ALEXANDRIA (/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /ˌælɪɡˈzɑːndriə/ ; Arabic : الإسكندرية _al-Iskandariyyah_; Egyptian Arabic : اسكندرية _Eskendereya_; Coptic : Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ _Alexandria, Rakotə_) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt , extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez . Alexandria is also an important tourist destination.
Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town _c._ 331 BC by Alexander the Great . It became an important center of the Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Hellenistic and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for almost 1000 years until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo ). Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (_Pharos_), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World ; its Great Library (the largest in the ancient world; now replaced by a modern one ); and the Necropolis , one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages . Alexandria was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome . Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty .
From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea , and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Ancient era * 1.2 During Muhammad\'s era * 1.3 Islamic era * 1.4 Timeline
* 2 Layout of the ancient city
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 4 Historical sites and landmarks
* 4.1 Temple of Taposiris Magna
* 5 Religion
* 5.1 Islam * 5.2 Christianity * 5.3 Judaism
* 6 Education
* 6.1 Colleges and universities * 6.2 Schools
* 7 Transport
* 7.1 Airports * 7.2 Highways * 7.3 Rail * 7.4 Trams * 7.5 Taxis and minibuses * 7.6 Port
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Libraries * 8.2 Museums * 8.3 Sports * 8.4 Theaters * 8.5 Tourism
* 9 International relations
* 9.1 Twin towns/Sister cities
* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links
raqd(y).t_ (Alexandria) in hieroglyphs
Alexandria is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια (_Alexandria_). Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates . Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. However, more recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination predate this claim by two millennia
Alexandria was the intellectual and cultural center of the ancient world for some time. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews and Syrians. The city was later plundered and lost its significance.
Just east of Alexandria (where Abu Qir Bay is now), there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion . The latter was recently rediscovered under water.
An Egyptian city, Rhakotis , already existed on the shore also, and later gave its name to Alexandria in the Egyptian language (Egyptian *RAˁ-ḲāṭIT, written _rˁ-ḳṭy.t_, 'That which is built up'). It continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt and never returned to his city. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy , Cleomenes , continued the expansion. Following a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general Ptolemy Lagides succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria, though it was eventually lost after being separated from its burial site there.
Although Cleomenes was mainly in charge of overseeing Alexandria's continuous development, the _ Heptastadion _ and the mainland quarters seem to have been primarily Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage . In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. It became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds.
Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism , but was also home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world. The Septuagint , a Greek version of the Tanakh , was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning ( Library of Alexandria ), but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian .
In AD 115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War , which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus , an opportunity to rebuild it. In 215, the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. On 21 July 365, Alexandria was devastated by a tsunami ( 365 Crete earthquake ), an event annually commemorated years later as a "day of horror." Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces
DURING MUHAMMAD\'S ERA
Main article: List of expeditions of Muhammad _ Entry of General Bonaparte into Alexandria_, oil on canvas, 365 cm × 500 cm (144 in × 197 in), ca. 1800, Versailles
The Islamic prophet , Muhammad's first interaction with the people of Egypt occurred in 628, during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma) . He sent Hatib bin Abi Baltaeh with a letter to the king of Egypt (in reality Emperor Heraclius) and Alexandria called Muqawqis In the letter Muhammad said: "I invite you to accept Islam, Allah the sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you will bear the burden of the transgression of all the Copts". During this expedition one of Muhammad's envoys Dihyah bin Khalifa Kalbi was attacked, Muhammad sent Zayd ibn Haritha to help him. Dihya approached the Banu Dubayb (a tribe which converted to Islam and had good relations with Muslims) for help. When the news reached Muhammad, he immediately dispatched Zayd ibn Haritha with 500 men to battle. The Muslim army fought with Banu Judham, killed several of them (inflicting heavy casualties), including their chief, Al-Hunayd ibn Arid and his son, and captured 1000 camels, 5000 of their cattle and 100 women and boys. The new chief of the Banu Judham who had embraced Islam appealed to Muhammad to release his fellow tribesmen, and Muhammad released them.
_ The Battle of Abukir_, by Antoine-Jean Gros 1806.
In 619, Alexandria fell to the Sassanid Persians . Although the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recovered it in 629, in 641 the Arabs under the general \'Amr ibn al-\'As captured it during the Muslim conquest of Egypt , after a siege that lasted 14 months.
After the Battle of Ridaniya in 1517, the city was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and remained under Ottoman rule until 1798. Alexandria lost much of its former importance to the Egyptian port city of Rosetta during the 9th to 18th centuries, and only regained its former prominence with the construction of the Mahmoudiyah Canal in 1807.
Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon 's expedition to Egypt in 1798. French troops stormed the city on 2 July 1798, and it remained in their hands until the arrival of a British expedition in 1801. The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria on 21 March 1801, following which they besieged the city, which fell to them on 2 September 1801. Muhammad Ali , the Ottoman governor of Egypt, began rebuilding and redevelopment around 1810, and by 1850, Alexandria had returned to something akin to its former glory. Egypt turned to Europe in their effort to modernize the country. Greeks, followed by other Europeans and others, began moving to the city. In the early 20th century, the city became a home for novelists and poets.
In July 1882, the city came under bombardment from British naval forces and was occupied.
In July 1954, the city was a target of an Israeli bombing campaign that later became known as the Lavon Affair . On 26 October 1954, Alexandria's Mansheya Square was the site of a failed assassination attempt on Gamal Abdel Nasser .
Europeans began leaving Alexandria following the 1956 Suez Crisis that led to an outburst of Arab nationalism . The nationalization of property by Nasser, which reached its highest point in 1961, drove out nearly all the rest.
The most important battles and sieges of Alexandria include:
* Siege of Alexandria (47 BC) , Julius Caesar's civil war * Battle of Alexandria (30 BC) , final war of the Roman Republic * Siege of Alexandria (619) , Byzantine-Persian Wars * Siege of Alexandria (641) , Rashidun conquest of Byzantine Egypt * Alexandrian Crusade (1365), a crusade led by Peter de Lusignan of Cyprus which resulted in the defeat of the Mamluks and the sack of the city. * Battle of Alexandria (1801) , Napoleonic Wars * Siege of Alexandria (1801) , Napoleonic Wars * Alexandria expedition (1807) , Napoleonic Wars
LAYOUT OF THE ANCIENT CITY
Greek Alexandria was divided into three regions: Brucheum the Royal or Greek quarter, forming the most magnificent portion of the city. In Roman times Brucheum was enlarged by the addition of an official quarter, making four regions in all. The city was laid out as a grid of parallel streets, each of which had an attendant subterranean canal; The Jewish quarter forming the northeast portion of the city; Rhakotis The old city of Rhakotis that had been absorbed into Alexandria was occupied chiefly by Egyptians. (from Coptic _Rakotə_ "Alexandria"). Engraving by L F Cassas of the Canopic Street in Alexandria Egypt made in 1784.
Two main streets, lined with colonnades and said to have been each about 60 meters (200 ft) wide, intersected in the center of the city, close to the point where the Sema (or Soma) of Alexander (his Mausoleum ) rose. This point is very near the present mosque of Nebi Daniel ; and the line of the great East–West "Canopic" street, only slightly diverged from that of the modern Boulevard de Rosette (now Sharia Fouad). Traces of its pavement and canal have been found near the Rosetta Gate, but remnants of streets and canals were exposed in 1899 by German excavators outside the east fortifications, which lie well within the area of the ancient city.
Alexandria consisted originally of little more than the island of Pharos, which was joined to the mainland by a 1,260-metre-long (4,130 ft) mole and called the _Heptastadion_ ("seven stadia"—a _stadium _ was a Greek unit of length measuring approximately 180 metres or 590 feet). The end of this abutted on the land at the head of the present Grand Square, where the "Moon Gate" rose. All that now lies between that point and the modern "Ras al-Tin" quarter is built on the silt which gradually widened and obliterated this mole. The Ras al-Tin quarter represents all that is left of the island of Pharos, the site of the actual lighthouse having been weathered away by the sea. On the east of the mole was the Great Harbor, now an open bay; on the west lay the port of Eunostos, with its inner basin Kibotos, now vastly enlarged to form the modern harbor.
In Strabo 's time, (latter half of the 1st century BC) the principal buildings were as follows, enumerated as they were to be seen from a ship entering the Great Harbor.
* The Royal Palaces , filling the northeast angle of the town and occupying the promontory of Lochias, which shut in the Great Harbor on the east. Lochias (the modern Pharillon) has almost entirely disappeared into the sea, together with the palaces, the "Private Port," and the island of Antirrhodus. There has been a land subsidence here, as throughout the northeast coast of Africa. * The Great Theater, on the modern Hospital Hill near the Ramleh station. This was used by Julius Caesar as a fortress, where he withstood a siege from the city mob after he took Egypt after the battle of Pharsalus * The Poseidon , or Temple of the Sea God, close to the theater * The Timonium built by Marc Antony * The Emporium (Exchange) * The Apostases (Magazines) * The Navalia (Docks), lying west of the Timonium, along the seafront as far as the mole * Behind the Emporium rose the Great Caesareum, by which stood the two great obelisks , which become known as “Cleopatra\'s Needles ,” and were transported to New York City and London. This temple became, in time, the Patriarchal Church, though some ancient remains of the temple have been discovered. The actual Caesareum, the parts not eroded by the waves, lies under the houses lining the new seawall. * The Gymnasium and the Palaestra are both inland, near the Boulevard de Rosette in the eastern half of the town; sites unknown. * The Temple of Saturn ; site unknown. * The Mausolea of Alexander (Soma) and the Ptolemies in one ring-fence, near the point of intersection of the two main streets. * The Musaeum with its famous Library and theater in the same region; site unknown. * The Serapeum , the most famous of all Alexandrian temples. Strabo tells us that this stood in the west of the city; and recent discoveries go far as to place it near “Pompey's Pillar,” which was an independent monument erected to commemorate Diocletian 's siege of the city.
