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Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Automobiles S.p.A. (Italian: [ˈalfa roˈmɛːo]) is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A.L.F.A. ("[Società] Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", "Anonymous Lombard Automobile Factory") on 24 June 1910, in Milan.[2] The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911. The company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat
Fiat
Group.[3] In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
brand became Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Automobiles S.p.A., a subsidiary of Fiat
Fiat
Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Italy. The company that became Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A.L.F.A., initially still in partnership with Darracq. The first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi. A.L.F.A. ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto, which backed the Ing. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among which was Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, and in 1928, Nicola Romeo
Nicola Romeo
left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) by Benito Mussolini's government, which then had effective control. The company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, and turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models. In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione (IRI), the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat
Fiat
Group in 1986.[4] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
has competed successfully in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, and rallies. It has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries (usually under the name Alfa Corse
Alfa Corse
or Autodelta), and private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, and Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925. The race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, and Enzo Ferrari
Enzo Ferrari
founded the Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world.[5]

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1 History

1.1 Name 1.2 Foundation and early years 1.3 Post war 1.4 Carabinieri
Carabinieri
and Italian government 1.5 Recent developments 1.6 Return to North America

2 Design and technology

2.1 Technological development 2.2 Body design

3 Symbols

3.1 Logo

3.1.1 Origin 3.1.2 Post-war evolution 3.1.3 2015 redesign

3.2 Quadrifoglio

3.2.1 History of the emblem 3.2.2 Modern usage

4 Motorsport 5 Production 6 Automobiles

6.1 Current models 6.2 Historic models 6.3 Trucks and light commercial vehicles 6.4 Concepts

7 Other production

7.1 Aircraft engines 7.2 Marine engines 7.3 Aero-engines

8 Marketing and sponsorship 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit] Name[edit] The company's name is a combination of the original name, "A.L.F.A." ("Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili"), and the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915.

Foundation and early years[edit] A 1908 Darracq 8/10 HP assembled by Alfa Romeo's predecessor, Darracq Italiana. The A.L.F.A 24 hp (this is with Castagna torpedo body) was the first car made by Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili (A.L.F.A) in 1910. The company that became Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909.[6] The firm's initial location was in Naples, but even before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan
Milan
would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan
Milan
suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres (8,000 sq yd) was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili), initially still in partnership with Darracq. The first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.L.F.A. cars, with more powerful engines (40–60 HP). A.L.F.A. ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, and twin ignition.[7] However, the onset of the First World War
First World War
halted automobile production at A.L.F.A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components, compressors, and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno (Costruzioni Meccaniche di Saronno), Rome ( Officine Meccaniche
Officine Meccaniche
di Roma), and Naples
Naples
(Officine Ferroviarie Meridionali), which were added to his A.L.F.A. ownership.

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
production between 1934 and 1939[8]

Year

Cars

Industrialvehicles

1934 699 0

1935 91 211

1936 20 671

1937 270 851

1938 542 729

1939 372 562

8C 2900B Touring Spider (1937) Car
Car
production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.L.F.A. factory since 1915.[6] In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged.[9] Their first success came in 1920 when Giuseppe Campari
Giuseppe Campari
won at Mugello and continued with second place in the Targa Florio
Targa Florio
driven by Enzo Ferrari. Giuseppe Merosi continued as head designer, and the company continued to produce solid road cars as well as successful race cars (including the 40–60 HP and the RL Targa Florio). In 1923 Vittorio Jano
Vittorio Jano
was lured from Fiat, partly thanks to the persuasion of a young Alfa racing driver named Enzo Ferrari, to replace Merosi as chief designer at Alfa Romeo. The first Alfa Romeo under Jano was the P2 Grand Prix car, which won Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925. For road cars Jano developed a series of small-to-medium-displacement 4-, 6-, and 8-cylinder inline engines based on the P2 unit that established the architecture of the company's engines, with light alloy construction, hemispherical combustion chambers, centrally located plugs, two rows of overhead valves per cylinder bank and dual overhead cams. Jano's designs proved both reliable and powerful. Enzo Ferrari
Enzo Ferrari
proved a better team manager than driver, and when the factory team was privatised, it became Scuderia Ferrari. When Ferrari left Alfa Romeo, he went on to build his own cars. Tazio Nuvolari often drove for Alfa, winning many races before the Second World War.

Alfa Romeo 8C
Alfa Romeo 8C
2900 Scuderia Ferrari In 1928 Nicola Romeo
Nicola Romeo
left, and in 1933 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
was rescued by the government, which then had effective control. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
became an instrument of Mussolini's Italy, a national emblem. During this period it built bespoke vehicles for the wealthy, with bodies normally by Touring of Milan
Milan
or Pinin Farina. This era peaked with the Alfa Romeo 2900B Type 35 racers. The Alfa factory (converted during wartime to the production of Macchi C.202 Folgore engines: the Daimler-Benz 600 series built under license) was bombed during the Second World War, and struggled to return to profitability after the war. The luxury vehicles were out. Smaller, mass-produced vehicles began to be produced beginning with the 1954 model year, with the introduction of the Giulietta series of berline (saloons/sedans), coupes and open two-seaters. All three varieties shared what would become the Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
overhead Twin Cam four-cylinder engine, initially 1300 cc. This engine would eventually be enlarged to 2000 cc and would remain in production until 1995.

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 When I see an Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
go by, I tip my hat.—  Henry Ford
Henry Ford
talking with Ugo Gobbato
Ugo Gobbato
in 1939[10]

Post war[edit] Once motor sports resumed after the Second World War, Alfa Romeo proved to be the car to beat in Grand Prix events. The introduction of the new formula (Formula One) for single-seat racing cars provided an ideal setting for Alfa Romeo's Tipo 158 Alfetta, adapted from a pre-war voiturette, and Giuseppe Farina
Giuseppe Farina
won the first Formula One World Championship in 1950 in the 158. Juan Manuel Fangio
Juan Manuel Fangio
secured Alfa's second consecutive championship in 1951.

