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Algerian Arabic (known as Darja in Algeria) is a dialect derived from the form of Arabic spoken in northern Algeria. It belongs to the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum and is partially mutually intelligible with Tunisian and Moroccan.

Like other varieties of Maghrebi Arabic, Algerian has a mostly Semitic vocabulary.[4] It contains Berber and Latin (African Romance)[5] influences and has numerous loanwords from French, Andalusian Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Spanish.

Algerian Arabic is the native dialect of 75% to 80% of Algerians and is mastered by 85% to 100% of them.[6] It is a spoken language used in daily communication and entertainment, while Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is generally reserved for official use and education.

Dialects

The Algerian language includes several distinct dialects belonging to two genetically different groups: pre-Hilalian and Hilalian dialects.

Hilalian dialects

Hilalian dialects of Algeria belong to three linguistic groups:[7]

  • Eastern Hilal dialects: spoken in the Hautes Plaines around Sétif, M'Sila and Djelfa;[8]
  • Central Hilal dialects: of central and southern Algeria, south of Algiers and Oran;[9]
  • Mâqil dialects: spoken in the western part of Oranais (noted for the third singular masculine accusative pronoun h, for example, /ʃʊfteh/ (I saw him), which would be /ʃʊftʊ/ in other dialects).[10]

Modern koine languages, urban and national, are based mainly on Hilalian dialects.

Pre-Hilalian dialects

Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects are generally classified into three types: Urban, "Village" Sedentary, and Jewish dialects. Several Pre-Hilalian dialects are spoken in Algeria:[7][11]

  • Urban dialects can be found in all of Algeria's big cities. Urban dialects were formerly also spoken in other cities, such as Azemmour and Mascara, Algeria, where they are no longer used.
  • The lesser Kabylia dialect (or Jijel Arabic) is spoken in the triangular area north of Constantine, including Collo and Jijel (it is noteworthy for its pronunciation of [q] as [k] and [t] as [ts] and characterized, such as other Eastern pre-Hilalian dialects, by the preservation of the three short vowels).
  • The traras-Msirda dialect is spoken in the area north of Tlemcen, including the eastern Traras [fr], Rachgun [fr] and Honaine (it is noted for its pronunciation of [q] as [ʔ]) ;
  • Judeo-Algerian Arabic was no longer spoken after Jews left Algeria in 1962, following its independence.

Phonology

Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Algerian Arabic [12]
Labial Dental/Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain emphatic  plain  emphatic
Nasal m () n ()
stop voiceless (p) t k q (ʔ)
voiced b () d ɡ
Affricate voiceless (t͡ʃ) 1
voiced d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ χ ħ h
voiced (v) z ʒ ʁ ʕ
Trill r
Approximant l ɫ j w

In comparison to other Maghrebi dialects, Algerian Arabic has retained numerous phonetic elements of Classical Arabic lost by its relatives;[12][13] In Algiers dialect, the letters /ðˤ/􏰣􏰄 ذ ,ظ /ð/ and ث /θ/ 􏰝􏰌are not used, they are in most cases pronounced as the graphemes د ,ضand ت respectively.[12] This conservatism concerning pronunciation is in contrast to Algerian Arabic grammar which has shifted noticeably.[13] In terms of differences from Classical Arabic, the previous /r/ a

Like other varieties of Maghrebi Arabic, Algerian has a mostly Semitic vocabulary.[4] It contains Berber and Latin (African Romance)[5] influences and has numerous loanwords from French, Andalusian Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Spanish.

Algerian Arabic is the native dialect of 75% to 80% of Algerians and is mastered by 85% to 100% of them.[6] It is a spoken language used in daily communication and entertainment, while Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is generally reserved for official use and education.

The Algerian language includes several distinct dialects belonging to two genetically different groups: pre-Hilalian and Hilalian dialects.

Hilalian dialects

Hilalian dialects of Algeria belong to three linguistic groups:[7]

  • Eastern Hilal dialects: spoken in the Hautes Plaines around Sétif, M'Sila and Djelfa;[8]
  • Central Hilal dialects: of central and southern Algeria, south of Algiers and Oran;[9]
  • Mâqil dialects: spoken in the western part of Oranais (noted for the third singular masculine accusative pronoun h, for example, /ʃʊfteh/ (I saw him), which would be /ʃʊftʊ/ in other dialects).[10]

Modern koine languages, urban and national, are based mainly on Hilalian dialects.