The names of a few other public buildings on the mainland are known, but there is little information as to their actual position. None, however, are as famous as the building that stood on the eastern point of Pharos island. There, The Great Lighthouse , one of the Seven Wonders of the World , reputed to be 138 metres (453 feet) high, was situated. The first Ptolemy began the project, and the second Ptolemy ( Ptolemy II Philadelphus ) completed it, at a total cost of 800 talents . It took 12 years to complete and served as a prototype for all later lighthouses in the world. The light was produced by a furnace at the top and the tower was built mostly with solid blocks of limestone. The Pharos lighthouse was destroyed by an earthquake in the 14th century, making it the second longest surviving ancient wonder, after the Great Pyramid of Giza . A temple of Hephaestus also stood on Pharos at the head of the mole.
In the 1st century, the population of Alexandria contained over 180,000 adult male citizens, according to a census dated from 32 CE, in addition to a large number of freedmen, women, children and slaves. Estimates of the total population range from 216,000 to 500,000 to over 1,000,000, making it one of the largest cities ever built before the Industrial Revolution and the largest pre-industrial city that was not an imperial capital.
Alexandria is located in the country of Egypt, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean.
Alexandria has a borderline hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification : BWh), approaching a hot semi-arid climate (BSh). As the rest of Egypt\'s northern coast , the prevailing north wind, blowing across the Mediterranean, gives the city a less severe climate from the desert hinterland. Rafah and Alexandria are the wettest places in Egypt, the other wettest places are Rosetta , Baltim , Kafr el-Dawwar and Mersa Matruh . The city's climate is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea , moderating its temperatures, causing variable rainy winters and moderately hot summers that, at times, can be very humid; January and February are the coolest months, with daily maximum temperatures typically ranging from 12 to 18 °C (54 to 64 °F) and minimum temperatures that could reach 5 °C (41 °F ). Alexandria experiences violent storms , rain and sometimes snow , sleet and hail during the cooler months; these events, combined with a poor drainage system, have been responsible for occasional flooding in the city. July and August are the hottest and driest months of the year, with an average daily maximum temperature of 30 °C (86 °F ). The average annual rainfall is around 200 mm (7.9 in) but has been as high as 417 mm (16.4 in)
The highest recorded temperature was 45 °C (113 °F) on May 30, 1961 and the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °C (32 °F) on January 31, 1994.
CLIMATE DATA FOR ALEXANDRIA
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 29.6 (85.3) 33 (91) 40 (104) 41 (106) 45 (113) 43.8 (110.8) 43 (109) 38.6 (101.5) 41.4 (106.5) 38.2 (100.8) 35.7 (96.3) 31 (88) 45 (113)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 18.4 (65.1) 19.3 (66.7) 20.9 (69.6) 24 (75) 26.5 (79.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.7 (85.5) 30.4 (86.7) 29.6 (85.3) 27.6 (81.7) 24.1 (75.4) 20.1 (68.2) 24.9 (76.8)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 13.9 (57) 15.7 (60.3) 18.5 (65.3) 21.2 (70.2) 24.3 (75.7) 25.9 (78.6) 26.3 (79.3) 25.1 (77.2) 22 (72) 18.7 (65.7) 14.9 (58.8) 20 (68)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 9.1 (48.4) 9.3 (48.7) 10.8 (51.4) 13.4 (56.1) 16.6 (61.9) 20.3 (68.5) 22.8 (73) 23.1 (73.6) 21.3 (70.3) 17.8 (64) 14.3 (57.7) 10.6 (51.1) 15.8 (60.4)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) 0 (32) 0 (32) 2.3 (36.1) 3.6 (38.5) 7 (45) 11.6 (52.9) 17 (63) 17.7 (63.9) 14 (57) 10.7 (51.3) 1 (34) 1.2 (34.2) 0 (32)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 52.8 (2.079) 29.2 (1.15) 14.3 (0.563) 3.6 (0.142) 1.3 (0.051) 0.01 (0.0004) 0.03 (0.0012) 0.1 (0.004) 0.8 (0.031) 9.4 (0.37) 31.7 (1.248) 52.7 (2.075) 195.94 (7.7146)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.01 MM) 11 8.9 6 1.9 1.0 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.2 2.9 5.4 9.5 46.92
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 69 67 67 65 66 68 71 71 67 68 68 68 67.92
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 192.2 217.5 248 273 316.2 354 362.7 344.1 297 282.1 225 195.3 3,307.1
Source #1: _ World Meteorological Organization (UN)_, _Hong Kong Observatory _ for sunshine and mean temperatures, _Climate Charts_ for humidity
Source #2: _Voodoo Skies_ and _Bing Weather_ for record temperatures
Alexandria mean sea temperature JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
18 °C (64 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 18 °C (64 °F) 20 °C (68 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 22 °C (72 °F) 20 °C (68 °F)
HISTORICAL SITES AND LANDMARKS