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
production between 1998 and 2017[11]

Year

Cars

1998 197,680

1999 208,336

2000 206,836

2001 213,638

2002 187,437

2003 182,469

2004 162,179

2005 130,815

2006 157,794

2007 151,898

2008 103,097

2009 103,687

2010 119,451

2011 130,535

2012 101,000[12]

2013 74,000

2014 58,948 (EU sales)[13]

2015 56,688 (EU sales)[13]

2016 93,117[14]

2017 150,722[14]

In 1952, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
experimented with its first front-wheel drive compact car, "Project 13–61".[15] It had the same transverse-mounted, forward-motor layout as the modern front-wheel drive automobile. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
made a second attempt toward the late 1950s based on Project 13–61. It was to be called Tipo 103 and resembled the smaller version of its popular Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Giulia. However, due to the financial difficulties in post-war Italy, the Tipo 103 never saw production. Had Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
produced it, it would have preceded the Mini as the first "modern" front-wheel drive compact car. In the mid-fifties, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
entered into an agreement with Brazil's Matarazzo Group to create a company called Fabral (Fábrica Brasileira de Automóveis Alfa, "the Brazilian Alfa automobile factory") to build the Alfa Romeo 2000
Alfa Romeo 2000
there. After having received government approval, Matarazzo pulled out and under pressure from Brazil's President Juscelino Kubitschek
Juscelino Kubitschek
the state-owned FNM company instead commenced building the car as the "FNM 2000" there in 1960.[16] During the 1960s, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
concentrated on competition using production-based cars, including the GTA (standing for Gran Turismo Allegerita), an aluminium-bodied version of the Bertone-designed coupe with a powerful twin-plug engine. Among other victories, the GTA won the inaugural Sports Car
Car
Club of America's Trans-Am championship in 1966. In the 1970s, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
concentrated on prototype sports car racing with the Tipo 33, with early victories in 1971. Eventually the Tipo 33TT12 gained the World Championship for Makes for Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
in 1975 and the Tipo 33SC12 won the World Championship for Sports Cars in 1977.[17][18] By the 1970s, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
was again in financial trouble and creative measures were attempted to shore it up, including an ultimately unsuccessful joint venture with Nissan endorsed by Ettore Massacesi of Alfa Romeo's parent company, the Italian-government owned Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) and Prime Minister Francesco Cossiga. By 1986, IRI was suffering heavy losses, and IRI president Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
put Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
up for sale. Finmeccanica, the mechanical holdings arm of IRI and its predecessors owned Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
since 1932. Prodi first approached fellow Italian manufacturer Fiat, which offered to start a joint venture with Alfa. Fiat
Fiat
withdrew its plan for a joint venture when Ford put in an offer to acquire part of Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
and restructure the company, while increasing its stake over time. However, Fiat
Fiat
put in a bid to acquire the entirety of Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
and offer job guarantees to Italian workers, an offer that Ford was unwilling to match. It also did not hurt any of the parties involved that an acquisition by Fiat
Fiat
would keep Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
in Italian hands. In 1986, the deal was concluded with Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
merged with traditional rival Lancia
Lancia
into Fiat's Alfa Lancia
Lancia
Industriale S.p.A. Models produced from the 1990s combined Alfa's traditional virtues of avant-garde styling and sporting panache with the economic benefits of product rationalisation, and include a "GTA" version of the 147 hatchback, the Giugiaro-designed Brera, and a high-performance exotic called the 8C Competizione (named after one of Alfa's most successful prewar sports and racing cars, the 8C of the 1930s). In 2005 Maserati
Maserati
was bought back from Ferrari
Ferrari
and under Fiat's full control. The Fiat
Fiat
Group plans to create a sports and luxury division from Maserati
Maserati
and Alfa Romeo.[19] There is a planned strategic relationship between these two; engines, platforms and possibly dealers will be shared in some markets.[20] In the beginning of 2007, Fiat
Fiat
Auto S.p.A. was reorganized and four new automobile companies were created; Fiat
Fiat
Automobiles S.p.A., Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A., Lancia
Lancia
Automobiles S.p.A. and Fiat
Fiat
Light Commercial Vehicles S.p.A. These companies are fully owned by Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A (from 2007 FCA Italy S.p.A.).[21]

Carabinieri
Carabinieri
and Italian government[edit] In the 1960s Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
became famous for its small cars and models specifically designed for the Italian police and Carabinieri; among them the "Giulia Super" and the 2600 Sprint GT. The colours of the Alfa Romeos used by the Polizia were/are green/blue with white stripes and writing, known as "Pantera" (Panther), enhancing the aggressive look of the Alfa (particularly the Giulia series), while the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
Alfas are dark blue with white roofs and red stripes, known as the "Gazzella" (Gazelle) denoting the speed and agility of these "Pattuglie" (patrol cars). However, the term "Pantera" became used interchangeably and the image helped create a no-nonsense, determined and respected perception by the general public of the men that drove these cars, true to their history.

Italian State Police
Italian State Police
Flying Squad "Panther" 1971 Alfa Giulia Super Since then, Alfas remain the chosen mount of the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
(arm of the Italian armed forces seconded only partly for civilian policing purposes), Polizia Autostradale (highway police), Guardia di Finanza (fiscal law enforcement) and the conventional police service (Polizia). Successively, the following Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Berlinas have found favour for Italian police and government employment[22]

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
AR51 • Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Giulia • Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Alfetta • Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Giulietta • Alfa Romeo 33
Alfa Romeo 33
( Polizia di Stato
Polizia di Stato
only) • Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
75 • Alfa Romeo 164
Alfa Romeo 164
(official vehicles) • Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
155 • Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
156 • Alfa Romeo 166
Alfa Romeo 166
(official vehicles) • Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
159 • Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia
(Carabinieri, 2 Giulia Quadrifoglio - Polizia di Stato, 2 Giulia Veloce Q4[23]) Since the 1960s, the Italian Prime Minister has used Alfa Romeos (and lately the new Maserati
Maserati
Quattroporte) as preferred government limousines. The 164 and 166 have found particular employment in the last two decades.

