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Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas University of Pennsylvania

Profession Author, Scholar, Diplomat.

Alfredo Toro Hardy
Alfredo Toro Hardy
(born in Caracas
Caracas
on May 22, 1950) is a Venezuelan retired career diplomat, scholar and public intellectual. He occupied some of Venezuela's top ambassadorial posts, including Washington, London, Madrid
Madrid
and Brasilia. He has taught at several universities both in Venezuela
Venezuela
and abroad, directed academic institutions in the field of foreign policy and written extensively on international affairs. According to international relations best selling author Parag Khanna: " Alfredo Toro Hardy
Alfredo Toro Hardy
is the quintessential scholar-diplomat". Renowned author and scholar Kishore Mahbubani wrote: "About 12% of the world's population lives in the West and 88% live outside. Yet, the strong, diverse voices of the 88% are rarely heard. Alfredo Toro Hardy
Alfredo Toro Hardy
provides one such voice that needs to be heard". British historian and author Robert Harvey stated: "One does not have to coincide with all of Toro Hardy's views in order to recognize that he is one of the most articulated and experienced voices not only from Latin America but from the developing world". Cambridge University scholar Geoffrey Hawthorn wrote: "Alfredo Toro Hardy has a rare and distinctive voice. No-one can come away from his essays without seeing the world in new ways"[1][2]

