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Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/;[3] Arabic: الإسكندرية al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية Eskendria; Coptic: Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second-largest city in Egypt
Egypt
and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta
Nile delta
makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria
Alexandria
is also a popular tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It became an important center of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic (Greek) Egypt
Egypt
and Roman and Byzantine Egypt
Egypt
for almost 1000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo). Hellenistic Alexandria
Alexandria
was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria
Lighthouse of Alexandria
(Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library
Great Library
(the largest in the ancient world; now replaced by a modern one); and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Alexandria
Alexandria
was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria
Alexandria
both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty. From the late 18th century, Alexandria
Alexandria
became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Red Sea, and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Among famous neighbourhoods in Alexandria
Alexandria
are: Loran, Miami, Azareeta, Somouha, Shateby, Ras-El-Teen, Bahary, El-Mandara, Sidi-Bishr, Asafra, Mansheyya and Abu-Kir.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient era 1.2 Muhammad's era 1.3 Islamic era 1.4 Timeline

2 Layout of the ancient city 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Historical sites and landmarks

4.1 Temple of Taposiris Magna

5 Religion

5.1 Islam 5.2 Christianity 5.3 Judaism

6 Education

6.1 Colleges and universities 6.2 Schools

7 Transport

7.1 Airports 7.2 Highways 7.3 Rail 7.4 Trams 7.5 Taxis and minibuses 7.6 Port

8 Culture

8.1 Libraries 8.2 Museums 8.3 Sports 8.4 Theaters 8.5 Tourism

9 International relations

9.1 Twin towns/Sister cities

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Alexandria
History of Alexandria
and Timeline of Alexandria Ancient era[edit]

, or

raqd(y).t (Alexandria) in hieroglyphs

Alexander The Great

Alexandria
Alexandria
is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in April 332 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Alexandria). Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. Alexandria
Alexandria
was intended to supersede Naucratis
Naucratis
as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece
Greece
and the rich Nile
Nile
valley. Although it has long been believed only a small village there, recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination show significant human activity at the location for two millennia preceding Alexandria's founding [4] Alexandria
Alexandria
was the intellectual and cultural center of the ancient world for some time. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews and Syrians. The city was later plundered and lost its significance.[5] In the early Christian Church, the city was the center of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, which was one of the major centers of early Christianity
Christianity
in the Eastern Roman Empire. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Just east of Alexandria
Alexandria
(where Abu Qir Bay
Abu Qir Bay
is now), there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was recently rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis, already existed on the shore and later gave its name to Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Egyptian language
Egyptian language
(Egyptian *Raˁ-Ḳāṭit, written rˁ-ḳṭy.t, 'That which is built up'). It continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt
Egypt
and never returned to his city. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion. Following a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Lagides succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria, though it was eventually lost after being separated from its burial site there.[6] Although Cleomenes was mainly in charge of overseeing Alexandria's continuous development, the Heptastadion
Heptastadion
and the mainland quarters seem to have been primarily Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria
Alexandria
had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. It became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds.[7] Alexandria
Alexandria
was not only a center of Hellenism, but was also home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world. The Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning (Library of Alexandria), but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian.[8] In AD 115, large parts of Alexandria
Alexandria
were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian
Hadrian
and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. In 215, the emperor Caracalla
Caracalla
visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. On 21 July 365, Alexandria
Alexandria
was devastated by a tsunami (365 Crete
Crete
earthquake),[9] an event annually commemorated years later as a "day of horror."[10]

Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces

Muhammad's era[edit] Main article: List of expeditions of Muhammad

Entry of General Bonaparte into Alexandria, oil on canvas, 365 cm × 500 cm (144 in × 197 in), ca. 1800, Versailles

The Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad's first interaction with the people of Egypt
Egypt
occurred in 628, during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma). He sent Hatib bin Abi Baltaeh with a letter to the king of Egypt
Egypt
(in reality Emperor Heraclius) and Alexandria
Alexandria
called Muqawqis[11][12] In the letter Muhammad said: "I invite you to accept Islam, Allah the sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you will bear the burden of the transgression of all the Copts". During this expedition one of Muhammad's envoys Dihyah bin Khalifa Kalbi was attacked, Muhammad sent Zayd ibn Haritha
Zayd ibn Haritha
to help him. Dihya approached the Banu Dubayb (a tribe which converted to Islam and had good relations with Muslims) for help. When the news reached Muhammad, he immediately dispatched Zayd ibn Haritha
Zayd ibn Haritha
with 500 men to battle. The Muslim army fought with Banu Judham, killed several of them (inflicting heavy casualties), including their chief, Al-Hunayd ibn Arid and his son, and captured 1000 camels, 5000 of their cattle and 100 women and boys. The new chief of the Banu Judham who had embraced Islam appealed to Muhammad to release his fellow tribesmen, and Muhammad released them.[13][14] Islamic era[edit]

The Battle of Abukir, by Antoine-Jean Gros
Antoine-Jean Gros
1806.

In 619, Alexandria
Alexandria
fell to the Sassanid Persians. Although the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
recovered it in 629, in 641 the Arabs under the general 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
captured it during the Muslim conquest of Egypt, after a siege that lasted 14 months. After the Battle of Ridaniya in 1517, the city was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and remained under Ottoman rule until 1798. Alexandria lost much of its former importance to the Egyptian port city of Rosetta
Rosetta
during the 9th to 18th centuries, and only regained its former prominence with the construction of the Mahmoudiyah Canal
Mahmoudiyah Canal
in 1807. Alexandria
Alexandria
figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt
Egypt
in 1798. French troops stormed the city on 2 July 1798, and it remained in their hands until the arrival of a British expedition in 1801. The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria
Battle of Alexandria
on 21 March 1801, following which they besieged the city, which fell to them on 2 September 1801. Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman governor of Egypt, began rebuilding and redevelopment around 1810, and by 1850, Alexandria
Alexandria
had returned to something akin to its former glory.[15] Egypt
Egypt
turned to Europe in their effort to modernize the country. Greeks, followed by other Europeans and others, began moving to the city. In the early 20th century, the city became a home for novelists and poets.[5] In July 1882, the city came under bombardment from British naval forces and was occupied.[16] In July 1954, the city was a target of an Israeli bombing campaign that later became known as the Lavon Affair. On 26 October 1954, Alexandria's Mansheya Square was the site of a failed assassination attempt on Gamal Abdel Nasser.[17] Europeans began leaving Alexandria
Alexandria
following the 1956 Suez
Suez
Crisis that led to an outburst of Arab nationalism. The nationalization of property by Nasser, which reached its highest point in 1961, drove out nearly all the rest.[5] Timeline[edit] The most important battles and sieges of Alexandria
Alexandria
include:

Siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
(47 BC), Julius Caesar's civil war Battle of Alexandria
Battle of Alexandria
(30 BC), final war of the Roman Republic Siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
(619), Byzantine-Persian Wars Siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
(641), Rashidun conquest of Byzantine Egypt Alexandrian Crusade (1365), a crusade led by Peter de Lusignan of Cyprus
Cyprus
which resulted in the defeat of the Mamluks and the sack of the city. Battle of Alexandria
Battle of Alexandria
(1801), Napoleonic Wars Siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
(1801), Napoleonic Wars Alexandria
Alexandria
expedition (1807), Napoleonic Wars

Layout of the ancient city[edit]

Macedonian Army

Greek Alexandria
Alexandria
was divided into three regions:

Brucheum the Royal or Greek quarter, forming the most magnificent portion of the city. In Roman times Brucheum was enlarged by the addition of an official quarter, making four regions in all. The city was laid out as a grid of parallel streets, each of which had an attendant subterranean canal; The Jewish quarter forming the northeast portion of the city; Rhakotis The old city of Rhakotis that had been absorbed into Alexandria
Alexandria
was occupied chiefly by Egyptians. (from Coptic Rakotə "Alexandria").