100 years Alfa Romeo On 24 June 2010, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
celebrated 100 years from its foundation.[24]

Recent developments[edit] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
has been suffering from falling sales. Some[who?] analysts concluded that the automaker suffered large operating losses in the mid-2000s – estimated to be about 15 percent to 20 percent of annual revenues, or about 300 million to 500 million euros a year.[citation needed] In 2010, it sold a total of about 112,000 units, which was significantly lower than Fiat
Fiat
CEO Marchionne's global sales target of 300,000. Alfa then wanted to achieve 170,000 sales in 2011, including 100,000 Giulietta and 60,000 MiTo, but it actually sold 130,000 units that year.[25] Its medium-term target was 500,000 units by 2014 including 85,000 from the North American market.[26] In 2017 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
increased production by 62 percent, building a total of 150,722 vehicles at the company's three factories.[27]

Return to North America[edit] Giulietta Spider Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
was imported to the United States by Max Hoffman
Max Hoffman
from the mid-1950s.[28] The Giulietta Spider was born by request of Max Hoffman, who proposed an open version of the Giulietta.[29] In 1961 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
started exporting cars to the United States.[30] In 1995, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
ceased exporting cars to the United States,[31] the last model sold in that market being the 164 sedans. Since that time, rumours of a return culminated with a website announcement stating "The long-awaited return of Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
to the United States market should take place by 2007, with a range of new models." In fact, Alfa Romeo's return to United States was officially confirmed on 5 May 2006 by Fiat
Fiat
CEO Sergio Marchionne. North American sales resumed in October 2008, with the launch of the low production 8C Competizione coupe.[32] Also in 2008, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
and Chrysler
Chrysler
were reported to be in discussions over the possibility of producing Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
cars in some Chrysler
Chrysler
manufacturing plants that had shutdown due to the company group's restructure and cost cutting. Instead, as reported by The Wall Street Journal reported in November 2009, Chrysler
Chrysler
discontinued several Dodge
Dodge
and Jeep
Jeep
models while phasing in Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
ones and the new Fiat
Fiat
500.[33] The next significant milestones in Alfa Romeo's North American return occurred in 2014, with the launch of the more affordable two-seater 4C coupe. That year, Fiat
Fiat
Group Automobiles S.p.A. confirmed that its original agreement with Mazda Motor Corporation, for the speculated manufacturing of a new Alfa Romeo Spider
Alfa Romeo Spider
based on the Mazda Miata, had been terminated mutually in December 2014 (with this joint-venture's Miata-based car, becoming the new 2015 Fiat
Fiat
124 convertible). In 2015, Alfa Romeo's return to this market was further bolstered by the automaker's display of the new Giulia at the Los Angeles Auto Show. In February 2017, Chrysler
Chrysler
featured its Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
brand exclusively in three ads during Super Bowl LI.[34] Alfa Romeo's US importer, FCA US LLC, imports the 4C, Giulia and Stelvio.

Design and technology[edit] Badge on Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
4C Technological development[edit] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
has introduced many technological innovations over the years, and the company has often been among the first users of new technologies. Its trademark double overhead cam engine was used for the first time in the 1914 Grand Prix car,[35] the first road car with such an engine, the 6C 1500 Sport, appeared in 1928. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
tested one of the very first electric injection systems (Caproni-Fuscaldo) in the Alfa Romeo 6C
Alfa Romeo 6C
2500 with "Ala spessa" body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors, fed by a semi-high pressure circulating fuel pump system.[36] 1969 models for the North American market had SPICA
SPICA
(Società Pompe Iniezione Cassani & Affini, a subsidiary of Alfa Romeo) mechanical fuel injection. According to Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
engine output and performance were unchanged from the carburetted version. The SPICA
SPICA
system continued until the 1982 model year with the introduction of 2.0 liter Bosch electronic fuel injection. Many examples of SPICA
SPICA
powered Alfa's are found still running, Mechanical variable valve timing was introduced in the Alfa Romeo Spider, sold in the U.S. in 1980.[37] All Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Spider models from 1983 onward used electronic VVT.[38] The 105 series Giulia was quite an advanced car, using such technologies as all-wheel disc brakes,[39] and a plastic radiator header tank[citation needed]. It had also the lowest drag coefficient (Cd) in its class[40] The same trend continued with the Alfetta 2000 and GTV, which had such things as 50:50 weight distribution,[41][42] standard fit alloy wheels[citation needed] and transaxle.[43] Newer innovations include complete CAD design process used in Alfa Romeo 164,[44] robotised/paddle control transmission Selespeed used in the 156;[45] the 156 was also the world's first passenger car to use Common rail
Common rail
diesel engine.[46] The Multiair
Multiair
-an electro-hydraulic variable valve actuation technology used in MiTo was introduced in 2009.[47] In 2016 Alfa Romeo Giulia came with electrical brakes.[48]

Body design[edit] Alfa Romeo 6C
Alfa Romeo 6C
2500 SS (1939, serial number 913.008) by Technical museum of Vadim Zadorogny Many famous automotive design houses in Italy
Italy
have accepted commissions to produce concepts and production vehicle shapes for Alfa Romeo. These include:

Bertone Giorgetto Giugiaro
Giugiaro
/ Italdesign Pininfarina Zagato Centro Stile Alfa Romeo The last mentioned, the Centro Stile, has rapidly gained international credibility[vague] with its work. The 8C Competizione super-coupé, and the MiTo hatchback are the results. Construction techniques used by Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
have become imitated by other car makers, and in this way Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
body design has often been very influential. The following is a list of innovations, and where appropriate, examples of imitation by other car manufacturers:

Alfa 6C 2500 S 1950s: Monocoque body design in the Giulia:[dubious – discuss] While not an imitation per se, this construction technique became extremely widespread, and remains so to the present day. 1960s: Aerodynamics: The 116-series Giulia had a very low Cd. Toyota in particular sought to produce a similarly shaped series of vehicles at this time. 1970s: Fairing of bumpers: In order to meet American crash standards, Alfa formulated design styling techniques to incorporate bumpers into the overall bodywork design of vehicles so as to not ruin their lines. The culmination of this design technique was the 1980s Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
75. The process was widely copied, particularly in Germany and Japan. 1980s: The Alfa 164: The design process and influence of this car is almost completely out of all proportion to previous Alfas. The 164 introduced complete CAD/CAM in the manufacturing cycle, with very little directly made by hand in the vehicle. In addition, the 164's styling influence continues into the present day line of modern Alfas. Most manufacturers incorporated design ideas first expressed in the 164 into their own designs, including greater reliance on on-board computers.[citation needed] 1990s: The pseudo-coupé: The Alfa 156 and 147, while four-door vehicles, represented themselves as two-doors with prominent front door handles, and less visible rear door-handle flaps. Honda has used this design style in the latest Civic hatchback, and a somewhat similar idea is also seen in the most recent Mazda RX-8 four-seat coupé. Alfa Spider (Type 939)2000s: The Brera and 159: These vehicles' design, by Giorgetto Giugiaro, have proven influential in sedan and coupé styling, demonstrating that concept vehicles are often immediately translatable into road car form, providing that initial design takes place using CAD systems. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
has made a number of concept cars:

1950s – The B.A.T. cars The Berlina Aerodinamica Tecnica prototype cars were designed by Bertone as an exercise in determining whether streamlining and wind-tunnel driven designs would result in high performance on a standard chassis, and whether the resulting vehicles would be palatable to public. Alfa 1900 Sprint were the basis of the B.A.T. 5, 7 and 9.[49] The later B.A.T. 11 was based on the 8C Competizione.

