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(1) Margaret Fleming (died 1918)[1][2] (2) Theo Cobb[1] (survived Alf, died in 1996)[3]

Children Margaret Anne (first marriage),[1] Nancy, John (both from second marriage)[1]

Alma mater University of Kansas

Profession Banker, oilman, politician

Military service

Allegiance   United States
United States
of America

Service/branch United States
United States
Army

Years of service c. 1917–18

Rank First lieutenant

Battles/wars World War I

Alfred Mossman Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American politician from the Republican Party. He served as the twenty-sixth Governor of Kansas
Governor of Kansas
from 1933 to 1937. He was the Republican Party’s nominee in the 1936 presidential election, but was defeated in a landslide by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Born in West Middlesex, Pennsylvania, Landon spent most of his childhood in Marietta, Ohio
Marietta, Ohio
before moving to Kansas. After graduating from the University of Kansas, he became an independent oil producer in Lawrence, Kansas. His business made him a millionaire, and he became a leader of the liberal Republicans in Kansas. Landon won election as Governor of Kansas
Governor of Kansas
in 1932 and sought to reduce taxes and balance the budget in the midst of the Great Depression. He supported many components of the New Deal
New Deal
but criticized some aspects that he found inefficient. The 1936 Republican National Convention
1936 Republican National Convention
selected Landon as the Republican Party's presidential nominee. He proved to be an ineffective campaigner and carried just two states in the election. After the election, he left office as governor and did not again seek public office. Later in life, he supported the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
and President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society
Great Society
programs. He gave the first in a series of lectures, now known as the Landon Lecture
Landon Lecture
Series, at Kansas
Kansas
State University. Landon lived to the age of 100 and died in Topeka, Kansas, in 1987. His daughter, Nancy Kassebaum, represented Kansas
Kansas
in the United States
United States
Senate from 1978 to 1997.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career

2.1 1936 presidential election

3 Later life 4 100th birthday and death 5 Descendants 6 Electoral history 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Early life and education[edit] Landon was born in 1887 in West Middlesex, Pennsylvania, the son of Anne (Mossman) and John Manuel Landon.[4] Landon grew up in Marietta, Ohio.[5] He moved with his family to Kansas
Kansas
at age 17 and graduated from the University of Kansas
Kansas
in 1908. Alfred first pursued a career in banking, but in 1912 he became an independent petroleum producer in Independence, Kansas. During World War I, Landon served in the Army as a first lieutenant in chemical warfare. By 1929, the oil industry had made Alf a millionaire, and he was instrumental in the establishment of the Kansas- Oklahoma
Oklahoma
division of the United States
United States
Oil and Gas Association, then known as the Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association, a petroleum lobbying organization.[6] Career[edit] Landon supported Theodore Roosevelt’s Progressive Party in 1912, and by 1922, was private secretary to the governor of Kansas. He later became known as the leader of the liberal Republicans in the state. He was elected chairman of the Republican state central committee in 1928 and directed the Republican successful presidential and gubernatorial campaigns in Kansas
Kansas
in that year. Landon was elected Governor of Kansas
Governor of Kansas
in 1932. He was re-elected governor in 1934, being alongside Gov. Frank Merriam
Frank Merriam
of California, the only Republican governors in the nation to be re-elected that year. As governor, Landon gained a reputation for reducing taxes and balancing the budget. Landon is often described as a fiscal conservative who nevertheless believed that government must also address certain social issues. He supported parts of the New Deal
New Deal
and labor unions. In the 1932 presidential campaign, a coolness developed between Landon and then U.S. President
U.S. President
Herbert Hoover. Osro Cobb of Arkansas, a friend of both men, tried to bring about a reconciliation, as he explains in his memoirs:

For reasons I never understood, some friction developed between President Hoover and my friend, Governor Landon, who had a summer place in Evergreen, Colorado....I was in and out of Colorado
Colorado
during the summers and visited frequently with Governor Landon. I was eager to get him and the President together in hopes of bringing about a reconciliation that would benefit them personally and the Republican Party. All of us were at the Broadmoor Hotel in Colorado
Colorado
Springs for a meeting, which I saw as an opportunity to get them together ... for dinner, but whatever undercurrent existed remained, and they continued to be cool toward each other. President Hoover was one of the great Americans of this century. He was competent, compassionate, and a man of unequaled qualifications. The country paid an awful price when he was sacrificed by political caprice.[7]