Pre-Hilalian dialects

Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects are generally classified into three types: Urban, "Village" Sedentary, and Jewish dialects. Several Pre-Hilalian dialects are spoken in Algeria:[7][11]

  • Urban dialects can be found in all of Algeria's big cities. Urban dialects were formerly also spoken in other cities, such as Azemmour and Mascara, Algeria, where they are no longer used.
  • The lesser Kabylia dialect (or Jijel Arabic) is spoken in the triangular area north of Constantine, including Collo and Jijel (it is noteworthy for its pronunciation of [q] as [k] and [t] as [ts] and characterized, such as other Eastern pre-Hilalian dialects, by the preservation of the three short vowels).
  • The traras-Msirda dialect is spoken in the area north of Tlemcen, including the eastern Traras [fr], Rachgun [fr] and Honaine (it is noted for its pronunciation of [q] as [ʔ]) ;
  • Judeo-Algerian Arabic was no longer spoken after Jews left Algeria in 1962, following its independence.

Phonology

Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects are generally classified into three types: Urban, "Village" Sedentary, and Jewish dialects. Several Pre-Hilalian dialects are spoken in Algeria:[7][11]

  • Urban dialects can be found in all of Algeria's big cities. Urban dialects were formerly also spoken in other cities, such as Azemmour and Mascara, Algeria, where they are no longer used.
  • The lesser Kabylia dialect (or Jijel Arabic) is spoken in the tr

    Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects are generally classified into three types: Urban, "Village" Sedentary, and Jewish dialects. Several Pre-Hilalian dialects are spoken in Algeria:[7][11]

    • Urban dialects can be found in all of Algeria's big cities. Urban dialects were formerly also spoken in other cities, such as Azemmour and Mascara, Algeria, where they are no longer used.
    • The [12][13] In Algiers dialect, the letters /ðˤ/􏰣􏰄 ذ ,ظ /ð/ and ث /θ/ 􏰝􏰌are not used, they are in most cases pronounced as the graphemes د ,ضand ت respectively.[12] This conservatism concerning pronunciation is in contrast to Algerian Arabic grammar which has shifted noticeably.[13] In terms of differences from Classical Arabic, the previous /r/ and /z/ phonemes have developed contrastive glottalized forms and split into /r/ and /rˤ/; and /z/ and /zˤ/. Additionally /q/ from Classical Arabic has split into /q/ and /ɡ/ in most dialects. The phonemes /v/ and /p/ which are not common in Arabic dialects arise almost exclusively from (predominantly French) loanwords[12]

      ^1 The voiceless "Ch" (t͡ʃ) is used in some words in the Algerian dialect like "تشينا" /t͡ʃinaː/ (orange) or "تشاراك" /t͡ʃaːraːk/ (A kind of Algerian sweet) but remains rare.

      Dissimmilation

      A study of Northwestern Algerian Arabic (specifically around Oran) showed that laterals /l/ or /ɫ/ or the nasal consonant /n/ would be dissimilated into either /n/ in the case of /l/ or /ɫ/; or /l/ or /ɫ/ in the case of n when closely preceding a corresponding lateral or nasal consonant.[14] Thus /zəlzla/ (earthquake) has become /zənzla/, conversely /lʁənmi/ "mutton" becomes /lʁəlmi/.[14]

      Assimilation

      The same study also noted numerous examples of assimilation in Northwestern Algerian Arabic, due to the large consonant clusters created from all of the historical vowel deletion: examples include /dəd͡ʒaːd͡ʒ/ "chicken", becoming /d͡ʒaːd͡ʒ/ and /mliːħ/ "good", becoming /mniːħ/.[14] An example of assimilation that occurs after the short vowel deletion is the historical /dərˤwŭk/ "now" becoming /drˤuːk/ and then being assimilated to /duːk/,[14] illustrating the order in which the rules of Algerian Arabic may operate.