Due to the constant presence of war in Alexandria in ancient times, very little of the ancient city has survived into the present day. Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbour due to earthquake subsidence in AD 365, and the rest has been built over in modern times. Kom El Shoqafa
"Pompey\'s Pillar ", a Roman triumphal column , is one of the best-known ancient monuments still standing in Alexandria today. It is located on Alexandria's ancient acropolis —a modest hill located adjacent to the city's Arab cemetery —and was originally part of a temple colonnade. Including its pedestal , it is 30 m (99 ft) high; the shaft is of polished red granite, 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in diameter at the base, tapering to 2.4 m (7.9 ft) at the top. The shaft is 88 feet (27 m) high, and made out of a single piece of granite. Its volume is 132 cubic meters (4,662 cubic feet) and weight approximately 396 tons. Pompey's Pillar may have been erected using the same methods that were used to erect the ancient obelisks . The Romans had cranes but they were not strong enough to lift something this heavy. Roger Hopkins and Mark Lehrner conducted several obelisk erecting experiments including a successful attempt to erect a 25-ton obelisk in 1999. This followed two experiments to erect smaller obelisks and two failed attempts to erect a 25-ton obelisk. The structure was plundered and demolished in the 4th century when a bishop decreed that Paganism must be eradicated. "Pompey's Pillar" is a misnomer , as it has nothing to do with Pompey , having been erected in 293 for Diocletian , possibly in memory of the rebellion of Domitius Domitianus . Beneath the acropolis itself are the subterranean remains of the Serapeum, where the mysteries of the god Serapis were enacted, and whose carved wall niches are believed to have provided overflow storage space for the ancient Library. In more recent years, many ancient artifacts have been discovered from the surrounding sea, mostly pieces of old pottery.
Alexandria's catacombs , known as _Kom El Shoqafa _, are a short distance southwest of the pillar, consist of a multi-level labyrinth, reached via a large spiral staircase , and featuring dozens of chambers adorned with sculpted pillars, statues, and other syncretic Romano-Egyptian religious symbols , burial niches, and sarcophagi , as well as a large Roman-style banquet room, where memorial meals were conducted by relatives of the deceased. The catacombs were long forgotten by the citizens until they were discovered by accident in 1900.
The most extensive ancient excavation currently being conducted in Alexandria is known as Kom El Deka . It has revealed the ancient city's well-preserved theater, and the remains of its Roman-era baths .
Persistent efforts have been made to explore the antiquities of Alexandria. Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national history. Excavations were performed in the city by Greeks seeking the tomb of Alexander the Great without success. The past and present directors of the museum have been enabled from time to time to carry out systematic excavations whenever opportunity is offered; D. G. Hogarth made tentative researches on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies in 1895; and a German expedition worked for two years (1898–1899). But two difficulties face the would-be excavator in Alexandria: lack of space for excavation and the underwater location of some areas of interest. Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna.
Since the great and growing modern city stands immediately over the ancient one, it is almost impossible to find any considerable space in which to dig, except at enormous cost. Cleopatra VII 's royal quarters were inundated by earthquakes and tsunami, leading to gradual subsidence in the 4th century AD. This underwater section, containing many of the most interesting sections of the Hellenistic city, including the palace quarter, was explored in 1992 and is still being extensively investigated by the French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio and his team . It raised a noted head of Caesarion . These are being opened up to tourists, to some controversy. The spaces that are most open are the low grounds to northeast and southwest, where it is practically impossible to get below the Roman strata .
The most important results were those achieved by Dr. G. Botti, late director of the museum, in the neighborhood of “Pompey's Pillar”, where there is a good deal of open ground. Here, substructures of a large building or group of buildings have been exposed, which are perhaps part of the Serapeum. Nearby, immense catacombs and _columbaria_ have been opened which may have been appendages of the temple. These contain one very remarkable vault with curious painted reliefs, now artificially lit and open to visitors.
The objects found in these researches are in the museum, the most notable being a great basalt bull, probably once an object of cult in the Serapeum. Other catacombs and tombs have been opened in Kom El Shoqafa (Roman) and Ras El Tin (painted).