Engraving
Engraving
by L F Cassas of the Canopic Street in Alexandria, Egypt made in 1784.

Two main streets, lined with colonnades and said to have been each about 60 meters (200 ft) wide, intersected in the center of the city, close to the point where the Sema (or Soma) of Alexander (his Mausoleum) rose. This point is very near the present mosque of Nebi Daniel; and the line of the great East–West "Canopic" street, only slightly diverged from that of the modern Boulevard de Rosette (now Sharia Fouad). Traces of its pavement and canal have been found near the Rosetta
Rosetta
Gate, but remnants of streets and canals were exposed in 1899 by German excavators outside the east fortifications, which lie well within the area of the ancient city. Alexandria
Alexandria
consisted originally of little more than the island of Pharos, which was joined to the mainland by a 1,260-metre-long (4,130 ft) mole and called the Heptastadion
Heptastadion
("seven stadia"—a stadium was a Greek unit of length measuring approximately 180 metres or 590 feet). The end of this abutted on the land at the head of the present Grand Square, where the "Moon Gate" rose. All that now lies between that point and the modern "Ras al-Tin" quarter is built on the silt which gradually widened and obliterated this mole. The Ras al-Tin quarter represents all that is left of the island of Pharos, the site of the actual lighthouse having been weathered away by the sea. On the east of the mole was the Great Harbor, now an open bay; on the west lay the port of Eunostos, with its inner basin Kibotos, now vastly enlarged to form the modern harbor. In Strabo's time, (latter half of the 1st century BC) the principal buildings were as follows, enumerated as they were to be seen from a ship entering the Great Harbor.

The Royal Palaces, filling the northeast angle of the town and occupying the promontory of Lochias, which shut in the Great Harbor on the east. Lochias (the modern Pharillon) has almost entirely disappeared into the sea, together with the palaces, the "Private Port," and the island of Antirrhodus. There has been a land subsidence here, as throughout the northeast coast of Africa. The Great Theater, on the modern Hospital Hill near the Ramleh station. This was used by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
as a fortress, where he withstood a siege from the city mob after he took Egypt
Egypt
after the battle of Pharsalus[citation needed][clarification needed] The Poseidon, or Temple of the Sea God, close to the theater The Timonium built by Marc Antony The Emporium (Exchange) The Apostases (Magazines) The Navalia (Docks), lying west of the Timonium, along the seafront as far as the mole Behind the Emporium rose the Great Caesareum, by which stood the two great obelisks, which become known as “Cleopatra's Needles,” and were transported to New York City and London. This temple became, in time, the Patriarchal Church, though some ancient remains of the temple have been discovered. The actual Caesareum, the parts not eroded by the waves, lies under the houses lining the new seawall. The Gymnasium and the Palaestra are both inland, near the Boulevard de Rosette in the eastern half of the town; sites unknown. The Temple of Saturn; site unknown. The Mausolea of Alexander (Soma) and the Ptolemies in one ring-fence, near the point of intersection of the two main streets. The Musaeum
Musaeum
with its famous Library and theater in the same region; site unknown. The Serapeum of Alexandria, the most famous of all Alexandrian temples. Strabo
Strabo
tells us that this stood in the west of the city; and recent discoveries go far as to place it near “Pompey's Pillar,” which was an independent monument erected to commemorate Diocletian's siege of the city.

The names of a few other public buildings on the mainland are known, but there is little information as to their actual position. None, however, are as famous as the building that stood on the eastern point of Pharos island. There, The Great Lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, reputed to be 138 metres (453 feet) high, was situated. The first Ptolemy
Ptolemy
began the project, and the second Ptolemy ( Ptolemy
Ptolemy
II Philadelphus) completed it, at a total cost of 800 talents. It took 12 years to complete and served as a prototype for all later lighthouses in the world. The light was produced by a furnace at the top and the tower was built mostly with solid blocks of limestone. The Pharos lighthouse was destroyed by an earthquake in the 14th century, making it the second longest surviving ancient wonder, after the Great Pyramid of Giza. A temple of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
also stood on Pharos at the head of the mole. In the 1st century, the population of Alexandria
Alexandria
contained over 180,000 adult male citizens,[18] according to a census dated from 32 CE, in addition to a large number of freedmen, women, children and slaves. Estimates of the total population range from 216,000[19] to 500,000[20] making it one of the largest cities ever built before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
and the largest pre-industrial city that was not an imperial capital.[citation needed] Geography[edit] Alexandria
Alexandria
is located in the country of Egypt, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean. Climate[edit]

Satellite image of Alexandria
Alexandria
and other cities show its surrounding coastal plain

Lake Mariout

Alexandria
Alexandria
has a borderline hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification: BWh),[21] approaching a hot semi-arid climate (BSh). As the rest of Egypt's northern coast, the prevailing north wind, blowing across the Mediterranean, gives the city a less severe climate from the desert hinterland.[22] Rafah and Alexandria[23] are the wettest places in Egypt; the other wettest places are Rosetta, Baltim, Kafr el-Dawwar, and Mersa Matruh. The city's climate is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, moderating its temperatures, causing variable rainy winters and moderately hot summers that, at times, can be very humid; January and February are the coolest months, with daily maximum temperatures typically ranging from 12 to 18 °C (54 to 64 °F) and minimum temperatures that could reach 5 °C (41 °F). Alexandria
Alexandria
experiences violent storms, rain and sometimes snow, sleet and hail during the cooler months; these events, combined with a poor drainage system, have been responsible for occasional flooding in the city.[24] July and August are the hottest and driest months of the year, with an average daily maximum temperature of 30 °C (86 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 200 mm (7.9 in) but has been as high as 417 mm (16.4 in)[25] Port Said, Kosseir, Baltim, Damietta
Damietta
and Alexandria
Alexandria
have the least temperature variation in Egypt. The highest recorded temperature was 45 °C (113 °F) on May 30, 1961, and the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °C (32 °F) on January 31, 1994.[26]