      Vowels

      Monophthong phonemes of Algerian Arabic
      Short Long
      Front Central Back Front Back
      Close ə u
      Mid
      Open

      The phonemic vowel inventory of Algerian Arabic consists of three long vowels: //, //, and // contrasted with two short vowels: /u/ and /ə/.[12][14] Algerian Arabic Vowels retains a great deal of features in relation to Classical Arabic Arabic phonology, namely the continued existence of 3 long vowels: //, //, and //,[13] Algerian Arabic also retains the short close back vowel /u/ in speech, however the short equivalents of // and // have fused in modern Algerian Arabic, creating a single phoneme /ə/.[14] Also notable among the differences between Classical Arabic and Algerian Arabic is the deletion of short vowels entirely from open syllables[13] and thus word final positions,[12] which creates a stark distinction between written Classical Arabic, and casually written Algerian Arabic. One point of interest in Algerian Arabic that sets it apart from other conservative Arabic dialects is its preservation of phonemes in (specifically french) loanwords that would otherwise not be found in the language: /[[Nasal vowel|ɔ̃]]/, /y/, and /ɛ/ are all preserved in French loanwords such as /syʁ/ (sure) or /kɔnɛksiɔ̃/ (connection).[12]

      Grammar

      Nouns and adjectives

      English Algerian Arabic
      drink šrab
      sky sma
      water ma
      woman / women mra / nsa
      fire nar
      big kbir
      man / men rajel / rjal
      day nhar / yum
      moon qmer
      night lil
      bread khubz
      small ṣγir
      sand rmel
      winter / rain šta / mṭar
      ball balun
      napkin servita
      toilet / bathroom bit-el-ma / bit-er-raḥa / Twalat

      Conjunctions and prepositions

      English Algerian Arabic Notes of usage
      but beṣṣaḥ is also used "wa lakin"
      if ila, ida, lakan, kun used for impossible conditions and comes just before the verb
      if lukan, kun for possible conditions, Also used is "ida" and "kan"
      so that, that baš, bah
      that belli
      as if ki šγul, tquši, tqul, tgul
      because xaṭar, xaṭrakeš, εlaxaṭer
      when ila
      before qbel ma / gbel ma used before verbs
      without bla ma / blach used before verbs
      whether kaš ma used before verbs
      under taḥt
      over, on top of fuq or fug
      after mur / mura / Baεd / wra
      before qbel / gbel used only for time
      next to, beside quddam or guddam<

      ^1 The voiceless "Ch" (t͡ʃ) is used in some words in the Algerian dialect like "تشينا" /t͡ʃinaː/ (orange) or "تشاراك" /t͡ʃaːraːk/ (A kind of Algerian sweet) but remains rare.

      A study of Northwestern Algerian Arabic (specifically around Oran) showed that laterals /l/ or /ɫ/ or the nasal consonant /n/ would be dissimilated into either /n/ in the case of /l/ or /ɫ/; or /l/ or /ɫ/ in the case of n when closely preceding a corresponding lateral or nasal consonant.[14] Thus /zəlzla/ (earthquake) has become /zənzla/, conversely /lʁənmi/ "mutton" becomes /lʁəlmi/.[14]

      Assimilation

      The

      The same study also noted numerous examples of assimilation in Northwestern Algerian Arabic, due to the large consonant clusters created from all of the historical vowel deletion: examples include /dəd͡ʒaːd͡ʒ/ "chicken", becoming /d͡ʒaːd͡ʒ/ and /mliːħ/ "good", becoming /mniːħ/.[14] An example of assimilation that occurs after the short vowel deletion is the historical /dərˤwŭk/ "now" becoming /drˤuːk/ and then being assimilated to /duːk/,[14] illustrating the order in which the rules of Algerian Arabic may operate.

      Vowels

      /, //, and // contrasted with two short vowels: /u/ and /ə/.[12][14] Algerian Arabic Vowels retains a great deal of features in relation to Classical Arabic Arabic phonology, namely the continued existence of 3 long vowels: //, //, and //,[13] Algerian Arabic also retains the short close back vowel /u/ in speech, however the short equivalents of // and // have fused in modern Algerian Arabic, creating a single phoneme /ə/.[14] Also notable among the differences between Classical Arabic and Algerian Arabic is the deletion of short vowels entirely from open syllables[13] and thus word final positions,[12] which creates a stark distinction between written Classical Arabic, and casually written Algerian Arabic. One point of interest in Algerian Arabic that sets it apart from other conservative Arabic dialects is its preservation of phonemes in (specifically french) loanwords that would otherwise not be found in the language: /[[Nasal vowel|ɔ̃]]/, /y/, and /ɛ/ are all preserved in French loanwords such as /syʁ/ (sure) or /kɔnɛksiɔ̃/ (connection).[12]