1960s and 1970s – Descendants of the Tipo 33 The Tipo 33 racing car, with its high-revving 2000 cc V8 engine became the basis for a number of different concept cars during the 1960s and 1970s, two of which ultimately resulted in production vehicles. Most made their appearances at the Auto Salon Genève. Here is a brief list:

Gandini/Bertone Carabo (1968) – Marcello Gandini expressed ideas that would come to fruition in the Lamborghini
Lamborghini
Countach. Tipo 33.2 (1969)- Designed by Pininfarina
Pininfarina
to the design already known from Ferrari
Ferrari
concept car. Gandini/Bertone Montreal Concept (1967) – making its appearance at the 1967 Montreal Expo, this Giulia-based concept resulted in the production Alfa Romeo Montreal
Alfa Romeo Montreal
road car with a variant of the Tipo 33 V8 engine. Bertone/ Giugiaro
Giugiaro
Navajo (1976)- A fully fibreglassed vehicle, and in some ways the epitome of Giugiaro's 'Origami' style of flat planes. 1980s-today – Modern ideas In general, concept cars for Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
have generally become production vehicles, after some modification to make them suitable for manufacture, and to provide driver and passenger safety. The Zagato SZ, GTV and Spider, Brera and 159 are all good examples of Alfa Romeo's stylistic commitment in this direction.

Symbols[edit] Logo[edit] Laurel-wreathed 1925–1945 badges on a 1925 Alfa Romeo RL
Alfa Romeo RL
SS Alfa Romeo's logo incorporates two heraldic devices traditionally associated with its birthplace, the city of Milan: a red cross, from the emblem of Milan, and the biscione, a crowned viper swallowing a Moor—emblem of the House of Visconti, rulers of the city in the 14th century.[50][51][52] The logo was originally designed in 1910 by a young Italian draughtsman from the A.L.F.A technical office, Romano Cattaneo.[53]

Origin[edit] In June 1910 the Società Anonima Darracq became Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili, and was readying its first model, the 24 HP. The board asked chief engineer Giuseppe Merosi to devise a badge for the radiator shell of the new car; Merosi turned to his collaborators.[53] One of them, Cattaneo, was inspired by the coat of arms he had seen on the gates of Castello Sforzesco
Castello Sforzesco
to include the biscione in the logo.[53] Merosi liked the idea, and together with Cattaneo came up with a sketch, then approved by managing director Ugo Stella; Cattaneo was entrusted with doing the final design.[53] The original badge was round, of enamelled brass, measuring 65 mm (2.6 in) in diameter, and carried already all the present day accoutrements: the red cross on a white field of Milan
Milan
on the left, a green biscione on a light blue field on the right, all surrounded by a blue ring inscribed with the words "ALFA" at the top and "MILANO" at the bottom.[54] In honour of the King of Italy, the two words were separated by two figure-eight knots—named Savoy knots in Italian, and symbols of the then-reigning House of Savoy. Originally solid brass, the lettering was changed to white enamel in 1913.[55] In 1918, after the company had been bought by Nicola Romeo, the wording "ALFA" was replaced with "ALFA-ROMEO". In 1925, to commemorate the victory of the Alfa Romeo P2
Alfa Romeo P2
in the inaugural World Manufacturers' Championship of 1925, a silver metal laurel wreath was added around the badge, used (in varying form) until 1982.[51][56] The addition of the wreath had enlarged the badge to 75 mm (3.0 in) diameter; in 1930 it was reduced back to 60 mm (2.4 in).[54]

Post-war evolution[edit] In 1946, after the abolition of the monarchy and proclamation of the Italian Republic, the figure-eight knots of the Savoy were replaced with two curvy lines.[57] Concurrently the badge was completely redesigned, and further reduced in size to 54 mm (2.1 in), a diameter unchanged ever since.[54] Made of stamped steel, the new badge bore the traditional elements—the scripts, the cross, a newly stylized biscione and a thin laurel wreath—embossed in antique silver, over a uniform Alfa Red background, which had replaced the blue, white and light blue fields. This red-and-metal badge was used until 1950, when the company switched back to a traditionally enamelled and coloured one; in 1960 the badge was changed from brass to plastic, without substantial differences in design.[57] At the beginning of the 1970s the all-new Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Pomigliano d'Arco plant (near Naples) was completed. When in 1972 the Alfasud produced there became the first Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
passenger car manufactured outside Milan, the word "Milano", the curved lines and the hyphen between "Alfa" and "Romeo" were eliminated from the badge on all Alfa Romeos.[57] At the same time it was redesigned, most notably acquiring a modernised biscione and type face. After a mild restyling in 1982, which deleted the wreath and changed lettering and all chrome details to gold, this iteration of the badge remained in use until 2015.[58]

2015 redesign[edit] On 24 June 2015, 105th anniversary of the company, a new logo was unveiled at a press event at the Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Museum; together with the Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia
as part of the brand's relaunch plan.[59] The redesign was carried out by Robilant Associati, who had previously reworked several other Fiat
Fiat
Group logos—including Fiat
Fiat
Automobiles' and Lancia's.[60] The logo colors have been reduced from four to three: the green of the biscione, the red of the cross, and the dark blue of the surrounding ring. Other changes are a new serif type face, and the absence of the split white and light blue fields, replaced by a single silver textured background.