Climate data for Alexandria

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 29.6 (85.3) 33 (91) 40 (104) 41 (106) 45 (113) 43.8 (110.8) 43 (109) 38.6 (101.5) 41.4 (106.5) 38.2 (100.8) 35.7 (96.3) 31 (88) 45 (113)

Average high °C (°F) 18.4 (65.1) 19.3 (66.7) 20.9 (69.6) 24 (75) 26.5 (79.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.7 (85.5) 30.4 (86.7) 29.6 (85.3) 27.6 (81.7) 24.1 (75.4) 20.1 (68.2) 24.9 (76.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 13.9 (57) 15.7 (60.3) 18.5 (65.3) 21.2 (70.2) 24.3 (75.7) 25.9 (78.6) 26.3 (79.3) 25.1 (77.2) 22 (72) 18.7 (65.7) 14.9 (58.8) 20 (68)

Average low °C (°F) 9.1 (48.4) 9.3 (48.7) 10.8 (51.4) 13.4 (56.1) 16.6 (61.9) 20.3 (68.5) 22.8 (73) 23.1 (73.6) 21.3 (70.3) 17.8 (64) 14.3 (57.7) 10.6 (51.1) 15.8 (60.4)

Record low °C (°F) 0 (32) 0 (32) 2.3 (36.1) 3.6 (38.5) 7 (45) 11.6 (52.9) 17 (63) 17.7 (63.9) 14 (57) 10.7 (51.3) 1 (34) 1.2 (34.2) 0 (32)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 52.8 (2.079) 29.2 (1.15) 14.3 (0.563) 3.6 (0.142) 1.3 (0.051) 0.01 (0.0004) 0.03 (0.0012) 0.1 (0.004) 0.8 (0.031) 9.4 (0.37) 31.7 (1.248) 52.7 (2.075) 195.94 (7.7146)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 mm) 11 8.9 6 1.9 1.0 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.2 2.9 5.4 9.5 46.92

Average relative humidity (%) 69 67 67 65 66 68 71 71 67 68 68 68 67.92

Mean monthly sunshine hours 192.2 217.5 248 273 316.2 354 362.7 344.1 297 282.1 225 195.3 3,307.1

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(UN),[27] Hong Kong Observatory for sunshine and mean temperatures,[28] Climate Charts for humidity[29]

Source #2: Voodoo Skies[26] and Bing Weather[30] for record temperatures

Alexandria
Alexandria
mean sea temperature[31]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

18 °C (64 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 18 °C (64 °F) 20 °C (68 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 22 °C (72 °F) 20 °C (68 °F)

Historical sites and landmarks[edit]

Egypt
Egypt
– Obelisk, Alexandria. Brooklyn Museum
Museum
Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.

Roman Amphitheater

Roman Pompey's Pillar

Due to the constant presence of war in Alexandria
Alexandria
in ancient times, very little of the ancient city has survived into the present day. Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbour due to earthquake subsidence in AD 365, and the rest has been built over in modern times.

Kom El Shoqafa

"Pompey's Pillar", a Roman triumphal column, is one of the best-known ancient monuments still standing in Alexandria
Alexandria
today. It is located on Alexandria's ancient acropolis—a modest hill located adjacent to the city's Arab cemetery—and was originally part of a temple colonnade. Including its pedestal, it is 30 m (99 ft) high; the shaft is of polished red granite, 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in diameter at the base, tapering to 2.4 m (7.9 ft) at the top. The shaft is 88 feet (27 m) high, and made out of a single piece of granite. Its volume is 132 cubic meters (4,662 cubic feet) and weight approximately 396 tons.[32][33] Pompey's Pillar may have been erected using the same methods that were used to erect the ancient obelisks. The Romans had cranes but they were not strong enough to lift something this heavy. Roger Hopkins and Mark Lehrner conducted several obelisk erecting experiments including a successful attempt to erect a 25-ton obelisk in 1999. This followed two experiments to erect smaller obelisks and two failed attempts to erect a 25-ton obelisk.[34][35] The structure was plundered and demolished in the 4th century when a bishop decreed that Paganism must be eradicated. "Pompey's Pillar" is a misnomer, as it has nothing to do with Pompey, having been erected in 293 for Diocletian, possibly in memory of the rebellion of Domitius Domitianus. Beneath the acropolis itself are the subterranean remains of the Serapeum, where the mysteries of the god Serapis
Serapis
were enacted, and whose carved wall niches are believed to have provided overflow storage space for the ancient Library. In more recent years, many ancient artifacts have been discovered from the surrounding sea, mostly pieces of old pottery. Alexandria's catacombs, known as Kom El Shoqafa, are a short distance southwest of the pillar, consist of a multi-level labyrinth, reached via a large spiral staircase, and featuring dozens of chambers adorned with sculpted pillars, statues, and other syncretic Romano-Egyptian religious symbols, burial niches, and sarcophagi, as well as a large Roman-style banquet room, where memorial meals were conducted by relatives of the deceased. The catacombs were long forgotten by the citizens until they were discovered by accident in 1900.[36] The most extensive ancient excavation currently being conducted in Alexandria
Alexandria
is known as Kom El Deka. It has revealed the ancient city's well-preserved theater, and the remains of its Roman-era baths. Persistent efforts have been made to explore the antiquities of Alexandria. Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks
Greeks
proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national history. Excavations were performed in the city by Greeks
Greeks
seeking the tomb of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
without success. The past and present directors of the museum have been enabled from time to time to carry out systematic excavations whenever opportunity is offered; D. G. Hogarth made tentative researches on behalf of the Egypt
Egypt
Exploration Fund and the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies in 1895; and a German expedition worked for two years (1898–1899). But two difficulties face the would-be excavator in Alexandria: lack of space for excavation and the underwater location of some areas of interest.

Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna.

Since the great and growing modern city stands immediately over the ancient one, it is almost impossible to find any considerable space in which to dig, except at enormous cost. Cleopatra VII's royal quarters were inundated by earthquakes and tsunami, leading to gradual subsidence in the 4th century AD.[37] This underwater section, containing many of the most interesting sections of the Hellenistic city, including the palace quarter, was explored in 1992 and is still being extensively investigated by the French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio and his team.[38] It raised a noted head of Caesarion. These are being opened up to tourists, to some controversy.[39] The spaces that are most open are the low grounds to northeast and southwest, where it is practically impossible to get below the Roman strata. The most important results were those achieved by Dr. G. Botti, late director of the museum, in the neighborhood of “Pompey's Pillar”, where there is a good deal of open ground. Here, substructures of a large building or group of buildings have been exposed, which are perhaps part of the Serapeum. Nearby, immense catacombs and columbaria have been opened which may have been appendages of the temple. These contain one very remarkable vault with curious painted reliefs, now artificially lit and open to visitors. The objects found in these researches are in the museum, the most notable being a great basalt bull, probably once an object of cult in the Serapeum. Other catacombs and tombs have been opened in Kom El Shoqafa (Roman) and Ras El Tin (painted). The German excavation team found remains of a Ptolemaic colonnade and streets in the north-east of the city, but little else. Hogarth explored part of an immense brick structure under the mound of Kom El Deka, which may have been part of the Paneum, the Mausolea, or a Roman fortress. The making of the new foreshore led to the dredging up of remains of the Patriarchal Church; and the foundations of modern buildings are seldom laid without some objects of antiquity being discovered. The wealth underground is doubtlessly immense; but despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria
Alexandria
outside the museum and the neighborhood of “Pompey's Pillar”. Temple of Taposiris Magna[edit] The temple was built in the Ptolemy
Ptolemy
era and dedicated to Osiris, which finished the construction of Alexandria. It is located in Abusir, the western suburb of Alexandria
Alexandria
in Borg el Arab city. Only the outer wall and the pylons remain from the temple. There is evidence to prove that sacred animals were worshiped there. Archaeologists found an animal necropolis near the temple. Remains of a Christian church show that the temple was used as a church in later centuries. Also found in the same area are remains of public baths built by the emperor Justinian, a seawall, quays and a bridge. Near the beach side of the area, there are the remains of a tower built by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
II Philadelphus. The tower was an exact scale replica of the destroyed Alexandrine Pharos Lighthouse.[40] Religion[edit]