      Grammar

      Nouns and adjectives

      English Algerian Arabic
      drink šrab
      sky sma
      water ma
      woman / women mra / nsa
      fire nar
      big kbir
      man / men rajel / rjal
      day nhar / yum
      moon qmer
      night lil
      bread khubz
      small ṣγir
      sand rmel
      winter / rain šta / mṭar
      ball balun
      napkin servita
      toilet / bathroom bit-el-ma / bit-er-raḥa / Twalat

      Conjunctions and prepositions

      Algerian Arabic uses two genders for words: masculine and feminine. Masculine nouns and adjectives generally end with a consonant while the feminine nouns generally end with an a.

      Examples:

      • [ħmɑr] "a donkey", [ħmɑrɑ] "a female donkey".

      Pluralisation

      Hilalian dialects, on which the modern koine is based, often use regular plural while the wider use of the broken plural is characteristic to pre-Hilalian dialects.

      The regular masculine plural is formed with the suffix -in, which derives from the Classical Arabic genitive and accusative ending -īna rather than the nominative -ūna:

      mumen (believer) → mumnin

      For feminine nouns, the regular plural is obtained by suffixing -at:

      Classical Arabic: bint (girl) → banat
      Algerian Arabic: bent → bnat

      The broken plural can be found for some plurals in Hilalian dialects, but it is mainly used, for the same words, in pre-Hilalian dialects:

      Broken plural: ṭabla → ṭwabəl.

      Article

      The article el is indeclinable and expresses a definite state of a noun of any gender and number. It is also prefixed to each of that noun's modifying adjectives.

      It follows the solar letters and lunar letters rules of Classical Arabic: if the word starts with one of these consonants, el is assimilated and replaced by the first consonant:

      t, d, r, z, s, š, , , , l, nAlgerian Arabic uses two genders for words: masculine and feminine. Masculine nouns and adjectives generally end with a consonant while the feminine nouns generally end with an a.

      Examples:

      • [ħmɑr] "a donkey", [ħmɑrɑ] "a female donkey".

      The article el is indeclinable and expresses a definite state of a noun of any gender and number. It is also prefixed to each of that noun's modifying adjectives.

      It follows the solar letters and lunar letters rules of Classical Arabic: if the word starts with one of these consonants, el is assimilated and replaced by the first consonant:

      t, d, It follows the solar letters and lunar letters rules of Classical Arabic: if the word starts with one of these consonants, el is assimilated and replaced by the first consonant:

      t, d, r, z, s, š, , , , l, n.

      Examples:

      Important Notes:

      • When it is after lunar letters consonant we add the article le-.

      Examples:

      qmer → le-qmer

      Examples:

      qmer → le-qmer "moon"
      ḥjer → le-ḥjer "stone"

      Examples:

      alf → el-alf "thousand"

      Verbs

      Like all North African Arabic varieties (including Egyptian Arabic) along with some Levantine Arabic varieties, verbal expressions are negated by enclosing the verb with all its affixes, along with any adjacent pronoun-suffixed preposition, within the circumfix ma ...-š (/ʃ/):

      • « lεebt » ("I played") → « ma lεebt-š /ʃ/ » ("I didn't play")
      • « ma tṭabbaεni-š » ("Don't push me")
      • « ma yṭawlu-l-ek-š hadu le-qraεi » ("Those bottles won't last you long")
      • « ma sibt-š plaṣa » ("I couldn't get a seat / parking place")
      Person Past Present Future Present continuous
      Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
      1st (m) ma ktebt ma ktebna ma nekteb-š ma nekketbu ma Rayeḥ-š nekteb ma Rayḥin-š nekketbu ma Rani-š nekteb ma Rana-š nekketbu
      2st (f) ma ktebt ma ktebna ma nekteb-š ma nekketbu ma Rayḥanekteb ma Rayḥin-š nekketbu ma Rani-š nekteb ma Rana-š nekketbu
      2nd (m) ma ketbt ma ktebtu ma tekteb-š ma tekketbu ma Rayeḥ-š tekteb ma Rayḥin-š tekketbu ma Rak-š tekteb ma Rakum-š tekketbu
      2rd (f) ma ktebti ma ktebtu ma tekketbi ma tekketbu ma Rayḥatekketbi ma Rayḥin-š tekketbu ma Raki-š tekketbi ma Rakum-š tekketbu
      3rd (m) ma kteb-š ma ketbu ma yekteb-š ma yekketbu ma Rayeḥ-š yekteb ma Rayḥin-š yekketbu ma Rah-š yekteb ma Rahum-š yekketbu
      3rd (f) ma ketbet ma ketbu ma tekteb-š ma yekketbu ma Rayḥat

      Also, as is used in all of the other Arabic dialects, there is another way of showing active tense. The form changes the root verb into an adjective. For example, "kteb" he wrote becomes "kateb".