The German excavation team found remains of a Ptolemaic colonnade and streets in the north-east of the city, but little else. Hogarth explored part of an immense brick structure under the mound of Kom El Deka , which may have been part of the Paneum, the Mausolea, or a Roman fortress.
The making of the new foreshore led to the dredging up of remains of the Patriarchal Church; and the foundations of modern buildings are seldom laid without some objects of antiquity being discovered. The wealth underground is doubtlessly immense; but despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria outside the museum and the neighborhood of “Pompey's Pillar”.
TEMPLE OF TAPOSIRIS MAGNA
The temple was built in the Ptolemy era and dedicated to Osiris, which finished the construction of Alexandria. It is located in Abusir, the western suburb of Alexandria in Borg el Arab city. Only the outer wall and the pylons remain from the temple. There is evidence to prove that sacred animals were worshiped there. Archaeologists found an animal necropolis near the temple. Remains of a Christian church show that the temple was used as a church in later centuries. Also found in the same area are remains of public baths built by the emperor Justinian, a seawall, quays and a bridge. Near the beach side of the area, there are the remains of a tower built by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The tower was an exact scale replica of the destroyed Alexandrine Pharos Lighthouse .
The most famous mosque in Alexandria is El-Mursi Abul Abbas Mosque in Bahary . Other notable mosques in the city include Ali ibn Abi Talib mosque in Somouha, Bilal mosque, al-Gamaa al-Bahari in Mandara, Hatem mosque in Somouha, Hoda el-Islam mosque in Sidi Bishr, al-Mowasah mosque in Hadara, Sharq al-Madina mosque in Miami, al-Shohadaa mosque in Mostafa Kamel, Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque, Yehia mosque in Zizinia, Sidi Gaber mosque in Sidi Gaber, and Sultan mosque.
Alexandria is the base of the Salafi movement 's in Egypt. Al-Nour Party , which is based in the city and overwhelmingly won most of the Salafi votes in the 2011–12 parliamentary election , supports the president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi .
After Rome and Constantinople , Alexandria was considered the third-most important seat of Christianity in the world. The Pope of Alexandria was second only to the bishop of Rome , the capital of the Roman Empire until 430. The Church of Alexandria had jurisdiction over most of the continent of Africa. After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Church of Alexandria was split between the Miaphysites and the Melkites . The Miaphysites went on to constitute what is known today as the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. The Melkites went on to constitute what is known today as the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria . In the 19th century, Catholic and Protestant missionaries converted some of the adherents of the Orthodox churches to their respective faiths.
Today, the Patriarchal seat of the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church is Saint Mark Cathedral in Ramleh. The most important Coptic Orthodox churches in Alexandria include Pope Cyril I Church in Cleopatra, Saint Georges Church in Sporting, Saint Mark & Pope Peter I Church in Sidi Bishr, Saint Mary Church in Assafra, Saint Mary Church in Gianaclis, Saint Mina Church in Fleming, Saint Mina Church in Mandara and Saint Takla Haymanot\'s Church in Ibrahimeya.
The most important Eastern Orthodox churches in Alexandria are Agioi Anárgyroi Church, Church of the Annunciation , Saint Anthony Church, Archangels Gabriel & Michael Church, Taxiarchon Church, Saint Catherine Church, Cathedral of the Dormition in Mansheya, Church of the Dormition, Prophet Elijah Church, Saint George Church, Church of the Immaculate Conception in Ibrahemeya, Saint Joseph Church in Fleming, Saint Joseph of Arimathea Church, Saint Mark "> Jewish girls during Bat Mitzva in Alexandria See also: History of the Jews in Egypt
Alexandria's once-flourishing Jewish community declined rapidly following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War , after which negative reactions towards Zionism among Egyptians led to Jewish residents in the city, and elsewhere in Egypt, being perceived as Zionist collaborators. Most Jewish residents of Egypt fled to the newly established Israel , France , Brazil and other countries in the 1950s and 1960s. The community once numbered 50,000 but is now estimated at below 50. The most important synagogue in Alexandria is the Eliyahu Hanavi Synagogue .
Collège Saint Marc Lycée Français d\'Alexandrie
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Alexandria has a number of higher education institutions. Alexandria University is a public university that follows the Egyptian system of higher education. Many of its faculties are internationally renowned, most notably its Faculty of Medicine & Faculty of Engineering . In addition, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology in New Borg El Arab city, its is a research university set up in collaboration between the Japanese and Egyptian governments in 2010, the Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport is a semi-private educational institution that offers courses for high school, undergraduate level, and postgraduate students. It is considered the most reputable university in Egypt after the AUC American University in Cairo because of its worldwide recognition from board of engineers at UK "> Borg El Arab International Airport
From late 2011, Alexandria International Airport was to be closed to commercial operations for two years as it underwent expansion, with all airlines operating out of Borg El Arab Airport from then onwards, where a brand new terminal was completed in February 2010. In 2017 the government officially announced that Alexandria International Airport will shut down for good due to operational reasons, after having initially announced that it was to open during mid-2017.