Contents

1 Education 2 Academic career 3 Publications 4 Diplomatic career 5 Family 6 Bibliography 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Education[edit] Alfredo Toro Hardy
Alfredo Toro Hardy
graduated with a law degree from the Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas
Caracas
in 1973. Between 1973 and 1975 he made postgraduate studies in France under a scholarship of the French Government. He acquired a diploma in diplomatic studies from the Institut International d'Administration Publique and a diploma in comparative law from Panthéon-Assas University
Panthéon-Assas University
in Paris, 1975. He received his M.S. from the Universidad Central de Venezuela
Venezuela
in 1977 and his Master of Laws
Master of Laws
from the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
in 1979. He took a course on international negotiations from Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1984.[3][4] Academic career[edit] Alfredo Toro Hardy
Alfredo Toro Hardy
was Associate Professor at the Simón Bolívar University from which he retired in 1992, he also taught for many years at the Central University of Venezuela. He served as Director of the Centre for North American Studies and Coordinator of the Institute for Higher Latin American
Latin American
Studies at the Simón Bolívar University from 1989 to 1992. A Visiting Professor at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs of Princeton University (1986–1987) and at the School of International Affairs of the University of Brasilia
Brasilia
(1995–1996), he served as well as on-line Professor at the Centre for Social Economy of the University of Barcelona (2004–2005). He was a Fulbright Scholar
Scholar
(1986–1987) and a Director of the "Pedro Gual" Diplomatic Academy of the Venezuelan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
from 1992 to 1994. Alfredo Toro Hardy
Alfredo Toro Hardy
was made a Member of the Advising Committee of the Diplomatic Academy of London
London
(2004–2008). He was also elected by the Council of Faculties of the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
as Simón Bolívar Chair Professor for Latin American
Latin American
Studies for the period 2006-2007, but had to decline due to his diplomatic career (holders of this prestigious chair have included leading Latin American
Latin American
figures such as Octavio Paz, Mario Vargas Llosa, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Carlos Fuentes
Carlos Fuentes
or Celso Furtado). In September 2011 and October 2017, the Rockefeller Foundation awarded Toro Hardy with a prestigious academic writing residency at its Bellagio Center in Italy, which over for almost six decades has included Nobel laureates, Pulitzer Prize winners, leading academics, artists, thought leaders, policymakers, and practitioners recognized for their bold thinking. He was also a Member of the Nominations Committee of the Bellagio Center Policy Fellows Program for the period 2014-2016. He remains an active lecturer on international affairs, having been invited as speaker by top universities and think tanks, including Oxford, Cambridge, London School of Economics, University College London, Harvard, Brown, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations
or Chatham House, while participating in several international seminars. He is a member of the Iberian American Network of Sinologists and has integrated the academic councils of several electronic symposia on China organized by the Observatorio de la Política China (Spain) and the China Center for Contemporary World Studies (China). He is also a fellow of the Global Labor Organization and has been a member of Chatham House, Canning House and the Windsor Energy Group, among other similar institutions. Both the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
and the Fulbright Program have included him in its "Notables List".[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Publications[edit] He has authored nineteen books and co-authored fifteen, most of which on international affairs. He has also published numerous papers in academic journals, including the Cambridge Review of International Affairs. His book El Desafío Venezolano: ¿Cómo Influir las Decisiones Políticas Estadounidenses? pioneered within Latin America the study of the United States
United States
institutional permeability as a mean by the countries of that region to influence in their own benefit Washington's decision making process [1]. This work was originally published in 1988 by the Institute for Higher Latin American
Latin American
Studies of the Simon Bolivar University with a foreword by Miguel Angel Burelli Rivas, Director of the aforementioned institution. The book had subsequent updated editions in 1991 and 2005. His book The Age of Villages with a foreword by Victor Bulmer-Thomas, Director of Chatham House, won the Latino Book Award in the category of contemporary history/political sciences at the BookExpo America celebrated in Chicago
Chicago
in 2003. His book Hegemonía e Imperio with a foreword by British historian Robert Harvey, won the same prize at the same category at the BookExpo America celebrated in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in 2008. In between the latter two books he published in 2004 ¿Tiene Futuro América Latina? with a foreword by Rubens Ricupero, Secretary General of the UNCTAD. In 2013 World Scientific published Toro Hardy's book The World Turned Upside Down: The Complex Partnership Between China and Latin America under its prestigious Series on Contemporary China. The forewords of this work were written by Geoffrey Hawthorn, Emeritus Professor on International Politics at the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
and L. Enrique García, President and CEO of CAF - Development Bank of Latin America. In an extensive bibliographycal selection on South America, LibraryThing
LibraryThing
choose The World Turned Upside Down as one of the nine basic background readings to understand that region [2]. In 2017, World Scientific published yet another book of his: Understanding Latin America: A Decoding Guide. The forewords of the latter were written by Francisco Rojas Aravena, Rector of the United Nations University for Peace
University for Peace
and Tommy Koh, Chairman of the Governing Board of the Centre for International Law
Centre for International Law
of the National University of Singapore. Toro Hardy's books have been endorsed by Kishore Mahbubani, Bernardo Kliksberg, Richard Gott, Zheng Yongnian, Moises Naim, James Dunkerley, Parag Khanna, Ramón J. Velásquez, Rafael Caldera, Arturo Valenzuela or Jorge Alberto Lozoya, among other important figures. On the same token they have been reviewed or commented by international media and academic journals such as Foreign Affairs, Financial Times, CNBC, Americas Quarterly, BBC, RT, Le Monde Diplomatique, Global-is-Asian
Global-is-Asian
or The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies. Alfredo Toro Hardy
Alfredo Toro Hardy
is a senior weekly columnist at Venezuela's leading newspaper El Universal, where he has been writing since 1992. Previously he was a weekly columnist at El Diario de Caracas
Caracas
for over a decade. His articles have also been published by some of the major newspapers and magazines from Latin America and Spain and they are customarily reproduced by blogs of different tendencies. He regularly contributes with the publications of two of Spain's top-ten think tanks: IGADI and Casa Asia. [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] Diplomatic career[edit] Jointly with his international relations academic background, Alfredo Toro Hardy is also a seasoned practitioner of international affairs who was appointed to senior diplomatic positions. As such he is part of the small group of Latin Americans
Latin Americans
that excelled in both aspects of this discipline. He began his career in 1976 as Joint Legal Counsel of the Foreign Trade Institute of the Venezuelan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ending it in 2017 when he resigned to the foreign service as a result of events in his country. Among his postings were the following:[37][38][39][40]

Director of the "Pedro Gual" Diplomatic Academy of the Venezuelan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
with the rank of Ambassador
Ambassador
(1992-1994) Member of the Qualifying Jury of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
in charge of Diplomatic selections and promotions (1992-1994) Ambassador
Ambassador
to the Federative Republic of Brazil
Federative Republic of Brazil
(1994–1997) Ambassador
Ambassador
to the Republic of Chile
Republic of Chile
(1997–1999) Ambassador
Ambassador
to the United States
United States
(1999–2001) Ambassador
Ambassador
to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(2001–2007) Ambassador
Ambassador
to the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
(2001–2007) Ambassador
Ambassador
to the Kingdom of Spain
Kingdom of Spain
(2007–2009) Ambassador
Ambassador
to the Republic of Singapore
Republic of Singapore
(2009-2017)

Family[edit] He belongs to a family that played an important role in the Venezuelan independence process and which, for several generations, has been active in public life and in intellectual, scientific and artistic endeavours. This includes author and diplomat Fermin Toro. His brother Jose Toro Hardy is also a well known Venezuelan author and public figure with several published books on economics Bibliography[edit] Individual books:

Control of Restrictive Practices in Industrial Property Matters in the United States
United States
and Venezuela
Venezuela
(Philadelphia, 1979) Rafael Caldera
Rafael Caldera
(Caracas, 1983) ¿Para qué una Política Exterior? (Caracas, 1984) Venezuela, Democracia y Política Exterior (Caracas, 1986) El Desafío Venezolano: ¿Cómo Influir las Decisiones Políticas Estadounidenses? (Caracas, 1988, 1991, 2005) La Maldición de Sísifo: Quince Años de Política Exterior Venezolana (Caracas, 1991) Bajo el Signo de la Incertidumbre (Caracas, 1992) De Yalta a Sarajevo: De la Guerra Fría a la Paz Caliente (Caracas, 1993) Las Falacias del Libre Comercio (Caracas, 1993) Del Descalabro Mexicano a la Crisis Venezolana (Caracas, 1995) El Desorden Global (Caracas, 1996) La Era de las Aldeas / The Age of Villages (Bogota, 2002) La Guerra en Irak (Caracas, 2003) Irak y la Reconfiguración del Orden Mundial (Caracas, 2003) ¿Tiene Futuro América Latina? (Bogota, 2004) Los Estadounidenses (Caracas, 2005) Hegemonía e Imperio / Hegemony and Empire (Bogota, 2007) The World Turned Upside Down: The Complex Partnership Between China and Latin America (New Jersey, 2013) Understanding Latin America: A Decoding Guide (New Jersey, 2017)

[3][4][5] Co-authored books:

Los Libertadores de Venezuela, Caracas, Ediciones Meneven, 1983 (jointly with Ramón J. Velásquez, Alfonso Rumazo González, J.A. de Armas Chitty, Aníbal Laydera Villalobos, Pedro Grases et al.) Venezuela
Venezuela
Contemporánea, Caracas, Fundación Eugenio Mendoza, 1989 (jointly with Pedro Cunill Grau, Asdrúbal Baptista, Pedro A. Palma, Allan R. Brewer-Carías, Pedro Díaz Seijas et al.) Petróleo, Liberalismo y Nacionalismo, Caracas, Fundación de Estudios del Futuro, 1991 (jointly with Rafael Caldera, Domingo F. Maza Zavala, Teodoro Petkoff, Ovidio Pérez Morales et al.) Amazonas: Diagnóstico y Estrategia de Desarrollo, Caracas, Comisión Presidencial de Asuntos Fronterizos, 1992 (jointly with Ramón J. Velásquez, Alberto Lizarralde et al.) La Frontera Occidental de Venezuela: Propuestas de Política, Caracas, Comisión Presidencial de Asuntos Fronterizos Colombo-Venezolanos, 1992 (jointly with Ramón J. Velásquez, Pedro Cunill Grau, Alberto Muller Rojas, Elsa Cardozo de Da Silva et al.) Venezuela: Opciones para una Estrategia Económica, Caracas, Comisión Presidencial para la Reforma del Estado, 1993 (jointly with Edgar Paredes Pisani, Diego Bautista Urbaneja, Hector Silva Michelena, Armando Cordoba et al.) Ideas sobre el Porvenir de Venezuela, Caracas, Asociación Venezuela, Sociedad y Economía, 1993 (jointly with Asdrubal Baptista, Rafael Caldera, Enzo del Búfalo, Edgar Paredes Pisani, Ignacio Avalos et al.) Encuentro y Alternativas: Venezuela, 1994, Caracas, Conferencia Episcopal de Venezuela/Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, 1994 (jointly with Mons. Mario Moronta, Arturo Sosa, S.J., Domingo F. Maza Zavala, Asdrúbal Baptista, Bernardo Mommer et al.) MERCOSUR-NAFTA, São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo/Parlamento Latinoamericano, 1994 (jointly with Raúl Alfonsín, Celso Lafer, Franco Montoro, Heraldo Muñoz, Paulo de Tarso, Marco Aurelio García, Rubens Barbosa et al.) Democracia: A Grande Rovolucao, Brasília, Universidade de Brasília, 1996 (jointly with Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Rafael Caldera, Juan Somavía, Heraldo Muñoz, Jeliu Jelev, Joao Claudio Todorov et al.) MERCOSUR-Venezuela, São Paulo, Parlamento Latinoamericano/Embaixada da Venezuela
Venezuela
no Brasil, 1995 (Co-editor. Jointly with Luiz Felipe Lampreia, Alvaro Ramos Trigo, Miguel Angel Burelli Rivas, Allan Wagner Tizón, Dorothea Werneck, Franco Montoro et al.) Abriendo Caminos para la Historia, Caracas, Editorial Panapo/Embajada de Venezuela
Venezuela
en Brasil, 1997 (Editor. Rafael Caldera, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Franco Montoro, Roberto Requiao, Atila Lins, Carlos Fernando Mathias de Sousa et al.) Gobernanza: Laberinto de la Democracia, Caracas, Capítulo Venezolano del Club de Roma, 2005 (jointly with Arnoldo José Gabaldón, Margarita López Maya, Mercedez Pulido de Briceño, María Ramírez Ribes, Heinz Sonntag et al.) The Impact of Technology on Intelligence and Security, London, The Diplomatic Academy of London/University of Westminster, 2006 (jointly with Jurgen Mertens, Sir Michael Alexander, Margaret Blunden, Sir Timothy Garden, Michael K. Simpson, Colin Adamson-Macedo et al.) Studies on the Relation between China and Latin America 2015 (Mandarin edition), Xuzhou, Jiangsu Normal University, 2016 (jointly with Zhu Lun, Xulio Ríos, Roger Cornejo, Roberto Mansilla Blanco, Gustavo Alejandro Girado et al.)