Places of worship in Alexandria

El-Mursi Abul Abbas Mosque

Latin Catholic
Catholic
church of Saint Catherine in Mansheya

Eliyahu Hanavi Synagogue

Islam[edit] The most famous mosque in Alexandria
Alexandria
is El-Mursi Abul Abbas Mosque
El-Mursi Abul Abbas Mosque
in Bahary. Other notable mosques in the city include Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib mosque in Somouha, Bilal mosque, al-Gamaa al-Bahari in Mandara, Hatem mosque in Somouha, Hoda el-Islam mosque in Sidi Bishr, al-Mowasah mosque in Hadara, Sharq al-Madina mosque in Miami, al-Shohadaa mosque in Mostafa Kamel, Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque, Yehia mosque in Zizinia, Sidi Gaber
Sidi Gaber
mosque in Sidi Gaber, and Sultan mosque. Alexandria
Alexandria
is the base of the Salafi movements in Egypt. Al-Nour Party, which is based in the city and overwhelmingly won most of the Salafi votes in the 2011–12 parliamentary election, supports the president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.[5] Christianity[edit]

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Christianity
Christianity
in Alexandria. (Discuss) (September 2016)

After Rome
Rome
and Constantinople, Alexandria
Alexandria
was considered the third-most important seat of Christianity
Christianity
in the world. The Pope of Alexandria
Alexandria
was second only to the bishop of Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until 430. The Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
had jurisdiction over most of the continent of Africa. After the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in AD 451, the Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
was split between the Miaphysites and the Melkites. The Miaphysites went on to constitute what is known today as the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
of Alexandria. The Melkites went on to constitute what is known today as the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria. In the 19th century, Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant missionaries converted some of the adherents of the Orthodox churches to their respective faiths. Today, the Patriarchal seat of the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church is Saint Mark Cathedral in Ramleh. The most important Coptic Orthodox churches in Alexandria
Alexandria
include Pope Cyril I Church in Cleopatra, Saint Georges Church in Sporting, Saint Mark & Pope Peter I Church in Sidi Bishr, Saint Mary Church in Assafra, Saint Mary Church in Gianaclis, Saint Mina Church in Fleming, Saint Mina Church in Mandara and Saint Takla Haymanot's Church in Ibrahimeya. The most important Eastern Orthodox churches in Alexandria
Alexandria
are Agioi Anárgyroi Church, Church of the Annunciation, Saint Anthony Church, Archangels Gabriel
Gabriel
& Michael Church, Taxiarchon Church, Saint Catherine Church, Cathedral of the Dormition in Mansheya, Church of the Dormition, Prophet Elijah
Elijah
Church, Saint George
Saint George
Church, Church of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
in Ibrahemeya, Saint Joseph
Saint Joseph
Church in Fleming, Saint Joseph
Saint Joseph
of Arimathea Church, Saint Mark & Saint Nektarios Chapel in Ramleh, Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
Church, Saint Paraskevi Church, Saint Sava
Saint Sava
Cathedral in Ramleh, Saint Theodore Chapel and the Russian church of Saint Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
in Alexandria, which serves the Russian speaking community in the city. The Apostolic Vicariate of Alexandria
Alexandria
in Egypt-Heliopolis-Port Said has jurisdiction over all Latin Church
Latin Church
Catholics in Egypt. Member churches include Saint Catherine Church in Mansheya and Church of the Jesuits in Cleopatra. The city is also the nominal see of the Melkite Greek Catholic
Catholic
titular Patriarchate of Alexandria (generally vested in its leading Patriarch of Antioch) and the actual cathedral see of its Patriarchal territory of Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan, which uses the Byzantine Rite, and the nominal see of the Armenian Catholic
Catholic
diocese of Iskandkeriya (for all Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan, whose actual cathedral is in Cairo), a suffragan of the Armenian Catholic
Catholic
Patriarch of Cilicia, using the Armenian Rite. The Saint Mark Church in Shatby, founded as part of Collège Saint Marc, is multi-denominational and holds liturgies according to Latin Catholic, Coptic Catholic
Catholic
and Coptic Orthodox rites. In antiquity, Alexandria
Alexandria
was a major center of the cosmopolitan religious movement called Gnosticism
Gnosticism
(today mainly remembered as a Christian heresy). Judaism[edit]

Jewish girls during Bat Mitzva in Alexandria

See also: History of the Jews in Egypt Alexandria's once-flourishing Jewish community declined rapidly following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, after which negative reactions towards Zionism
Zionism
among Egyptians
Egyptians
led to Jewish residents in the city, and elsewhere in Egypt, being perceived as Zionist collaborators. Most Jewish residents of Egypt
Egypt
fled to the newly established Israel, France, Brazil
Brazil
and other countries in the 1950s and 1960s. The community once numbered 50,000 but is now estimated at below 50.[41] The most important synagogue in Alexandria
Alexandria
is the Eliyahu Hanavi Synagogue. Education[edit]