* International Coastal Road ( Mersa Matrouh – Alexandria – Port Said ) * Cairo– Alexandria Desert Road ( Alexandria – Cairo – 220 km (137 mi), 6–8 lanes) * Cairo- Alexandria Agriculture Road ( Alexandria – Cairo ) * Mehwar El Ta'meer – ( Alexandria – Borg El Arab )
Misr Railway Station
Alexandria's intracity commuter rail system extends from Misr Station (Alexandria's primary intercity railway station ) to Abu Qir , parallel to the tram line . The commuter line's locomotives operate on diesel , as opposed to the overhead-electric tram.
Alexandria plays host to two intercity railway stations: the aforementioned Misr Station (in the older Manshia district in the western part of the city) and Sidi Gaber railway station (in the district of Sidi Gaber in the center of the eastern expansion in which most Alexandrines reside), both of which also serve the commuter rail line. Intercity passenger service is operated by Egyptian National Railways .
An extensive tramway network was built in 1860 and is the oldest in Africa. The network begins at the El Raml district in the west and ends in the Victoria district in the east. Most of the vehicles are blue in color. Some smaller yellow-colored vehicles have further routes beyond the two main endpoints. The tram routes have one of four numbers: 1, 2, 5, and 6. All four start at El Raml, but only two (1 and 2) reach Victoria. There are two converging and diverging points. The first starts at Bolkly (Isis) and ends at San Stefano . The other begins at Sporting and ends at Mostafa Kamel. Route 5 starts at San Stefano and takes the inner route to Bolkly. Route 6 starts at Sidi Gaber El Sheikh in the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Route 1 takes the inner route between San Stefano and Bolkly and the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Route 2 takes the route opposite to Route 1 in both these areas. The tram fares are 25 piastres (0.25 pounds) during most of the day, and 50 piastres (0.50 pounds) after 9pm. Some trams (that date back the 30s) charge a pound. The tram is considered the cheapest method of public transport.
TAXIS AND MINIBUSES
See also: Taxicabs by country § Egypt
Taxis in Alexandria sport a yellow-and-black livery and are widely available. While Egyptian law requires all cabs to carry meters , these generally do not work and fares must be negotiated with the driver on either departure or arrival.
The minibus share taxi system, or _mashrū` _ operates along well-known traffic arteries. The routes can be identified by both their endpoints and the route between them:
* Corniche routes:
* Abu Qir routes:
* Interior routes:
The route is generally written in Arabic on the side of the vehicle, although some drivers change their route without changing the paint. Some drivers also drive only a segment of a route rather than the whole path; such drivers generally stop at a point known as a major hub of the transportation system (for example, Victoria) to allow riders to transfer to another car or to another mode of transport. Alexandria port
Fare is generally L.E. 2.00 to travel the whole route. Shorter trips may have a lower fare, depending on the driver and the length of the trip.
Main article: Alexandria Port
Alexandria has four ports; namely the Western Port, which is the main port of the country that handles about 60% of the country’s exports and imports, Dekhela Port west of the Western Port, the Eastern Port which is a yachting harbor, and Abu Qir Port at the northern east of the governorate. It is commercial port for general cargo and phosphates.
The Royal Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt , was once the largest library in the world. It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt . It was likely created after his father had built what would become the first part of the library complex, the temple of the Muses —the Museion , Greek _Μουσείον_ (from which the Modern English word _museum _ is derived).
It has been reasonably established that the library, or parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire on a number of occasions (library fires were common and replacement of handwritten manuscripts was very difficult, expensive, and time-consuming). To this day the details of the destruction (or destructions) remain a lively source of controversy.
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2002, near the site of the old Library.
* The Alexandria National Museum was inaugurated 31 December 2003. It is located in a restored Italian style palace in Tariq El Horreya Street (formerly Rue Fouad), near the center of the city. It contains about 1,800 artifacts that narrate the story of Alexandria and Egypt . Most of these pieces came from other Egyptian museums. The museum is housed in the old Al-Saad Bassili Pasha Palace, who was one of the wealthiest wood merchants in Alexandria. Construction on the site was first undertaken in 1926. * The Cavafy Museum * The Graeco-Roman Museum * The Museum of Fine Arts * The Royal Jewelry Museum
The main sport that interests Alexandrians is football, as is the case in the rest of Egypt and Africa. Alexandria Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Alexandria, Egypt . It is currently used mostly for football matches, and was used for the 2006 African Cup of Nations . The stadium is the oldest stadium in Egypt and Africa, being built in 1929. The stadium holds 20,000 people. Alexandria was one of three cities that participated in hosting the African Cup of Nations in January 2006, which Egypt won. Sea sports such as surfing , jet-skiing and water polo are practiced on a lower scale. The Skateboarding culture in Egypt started in this city. The city is also home to the Alexandria Sporting Club , which is especially known for its basketball team, which traditionally provides the country\'s national team with key players. The city hosted the AfroBasket , the continent's most prestigious basketball tournament, on four occasions (1970, 1975, 1983, 2003).