Quadrifoglio[edit] Main article: Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Quadrifoglio Since 1923, the quadrifoglio logo (also called the 'cloverleaf') has been the symbol of Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
racing cars and since WWII, it has also been used to designate the higher trim models of the range. The quadrifoglio is usually placed on the side panels of the car, above or behind the front wheels—on the front wings in the case of modern vehicles. The logo consists of a green cloverleaf with four leaves, contained with a white triangle.

History of the emblem[edit] Ugo Sivocci
Ugo Sivocci
at the wheel of 1923 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
P1 The quadrifoglio has been used on Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
cars since the death of Ugo Sivocci
Ugo Sivocci
in 1923. As a friend of Enzo Ferrari, Sivocci was hired by Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
in 1920 to drive in the four-man works team—Alfa Corse—with Antonio Ascari, Giuseppe Campari, and Enzo Ferrari. Sivocci was thought to have enormous experience, but often hampered by bad luck and considered the eternal second-placer. To banish his bad luck, when the Targa Florio
Targa Florio
came around, the driver painted a white square with a green four-leaf clover (the quadrifoglio) in the centre of the grille of his car. Sivocci had immediate success, crossing the finish line first. The quadrifoglio subsequently became the symbol of the racing Alfa Romeos with the victory at the Targa Florio. Almost as if to prove the magic effects of this symbol, Sivocci was killed while testing Merosi's new P1 at Monza, a few months after winning the Targa Florio. The Salerno
Salerno
driver's P1, which went off the track on a bend, did not have the quadrifoglio. Since this period in 1923, the bodies of Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
racing cars have been adorned with the quadrifoglio as a lucky charm. The white square was replaced with a triangle in memory of Ugo Sivocci.[61]

Quadrifoglio badge on the Alfetta 159 Modern usage[edit] The first road car to bear the quadrifoglio was the 1963 Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super, a variant of the Giulia saloon car devised for competition but put regularly on sale; it had green four-leaf clovers on its front wings, without the triangle. In the 1970s "Quadrifoglio Verde" or "Green Cloverleaf" became the trim level for each model's sportiest variant, equipped with the most powerful engine. The Alfasud, Sprint, 33, 75, 164 and 145 all had Quadrifoglio Verde versions. Also in the 1970s and through the 1980s golden four-leaf clover badges were used to denote the most luxurious and well-equipped variants of Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
cars, named "Quadrifoglio Oro" or "Gold Cloverleaf". The Alfasud, Alfetta, Alfa 6, 90 and 33 had Quadrifoglio Oro versions. In recent times the quadrifoglio was revived on the 2007 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
8C Competizione and Spider eight-cylinder sports cars. With the current Alfa Romeo MiTo
Alfa Romeo MiTo
and Giulietta the Quadrifoglio Verde was reinstated as the sportiest trim level in the range, and green four-leaf clovers on the front wings are once again the hallmark of high-performance Alfa Romeos. Alfa Romeo's 2016 sport sedan, the all-new Giulia, will be launched first in Quadrifoglio trim before the release of the base models. Starting with the high-end model wearing that historic signature emblem, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
strives to reconquer the North American market after decades of absence.

Motorsport[edit] Brian Redman
Brian Redman
driving an Alfa Romeo 33
Alfa Romeo 33
TT 12 Main article: Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
in motorsport Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
has been involved with motor racing since 1911, when it entered two 24 HP models on Targa Florio
Targa Florio
competition. In the 1920s and 30s it scored wins at many races and motoring events such as Targa Florio, Mille Miglia
Mille Miglia
and Le Mans. Great success continued with Formula One, Prototypes, Touring and Fast Touring. Private drivers also entered some rally competitions, with fine results. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries Alfa Corse, Autodelta
Autodelta
and private entries. Alfa Romeo's factory racing team was outsourced to Enzo Ferrari's Scuderia Ferrari between 1933 and 1938. Drivers included Tazio Nuvolari, who won the 1935 German Grand Prix
German Grand Prix
at the Nürburgring. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
have been in a technical partnership with the Sauber
Sauber
F1 Team since 2018 and are competing in the 2019 Formula One
Formula One
season as Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Racing.

Production[edit] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
plant in Arese According to the late Fiat
Fiat
CEO Sergio Marchionne, in order to reap economies of scale, all new Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
models will be made from the same basic platform. Even Maserati
Maserati
will share components with some Alfas.[62] During the 1990s, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
moved car production to other districts in Italy. The Pomigliano d’Arco plant produced the 155, followed by the 145 and the 146, while the Arese
Arese
plant manufactured the 164 and new Spider and GTV. The 156 was launched in 1997, and became quite successful for Alfa Romeo; in 1998 it was voted " Car
Car
of the Year". The same year a new flagship, the 166 (assembled in Rivalta, near Turin) was launched. At the beginning of the third millennium, the 147 was released, which won the prestigious title of " Car
Car
of the Year 2001". In 2003 the Arese
Arese
factory was closed. The Arese
Arese
factory today hosts almost nothing and is nearly abandoned. What remains are some offices and the Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Historical Museum, a must-see for Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
fans. In the 1960s, the main Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
seat was moved from inside Milan
Milan
to a very large and nearby area extending over the municipalities of Arese, Lainate
Lainate
and Garbagnate Milanese. However, since then the Alfa seat is known to be in Arese, since the offices and the main entrance of the area are there. In the late 1960s, a number of European automobile manufacturers established facilities in South Africa to assemble right hand drive vehicles. Fiat
Fiat
and other Italian manufacturers established factories along with these other manufacturers, Alfa-Romeos were assembled in Brits, outside Pretoria
Pretoria
in the Transvaal Province
Transvaal Province
of South Africa. With the imposition of sanctions by western powers in the 1970s and 1980s, South Africa became self-sufficient, and in car production came to rely more and more on the products from local factories. This led to a remarkable set of circumstances where between 1972 and 1989, South Africa had the greatest number of Alfa Romeos on the road outside of Italy. Even stranger, Alfa Romeos Brits plant was used from March 1983[63] until 1985 to build Daihatsu Charades for local consumption, but also for export to Italy
Italy
in order to skirt Italian limits on Japanese imports.[64] In late 1985, with the impending Fiat
Fiat
takeover and an international boycott of the South African Apartheid
Apartheid
government, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
withdrew from the market and closed the plant. Tons of valuable parts were then bulldozed into the ground to escape paying import duties.[citation needed]

Assembly plants by model[65]