Collège Saint Marc

Lycée Français d'Alexandrie

Colleges and universities[edit] Alexandria
Alexandria
has a number of higher education institutions. Alexandria University is a public university that follows the Egyptian system of higher education. Many of its faculties are internationally renowned, most notably its Faculty of Medicine & Faculty of Engineering. In addition, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology
Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology
in New Borg El Arab city, its is a research university set up in collaboration between the Japanese and Egyptian governments in 2010, the Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport is a semi-private educational institution that offers courses for high school, undergraduate level, and postgraduate students. It is considered the most reputable university in Egypt
Egypt
after the AUC American University in Cairo
Cairo
because of its worldwide recognition from board of engineers at UK & ABET in US. Université Senghor is a private French university that focuses on the teaching of humanities, politics and international relations, which mainly targets students from the African continent. Other institutions of higher education in Alexandria
Alexandria
include Alexandria
Alexandria
Institute of Technology (AIT) and Pharos University in Alexandria. Schools[edit] Alexandria
Alexandria
has a long history of foreign educational institutions. The first foreign schools date to the early 19th century, when French missionaries began establishing French charitable schools to educate the Egyptians. Today, the most important French schools in Alexandria run by Catholic
Catholic
missionaries include Collège de la Mère de Dieu, Collège Notre Dame de Sion, Collège Saint Marc, Ecoles des Soeurs Franciscaines (four different schools), École Girard, École Saint Gabriel, École Saint-Vincent de Paul, École Saint Joseph, École Sainte Catherine, and Institution Sainte Jeanne-Antide. As a reaction to the establishment of French religious institutions, a secular (laic) mission established Lycée el-Horreya, which initially followed a French system of education, but is currently a public school run by the Egyptian government. The only school in Alexandria
Alexandria
that completely follows the French educational system is Lycée Français d'Alexandrie (École Champollion). It is usually frequented by the children of French expatriates and diplomats in Alexandria. The Italian school is the Istituto "Don Bosco". English schools in Alexandria
Alexandria
are becoming the most popular. English-language schools in the city include: Riada American School, Riada Language School, Alexandria
Alexandria
Language School, Future Language School, Future International Schools (Future IGCSE, Future American School and Future German school), Alexandria
Alexandria
American School, British School of Alexandria, Egyptian American School, Pioneers Language School, Princesses Girls' School, Sidi Gaber
Sidi Gaber
Language School, Taymour English School, Sacred Heart Girls' School, Schutz American School, Victoria College, El Manar Language School for Girls (previously called Scottish School for Girls), Kawmeya Language School, El Nasr Boys' School (previously called British Boys' School), and El Nasr Girls' College. There are only two German schools in Alexandria
Alexandria
which are Deutsche Schule der Borromärinnen (DSB of Saint Charles Borromé) and Future Deutsche Schule. The Montessori educational system was first introduced in Alexandria in 2009 at Alexandria
Alexandria
Montessori. The most notable public schools in Alexandria
Alexandria
include El Abbassia High School and Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
High School. Transport[edit]

Borg El Arab
Borg El Arab
International Airport

Airports[edit] Alexandria
Alexandria
is served by Alexandria
Alexandria
International Airport which is currently closed and Borg El Arab Airport
Borg El Arab Airport
which is located about 25 km (16 mi) away from the city center. From late 2011, Alexandria
Alexandria
International Airport was to be closed to commercial operations for two years as it underwent expansion, with all airlines operating out of Borg El Arab Airport
Borg El Arab Airport
from then onwards, where a brand new terminal was completed in February 2010.[42] In 2017 the government officially announced that Alexandria
Alexandria
International Airport will shut down for good due to operational reasons, after having initially announced that it was to open during mid-2017. Highways[edit]

International Coastal Road ( Mersa Matrouh
Mersa Matrouh
Alexandria
Alexandria
– Port Said) Cairo– Alexandria
Alexandria
Desert Road ( Alexandria
Alexandria
Cairo
Cairo
– 220 km (137 mi), 6–8 lanes) Cairo- Alexandria
Alexandria
Agriculture Road ( Alexandria
Alexandria
– Cairo) Mehwar El Ta'meer – ( Alexandria
Alexandria
– Borg El Arab)

Rail[edit]

Misr Railway Station

Alexandria's intracity commuter rail system extends from Misr Station (Alexandria's primary intercity railway station) to Abu Qir, parallel to the tram line. The commuter line's locomotives operate on diesel, as opposed to the overhead-electric tram. Alexandria
Alexandria
plays host to two intercity railway stations: the aforementioned Misr Station (in the older Manshia district in the western part of the city) and Sidi Gaber railway station
Sidi Gaber railway station
(in the district of Sidi Gaber
Sidi Gaber
in the center of the eastern expansion in which most Alexandrines reside), both of which also serve the commuter rail line. Intercity passenger service is operated by Egyptian National Railways. Trams[edit] Main article: Trams in Alexandria

An Alexandria
Alexandria
tram

An extensive tramway network was built in 1860 and is the oldest in Africa. The network begins at the El Raml district in the west and ends in the Victoria district in the east. Most of the vehicles are blue in color. Some smaller yellow-colored vehicles have further routes beyond the two main endpoints. The tram routes have one of four numbers: 1, 2, 5, and 6. All four start at El Raml, but only two (1 and 2) reach Victoria. There are two converging and diverging points. The first starts at Bolkly
Bolkly
(Isis) and ends at San Stefano. The other begins at Sporting and ends at Mostafa Kamel. Route 5 starts at San Stefano and takes the inner route to Bolkly. Route 6 starts at Sidi Gaber El Sheikh in the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Route 1 takes the inner route between San Stefano and Bolkly
Bolkly
and the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Route 2 takes the route opposite to Route 1 in both these areas. The tram fares are 25 piastres (0.25 pounds) during most of the day, and 50 piastres (0.50 pounds) after 9pm. Some trams (that date back the 30s) charge a pound. The tram is considered the cheapest method of public transport. Taxis and minibuses[edit] See also: Taxicabs by country § Egypt Taxis in Alexandria
Alexandria
sport a yellow-and-black livery and are widely available. While Egyptian law requires all cabs to carry meters, these generally do not work and fares must be negotiated with the driver on either departure or arrival. The minibus share taxi system, or mashrū` operates along well-known traffic arteries. The routes can be identified by both their endpoints and the route between them:

Corniche routes:

El Mandara
El Mandara
– Bahari El Mandara
El Mandara
– El Mansheya Asafra
Asafra
– Bahari Asafra
Asafra
– El Mansheya El Sa'aa – El Mansheya

Abu Qir
Abu Qir
routes:

El Mandara
El Mandara
– El Mahata (lit. "the Station", i.e. Misr Railway Station) Abu Qir
Abu Qir
– El Mahata Victoria – El Mahata El Mandara
El Mandara
– Victoria

Interior routes:

Cabo – Bahari El Mansheya
El Mansheya
– El Awayid El Mansheya
El Mansheya
– El Maw'af El Gedid (the New Bus Station) Hadara
Hadara
– El Mahata

The route is generally written in Arabic
Arabic
on the side of the vehicle, although some drivers change their route without changing the paint. Some drivers also drive only a segment of a route rather than the whole path; such drivers generally stop at a point known as a major hub of the transportation system (for example, Victoria) to allow riders to transfer to another car or to another mode of transport.

