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Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155[2] – 5 October 1214), called the Noble (El Noble) or the one of the Navas (el de las Navas), was the King of Castile
King of Castile
from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo.[3][4] He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista
Reconquista
and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos
Alarcos
against the Almohads
Almohads
in 1195,[5] he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads
Almohads
in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of a tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.[6] His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

Contents

1 Regency and civil war 2 Marriage and Foreign Relations 3 Reconquista 4 Cultural legacy 5 Children 6 Ancestry 7 Notes 8 References

Regency and civil war[edit] Alfonso was born to Sancho III of Castile
Sancho III of Castile
and Blanche, in Soria
Soria
on 11 November 1155.[7] He was named after his grandfather Alfonso VII of León and Castile, who divided his kingdoms between his sons. This division set the stage for conflict in the family until the kingdoms were re-united by Alfonso VIII's grandson, Ferdinand III of Castile.[8] His early life resembled that of other medieval kings. His father died in 1158. Though proclaimed king when only two years of age,[6] Alfonso was regarded as merely nominal by the unruly nobles to whom a minority was convenient. Immediately, Castile was plunged into conflicts between the various noble houses vying for ascendancy in the inevitable regency. The devotion of a squire of his household, who carried him on the pommel of his saddle to the stronghold of San Esteban de Gormaz, saved him from falling into the hands of the contending factions.[9] The noble houses of Lara and Castro both claimed the regency, as did the boy's uncle, Ferdinand II of León. In 1159 the young Alfonso was put briefly in the custody of García Garcés de Aza, who was not wealthy enough to support him. In March 1160 the Castro and Lara met at the Battle of Lobregal and the Castro were victorious, but the guardianship of Alfonso and the regency fell to Manrique Pérez de Lara. Alfonso was put in the custody of the loyal village Ávila. At barely fifteen, he began restoring his kingdom to order. It was only by surprise that he recovered his capital Toledo from the hands of the Laras.[9] Marriage and Foreign Relations[edit] During the regency, his uncle Sancho VI of Navarre
Sancho VI of Navarre
took advantage of the chaos and the king's minority to seize lands along the border, including much of La Rioja. In 1170, Alfonso sent an embassy to Bordeaux
Bordeaux
to Henry II of England
Henry II of England
and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
to seek the hand of their daughter Eleanor.[10] Due to the bride's young age of 9, the marriage was finalized at Burgos, before 17 September 1177.[11] The marriage treaty helped provide Alfonso with a powerful ally against his uncle. In 1176, Alfonso asked his father-in-law to arbitrate the disputed border territories. While Alfonso received back much which had been taken from him, he did have to pay significant monetary compensation.[10] In 1186, he recuperated part of La Rioja from the Kingdom of Navarre.[citation needed] In 1187, Alfonso negotiated with Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
who was seeking to marry his son Conrad to Alfonso's eldest child and heir, Berengaria. In April 1188 they agreed on a treaty in Seligenstadt
Seligenstadt
which made clear that she was the heir of Castile after any sons of Alfonso, and that Conrad would only co-rule as her spouse. This became relevant in her ultimate succession to the throne, even though the marriage to Conrad was never consummated and later annulled. The treaty also documented traditional rights and obligations between the sovereign and the nobles in Castile. In July 1188, Alfonso convened his court in Carrión de los Condes to allow the nobles to review and ratify the treaty. At that court, Alfonso knighted both Conrad and Alfonso IX of León, who would ultimately marry Berengaria. The younger Alfonso had come to seek the support and acknowledgement of his ascent to the throne of León from his older cousin. The elder Alfonso granted this in exchange for acknowledgement that the king of Castile was overlord of the king of León.[12] The relationship between the cousins Alfonso continued to be filled with conflict. In 1194, the papal legate negotiated a treaty between them to temporarily end the conflict. However, after Castile was defeated at the Battle of Alarcos, the younger Alfonso seized the opportunity to again attack his cousin. Castille defended itself with papal support. A more lasting peace was achieved finally by the older Alfonso's daughter Berengaria getting married to the younger Alfonso in 1197.[13] The annulment of this marriage by the pope drove the younger Alfonso to again attack his cousin in 1204, but treaties made in 1205, 1207, and 1209 each forced him to concede further territories and rights.[14][15] The treaty in 1207 is the first existing public document in the Castilian dialect.[16] Around 1200 when his brother in law John was on the English throne, Alfonso began to claim that Gascony