During his gubernatorial years, Landon attempted to address the needs of his Depression-battered state while still advancing the Republican Party. After his speech at the Cleveland convention in 1936, Landon stated, “My chief concern in this crisis is to see the Republican Party name its strongest possible candidate and a man that would be a good president.”[8] During the election year, Landon called for a “special session of the Legislature to enact measures to bring Kansas
Kansas
within the requirements of the federal social security program.”[9] 1936 presidential election[edit] Main article: United States
United States
presidential election, 1936

Cover of Time magazine, 18 May 1936

In 1936, Landon sought the Republican presidential nomination opposing the re-election of FDR. At the 1936 Republican National Convention, Landon’s campaign manager John Hamilton mobilized the younger elements of the party against the faction led by Herbert Hoover. Landon won the nomination on the first ballot; the convention selected Chicago newspaper publisher (and FDR’s future Secretary of the Navy) Frank Knox
Frank Knox
as his running mate. Landon proved to be an ineffective campaigner who rarely traveled. Most of the attacks on FDR and Social Security were developed by Republican campaigners rather than Landon himself. In the two months after his nomination he made no campaign appearances. As columnist Westbrook Pegler
Westbrook Pegler
lampooned, “Considerable mystery surrounds the disappearance of Alfred M. Landon of Topeka, Kansas.... The Missing Persons Bureau has sent out an alarm bulletin bearing Mr. Landon's photograph and other particulars, and anyone having information of his whereabouts is asked to communicate direct with the Republican National Committee.”[10] Landon respected and admired Roosevelt and accepted much of the New Deal but objected that it was hostile to business and involved too much waste and inefficiency. Late in the campaign, Landon accused Roosevelt of corruption – that is, of acquiring so much power that he was subverting the Constitution. Landon said:

“The President spoke truly when he boasted... 'We have built up new instruments of public power.' He spoke truly when he said these instruments could provide 'shackles for the liberties of the people... and... enslavement for the public.' These powers were granted with the understanding that they were only temporary. But after the powers had been obtained, and after the emergency was clearly over, we were told that another emergency would be created if the power was given up. In other words, the concentration of power in the hands of the President was not a question of temporary emergency. It was a question of permanent national policy. In my opinion the emergency of 1933 was a mere excuse.... National economic planning—the term used by this Administration to describe its policy—violates the basic ideals of the American system.... The price of economic planning is the loss of economic freedom. And economic freedom and personal liberty go hand in hand.”[11]