Alexandria
Alexandria
port

Fare is generally L.E. 3.00 to travel the whole route. Shorter trips may have a lower fare, depending on the driver and the length of the trip. Port[edit] Main article: Alexandria
Alexandria
Port Alexandria
Alexandria
has four ports; namely the Western Port, which is the main port of the country that handles about 60% of the country’s exports and imports, Dekhela
Dekhela
Port west of the Western Port, the Eastern Port which is a yachting harbor, and Abu Qir
Abu Qir
Port at the northern east of the governorate. It is a commercial port for general cargo and phosphates. Culture[edit] Libraries[edit]

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Main article: Library of Alexandria The Royal Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the world. It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ptolemy
Ptolemy
II of Egypt. It was likely created after his father had built what would become the first part of the library complex, the temple of the Muses—the Museion, Greek Μουσείον (from which the Modern English word museum is derived). It has been reasonably established that the library, or parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire on a number of occasions (library fires were common and replacement of handwritten manuscripts was very difficult, expensive, and time-consuming). To this day the details of the destruction (or destructions) remain a lively source of controversy.[43] The Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Bibliotheca Alexandrina
was inaugurated in 2002, near the site of the old Library. Museums[edit]

The Alexandria
Alexandria
National Museum

Graeco-Roman Museum

The Alexandria National Museum
Alexandria National Museum
was inaugurated 31 December 2003. It is located in a restored Italian style palace in Tariq El Horreya Street (formerly Rue Fouad), near the center of the city. It contains about 1,800 artifacts that narrate the story of Alexandria
Alexandria
and Egypt. Most of these pieces came from other Egyptian museums. The museum is housed in the old Al-Saad Bassili Pasha Palace, who was one of the wealthiest wood merchants in Alexandria. Construction on the site was first undertaken in 1926. The Cavafy Museum The Graeco-Roman Museum The Museum
Museum
of Fine Arts The Royal Jewelry Museum

Sports[edit]

Alexandria
Alexandria
Stadium

Borg El Arab
Borg El Arab
Stadium

The main sport that interests Alexandrians is football, as is the case in the rest of Egypt
Egypt
and Africa. Alexandria
Alexandria
Stadium
Stadium
is a multi-purpose stadium in Alexandria, Egypt. It is currently used mostly for football matches, and was used for the 2006 African Cup of Nations. The stadium is the oldest stadium in Egypt, being built in 1929. The stadium holds 20,000 people. Alexandria
Alexandria
was one of three cities that participated in hosting the African Cup of Nations in January 2006, which Egypt
Egypt
won. Sea sports such as surfing, jet-skiing and water polo are practiced on a lower scale. The Skateboarding culture in Egypt
Egypt
started in this city. The city is also home to the Alexandria
Alexandria
Sporting Club, which is especially known for its basketball team, which traditionally provides the country's national team with key players. The city hosted the AfroBasket, the continent's most prestigious basketball tournament, on four occasions (1970, 1975, 1983, 2003). Alexandria
Alexandria
has four stadiums:

Alexandria
Alexandria
Stadium Borg El Arab
Borg El Arab
Stadium El Krom Stadium Harras El Hodoud Stadium

Other less popular sports like tennis and squash are usually played in private social and sports clubs, like:

Acacia Country Club Alexandria Sporting Club
Alexandria Sporting Club
– in "Sporting" Alexandria
Alexandria
Country club El-Ittihad El-Iskandary Club El-Olympi
El-Olympi
Club Haras El Hodood
Haras El Hodood
Club Koroum Club Lagoon Resort Courts Smouha SC
Smouha SC
– in "Smouha"

Theaters[edit]

Alexandria
Alexandria
Opera House, where classical music, Arabic
Arabic
music, ballet, and opera are performed.

Tourism[edit] Alexandria
Alexandria
is a main summer resort and tourist attraction, due to its public and private beaches and ancient history and Museums, especially the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria. One of the main tourism attractions that start every year from the city is Cross Egypt
Egypt
Challenge. Started in 2011, Cross Egypt
Egypt
Challenge is an international cross-country motorcycle and scooter rally conducted throughout the most difficult tracks and roads of Egypt. Alexandria
Alexandria
is known as the yearly starting point of Cross Egypt Challenge and a huge celebration is conducted the night before the rally starts after all the international participants arrive to the city.

Shalalat Gardens

Montaza
Montaza
Garden

Alexandria
Alexandria
National Museum

Alexandria
Alexandria
Art Center

Alexandria
Alexandria
Opera House

Fawzia Fahmy Palace

San Stefano Grand Plaza

Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier

Montaza
Montaza
Palace

International relations[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt

The Italian consulate in Saad Zaghloul Square

Twin towns/Sister cities[edit] Alexandria
Alexandria
is twinned with:

 Kazakhstan Almaty  Slovakia Bratislava[44]  Morocco Casablanca  United States Cleveland[45]  Romania Constanţa  South Africa Durban[46]  Turkey İzmir  Bulgaria Kazanlak   France
France
Marseille   India
India
Kanpur  Azerbaijan Yevlakh   Armenia
Armenia
Gyumri   Cyprus
Cyprus
Limassol[47]  Ukraine Odessa  China Shanghai  Russia St. Petersburg   Greece
Greece
Thessaloniki

See also[edit]

List of cities in Egypt Alexandria
Alexandria
Governorate Library of Alexandria Baucalis Cultural tourism in Egypt Governorates of Egypt List of megalithic sites Of Alexandria

References[edit]