Gascony
was part of Eleanor's dowry, though there was nothing in the marriage treaty to indicate this. In 1205, he invaded, hoping to make good on his claim. By 1208, he gave up on the venture, though his heirs would come back to this claim generations later.[17] Reconquista[edit] In 1174, he ceded Uclés
Uclés
to the Order of Santiago
Order of Santiago
and afterwards this became the order's principal seat. From Uclés, he began a campaign which culminated in the reconquest of Cuenca in 1177. The city surrendered on 21 September, the feast of Saint Matthew, ever afterwards celebrated by the citizens of the town. Alfonso took the initiative to ally all Christian kingdoms of the peninsula — Navarre, León, Portugal, and Aragon — against the Almohads. By the Treaty of Cazola of 1179, the zones of expansion of each kingdom were defined. After founding Plasencia
Plasencia
(Cáceres) in 1186, he embarked on a major initiative to unite the Castilian nobility around the Reconquista. In 1195, after the treaty with the Almohads
Almohads
was broken, he came to the defence of Alarcos
Alarcos
on the river Guadiana, then the principal Castilian town in the region. At the subsequent Battle of Alarcos, he was roundly defeated by the caliph Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur. The reoccupation of the surrounding territory by the Almohads
Almohads
was quickly commenced with Calatrava falling first. For the next seventeen years, the frontier between Moor and Castilian was fixed in the hill country just outside Toledo. Finally, in 1212, through the mediation of Pope Innocent III, a crusade was called against the Almohads. Castilians under Alfonso, Aragonese and Catalans under Peter II, Navarrese under Sancho VII, and Franks under the archbishop of Narbonne, Arnaud Amalric, all flocked to the effort. The military orders also lent their support. Calatrava first, then Alarcos, and finally Benavente were captured before a final battle was fought at Las Navas de Tolosa
Las Navas de Tolosa
near Santa Elena on 16 July. The caliph Muhammad al-Nasir was routed and Almohad power broken.[6] Cultural legacy[edit] Alfonso was the founder of the first Spanish university, a studium generale at Palencia, which, however, did not survive him.[9] His court also served as an important instrument for Spanish cultural achievement. Alfonso and his wife Eleanor of England
Eleanor of England
were the first to make the Alcázar of Segovia
Alcázar of Segovia
as their resident when this fortress was still at its early stages. Alfonso died at Gutierre-Muñoz[18] and was succeeded by his surviving son, Henry I. Alfonso was the subject for Lion Feuchtwanger's novel Die Jüdin von Toledo (The Jewess of Toledo), in which is narrated an affair with a Jewish subject in medieval Toledo in a time when Spain was known to be the land of tolerance and learning for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The titular Jewish woman of the novel is based on Alfonso's paramour, Rahel la Fermosa.[19] Scholars continue to debate the historical truth of this relationship.[20] The 1919 film The Jewess of Toledo by Franz Höbling is also based on this relationship.[21] Children[edit] With Eleanor of England,[22] Alfonso had 11 children:[23]

Name Birth Death Notes

Berengaria Burgos, 1 January/ June 1180 Las Huelgas
Las Huelgas
near Burgos, 8 November 1246 Married firstly in Seligenstadt
Seligenstadt
on 23 April 1188 with Duke Conrad II of Swabia, but the union (only by contract and never solemnized) was later annulled. Married in Valladolid
Valladolid
between 1/16 December 1197 with King Alfonso IX of León
Alfonso IX of León
as his second wife.[24] After their marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity in 1204, she returned to her homeland and became regent of her minor brother King Henry I. Queen of Castile in her own right after the death of Henry I in 1217, quickly abdicated in favor of her son Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile
who would re-unite the kingdoms of Castile and León.

