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Algherese (Standard Catalan: Alguerès, pronounced [əlɣəˈɾɛs]; Algherese: Alguerés [alɣaˈɾes]) is the variant of the Catalan language spoken in the city of Alghero (L'Alguer in Catalan), in the northwest of Sardinia, Italy. Catalan-speaking colonists repopulated the town and expelled the native population in 1372, after several revolts.[1] Catalan was replaced as the official language by Spanish, then by Italian in the mid 18th century, but its use remained widespread until at least the 1970s.[2] Today it has semi-official status alongside Italian.[3] According to recent linguistic research, 22.4% of the population in Alghero speak Algherese natively and above 90% have some knowledge of this Catalan dialect. The majority of the native speakers are elderly.[4] Based on additional linguistic studies, there are approximately 20,000 to 30,000 native speakers of the language worldwide. In communities where Algherese is spoken, Italian and Logudorese Sardinian are often used as well.[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Geographic distribution 3 Official status 4 Usage 5 Phonology 6 Morphology 7 Differences from Standard Catalan

7.1 Vocabulary

8 Literature 9 References 10 External links 11 Sources

History[edit] Algherese is a regional dialect spoken by anywhere from 20,000 to 30,000 individuals, most of which reside in the town of Alghero, located in the northwest of Sardinia.[6] The language, though secular, is initially derived from, and thus considered a variant of, the Catalan language.[6] The origins of the language can be traced back to 1372, when Catalan invaders repopulated the city of Alghero after exiling the indigenous populations in Sardinia.[6] The language has roots in several Romance languages, including Eastern Romance, Italo-Western Romance, and Italo Western.[7] Geographic distribution[edit] In the northwest region of Sardinia, it is estimated that Italian is now the first language of close to 60% of individuals, Algherese approximately 22%.[8] The use of the dialect in schools and media, to name a few, is sparse. Prior to 1997, teaching of the dialect in school was rare. However, in an attempt to reverse the trend, the Regional Council of Sardinia has officially recognized "Algherese Catalan" as a separate language in order to promote its use and circulation.[8] As of a 2008 study, Algherese is used by approximately 14% of the population for daily interactions.[8] The dialect is mostly a local language, often used to supplement Italian or Sardinian in small circles.[9] Official status[edit] In the northwest region of Sardinia, where this language is spoken, Italian is the primary language. Algherese Catalan acts as a secondary language or dialect in the overall region. Usage[edit] The following table represents a study conducted in the town of Alghero that showed the general use of Algherese in several media.[10] Figures were gathered from the EULA in 2004:

Oral Comprehension 90.1% (Sardinian oral comprehension: 69.7%)

Oral Expression 61.3% (Sardinian oral expression: 33.9%)

Written Comprehension 46.6% (Sardinian written comprehension: 35.4%)

Written Expression 13.6% (Sardinian written expression: 15.4%)

First Language 22.4% (59.2% Italian)

Habitual Language 13.9%

Phonology[edit]

Like in other languages of Sardinia /ɛ/ and /e/ as well as /ɔ/ and /o/ may merge into mid vowels [e̞] and [o̞], respectively. Coalescing of unstressed vowels /a/, /ɛ/ and /e/ to [a] (unlike the rest of Eastern Catalan, which uses [ə]). Algherese preserves /v/ as a distinct phoneme from /b/, like Balearic and most of Valencian. Mutation of intervocalic /d/ or /l/ to [r]: 'Barceloneta' (little Barcelona): Eastern Standard [bərsəɫuˈnɛtə], Algherese [balsaruˈne̞ta]; and vila ('town') and vida ('life') are homophones in Algherese [ˈvira]. Mutation of syllable final /r/ to lateral [l], and the possible resulting group /r/ + consonant is further simplified to [l]: forn ('furnace, oven'): Standard [ˈfo̞rn], Algherese [ˈfo̞l]. Depalatalization of syllable final sonorants: lateral /ʎ/ to [l], nasal /ɲ/ to [n]; e.g. any ('year'): Standard [ˈaɲ], Algherese [ˈan]. Unlike most Catalan dialects, /l/ is never velarized in Algherese: sol ('sun'): Standard [ˈsɔɫ], Algherese [ˈso̞l].