      Like all North African Arabic varieties (including Egyptian Arabic) along with some Levantine Arabic varieties, verbal expressions are negated by enclosing the verb with all its affixes, along with any adjacent pronoun-suffixed preposition, within the circumfix ma ...-š (/ʃ/):

      • « lεebt » ("I played") → « ma lεebt-š /ʃ/ » ("I didn't play")
      • « ma tṭabbaεni-š » ("Don't push me")
      • « ma yṭawlu-l-ek-š hadu le-qraεi » ("Those bottles won't last you long")
      • « ma sibt-š plaṣa » ("I couldn't get a se

        Other negative words (walu, etc.) are used in combination with ma to express more complex types of negation. ʃ is not used when other negative words are used

        • ma qult walu ("I didn't say anything")
        • ma šuft tta waḥed ("I didn't see anyone")

        or when two verbs are consecutively in the negative

        • ma šuft ma smeεt ("I neither saw nor did I hear").

        Verb derivation

        Verb derivation is done by adding suffixes or by doubling consonants, there are two types of derivation forms: causative, passive.

        • Causative: is obtained by doubling consonants :
        xrej "to go out" → xerrej "to make to go out"
        dxel "to enter" → dexxel "to make to enter, to introduce".
        • Passive:It is obtained by prefixing the verb with t- / tt- / tn- / n- :
        qtel "to kill" → tneqtel "to be killed"
        šreb "to drink" → ttešreb "to be drunk".

        The adverbs of location

        Things could be in three places hnaya (right here), hna (here) or el-hih (there).

        Pronouns

        Personal pronouns

        Most Algerian Arabic dialects have eight personal pronouns since they no longer have gender differentiation of the second and third person in the plural forms. However, pre-Hilalian dialects retain seven personal pronouns since gender differentiation of the second person in the singular form is absent as well.

        or when two verbs are consecutively in the negative

        • ma šuft ma smeεt ("I neither saw nor did I hear").

        causative, passive.

        • Causative: is obtained by doubling consonants :
        xrej "to go out" → xerrej "to make to go out"
        dxel "to enter" → dexxel "to make to enter, to introduce".
        • Passive:It is obtained by prefixing the verb

          Things could be in three places hnaya (right here), hna (here) or el-hih (there).

          Pronouns

          Personal pronouns

          Most Algerian Arabic dialects have eight personal pronouns since they no longer have gender differentiation of the second and third person in the plural forms. However, pre-Hilalian dialects retain seven personal pronouns since gender differentiation of the second person in the si

          Most Algerian Arabic dialects have eight personal pronouns since they no longer have gender differentiation of the second and third person in the plural forms. However, pre-Hilalian dialects retain seven personal pronouns since gender differentiation of the second person in the singular form is absent as well.

        Person Singular Plural
        1st ana ḥna
        2nd (m) n'ta n'tuma
        2nd (f) n'ti n'tuma
        3rd (m) huwwa huma
        3rd (f) hiyya huma

        Example: « ḥatta ana. » — "Me too."

        Example: « ḥatta ana. » — "Me too."

        Person Algerian Arabic
        I am rani
        You are (m) rak
        Person Algerian Arabic
        I am rani
        You are (m) rak
        You are (f) raki
        He is rah or Rahu
        She is Rahi or Raha
        We are rana
        You or Y'all are raku or

        Example: « Rani hna. » — "I'm here." and « Waš rak. » "How are you." to both males and females.

        Possessive pronouns

        Dar means house.

        Person Singular Plural
        1st i (Dari<

        Dar means house.

        Person Singular Plural
        1st i (Dari) na (Darna)
        2nd (e)k (Dar(e)k) kum (Darkum)
        3rd (m) u (Daru) (h)um (Dar

        Example : « dar-na. » — "Our house" (House-our) Possessives are frequently combined with taε "of, property" : dar taε-na — "Our house.", dar taε-kum ...etc.