Sancho Burgos, 5 April 1181 26 July 1181 Heir of the throne since his birth, died aged three months.

Sancha 20/28 March 1182 3 February 1184/ 16 October 1185 Died in infancy.

Henry 1184 1184? Heir of the throne since his birth, died either shortly after being born or in infancy. His existence is disputed among sources.

Urraca 1186/ 28 May 1187 Coimbra, 3 November 1220 Queen of Afonso II of Portugal

Blanche Palencia, 4 March 1188 Paris, 27 November 1252 Married to Louis VIII of France

Ferdinand Cuenca, 29 September 1189 Madrid, 14 October 1211 Heir of the throne since his birth. On whose behalf Diego of Acebo and the future Saint Dominic
Saint Dominic
travelled to Denmark
Denmark
in 1203 to secure a bride.[25] Ferdinand was returning through the San Vicente mountains from a campaign against the Muslims when he contracted a fever and died.[26]

Mafalda Plasencia, 1191 Salamanca, 1211 Betrothed in 1204 to Infante Ferdinand of Leon, eldest son of Alfonso IX and stepson of her oldest sister.

Eleanor 1200[27] Las Huelgas, 1244 Married in Ágreda
Ágreda
on 6 February 1221 with James I of Aragon.

Constance c. 1202[27] Las Huelgas, 1243 A nun at the Cistercian monastery of Santa María la Real at Las Huelgas in 1217, she became known as the Lady of Las Huelgas, a title shared with later royal family members who joined the community.[27]

Henry Valladolid, 14 April 1204 Palencia, 6 June 1217 Only surviving son, he succeeded his father in 1214 aged ten under the regency firstly of his mother and later his oldest sister. He was killed when he was struck by a tile falling from a roof.

Through his daughters, Berengaria and Blanche, he was the grandfather of two monarchs who became saints of the Roman Church. Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Alfonso VIII of Castile

16. William I, Count of Burgundy

8. Raymond of Burgundy

17. Stephanie

4. Alfonso VII of León and Castile[8]

18. Alfonso VI of León and Castile

9. Urraca of León
Urraca of León
and Castile

19. Constance of Burgundy

2. Sancho III of Castile[8]

20. Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona

10. Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona

21. Maud of Apulia

5. Berengaria of Barcelona[8]

22. Gilbert I, Count of Gévaudan

11. Douce I, Countess of Provence

23. Gerberga, Countess of Provence

1. Alfonso VIII of Castile

24. Sancho Garcés, Lord of Monzón

12. Ramiro Sánchez, Lord of Monzón

25. Constanza

6. García Ramírez of Navarre

26. Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar

13. Cristina Rodríguez

27. Jimena Díaz

3. Blanche of Navarre[8]

28. Richer de l'Aigle

14. Gilbert de l'Aigle

29. Judith d'Avranches

7. Marguerite de l'Aigle

30. Geoffrey II du Perche

15. Juliana du Perche

31. Beatrix de Montdidier

Notes[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alfonso VIII of Castile.