The 1936 presidential election was extraordinarily lopsided. Although Landon gained nearly seventeen million votes and obtained the endorsement of track star Jesse Owens, he lost the popular vote by more than 10 million votes. He lost his home state Kansas
Kansas
and carried only Maine
Maine
and Vermont
Vermont
for a total of eight electoral votes to Roosevelt’s 523. In fact on the same day Kansas
Kansas
rejected Landon for the presidency the state also elected Democrat Walter A. Huxman
Walter A. Huxman
as his successor as governor. FDR’s win was the most crushing electoral victory since the 1820 election. The overwhelming Roosevelt victory prompted Democratic Party boss James Farley
James Farley
to joke, “As Maine
Maine
goes, so goes Vermont”. Later life[edit] Following his defeat, Landon finished out his term as governor of Kansas
Kansas
and returned to the oil industry. Landon did not seek elected office again. The Republicans' defeats in 1932 and 1936 plunged their party into a period of bitter intraparty strife. Landon played an important role in ending this internal bickering in 1938, in helping to prepare a new group of leaders for the presidential campaign of 1940, and in trying to bring about a compromise between the isolationist and internationalist viewpoints in foreign policy. Landon declined a position in Franklin Roosevelt's Cabinet because he made his acceptance contingent upon the President's renunciation of a third term.[12] After war broke out in Europe in 1939 Landon fought against isolationists such as America First who supported the Neutrality Act; he feared it would mislead Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
into thinking the United States was unwilling to fight. In 1941, however, he joined isolationists in arguing against lend-lease, although he did urge that Britain be given $5 billion outright instead. After the war, he backed the Marshall Plan, while opposing high domestic spending. After the communist revolution in China, he was one of the first to advocate recognition of Mao Zedong's communist government, and its admission to the United Nations, when this was still a very unpopular position among the leadership and followers of both major parties. In 1961, Landon urged the U.S. to join the European Common Market.[1] In November 1962, when he was asked to describe his political philosophy, Landon said: "I would say practical progressive, which means that the Republican party or any political party has got to recognize the problems of a growing and complex industrial civilization. And I don't think the Republican party is really wide awake to that."[1] Later in the 1960s, Landon backed President Lyndon Johnson on Medicare and other Great Society
Great Society
programs. On December 13, 1966, Landon gave the first "Landon Lecture" at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas. Landon's lecture, titled "New Challenges in International Relations" was the first in a series of public issues lectures that continues to this day and has featured numerous world leaders and political figures, including seven U.S. presidents (Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and George W. Bush). Landon addressed the Republican National Convention
Republican National Convention
in 1976 in Kansas City.[13] 100th birthday and death[edit] President Reagan and Mrs. Reagan attended Landon's hundredth birthday party at his home in Topeka.[14] President Reagan described Landon as "the living soul of Kansas" and remarked, "You don't know what a joy it is to come to a birthday party of someone who in all honesty can call me a kid." Landon, standing with the use of a walking stick, told the President and well-wishers at the party, "It's a great day in my life. And it's a great day in the lives of all of us to have had the privilege that we have today of meeting with the President of the United States
United States
and Mrs. Reagan."[15] White House Chief of Staff
White House Chief of Staff
Howard Baker married Landon's daughter Nancy nine years later. Landon died in Topeka
Topeka
on October 12, 1987 at 5:25 p.m.,[13] thirty-three days after celebrating his hundredth birthday, and is interred at Mount Hope Cemetery in Topeka. He is the only presidential candidate from a major party to live to at least one hundred years of age ( Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
reached an age that was a few months older than Landon's but he was a minor party presidential candidate). Descendants[edit] Landon’s daughter, Nancy Landon Kassebaum, was a United States Senator from Kansas. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1978, she was re-elected in 1984 and 1990. Her second husband was her former Senate colleague Howard Henry Baker, Jr., of Tennessee
Tennessee
(1925–2014). Electoral history[edit] Kansas
Kansas
gubernatorial election, 1932[16]

Alf Landon
Alf Landon
(R) – 278,581 (34.82%) Harry Hines Woodring
Harry Hines Woodring
(D, Inc.) – 272,944 (34.12%) John Romulus Brinkley (I) – 244,607 (30.58%)

Republican primary for Governor of Kansas, 1934[17]

Alf Landon
Alf Landon
(Inc.) – 233,956 (79.87%) John Romulus Brinkley – 58,983 (20.14%)

Kansas
Kansas
gubernatorial election, 1934[18]

Alf Landon
Alf Landon
(R, Inc.) – 422,030 (53.51%) Omar B. Ketchum (D) – 359,877 (45.63%) George M. Whiteside (Socialist) – 6,744 (0.86%)

Republican presidential primaries, 1936[19]

William E. Borah
William E. Borah
– 1,478,676 (44.48%) Alf Landon
Alf Landon
– 729,908 (21.96%) Frank Knox
Frank Knox
– 527,054 (15.85%) Earl Warren
Earl Warren
– 350,917 (10.56%) Stephen A. Day – 155,732 (4.69%) Warren E. Green
Warren E. Green
– 44,518 (1.34%) Leo J. Chassee – 18,986 (0.57%) Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
– 7,750 (0.23%) Frederick Steiwer
Frederick Steiwer
– 3,285 (0.10%) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(write-in) – 1,159 (0.04%)

1936 Republican National Convention

Alf Landon
Alf Landon
– 984 (98.11%) William E. Borah
William E. Borah
– 19 (1.89%)