Alexandria has four stadiums :
Other less popular sports like tennis and squash are usually played in private social and sports clubs , like:
* Acacia Country Club * Alexandria Sporting Club – in "Sporting " * Alexandria Country club * El-Ittihad El-Iskandary Club * El-Olympi Club * Haras El Hodood Club * Koroum Club * Lagoon Resort Courts * Smouha SC – in " Smouha "
Alexandria is a main summer resort and tourist attraction , due to its public and private beaches and ancient history and Museums , especially the Bibliotheca Alexandrina , based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria .
One of the main tourism attractions that start every year from the city is Cross Egypt Challenge . Started in 2011, Cross Egypt Challenge is an international cross-country motorcycle and scooter rally conducted throughout the most difficult tracks and roads of Egypt. Alexandria is known as the yearly starting point of Cross Egypt Challenge and a huge celebration is conducted the night before the rally starts after all the international participants arrive to the city.
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Shalalat Gardens *
Montaza Garden *
Alexandria Art Center *
Fawzia Fahmy Palace *
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier *
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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt The Italian consulate in Saad Zaghloul Square
TWIN TOWNS/SISTER CITIES
Alexandria is twinned with:
* Kazakhstan Almaty * Slovakia Bratislava * Morocco Casablanca * United States Cleveland * Romania Constanţa * South Africa Durban * Turkey İzmir * Bulgaria Kazanlak * France Marseille * India Kanpur * Azerbaijan Yevlakh * Armenia Gyumri * Cyprus Limassol * Ukraine Odessa * China Shanghai * Russia St. Petersburg * Greece Thessaloniki
* ^ " Egypt names five former generals as provincial governors". PressTV. Retrieved 17 September 2016. * ^ http://www.capmas.gov.eg/Pages/populationClock.aspx# * ^ "Alexandria". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014. * ^ "Do fundo do mar... Sea bottom: Sediments Reveal Alexandria\'s Hidden History". Retrieved 2017-01-28. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "The Lighthouse Dims". _ Foreign Policy _. 23 December 2014. * ^ O'Connor, Lauren (2009) "The Remains of Alexander the Great: The God, The King, The Symbol," _Constructing the Past_: Vol. 10: Iss. 1, Article 8 * ^ Erskine, Andrew (April 1995). " Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser.,". _Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: the Museum and Library of Alexandria_. 42 (1): 38–48 . One effect of the newly created Hellenistic kingdoms was the imposition of Greek cities occupied by Greeks on an alien landscape. In Egypt, there was a native Egyptian population with its own culture, history, and traditions. The Greeks who came to Egypt, to the court or to live in Alexandria, were separated from their original cultures. Alexandria was the main Greek city of Egypt and within it there was an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities and backgrounds.
* ^ Erskine, Andrew (April 1994). " Greece indeed Egypt itself is hardly mentioned except for the Nile and the Nile flood, This omission of the Egypt and Egyptians from poetry masks a fundamental insecurity. It is no coincidence that one of the few poetic references to Egyptians presents them as muggers. Check date values in: year= / date= mismatch (help ) * ^ HANA K. , "Res Gestae", 26.10.15–19 * ^ Stiros, Stathis C.: “The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data”, _Journal of Structural Geology_, Vol. 23 (2001), pp. 545–562 (549 Allabn Al-Hazermi to Munzer bin Sawa the king of Bahrain; Amer bin Aas to the king of Oman. Salit bin Amri to Hozah bin Ali— the king of Yamama; Shiya bin Wahab to Haris bin Ghasanni to the king of Damascus" * ^ Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), _The Sealed Nectar_, Darussalam Publications, p. 226 (online) * ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). _Muhammad at Medina_. Oxford University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-19-577307-1 . Dihyah b. Khalifah al-Kalbi, who had gone to Syria on an errand for Muhammad, was returning to Medina with gifts, when he was robbed by a man of Judham called al-Hunayd. Another clan of Judham, however, or some men from another tribe, forced al-Hunayd to give the things back. Meanwhile a leader of Judham, Rifa'ah b. Zayd, had been in Medina, had brought back to the tribe Muhammad's terms for an alliance, and the tribe had accepted. Muhammad had not been informed of this decision, however, and sent out Zayd b. Harithah to avenge the insult to his messenger. There was a skirmish in which the Muslims killed al-Hunayd and captured a number of women and animals. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) (free online) * ^ "Modern""The History of Alexandria". Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013. * ^ Ted Thornton, "Nasser Assassination Attempt, October 26, 1954," Middle East History Database"Nasser Assassination Attempt, October 26, 1954". Retrieved 24 May 2013. * ^ Rostovtzeff 1941: (1138–39) * ^ Josiah Russell, 1958, "Late Ancient and Medieval Population," pp. 67 and 79. * ^ Elio Lo Cascio , 2009, "Urbanization as a Proxy of Growth," p. 97 citing Bagnall and Frier. * ^ Koeppen-Geiger.vu-wien.ac.at * ^ "Alexandria". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. * ^ " Egypt Climate Index". Climate Charts. Retrieved 20 June 2013. * ^ "Deadly flash floods hit Egypt\'s Alexandria". _aljazeera.com_.