^ Pérez Monzón 2002, pp. 23-24; 27. ^ Anales Toledanos ^ Roth 1994, p. 128. ^ Titles of the European kings ^ Vann 2003, p. 62. ^ a b c Rogers 2010, p. 28. ^ Vann 2003, p. 61. ^ a b c d e Shadis 2010, p. xix. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alphonso s.v.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ a b Shadis 2010, p. 25-31. ^ Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands Project on Alfonso VIII of Castile, marriage and issues, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed] ^ Shadis 2010, p. 52-56. ^ Shadis 2010, p. 61-62. ^ Shadis 2010, p. 78-84. ^ Túy 2003, p. 324, 4.84. ^ Wright 2000. ^ Shadis 2010, p. 31. ^ Ricardo del Arco y Garay, Sepulcros de la Casa Real de Castilla ^ Marrache 2009. ^ Shadis 2010, p. 48-50. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0956166/ ^ Crónica Latina ^ Vann 2003, p. 63. ^ New International Encyclopedia, Vol.13, (Dodd, Mead and Company, 1915), 782. ^ Vicaire, pp. 89–98. ^ Osma 1997, p. 55-56, vol.20. ^ a b c Shadis 2010, p. 4.

References[edit]

Marrache, Abraham S. (2009). La Historia de Fermosa, la amante de Alfonso VIII. Madrid: Hebraica Ediciones.  Osma, Juan (1997). "Chronica latina regum Castellae". In Brea, Luis Charlo. Chronica Hispana Saeculi XIII. Turnhout: Brepols.  Pérez Monzón, Olga (2002). "Iconografía y poder real en Castilla: las imágenes de Alfonso VIII". Anuario del Departamento de Historia y Teoría del Arte (in Spanish). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. XIV: 19–41. ISSN 1130-5517.  Rogers, Clifford J. (2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology: Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195334036.  Roth, Norman (1994). Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Brill.  Shadis, Miriam (2010). Berenguela of Castile (1180–1246) and Political Women in the High Middle Ages. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23473-7.  Túy, Lucas (2003). Rey, Emma Falque, ed. Chronicon mundi. Turnhout: Brepols.  Vann, Theresa M. (2003). "Alfonso VIII, King of Castile". In Gerli, E. Michael. Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.  Vicaire, M.-H. (1938). "Une ambassade dans les Marches". In Mandonnet, Pierre. Saint Dominique: l'idée, l'homme et l'oeuvre Vol. 1. Paris: Desclée De Brouwer.  Wright, Roger (2000). El tratado de Cabreros (1206): estudio sociofilológico de una reforma ortográfica. London: Queen Mary and Westfield College.  COSTA, Ricardo da. "Love and Crime, Chastisement and Redemption in Glory in the Crusade of Reconquest: Alfonso VIII of Castile
Alfonso VIII of Castile
in the battles of Alarcos
Alarcos
(1195) and Las Navas de Tolosa
Las Navas de Tolosa
(1212)". In: OLIVEIRA, Marco A. M. de (org.). Guerras e Imigrações. Campo Grande: Editora da UFMS, 2004, pp. 73-94 ISBN 85-7613-023-8.

Alfonso VIII of Castile House of Burgundy Born: 11 November 1155 Died: 5 October 1214

Regnal titles

Preceded by Sancho III King of Castile
King of Castile
and Toledo 1158–1214 Succeeded by Henry I

v t e

Monarchs of Castile

House of Jiménez

Ferdinand I "the Magno" Sancho II "the Strong" Alfonso VI "the Brave" Urraca "the Reckless"

House of Burgundy

Alfonso VII "the Emperor" Sancho III "the Desired" Alfonso VIII "the Noble" Henry I Berengaria Ferdinand III "the Saint" Alfonso X "the Wise" Sancho IV "the Brave" Ferdinand IV "the Summoned" Alfonso XI "the Avenger" Peter "the Cruel"

House of Trastámara

Henry II "the Fracticidal" John I Henry III "the Mourner" John II Henry IV "the Impotent" Isabella I "the Catholic" Ferdinand V "the Catholic" Joanna "the Mad"

House of Habsburg

Philip I "the Handsome" Charles I "the Emperor" Philip II "the Prudent" Philip III "the Devotional" Philip IV "the Stunned" Charles II "the Bewitched"

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 267847252 LCCN: n50058369 ISNI: 0000 0000 8015 6320 GND: 118648101 SUDOC: 069245991 BNF:

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