United States
United States
presidential election, 1936

Franklin D. Roosevelt/ John Nance Garner
John Nance Garner
(Democratic, Inc.) – 27,752,648 (60.8%) and 523 electoral votes (46 states carried) Alf Landon/ Frank Knox
Frank Knox
(Republican) – 16,681,862 (36.5%) and 8 electoral votes (2 states carried) William Lemke/ Thomas C. O'Brien (Union) – 892,378 (2.0%) and 0 electoral votes Norman Thomas/ George A. Nelson
George A. Nelson
(Socialist) – 187,910 (0.4%) and 0 electoral votes Earl Browder/ James W. Ford
James W. Ford
(Communist) – 79,315 (0.2%) and 0 electoral votes Others – 53,586 (0.1%) and 0 electoral votes

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f "Alf Landon, G.O.P. Stand-Bearer, Dies at 100". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.  ^ "Alfred M. Landon". Topeka, KS: Kansas
Kansas
Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 17, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.  ^ "Widow of Alf Landon
Alf Landon
Dies". The New York Times. July 23, 1996. Retrieved December 12, 2010.  ^ http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/landon.html ^ "The Alf Landon
Alf Landon
legacy". Retrieved 2008-03-30.  ^ "Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association of Oklahoma". okmoga.com. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2014.  ^ Osro Cobb, Osro Cobb of Arkansas: Memoirs of Historical Significance, Carol Griffee, ed. (Little Rock, Arkansas: Rose Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 120-121 ^ "Knox Assails Farm Program" (PDF). Amsterdam Evening Recorder. Amsterdam, NY. 1936-03-25. p. 5. Retrieved 2013-06-26.  ^ "Landon Seeks GOP Harmony". The Bradford Era. Bradford, PA. 1936-03-25. pp. 1, 14. Retrieved 2013-06-26.  ^ Time, August 31, 1936 ^ Time October 26, 1936 ^ Mayer 1966 ^ a b "Alf Landon, Republicans' Beloved Loser, Dies at 100", Los Angeles Times, October 13, 1987. ^ Sipchen, Bobl (8 September 1987), Reagan's Vacation : When the President Takes Time Off Out Here, the Costs and the Logistics Are Enormous, Los Angeles Times, retrieved 3 April 2016  ^ Brinkley, Joel (7 September 1987), At a Party for 100th Birthday, Landon Receives a Kid of 76, The New York Times, retrieved 21 March 2016  ^ Our Campaigns – KS Governor Race – Nov 8, 1932 ^ Our Campaigns – KS Governor – R Primary Race – Aug 7, 1934 ^ Our Campaigns – KS Governor Race – Nov 6, 1934 ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 1, 1936

Further reading[edit]

McCoy, Donald R. Landon of Kansas
Kansas
(1966) standard scholarly biography Mayer, George H. "Alf M. Landon, as Leader of the Republican Opposition, 1937–1940." Kansas
Kansas
Historical Quarterly 1966 32(3): 325–333. online

External links[edit]

Biography portal

Alf Landon's Obituary (New York Times) Alfred M. Landon Lecture Series
Landon Lecture Series
on Public Issues ( Kansas
Kansas
State University) Alf Landon
Alf Landon
and Social Security Reform by Nicholaus Mills, Dissent, Spring 2005. "Alf Landon". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 

Political offices

Preceded by Harry Woodring Governor of Kansas January 9, 1933 – January 11, 1937 Succeeded by Walter Huxman

Party political offices

Preceded by Frank Haucke Republican nominee for Governor of Kansas 1932, 1934 Succeeded by Will G. West

Preceded by Herbert Hoover Republican nominee for President of the United States 1936 Succeeded by Wendell Willkie

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(1932 ←) United States
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presidential election, 1936 (→ 1940)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

VP nominee

John Nance Garner

Candidates

Henry S. Breckinridge

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Alf Landon

VP nominee

Frank Knox

Candidates

William Borah Stephen A. Day Lester J. Dickinson Warren Green Frank Knox Earl Warren Frederick Steiwer

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Nominee

Earl Browder

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James W. Ford

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Nominee

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VP nominee

Claude A. Watson

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Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

George A. Nelson

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Nominee

William Lemke

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Nominee

John W. Aiken

VP nominee

Emil F. Teichert

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Nominee

William Dudley Pelley

VP nominee

Willard Kemp

Other 1936 elections: House Senate

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 6418204 LCCN: n86111015 ISNI: 0000 0000 3982 5246 BNF: cb16974336s (da

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