Plant Owner Location Model(s)

Cassino – Piedimonte S. Germano FCA Italy S.p.A. Piedimonte San Germano Giulietta, Giulia, Stelvio

Modena Maserati
Maserati
S.p.A. Modena 4C

Automobiles[edit]

Alfa Romeos

ALFA 24 HP
ALFA 24 HP
(1910–1914)

ALFA 15 HP
ALFA 15 HP
(1911–1913)

ALFA 40/60 HP
ALFA 40/60 HP
(1913–1914)

ALFA 20/30 HP
ALFA 20/30 HP
(1914–1922)

ALFA Grand Prix
ALFA Grand Prix
(1914)

G1 (1921–1923)

RL (1922–1927)

RM (1923–1925)

P2 (1924–1930)

6C 1500 (1927–1929)

6C 1750 (1929–1933)

Tipo A (1931)

8C (1931–1939)

P3 (1932–1935)

6C 2300 (1933–1938)

12C (1936–1937)

16C Bimotore (1936)

6C 2500 (1938–1952)

Tipo 512 (1940)

430 (1942–1950)

158/159 (1938–1951)

450/455 (1947–1959)

1900 (1950–1959)

BAT 5, 7 og 9 (1952–1955)

Matta (1952–1954)

Disco Volante (1952–1953)

Romeo (1954–1983)

Giulietta (1954–1965)

2000 (1958–1962)

Giulietta SS (1959–1977)

2600 (1961–1968)

Giulia (1962–1977)

TZ (1963–1965)

TZ2 (1965–1967)

GTA (1965–1969)

Gran Sport (1965–1967)

GT 1300 Junior Z (1965–1977)

Spider (1966–1993)

1750 GT Veloce (1967–1972)

2000 (1967–1972)

33 Stradale (1967–1969)

Montreal (1970–1977)

Alfasud (1971–1989)

Alfetta (1972–1987)

Giulietta (1977–1985)

Alfa 6 (1979–1986)

33 (1983–1995)

90 (1984–1987)

75 (1985–1992)

164 (1987–1998)

SZ (1989–1991)

145 (1994–2000)

146 (1995–2000)

GTV (1994–2004)

156 (1998-2005)

166 (1999–2007)

147 (2000–2010)

GT (2003–2010)

159 (2004–2011)

Brera (2005–2010)

8C Competizione (2007–2010)

MiTo (2008–2018)

Giulietta (2010–present)

4C (2013–present)

Giulia (2016–present)

Stelvio (2017–present)

Current models[edit]

Giulietta

4C

4C Spider

Giulia

Stelvio

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Giulietta The Giulietta is a five-door, small family car officially revealed at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show.[66] It replaced the 147.

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
4C The 4C is a small, lightweight rear wheel drive two seater coupé sports car. The car was revealed as concept car at the 81st Geneva Motor Show in 2011.[67] The production version was launched to the European market at the 83rd Geneva Motor show in 2013 and was launched to the American market at the Los Angeles Motor show at the end of November 2013.

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Giulia The new generation Giulia was unveiled to the press at the Museo Storico Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
in Arese, on 24 June 2015. This coincided with the company's 105th anniversary and saw the introduction of a revised logo.

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Stelvio The Stelvio was unveiled at the 2016 Los Angeles Auto Show. The Stelvio is Alfa Romeo's first production SUV that competes in the same category as the Porsche Macan, Jaguar F-Pace, Audi Q5, Mercedes-Benz GLC and BMW X3. It is current top Alfa sales with about 43,000 samples per year (2018).

Historic models[edit] 6C Gran Sport (1931) 8C 2300 (1931) 2600 Touring Spider (1961) GT Junior (1965) Montreal (1970) GTV6 (1980) Spider (1992) 156 (1997) 8C Competizione (2008) Autotutto F12 ambulance

Road cars

Racing cars

1910

1910–1920 24 HP 1910–1911 12 HP 1911–1920 15 HP 1913–1922 40–60 HP

1911 15 HP Corsa 1913 40–60 HP Corsa 1914 Grand Prix

1920

1921–1922 20–30 HP 1920–1921 G1 1921-1921 G2 1922–1927 RL 1923–1925 RM 1927–1929 6C 1500 1929–1933 6C 1750

1922 RL Super Sport 1923 RL Targa Florio 1923 P1 1924 P2 1928 6C 1500 MMS 1929 6C 1750 Super Sport

1930

1931–1934 8C 2300 1933-1933 6C 1900 1934–1937 6C 2300 1935–1939 8C 2900 1939–1950 6C 2500

1931 Tipo A 1931 8C 2300 Monza 1932 Tipo B (P3) 1935 Bimotore 1935 8C 35 1935 8C 2900A 1936 12C 36 1937 12C 37 1937 6C 2300B Mille Miglia 1937 8C 2900B Mille Miglia 1938 308 1938 312 1938 316 1938 158 1939 6C 2500 Super Sport Corsa

1940

1948 6C 2500 Competizione

1950

1950–1958 1900 1951–1953 Matta 1954–1962 Giulietta 1958–1962 2000 1959–1964 Dauphine

1951 159 1952 6C 3000 CM

1960

1962–1968 2600 1962–1976 Giulia Saloon 1963–1967 Giulia TZ 1963–1977 Giulia Sprint 1963–1966 Giulia Sprint Speciale 1965–1967 Gran Sport Quattroruote 1965–1971 GTA 1963–1965 Giulia Spider 1966–1993 Spider 1967–1969 33 Stradale 1967–1977 1750/2000 Berlina

1960 Giulietta SZ 1963 Giulia TZ 1965 GTA 1965 Tipo 33 1968 33/2 1969 33/3

1970

1970–1977 Montreal 1972–1983 Alfasud 1972–1984 Alfetta saloon 1974–1987 Alfetta GT/GTV 1976–1989 Alfasud Sprint 1977–1985 Nuova Giulietta 1979–1986 Alfa 6

1972 33/4 1973 33TT12 1976 33SC12 1979 177 1979 179

1980

1983–1994 33 1984–1987 Arna 1984–1987 90 1985–1992 75 1987–1998 164 1989–1993 SZ/RZ

1982 182 1983 183 1984 184 1985 185

1990

1992–1998 155 1994–2000 145 1995–2000 146 1993/4–2004 GTV/Spider 1996–2005 156 1996–2007 166