        Singular:

        taε-i = my or mine

        taε-ek = your or yours (m, f)

        taε-u = his

        taε-ha = hers

        Plural:

        taε-na = our or ours

        taε-kum = your or yours (m, f)

        taε-hum = their or theirs (m, f)

        "Our house" can be Darna or Dar taε-na, which is more like saying 'house of ours'. Taε can be used in other ways just like in English in Spanish. You c

        Singular:

        taε-i = my or mine

        taε-ek = your or yours (m, f)

        taε-u = his

        taε-ha = hers

        Plural:

        taε-na = our or ours

        taε-kum = your or yours (m, f)

        taε-hum = their or theirs (m, f)

        "Our house" can be Darna or Dar taε-na, which is more like saying 'house of ours'. Taε can be used in other ways just like in English in Spanish. You can say Dar taε khuya, which means 'house of my brother' or 'my brother's house'.

        Examples:

        « šuft-ni. » — "You saw me." (You.saw-me)
        « qetl-u. » — "He killed him." (He.killed-him)
        « kla-h. » — "He ate it." (He.ate-it)

        Demonstratives

        Unlike Classical Arabic, Algerian Arabic has no dual and uses the plural instead. The demonstrative (Hadi) is also used for "it is".

        Interrogatives Algerian Arabic Emphasized
        This had (m), Hadi (f) hada, hadaya (m), hadiyya (f)
        That dak (m), dik (f) hadak (m), hadik (f)
        These hadu haduma
        Those duk haduk

        Sample text

        The text below was translated from Kabylie, in Auguste Moulieras's Les fourberies de si Djeh'a.

        (v)=verb

        See also

        Buzelluf Sheep Head
        Waḥed en-nhar, jḥa med-lu baba-h frank, baš yešri buzelluf. šra-h, kla gaɛ leḥm-u. bqa γir leɛdem, jab-u l baba-h. ki šaf-u qal-lu: "waš hada?" Qal-lu: "buzelluf".

        -A šmata, win rahi

        Unlike Classical Arabic, Algerian Arabic has no dual and uses the plural instead. The demonstrative (Hadi) is also used for "it is".

        Interrogatives Algerian Arabic Emphasized
        This had (m), Hadi (f) hada, hadaya (m), hadiyya (f)
        That dak (m), dik (f) hadak (m), hadik (f)
        These hadu haduma
        Those duk haduk

        Sample textKabylie, in Auguste Moulieras's Les fourberies de si Djeh'a.

        Buzelluf Sheep Head
        Waḥed en-nhar, jḥa med-lu baba-h frank, baš yešri buzelluf. šra-h, kla gaɛ leḥm-u. bqa γir leɛdem, jab-u l baba-h. ki šaf-u qal-lu: "waš hada?" Qal-lu: "buzelluf".

        -A šmata, win rahi wedn-u?

        -Kan ṭreš

        -win rahum ɛini-h?

        -Kan ɛma

        -win rah lsan-u?

        -Kan bekkuš.

        - U el-jelda taɛ ras-u, win Rahi

        -Kan ferṭas.
        One day, Jha's father gave him one cent so he buys a sheep head. He bought it and ate all of its meat. Only an empty carcass was left. He brought it to his father. Then, when he saw it, he

        -A šmata, win rahi wedn-u?

        -Kan ṭreš

        -win rahum ɛini-h?

        -Kan ɛma

        -win rah lsan-u?

        -Kan bekkuš.

        - U el-jelda taɛ ras-u, win Rahi

        -Kan ferṭas.
        One day, Jha's father gave him one cent so he buys a s

        -win rahum ɛini-h?

        -Kan ɛma

        -win rah lsan-u?

        -Kan bekkuš.
        - U el-jelda taɛ ras-u, win Rahi

        -Kan ferṭas.

        -You vile, where are its ears?

        -It was deaf.

        -Where are its eyes?

        -It was blind.

        -Where is its tongue?

        -It was dumb.

        -And the skin of its head, where is it?

        -It was bald.

        Algerian Arabic French loanword English meaning Algerian Arabic French loanword English meaning
        feršiṭa fourchette fork pur port port
        fraz fraises strawberries utal