* ^ "Clima en Alexandria / Nouzha – Históricos el tiempo". Tutiempo.net. Retrieved 2013-03-12. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Alexandria, Egypt". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 3 August 2015. * ^ "Weather Information for Alexandria". Retrieved August 2010. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ "Climatological Information for Alexandria, Egypt" (1961–1990)". Hong Kong Observatory. * ^ "Alexandria, Egypt: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Retrieved 20 June 2013. * ^ Alexandria, Egypt Monthly Averages – Bing Weather * ^ " Alexandria Climate and Weather Averages, Egypt". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 2014-01-20. * ^ "The Sarapeion, including Pompay\'s Pillar In Alexandria, Egypt". Touregypt.net. Retrieved 19 January 2009. * ^ The Pyramids and Sphinx by Desmond Stewart and editors of the Newsweek Book Division 1971 p. 80-81 * ^ "NOVA Online Mysteries of the Nile 27 August 1999: The Third Attempt". Pbs.org. 27 August 1999. Retrieved 5 May 2009. * ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ramses II: Magnificence on the Nile (1993)p. 56-57 * ^ Planet, Lonely. " Catacombs of Kom ash-Suqqafa – Lonely Planet". _lonelyplanet.com_. * ^ "Fgs Project Alexandria". Underwaterdiscovery.org. Archived from the original on 7 March 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010. * ^ "Divers probe underwater palace". BBC News. 28 October 1998. Retrieved 19 January 2009. * ^ "New underwater tourist attraction in Egypt". BBC News. 24 September 2000. Retrieved 19 January 2009. * ^ "Temple of Taposiris Magna near Abusir in Egypt". Touregypt.net. Retrieved 2013-03-12. * ^ Egypt to restore Alexandria’s historic synagogue, (20 December 2010) Archived 24 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "A new gateway for Alexandria". _ Al-Ahram Weekly _. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. * ^ Raven, James (2004). _Lost Libraries: The Destruction of Great Book Collections Since Antiquity_. Springer. p. 12. ISBN 0230524257 . * ^ "Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava". _Bratislava-City.sk_. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28. Retrieved 2013-08-05. * ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Retrieved 2013-04-21. * ^ "Sister Cities Home Page". Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. eThekwini Online: The Official Site of the City of Durban * ^ " Limassol Twinned Cities". _ Limassol (Lemesos) Municipality_. Archived from the original on 2013-04-01. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
* A. Bernand, _Alexandrie la Grande_ (1966) * A. J. Butler, _The Arab Conquest of Egypt_ (2nd. ed., 1978) * P.-A. Claudel, _Alexandrie. Histoire d'un mythe_ (2011) * A. De Cosson, _Mareotis_ (1935) * J.-Y. Empereur, _ Alexandria Rediscovered_ (1998) * E. M. Forster, _ Alexandria A History and a Guide_ (1922) (reprint ed. M. Allott, 2004) * P. M. Fraser, _Ptolemaic Alexandria_ (1972) * M. Haag, _Alexandria: City of Memory_ (2004) * M. Haag, _Vintage Alexandria: Photographs of the City 1860–1960_ (2008) * M. Haag, _ Alexandria Illustrated_ * R. Ilbert, I. Yannakakis, _Alexandrie 1860–1960_ (1992) * R. Ilbert, _Alexandrie entre deux mondes_ (1988) * Philip Mansel, _Levant: Splendour and Catastrophe on the Mediterranean_, London, John Murray, 11 November 2010, hardback, 480 pages, ISBN 978-0-7195-6707-0 , New Haven, Yale University Press, 24 May 2011, hardback, 470 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-17264-5 * V. W. Von Hagen, _The Roads that led to Rome_ (1967)
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to: ALEXANDRIA _ (category)
* Alexandria travel guide from Wikivoyage * Official website * Greek Community of Alexandria
Preceded by Sebennytos CAPITAL OF EGYPT 331 BC – AD 641 Succeeded by Fustat