Morphology[edit]

The simple past is replaced by the present perfect (present of haver "to have" + past participle), possibly by Italian influence. The imperfect past preserves etymological -v- in all conjugations: 1st -ava, 2nd -iva, 3rd -iva (unlike modern Eastern and Western Standard Catalan, which use 1st -ava, 2nd -ia, 3rd -ia, a feature shared with the Ribagorçan dialect. Large-scale lexical borrowing and calques from Sardinian, Spanish and Italian: nearly half of the vocabulary is not from Catalan.[11]

Differences from Standard Catalan[edit] The Algherese variant is Eastern Catalan, but it has many differences from Central Catalan, with some of the most obvious ones as follows: Vocabulary[edit] The following abbreviations are used: m (masculine), f (feminine), pl (plural), fpl (feminine plural), inf (informal), f (formal). The following phrases were gathered from a Catalan translation set, but the common phrases in Algherese are similar:[12]

English Catalan Algherese

Welcome Benvingut (m) Benvinguda (f) Benvinguts (pl) Benvingudes (fpl)

Benvingut (m) Benvinguda (f) Benvinguts (pl) Benvingudes (fpl)

Hello Hola Bon dia

Txao Bon dia

My name is... Em dic... Me aquirr... Me dic...

Where are you from? D'on ets? (inf) D'on és vostè? (f)

De ont ses? (inf) De ont és vostè? (f)

Good morning Bon dia Bon dia

Literature[edit]

Poster for the Premi Rafael Sari 2008

Monument to the unitat de la llengua in Alghero

The Premi Rafael Sari, organised by the Obra Cultural de l'Alguer,[13] is a series of prizes awarded in September each year to the best literary works of poetry and prose written in Alguerese Catalan. Notable poets include Rafael Sari, Pasquale Scanu and Maria Chessa Lai. There is also a long tradition of writing and performing songs in Alguerese Catalan and the Premio Pino Piras[14] is awarded for new songs written in the language. Notable singer-songwriters include Pino Piras and Franca Masu. In 2015 Carla Valentino published an Algherese translation of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's The Little Prince.[15] References[edit]

^ L'Alguer and Alguerese Catalan - Oral Corpus of Alguerese ^ Italy’s Last Bastion of Catalan Language Struggles to Keep It Alive, The New York Times, Raphael Minder ^ Alghero official website ^ Linguistic data from Generalitat de Catalunya Archived 2006-09-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Did you know Algherese Catalan is vulnerable?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2017-02-10.  ^ a b c "Did you know Algherese Catalan is vulnerable?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ "Glottolog 2.7 - Algherese". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ a b c "Corpus Oral de l'Alguerès". prosodia.upf.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ A., Argenter, Joan. "L'Alguer (Alghero), a Catalan linguistic enclave in Sardinia". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 2008. doi:10.1515/ijsl.2008.056. ISSN 0165-2516.  ^ "The University of Aberdeen". www.abdn.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ Jaume Corbera Pou, Caracterització del lèxic alguerès, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 2000 ^ "Useful Catalan phrases". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved 2017-04-25.  ^ l'Obra Cultural de l'Alguer ^ il Premio Pino Piras ^ Petit Prince Collection (petit-prince-collection.com)

External links[edit]

Diccionari de Alguerés Another case of language death? The intergenerational transmission of Catalan in Alghero - Enrico Chessa Associació per a la Salvaguarda del Patrimoni Historicocultural de l'Alguer Interactive Atlas of Romance Intonation, Catalan Algherese Italy's Last Bastion of Catalan Languages Struggles to Keep It Alive, New York Times, 21 November 2016.

Sources[edit]

Sanna, Josep (1988). Diccionari català de l'Alguer. ISBN 84-7129-391-9 [1] Margongui, Antonietta Maria (1990). Language Maintenance and Shift in Sardinia: A Case Study of Sardinia and Italian in Cagliari. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences Pou, Jaume Corbera (2000). Caracterització del lèxic alguerès, Universitat de les Illes Balears. Scala, Luca (2003). Català de l'Alguer. Criteris de llengua escrita. Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat. ISBN 978-84-8415-463-1 Ballone, Francesc (2008). L'Alguer and Alguerese Catalan. Corpus Oral de l'Algueres Argenter, Joan A and Dorlan, Nancy C. (2008). L'Alguer(Alghero), a Catalan linguistic enclave in Sardinia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 2008 Issue 193/194 Perea, Maria-Pilar (2008). The Dialect of Alghero: continuity and change. The University of Aberdeen Perea, Maria-Pilar and Sifre, Manel (2013). Dialectal Variation in a Nineteenth-Century Catalan Grammar Corpus. In Corpus Resources for Descriptive and Applied Studies. Tufi, Stefania (2013). Language Ideology and Language Maintenance: The case of Sardinia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Cabrera-Callis, Maria (2015). Morphologically Conditioned Intervocalic Rhotacism in Algherese Catalan. Variations within and Across Romance Languages Moseley, Christopher (2016). Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Hammarstrom, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Bank, Sebastian(2017). Dialect: Algherese. Glottolog Ager, Simon (1998-2017). Useful Catalan Phrases. Omniglot. Various Sources (2017). Algherese Catalan. The Endangered Languages Project

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