^ " Alexandria
Alexandria
Governor - Dr.Mohamed Ali
Ali
Ahmed Ali
Ali
Sultan". 16 February 2017.  ^ CAPMAS. "الجهاز المركزي للتعبئة العامة والإحصاء". www.capmas.gov.eg.  ^ "Alexandria". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ "Do fundo do mar... Sea bottom: Sediments Reveal Alexandria's Hidden History". Retrieved 2017-01-28.  ^ a b c d "The Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Dims". Foreign Policy. 23 December 2014.  ^ O'Connor, Lauren (2009) "The Remains of Alexander the Great: The God, The King, The Symbol," Constructing the Past: Vol. 10: Iss. 1, Article 8 ^ Erskine, Andrew (April 1995). " Greece
Greece
& Rome, 2nd Ser.,". Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: the Museum
Museum
and Library of Alexandria. 42 (1): 38–48 [42]. One effect of the newly created Hellenistic kingdoms was the imposition of Greek cities occupied by Greeks
Greeks
on an alien landscape. In Egypt, there was a native Egyptian population with its own culture, history, and traditions. The Greeks who came to Egypt, to the court or to live in Alexandria, were separated from their original cultures. Alexandria
Alexandria
was the main Greek city of Egypt
Egypt
and within it there was an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities and backgrounds.  ^ Erskine, Andrew (April 1995). "Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: the Museum
Museum
and Library of Alexandria". Greece
Greece
& Rome. 42 (1): 38–48. doi:10.1017/S0017383500025213. The Ptolemaic emphasis on Greek culture establishes the Greeks
Greeks
of Egypt
Egypt
with an identity for themselves. […] But the emphasis on Greek culture does even more than this – these are Greeks
Greeks
ruling in a foreign land. The more Greeks
Greeks
can indulge in their own culture, the more they can exclude non-Greeks, in other words Egyptians, the subjects whose land has been taken over. The assertion of Greek culture serves to enforce Egyptian subjection. So the presence in Alexandria
Alexandria
of two institutions devoted to the preservation and study of Greek culture acts as a powerful symbol of Egyptian exclusion and subjection. Texts from other cultures could be kept in the library, but only once they had been translated, that is to say Hellenized. […] A reading of Alexandrian poetry might easily give the impression that Egyptians
Egyptians
did not exist at all; indeed Egypt
Egypt
itself is hardly mentioned except for the Nile
Nile
and the Nile
Nile
flood, […] This omission of the Egypt
Egypt
and Egyptians
Egyptians
from poetry masks a fundamental insecurity. It is no coincidence that one of the few poetic references to Egyptians
Egyptians
presents them as muggers.  ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, "Res Gestae", 26.10.15–19 ^ Stiros, Stathis C.: “The AD 365 Crete earthquake
365 Crete earthquake
and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data”, Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 23 (2001), pp. 545–562 (549 & 557) ^ Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 222 ^ Akbar Shāh Ḵẖān Najībābādī, History of Islam, Volume 1, p. 194. Quote: "Again, the Holy Prophet «P sent Dihyah bin Khalifa Kalbi to the Byzantine king Heraclius, Hatib bin Abi Baltaeh to the king of Egypt
Egypt
and Alexandria; Allabn Al-Hazermi to Munzer bin Sawa the king of Bahrain; Amer bin Aas to the king of Oman. Salit bin Amri to Hozah bin Ali— the king of Yamama; Shiya bin Wahab to Haris bin Ghasanni to the king of Damascus" ^ Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 226  (online) ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-19-577307-1. Dihyah b. Khalifah al-Kalbi, who had gone to Syria on an errand for Muhammad, was returning to Medina with gifts, when he was robbed by a man of Judham called al-Hunayd. Another clan of Judham, however, or some men from another tribe, forced al-Hunayd to give the things back. Meanwhile a leader of Judham, Rifa'ah b. Zayd, had been in Medina, had brought back to the tribe Muhammad's terms for an alliance, and the tribe had accepted. Muhammad had not been informed of this decision, however, and sent out Zayd b. Harithah to avenge the insult to his messenger. There was a skirmish in which the Muslims killed al-Hunayd and captured a number of women and animals. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) (free online) ^ "Modern""The History of Alexandria". Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ "Bombardment of Alexandria".  ^ Ted Thornton, "Nasser Assassination Attempt, October 26, 1954," Middle East History Database"Nasser Assassination Attempt, October 26, 1954". Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ Rostovtzeff 1941: (1138–39) ^ Josiah Russell, 1958, "Late Ancient and Medieval Population," pp. 67 and 79. ^ Elio Lo Cascio, 2009, "Urbanization as a Proxy of Growth," p. 97 citing Bagnall and Frier. ^ "Koeppen-Geiger.vu-wien.ac.at".  ^ "Alexandria". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ " Egypt
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Alexandria
/ Nouzha – Históricos el tiempo". Tutiempo.net. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ a b "Alexandria, Egypt". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 3 August 2015.  ^ "Weather Information for Alexandria". Retrieved 21 August 2017.  ^ "Climatological Information for Alexandria, Egypt" (1961–1990)". Hong Kong Observatory.  ^ "Alexandria, Egypt: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Retrieved 20 June 2013.  ^ Alexandria, Egypt
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Monthly Averages – Bing Weather[You must have an IP from the United States of America to see the page] ^ " Alexandria
Alexandria
Climate and Weather Averages, Egypt". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 20 January 2014.  ^ "The Sarapeion, including Pompay's Pillar In Alexandria, Egypt". Touregypt.net. Retrieved 19 January 2009.  ^ The Pyramids and Sphinx by Desmond Stewart and editors of the Newsweek Book
Book
Division 1971 p. 80-81 ^ "NOVA Online Mysteries of the Nile
Nile
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Nile
(1993)p. 56-57 ^ Planet, Lonely. " Catacombs
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of Kom ash-Suqqafa – Lonely Planet". lonelyplanet.com.  ^ "Fgs Project Alexandria". Underwaterdiscovery.org. Archived from the original on 7 March 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.  ^ "Divers probe underwater palace". BBC News. 28 October 1998. Retrieved 19 January 2009.  ^ "New underwater tourist attraction in Egypt". BBC News. 24 September 2000. Retrieved 19 January 2009.  ^ "Temple of Taposiris Magna near Abusir in Egypt". Touregypt.net. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ Egypt
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to restore Alexandria’s historic synagogue, (20 December 2010) Archived 24 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "A new gateway for Alexandria". Al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009.  ^ Raven, James (2004). Lost Libraries: The Destruction of Great Book Collections Since Antiquity. Springer. p. 12. ISBN 0230524257.  ^ "Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava". Bratislava-City.sk. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28. Retrieved 2013-08-05.  ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Retrieved 2013-04-21.  ^ "Sister Cities Home Page". Archived from the original on 11 October 2012.  eThekwini Online: The Official Site of the City of Durban ^ " Limassol
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Further reading[edit]

A. Bernand, Alexandrie la Grande (1966) A. J. Butler, The Arab Conquest of Egypt
Egypt
(2nd. ed., 1978) P.-A. Claudel, Alexandrie. Histoire d'un mythe (2011) A. De Cosson, Mareotis (1935) J.-Y. Empereur, Alexandria
Alexandria
Rediscovered (1998) E. M. Forster, Alexandria
Alexandria
A History and a Guide (1922) (reprint ed. M. Allott, 2004) P. M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria
Alexandria
(1972) M. Haag, Alexandria: City of Memory (2004) [20th-century social and literary history] M. Haag, Vintage Alexandria: Photographs of the City 1860–1960 (2008) M. Haag, Alexandria
Alexandria
Illustrated R. Ilbert, I. Yannakakis, Alexandrie 1860–1960 (1992) R. Ilbert, Alexandrie entre deux mondes (1988) Philip Mansel, Levant: Splendour and Catastrophe on the Mediterranean, London, John Murray, 11 November 2010, hardback, 480 pages, ISBN 978-0-7195-6707-0, New Haven, Yale University Press, 24 May 2011, hardback, 470 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-17264-5 V. W. Von Hagen, The Roads that led to Rome
Rome
(1967)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Alexandria
Alexandria
(category)

Alexandria
Alexandria
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Greek Community of Alexandria

Preceded by Sebennytos Capital of Egypt 331 BC – AD 641 Succeeded by Fustat

v t e

Neighborhoods in Alexandria

Amreya Anfoushi Asafra Azarita Bahary Bakos Bolkly Camp Chezar Cleopatra El Atareen El Gomrok El Ibrahimiya El Labban El Maamora El Mandara El Mansheya El Max El Qabary El Saraya El Soyof Dekhela Downtown Fleming Gianaclis Glim Hadara Kafr Abdu Karmoz Kom El Deka Louran Mahatet El Raml Miami Moharam Bek Roshdy Saba Pasha Safar San Stefano Smouha Shatby Shods Sidi Bishr Sidi Gaber Sporting Stanley Tharwat Victoria Wardeyan Zezenia

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Governorates capitals of Egypt