1992 155 GTA 1993 155 V6 TI 1998 156 D2 1999 GTV Cup 2002 156 GTA Super 2000 2003 156 Super 2000

2000

2000–2010 147 2007–2009 8C Competizione 2008–2010 8C Spider 2003–2010 GT 2005–2010 Brera 2004–2011 159 2006–2010 Spider

2003 147 GTA Cup 2008–2018 MiTo

Trucks and light commercial vehicles[edit] Romeo2 LCV In 1930 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
presented a light truck in addition to heavy LCVs based on Büssing
Büssing
constructions.[68] In the Second World War Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
also built trucks for the Italian army ("35 tons anywhere") and later also for the German Wehrmacht. After the war, commercial motor vehicle production was resumed. In co-operation with FIAT
FIAT
and Saviem
Saviem
starting from the 1960s different light truck models were developed. The production of heavy LCVs in Italy
Italy
was terminated in 1967. Heavy trucks continued to be built for a few years in Brazil
Brazil
by Alfa Romeo subsidiary Fábrica Nacional de Motores under the name FNM. The last Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
vans were the Alfa Romeo AR6
Alfa Romeo AR6
and AR8, rebadged versions of Iveco Daily
Iveco Daily
and Fiat
Fiat
Ducato. The company also produced trolleybuses for many systems in Italy, Latin America,[69] Sweden,[70] Greece,[71] Germany, Turkey and South Africa. Later, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
concentrated only on passenger car manufacturing.

LCVs Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
430 Alfa Romeo Romeo
Alfa Romeo Romeo
(1954–1958) Alfa Romeo Romeo
Alfa Romeo Romeo
2 (until 1966) Alfa Romeo Romeo
Alfa Romeo Romeo
3 (1966) Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
A11/F11 (1954–1983) Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
A12/F12 AR8 (based on first generation Iveco
Iveco
Daily) AR6 (based on first generation Fiat
Fiat
Ducato) Alfa Romeo F20
Alfa Romeo F20
( Saviem
Saviem
license) Trucks Alfa Romeo 50
Alfa Romeo 50
"Biscione" (Büssing-NAG 50)/ 80 (1931–1934)[72] Alfa Romeo 85
Alfa Romeo 85
/ 110 (1934 – n/a) Alfa Romeo 350
Alfa Romeo 350
(1935 – n/a) Alfa Romeo 430
Alfa Romeo 430
(1942–1950)[73] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
450/455 (1947–1959) Alfa Romeo 500
Alfa Romeo 500
(1937–1945) Alfa Romeo 800
Alfa Romeo 800
(1940–1943)[73] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
900 (1947–1954) Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
950 (1954–1958) Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Mille ( Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
1000) (1958–1964) Alfa Romeo A15
Alfa Romeo A15
( Saviem
Saviem
license) Alfa Romeo A19
Alfa Romeo A19
( Saviem
Saviem
license) Alfa Romeo A38
Alfa Romeo A38
( Saviem
Saviem
license) A 1961 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
1000 (Mille) Aerfer FI 711.2 OCREN trolleybus on the Naples
Naples
ANM trolleybus system A 1962 Alfa Romeo Mille AF
Alfa Romeo Mille AF
trolleybus for CTP Napoli, with the iconic Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
badge in the centre Buses Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
40A Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
80A Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
85A Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
110A Alfa Romeo 140A
Alfa Romeo 140A
(1950–1958) Alfa Romeo 150A
Alfa Romeo 150A
(1958) Alfa Romeo 430A
Alfa Romeo 430A
(1949–1953) Alfa Romeo 500A
Alfa Romeo 500A
(1945–1948) Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
800A Alfa Romeo 900A
Alfa Romeo 900A
(1953–1956) Alfa Romeo 902A
Alfa Romeo 902A
(1957–1959) Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
950A Alfa Romeo Mille (bus)
Alfa Romeo Mille (bus)
( Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
1000) (1960–1964) Trolleybuses Alfa Romeo 110AF
Alfa Romeo 110AF
(1938) Alfa Romeo 140AF
Alfa Romeo 140AF
(1949) Alfa Romeo 800AF
Alfa Romeo 800AF
(1950–1954) Alfa Romeo 900AF
Alfa Romeo 900AF
(1955–1957) Alfa Romeo Mille AF
Alfa Romeo Mille AF
( Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
1000) (1959–1964) Concepts[edit] Main article: Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
concept cars Design has always played a large role in the history of Alfa Romeo. There have been many Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
concept cars, often made by famous design houses and designers. The BAT series of concepts from the 1950s was a collaboration with the Italian design house Bertone. Other famous Italian coachbuilders and design houses like Pininfarina, Bertone, Zagato
Zagato
and ItalDesign- Giugiaro
Giugiaro
have also played a great role in Alfa Romeo's history, and even today some of models are designed and constructed by them.

Other production[edit] Although Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
is best known as automobile manufacturer it has also produced commercial vehicles of various size, railway locomotives,[6] tractors, buses, trams, compressors, generators, an electric cooker,[74] marine and aircraft engines.

Aircraft engines[edit] Main article: Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Avio D2 aircraft engine An Alfa engine was first used on an aircraft in 1910 on the Santoni-Franchini biplane.[75] In 1932 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
built its first real aircraft engine, the D2 (240 bhp), fitted to Caproni 101 D2. In the 1930s when Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
engines were used for aircraft on a larger scale; the Savoia Marchetti SM.74, Savoia-Marchetti SM.75, Savoia-Marchetti SM.79, Savoia Marchetti SM.81 and Cant Z506B Airone all used Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
manufactured engines.[76] In 1931, a competition was arranged where Tazio Nuvolari
Tazio Nuvolari
drove his Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
8C 3000 Monza
Monza
against a Caproni
Caproni
Ca.100 airplane.[77] Alfa Romeo built various aircraft engines during the Second World War; the best known was the RA.1000 RC 41-I Monsone, a licensed version of the Daimler-Benz DB 601. This engine made it possible to build efficient fighter aircraft like the Macchi C.202 Folgore
Macchi C.202 Folgore
for the Italian army. After the Second World War
Second World War
Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
produced engines for Fiat, Aerfer and Ambrosini. In the 1960s Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
mainly focused upgrading and maintaining Curtiss-Wright, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce and General Electric
General Electric
aircraft engines. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
also built Italy's first turbine engine, installed to the Beechcraft King Air. Alfa Romeo's Avio division was sold to Aeritalia in 1988,[78] from 1996 it was part of Fiat
Fiat
Avio.[79] Alfa Avio was also part of developing team to the new T700-T6E1 engine to the NHI NH90 helicopter.[80]

Locomotive FS E.333 built by Ing. Nicola Romeo
Nicola Romeo
e Co. in Saronno Marine engines[edit] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
also produced marine engines. The first marine engine was produced in 1929. Later, for three consecutive years: 1937-1938-1939 with remarkable affirmations, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
demonstrated its constructive efficiency by contributing to the development of marine engines.

