh
Riyadh
2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait
Kuwait
City
City
2001 (Kuwait) Amman
Amman
2002 (Jordan) Rabat
Rabat
2003 (Morocco) San'a
San'a
2004 (Yemen) Khartoum
Khartoum
2005 (Sudan) Muscat
Muscat
2006 (Oman) Algiers
Algiers
2007 (Algeria) Damascus
Damascus
2008 (Syria) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009 (State of Palestine) Doha
Doha
2010 (Qatar) Sirte
Sirte
2011 (Libya) Manama
Manama
2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad
Baghdad
2013 (Iraq) Tripoli
Tripoli
2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) Sfax
Sfax
2016 (Tunisia)

v t e

Mediterranean Games

Alexandria 1951 Barcelona 1955 Beirut
Beirut
1959 Naples
Naples
1963 Tunis
Tunis
1967 İzmir 1971 Algiers
Algiers
1975 Split 1979 Casablanca 1983 Latakia 1987 Athens 1991 Languedoc-Roussillon 1993 Bari 1997 Tunis
Tunis
2001 Almeria 2005 Pescara 2009 Mersin 2013 Tarragona 2018 Oran
Oran
2021

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122613150 LCCN: n79058668 GND: 4084955-7 BNF:

.