Governorate (capital)

Alexandria
Alexandria
(Alexandria) Aswan
Aswan
(Aswan) Asyut
Asyut
(Asyut) Beheira (Damanhur) Beni Suef
Beni Suef
(Beni Suef) Cairo
Cairo
(Cairo) Dakahlia (Mansoura) Damietta
Damietta
(Damietta) Faiyum
Faiyum
(Faiyum) Gharbia (Tanta) Giza
Giza
(Giza) Ismailia
Ismailia
(Ismailia) Kafr El Sheikh
Kafr El Sheikh
(Kafr El Sheikh) Luxor
Luxor
(Luxor) Matrouh (Mersa Matrouh) Minya (Minya) New Valley (Kharga) North Sinai (Arish) Port Said
Port Said
(Port Said) Qalyubia (Benha) Qena
Qena
(Qena) Red Sea
Red Sea
(Hurghada) Sharqia (Zagazig) Sohag
Sohag
(Sohag) South Sinai (El Tor) Suez
Suez
(Suez)

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Egyptian cities and towns by population

1,000,000 and more

Alexandria Cairo Giza Shubra El Kheima

300,000-999,999

Asyut Bilbeis Damietta Faiyum Imbaba Ismailia El Mahalla El Kubra Kom Ombo Mansoura Luxor Port Fuad Port Said Suez Tanta Zagazig

100,000-299,999

6th of October Arish Aswan Banha Beni Suef Damanhur Desouk Edfu Hurghada Kafr El Dawwar Kafr El Sheikh Mallawi Minya New Borg El Arab New Cairo Obour Qena Shibin El Kom Sohag

<99,999

Abydos Ain Sokhna Akhmim Dahab Dakhla Dendera Dekernes El Alamein El Gouna Esna Hamrah Dom Hala'ib Kharga Marsa Alam Marsa Matruh Nag Hammadi New Nubariya Nuweiba Rosetta Sadat Safaga Saint Catherine Siwa Sharm El Sheikh Taba Talkha

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Book
Capitals

2001: Madrid 2002: Alexandria 2003: New Delhi 2004: Antwerp 2005: Montreal 2006: Turin 2007: Bogotá 2008: Amsterdam 2009: Beirut 2010: Ljubljana 2011: Buenos Aires 2012: Yerevan 2013: Bangkok 2014: Port Harcourt 2015: Incheon 2016: Wrocław 2017: Conakry 2018: Athens 2019: Sharjah

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Ancient Greece

Outline Timeline

History Geography

Periods

Cycladic civilization Minoan civilization Mycenaean civilization Greek Dark Ages Archaic period Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece

Geography

Aegean Sea Aeolis Alexandria Antioch Cappadocia Crete Cyprus Doris Ephesus Epirus Hellespont Ionia Ionian Sea Macedonia Magna Graecia Miletus Peloponnesus Pergamon Pontus Taurica Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
colonies

City states Politics Military

City states

Argos Athens Byzantion Chalcis Corinth Eretria Kerkyra Larissa Megalopolis Megara Rhodes Samos Sparta Syracuse Thebes

Politics

Boeotarch Boule Koinon Proxeny Strategos Tagus Tyrant Amphictyonic League

Athenian

Agora Areopagus Ecclesia Graphē paranómōn Heliaia Ostracism

Spartan

Apella Ephor Gerousia Harmost

Macedon

Synedrion Koinon

Military

Wars Athenian military Antigonid Macedonian army Army of Macedon Ballista Cretan archers Hellenistic armies Hippeis Hoplite Hetairoi Macedonian phalanx Phalanx Peltast Pezhetairos Sarissa Sacred Band of Thebes Sciritae Seleucid army Spartan army Toxotai Xiphos Xyston

People

List of ancient Greeks

Rulers

Kings of Argos Archons of Athens Kings of Athens Kings of Commagene Diadochi Kings of Lydia Kings of Macedonia Kings of Paionia Attalid kings of Pergamon Kings of Pontus Kings of Sparta Tyrants of Syracuse

Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno

Authors

Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon

Others

Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles

Groups

Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants

By culture

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes Thracian Greeks Ancient Macedonians

Society Culture

Society

Agriculture Calendar Clothing Coinage Cuisine Economy Education Festivals Funeral and burial practices Homosexuality Law Olympic Games Pederasty Philosophy Prostitution Religion Slavery Warfare Wedding customs Wine

Arts and science

Architecture

Greek Revival architecture

Astronomy Literature Mathematics Medicine Music

Musical system

Pottery Sculpture Technology Theatre

Religion

Funeral and burial practices Mythology

mythological figures

Temple Twelve Olympians Underworld

Sacred places

Eleusis Delphi Delos Dodona Mount Olympus Olympia

Structures

Athenian Treasury Lion Gate Long Walls Philippeion Theatre of Dionysus Tunnel of Eupalinos

Temples

Aphaea Artemis Athena Nike Erechtheion Hephaestus Hera, Olympia Parthenon Samothrace Zeus, Olympia

Language

Proto-Greek Mycenaean Homeric Dialects

Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic Doric Ionic Locrian Macedonian Pamphylian

Koine

Writing

Linear A Linear B Cypriot syllabary Greek alphabet Greek numerals Attic numerals

Lists

Cities

in Epirus

People Place names Stoae Temples Theatres

Category Portal

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Hellenistic/Macedonian colonies

Africa

Alexandria Ptolemais Hermiou

Asia

Alexandretta Antioch Apamea Alexandria
Alexandria
Arachosia Alexandria
Alexandria
Eschate Alexandria
Alexandria
on the Caucasus Alexandria
Alexandria
on the Indus Alexandria
Alexandria
on the Oxus Attalia Edessa Laodicea Paralos Nicaea Philadelphia Seleucia Seleucia
Seleucia
Pieria Serraepolis

Europe

Antigonia (Paeonia)

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Ancient Egypt
Egypt
topics

Outline Index Major topics Glossary of artifacts

Agriculture Architecture (Egyptian Revival architecture) Art Astronomy Chronology Cities (list) Clothing Cuisine Dynasties Funerary practices Geography Great Royal Wives History Language Literature Mathematics Medicine Military Music Mythology People Pharaohs (list) Philosophy Religion Sites Technology Trade Writing

Egyptology Egyptologists Museums

Book Category Ancient Egypt
Egypt
portal WikiProject Commons

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Mediterranean Games

Alexandria
Alexandria
1951 Barcelona 1955 Beirut
Beirut
1959 Naples 1963 Tunis 1967 İzmir
İzmir
1971 Algiers 1975 Split 1979 Casablanca
Casablanca
1983 Latakia
Latakia
1987 Athens
Athens
1991 Languedoc-Roussillon 1993 Bari 1997 Tunis 2001 Almeria 2005 Pescara 2009 Mersin 2013 Tarragona 2018 Oran 2021

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129002681 LCCN: n80067694 ISNI: 0000 0001 2111 630X GND: 4001138-0 SUDOC: 069889481 BNF:

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