Academic papers: More than thirty refereed articles on international affairs, many of which at the peer reviewed academic journal Política Internacional (Asociación Política Internacional, Venezuela), of whose Editorial Board he was a member during the eighties and the nineties. His papers have also been published by the Cambridge Review of International Affairs (Centre of International Studies, University of Cambridge, UK); Política Externa (Centro de Pesquisa em Relações Internationaes, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil); Journal of Jiangsu Normal University (Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology, China); Revista Diplomacia, Estratégia, Política, (Ministerio das Relações Exteriores, Brazil); Revista de Historia Actual (Grupo de Estudios de Historia Actual, Universidad de Cádiz, Spain); Jiexi Zhongguo: Análisis y Pensamiento Iberoamericano sobre China (Observatorio de la Política China, Spain); Tempo Exterior: Revista de Análise e Estudos Internacionais (Instituto Galego de Análise e Documentación Internacional, Spain); Revista Politeia (Instituto de Estudios Políticos, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venezuela); Revista Ciencia Política (Tierra Firme Editores, Colombia); Boletín de la Academia de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales (Academia de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, Venezuela); IGADI Annual Report (IGADI, Spain), inter alia. See also[edit]

Venezuela

References[edit]

^ http://www.embavenez-us.org/?pagina=pag_ambassadors_alfredot.php&titulo=The%20Ambassador ^ List of print references:

Alfredo Toro Hardy, Understanding Latin America: A Decoding Guide, London, New Jersey, Singapore, 2017 Alfredo Toro Hardy, The World Turned Upside Down: The Complex Partnership between China and Latin America, London/New Jersey/Singapore, World Scientific, 2013 Alfredo Toro Hardy, Hegemonía e Imperio, Bogotá, Villegas Editores, 2007 Alfredo Toro Hardy, The Age of Villages, Bogotá, Villegas Editores, 2002 Who's Who, London, A&C Black

^ http://www.archives.upenn.edu/people/notables/political/pennambassadors.html ^ http://www.shimply.com/p/ecole-nationale-d-administration-alumni-adamou-ide-alain-juppe-alain-lamassoure-alain-peyrefitte-alain-richard-alberto-cinta-alfredo-toro-hardy-by-source-wikipedia-llc-books-llc-books-9781157717294-p16190546 ^ http://www.worldcitizen.org/sites/default/files/cogbrusselsagenda.pdf ^ http://www.envirosecurity.org/conference/ESSDBiographies.pdf ^ http://www.aflse.org/article.html?aid=475 ^ http://www.latin-american.cam.ac.uk/events/latinamerica2003.html ^ http://www.brown.edu/Administration/News_Bureau/1999-00/99-091.html ^ http://www.middlebury.edu/newsroom/archive/archive/2001/node/263935 ^ http://www.gehablog.org/2008/11/viii-seminario-internacional-nuestro_06.html ^ http://www.ssig.gov.my/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Press-Release-2-Nov-20101.pdf ^ http://tembusu.nus.edu.sg/news_events.php/events/details/333/0 ^ http://www.rsis.edu.sg/event/seminar-series-on-the-practice-of-diplomacy-and-international-affairs-sspdia-on-energy-security-emerging-challenges-trends-and-prospects-by-ambassador-alfredo-toro-hardy/#.VqHE3nL2N9B ^ http://www.ukm.my/ikmas/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/LASA-5-Brochure.pdf ^ http://www.asiared.com/es/notices/2016/01/vii-simposio-electronico-internacional-sobre-politica-china-7233.php ^ http://www.politica-china.org/ribsi.php ^ http://www.politica-china.org/simposio.php ^ https://glabor.org/wp/fellows/?members_page=2 ^ List of print references:

Who's Who, London, A&C Black World Who's Who (Europa Biographical Reference), London, Routledge Commission on Globalization, National Sovereignty and Universal Challenges: Biographies of Conference Speakers and Rapporteurs, Brussels, 2004 Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Volume 17, Number 1, April 2004, Notes on Contributors Dictionary of International Biography, Cambridge, International Biographical Center Debrett's People of Today, London The International Year Book and Statesmen’s Who’s Who, East Grinstead, West Sussex, CSA

^ List of print references:

Rafael Angel Rivas Dugarte, Quienes Escriben en Venezuela: Diccionario Abreviado de Escritores, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, 2006 Alfredo Toro Hardy, The World Turned Upside Down: The Complex Partnership between China and Latin America, London/New Jersey/Singapore, World Scientific, 2013 Richard Feinberg, "The World Turned Upside Down by Alfredo Toro Hardy", Foreign Affairs, New York, Vol. 93, Number 1, January/February 2014 David Pilling, "The Benefits and Perils of Riding China's Coat-Tails", Financial Times, July 31, 2013

^ http://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/1709038 ^ http://www.rebelion.org./docs/64746.pdf ^ http://www.cerlalc.org/libroaldia/libroaldia_3/imagenes%20beta3/articulo%20central/documentos/Dossier_Autores.pdf ^ http://apps.ucab.edu.ve/clubderomaVenezuela/gobernanza.htm ^ http://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=9292710379&cm_sp=seedet-_-plp-_-bdp ^ http://www.urbe.edu/UDWLibrary/InfoBook.do?id=3765 ^ http://www.worldcat.org/title/frontera-occidental-venezolana-propuestas-de-politica/oclc/32894335?referer=di&ht=edition ^ http://www.travessa.com.br/democracia-a-grande-revolucao/artigo/c432c9fb-d3d3-4cdb-bec9-9786a3acc910 ^ http://www.eluniversal.com/1997/05/10/pol_art_10116D ^ "Is there a future for Latin America?". Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 17: 155–166. doi:10.1080/0955757042000203704.  ^ http://www.bibliotecadigital.uchile.cl/client/es_ES/sisib/search/detailnonmodal/ent:$002f$002fSD_ILS$002f0$002fSD_ILS:694703/ada;jsessionid=39122A1E00007849B4D16E4E824C1F59?qu=Relaciones+industriales.&ic=true&ps=1000 ^ http://caf.msinfo.info/php/buscar.php?base=biblo&cipar=biblo.par&epilogo=&Formato=w&Opcion=detalle&Expresion=PARLAMENTO+LATINOAMERICANO ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-19. Retrieved 2015-11-18.  ^ http://www.igadi.org/web/publicacions/tempo-exterior/tempo-exterior-no-29 ^ http://en.cnki.com.cn/Journal_en/H-H000-XZSB-2016.htm ^ http://elpais.com/diario/2007/12/19/espana/1198018818_850215.html ^ http://hemeroteca.abc.es/nav/Navigate.exe/hemeroteca/madrid/abc/2007/12/19/021.html ^ http://www.casareal.es/ES/actividades/Paginas/actividades_actividades_detalle.aspx?data=7777 ^ http://www.c-span.org/video/?156365-1/western-hemisphere-affairs

External links[edit]

http://www.eluniversal.com/autor/alfredo-toro-hardy_id=1091 http://www.igadi.org/web/autoria/toro-hardy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8X0OTz4S2k https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S2JXfJoNDHE http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/about-us/news-media/rockefeller-foundation-announces-selected-bellagio-center-resident-fellows/ http://lkyspp.nus.edu.sg/news/on-the-upside-of-down-review-of-alfredo-toro-hardys-the-world-turned-upside-down/ https://glabor.org/wp/understanding-latin-america-glo-fellow-alfredo-toro-hardy-provides-decoding-guide/ https://lkyspp.nus.edu.sg/news-events/events/details/understanding-latin-america-a-decoding-guide https://ilas.sas.ac.uk/events/event/15025 http://www.latin-american.cam.ac.uk/sites/default/files/book_launch_toro_hardy_17_01_2018.pdf http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_2211000/2211975.stm http://www.cries.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/pp38-2-vf.pdf http://www.c-span.org/video/?123472-1/political-situation-venezuela http://www.c-span.org/video/?156365-1/western-hemisp

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