(1938) 12 cyl (4.500) 121,710 km/h Aero-engines[edit] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
D2 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
110 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
115 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
121 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
125 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
126 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
128 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
135 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Lynx Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Mercurius Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
RA.1000 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
RA-1050 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
R.C.10 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
R.C.34 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
R.C.35 Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
AR.318 Marketing and sponsorship[edit] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
official dealers worldwide map. Alfa Romeo II
Alfa Romeo II
on its first sail During the years Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
has been marketed with different slogans like: "The family car that wins races" used in the 1950s in Alfa Romeo 1900 marketing campaign, "racing since 1911" used on most 1960s Alfa advertisements,[81] In the 1970s the Alfa Romeo 1750
Alfa Romeo 1750
GTV was marketed as "if this kind of handling is good enough for our racing cars, it's good enough for you."[82] The Giulia Sprint GTA was marketed as "The car you drive to work is a champion".[83] More recent slogans used are "Mediocrity is a sin", "Driven by Passion", "Cuore Sportivo", "Beauty is not enough" and present day "Without heart we would be mere machines". Also other more recent ones are: "It's not a car, it's an Alfa Romeo.", one of them after a couple argue in Italian. As part of its marketing policy, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
sponsors a number of sporting events, such as the Mille Miglia
Mille Miglia
rally.[84] It has sponsored the SBK Superbike World Championship
Superbike World Championship
and Ducati
Ducati
Corse since 2007, and the Goodwood Festival of Speed
Goodwood Festival of Speed
for many years, and was one of the featured brands in 2010 when Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
celebrated its 100th anniversary.[85][86] The Alfa Romeo Giulietta
Alfa Romeo Giulietta
has been used since Monza
Monza
2010 race as the safety car in Superbike World Championship events.[87] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
has been also shirt sponsor of Eintracht Frankfurt
Eintracht Frankfurt
football club in period between 2013 and 2016. In 2002, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
I, the first Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
super maxi yacht was launched. It finished first in at least 74 races including the 2002 Sydney—Hobart Race.[88] Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
II, commissioned in 2005, measures 30 metres (98 ft) LOA. It set a new elapsed-time record for monohulls in the 2009 Transpac race, of 5 days, 14 hours, 36 minutes, 20 seconds[89] It finished first in at least 140 races. In mid-2008 Alfa Romeo III
Alfa Romeo III
was launched for competitive fleet racing under the IRC rule. Alfa Romeo III
Alfa Romeo III
measures 21.4 metres (70 ft) LOA and features interior design styled after the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione.[90] The BBC
BBC
motoring show Top Gear repeatedly argued the significance of owning an Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
car as a car enthusiast, stating that "You can't be a true petrolhead if you have never owned/or wanted to own an Alfa Romeo". Presenters Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond
Richard Hammond
and James May continuously praised Alfas for their beauty and driving characteristics even though Italian cars had a long-term bad reputation for unreliability. They argued that you (the owner) build a personal relationship with the car despite all of its mechanical faults. Both Clarkson and May have previously owned Alfas (a GTV6 for Clarkson and an Alfa 164 for May) and both have stated that they regretted selling their Alfas the most. During Super Bowl LI, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
ran three commercials throughout the game; the brand was the sole marque advertised by FCA during the game, after exclusively focusing on its Jeep
Jeep
brand at Super Bowl 50.[91][34] In February 2013, Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
sponsored University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
FS fashion show[92] which saw luxury fashion designer Luke Archer and milliner George Jenkins win with their Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
inspired garments.

See also[edit]

Italy
Italy
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^ "2008 Half-yearly Financial Report/ Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Automobiles S.p.A. Torino, Page 76" (PDF). 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2009..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

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.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Fusi, Luigi (1978). Alfa Romeo—Tutte le vetture dal 1910—All cars from 1910 (3rd ed.). Milan: Emmeti Grafica editrice.

Further reading[edit] Borgeson, Griffith (1990). The Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Tradition. Haynes (Foulis) Publishing Group. Somerset, UK. ISBN 0-85429-875-4. Braden, Pat (1994). Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Owner's Bible Cambridge: Bentley Publishers. ISBN 0-8376-0707-8. Stefano d' Amico and Maurizio Tabuchi (2004). Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Production Cars. Giorgio NADA Editore. ISBN 88-7911-322-4. Hull and Slater (1982). Alfa Romeo: a History. Transport Bookman Publications. ISBN 0-85184-041-8. Venables, David (2000). First among Champions. Osceola: Motorbooks International. ISBN 1-85960-631-8. Owen, David. Great Marques, Alfa Romeo. London: Octopus Books, 1985. ISBN 0-7064-2219-8 Owen, David. Alfa Romeo: Always with Passion. Haynes Publications, 1999. ISBN 1-85960-628-8 Moore, Simon (1987). Immortal 2.9. Parkside Pubns. ISBN 978-0-9617266-0-7. Mcdonough, E., & Collins, P. (2005). Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Tipo 33. Veloce Publishing. ISBN 1-904788-71-8 Tipler, John. Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Spider, The complete history. Crowood Press (UK), 1998. ISBN 1-86126-122-5 Tipler, John. Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Coupe Gt & Gta. Veloce Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-903706-47-5 Styles, David G. " Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
– The Legend Revived", Dalton Watson 1989. ISBN 978-0-901564-75-7 Styles, David G. " Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
– Spider, Alfasud & Alfetta GT", Crowood Press 1992. ISBN 1-85223-636-1 Styles, David G. " Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
– The Spirit of Milan", Sutton Publishing 1999. ISBN 0-7509-1924-8 External links[edit]

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