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Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
(/duːˈmɑː, djuː-/; French: [alɛksɑ̃dʁ dyma]; born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie [dyma davi də la pajətʁi]; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870),[1] also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer. His works have been translated into nearly 100 languages,[citation needed] and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were originally published as serials, including The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, and The Vicomte de Bragelonne: Ten Years Later. His novels have been adapted since the early twentieth century for nearly 200 films. Dumas' last novel, The Knight of Sainte-Hermine, unfinished at his death, was completed by scholar Claude Schopp and published in 2005.[2] It was published in English in 2008 as The Last Cavalier. Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were successfully produced from the first. He also wrote numerous magazine articles and travel books; his published works totalled 100,000 pages.[3] In the 1840s, Dumas founded the Théâtre Historique in Paris. His father, General Thomas-Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, was born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
(present-day Haiti) to Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman, and Marie-Cessette Dumas, a slave of African descent.[4] At age 14 Thomas-Alexandre was taken by his father to France, where he was educated in a military academy and entered the military for what became an illustrious career. Dumas' father's aristocratic rank helped young Alexandre acquire work with Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans. He later began working as a writer, finding early success. Decades later, in the election of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte in 1851, Dumas fell from favour and left France for Belgium, where he stayed for several years. Upon leaving Belgium, Dumas moved to Russia for a few years before going to Italy. In 1861, he founded and published the newspaper L'Indipendente, which supported the Italian unification effort. In 1864, he returned to Paris. Though married, in the tradition of Frenchmen of higher social class, Dumas had numerous affairs (allegedly as many as forty). In his lifetime, he was known to have at least four illegitimate children; although twentieth-century scholars found that Dumas fathered another three other children out of wedlock. He acknowledged and assisted his son, Alexandre Dumas, to become a successful novelist and playwright. They are known as Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
père (father) and Alexandre Dumas fils (son). Among his affairs, in 1866, Dumas had one with Adah Isaacs Menken, an American actress then less than half his age and at the height of her career. The English playwright Watts Phillips, who knew Dumas in his later life, described him as "the most generous, large-hearted being in the world. He also was the most delightfully amusing and egotistical creature on the face of the earth. His tongue was like a windmill – once set in motion, you never knew when he would stop, especially if the theme was himself."[5]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career 3 Personal life 4 Death and legacy 5 Works

5.1 Fiction 5.2 High adventure 5.3 The d'Artagnan Romances 5.4 The Valois romances 5.5 The Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
romances 5.6 The Sainte-Hermine trilogy 5.7 Drama 5.8 Nonfiction

6 Dumas Society 7 Personal images 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Early life[edit]

General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, father of Alexandre Dumas.

Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (later known as Alexandre Dumas) was born in 1802 in Villers-Cotterêts
Villers-Cotterêts
in the department of Aisne, in Picardy, France. He had two older sisters, Marie-Alexandrine (born 1794) and Louise-Alexandrine (born 1796, died 1797).[6] Their parents were Marie-Louise Élisabeth Labouret, the daughter of an innkeeper, and Thomas-Alexandre Dumas. Thomas-Alexandre had been born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti), the mixed-race, natural son of the marquis Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman and général commissaire in the artillery of the colony, and Marie-Cessette Dumas, a slave of Afro-Caribbean ancestry. At the time of Thomas-Alexandre's birth, his father was impoverished. It is not known whether his mother was born in Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
or in Africa, nor is it known from which African people her ancestors came.[7][8][9] Brought as a boy to France by his father and legally freed there, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
Davy was educated in a military school and joined the army as a young man. As an adult, Thomas-Alexandre used his mother's name, Dumas, as his surname after a break with his father. Dumas was promoted to general by the age of 31, the first soldier of Afro-Antilles origin to reach that rank in the French army.[10] He served with distinction in the French Revolutionary Wars. He became general-in-chief of the Army of the Pyrenees, the first man of colour to reach that rank. Although a general under Bonaparte in the Italian and Egyptian campaigns, Dumas had fallen out of favour by 1800 and requested leave to return to France. On his return, his ship had to put in at Taranto
Taranto
in the Kingdom of Naples, where he and others were held as prisoners of war. In 1806, when Alexandre was four years of age, his father, Thomas-Alexandre, died of cancer. His widowed mother, Marie-Louise, could not provide her son with much of an education, but Dumas read everything he could and taught himself Spanish. Although poor, the family had their father's distinguished reputation and aristocratic rank to aid the children's advancement. In 1822, after the restoration of the monarchy, the 20-year-old Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
moved to Paris. He acquired a position at the Palais Royal
Palais Royal
in the office of Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans.[citation needed] Career[edit]

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Alexandre Dumas, engraving by Antoine Maurin.

Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
by Achille Devéria
Achille Devéria
(1829)

While working for Louis-Philippe, Dumas began writing articles for magazines and plays for the theatre. As an adult, he used his slave grandmother's surname of Dumas, as his father had done as an adult.[11] His first play, Henry III and His Courts, produced in 1829 when he was 27 years old, met with acclaim. The next year, his second play, Christine, was equally popular. These successes gave him sufficient income to write full-time. In 1830, Dumas participated in the Revolution that ousted Charles X and replaced him with Dumas' former employer, the Duke of Orléans, who ruled as Louis-Philippe, the Citizen King. Until the mid-1830s, life in France remained unsettled, with sporadic riots by disgruntled Republicans and impoverished urban workers seeking change. As life slowly returned to normal, the nation began to industrialise. An improving economy combined with the end of press censorship made the times rewarding for Alexandre Dumas' literary skills. After writing additional successful plays, Dumas switched to writing novels. Although attracted to an extravagant lifestyle and always spending more than he earned, Dumas proved to be an astute marketer.[4] As newspapers were publishing many serial novels, in 1838, Dumas rewrote one of his plays as his first serial novel, Le Capitaine Paul. He founded a production studio, staffed with writers who turned out hundreds of stories, all subject to his personal direction, editing, and additions. From 1839 to 1841, Dumas, with the assistance of several friends, compiled Celebrated Crimes, an eight-volume collection of essays on famous criminals and crimes from European history. He featured Beatrice Cenci, Martin Guerre, Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia, as well as more recent events and criminals, including the cases of the alleged murderers Karl Ludwig Sand
Karl Ludwig Sand
and Antoine François Desrues, who were executed. Dumas collaborated with Augustin Grisier, his fencing master, in his 1840 novel, The Fencing
Fencing
Master. The story is written as Grisier's account of how he came to witness the events of the Decembrist revolt in Russia. The novel was eventually banned in Russia by Czar Nicholas I, and Dumas was prohibited from visiting the country until after the Czar's death. Dumas refers to Grisier with great respect in The Count of Monte Cristo, The Corsican Brothers, and in his memoirs. Dumas depended on numerous assistants and collaborators, of whom Auguste Maquet
Auguste Maquet
was the best known. It was not until the late twentieth century that his role was fully understood.[12] Dumas wrote the short novel Georges (1843), which uses ideas and plots later repeated in The Count of Monte Cristo. Maquet took Dumas to court to try to get authorial recognition and a higher rate of payment for his work. He was successful in getting more money, but not a by-line.[12][13]

Château de Monte-Cristo

Dumas' novels were so popular that they were soon translated into English and other languages. His writing earned him a great deal of money, but he was frequently insolvent, as he spent lavishly on women and sumptuous living. (Scholars have found that he had a total of 40 mistresses.[14]) In 1846, he had built a country house outside Paris at Le Port-Marly, the large Château de Monte-Cristo, with an additional building for his writing studio. It was often filled with strangers and acquaintances who stayed for lengthy visits and took advantage of his generosity. Two years later, faced with financial difficulties, he sold the entire property. Dumas wrote in a wide variety of genres and published a total of 100,000 pages in his lifetime.[3] He also made use of his experience, writing travel books after taking journeys, including those motivated by reasons other than pleasure. After King Louis-Philippe was ousted in a revolt, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was elected president. As Bonaparte disapproved of the author, Dumas fled in 1851 to Brussels, Belgium, which was also an effort to escape his creditors. About 1859, he moved to Russia, where French was the second language of the elite and his writings were enormously popular. Dumas spent two years in Russia before leaving to seek different adventures. He published travel books about Russia. In March 1861, the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed, with Victor Emmanuel II as its king. Dumas travelled there and for the next three years participated in the movement for Italian unification. He founded and led a newspaper, Indipendente. Returning to Paris in 1864, he published travel books about Italy. Despite Dumas' aristocratic background and personal success, he had to deal with discrimination related to his mixed-race ancestry. In 1843, he wrote a short novel, Georges, that addressed some of the issues of race and the effects of colonialism. His response to a man who insulted him about his African ancestry has become famous. Dumas said:

My father was a mulatto, my grandfather was a Negro, and my great-grandfather a monkey. You see, Sir, my family starts where yours ends.[15][16]

Personal life[edit] On 1 February 1840, Dumas married actress Ida Ferrier (born Marguerite-Joséphine Ferrand) (1811–1859).[17] He had numerous liaisons with other women and was known to have fathered at least four children by them:

Alexandre Dumas, fils
Alexandre Dumas, fils
(1824–1895), son of Marie-Laure-Catherine Labay (1794–1868), a dressmaker. He became a successful novelist and playwright. Marie-Alexandrine Dumas (5 March 1831 – 1878), the daughter of Belle Krelsamer (1803–1875). Micaëlla-Clélie-Josepha-Élisabeth Cordier (born 1860), the daughter of Emélie Cordier. Henry Bauer, the son of a woman whose surname was Bauer.

About 1866, Dumas had an affair with Adah Isaacs Menken, a well-known American actress. She had performed her sensational role in Mazeppa in London. In Paris, she had a sold-out run of Les Pirates de la Savanne and was at the peak of her success.[18] These women were among Dumas' nearly 40 mistresses found by scholar Claude Schopp, in addition to three natural children.[14] Death and legacy[edit]

Dumas later in his career

At his death in December 1870, Dumas was buried at his birthplace of Villers-Cotterêts
Villers-Cotterêts
in the department of Aisne. His death was overshadowed by the Franco-Prussian War. Changing literary fashions decreased his popularity. In the late twentieth century, scholars such as Reginald Hamel and Claude Schopp have caused a critical reappraisal and new appreciation of his art, as well as finding lost works.[3] In 1970, the Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
Paris Métro station was named in his honour. His country home outside Paris, the Château de Monte-Cristo, has been restored and is open to the public as a museum.[citation needed] Researchers have continued to find Dumas works in archives, including the five-act play, The Gold Thieves, found in 2002 by the scholar Réginald Hamel (fr) in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. It was published in France in 2004 by Honoré-Champion.[3] Frank Wild Reed (1874–1953), the older brother of Dunedin publisher A. H. Reed, was a busy Whangarei
Whangarei
pharmacist who never visited France, yet he amassed the greatest collection of books and manuscripts relating to Dumas outside France. It contains about 3350 volumes, including some 2000 sheets in Dumas' handwriting and dozens of French, Belgian and English first editions. This collection was donated to Auckland Libraries
Auckland Libraries
after his death.[19] Reed wrote the most comprehensive bibliography of Dumas.[20][21] In 2002, for the bicentennial of Dumas' birth, French President Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
had a ceremony honouring the author by having his ashes re-interred at the mausoleum of the Panthéon
Panthéon
of Paris, where many French luminaries were buried.[3][14] The proceedings were televised: the new coffin was draped in a blue velvet cloth and carried on a caisson flanked by four mounted Republican Guards costumed as the four Musketeers. It was transported through Paris to the Panthéon.[11] In his speech, President Chirac said:

"With you, we were D'Artagnan, Monte Cristo, or Balsamo, riding along the roads of France, touring battlefields, visiting palaces and castles—with you, we dream."[22]

Chirac acknowledged the racism that had existed in France and said that the re-interment in the Pantheon had been a way of correcting that wrong, as Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
was enshrined alongside fellow great authors Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
and Émile Zola.[22][23] Chirac noted that although France has produced many great writers, none has been so widely read as Dumas. His novels have been translated into nearly 100 languages. In addition, they have inspired more than 200 motion pictures.

Tomb of Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
at the Panthéon
Panthéon
in Paris

In June 2005, Dumas' last novel, The Knight of Sainte-Hermine, was published in France featuring the Battle of Trafalgar. Dumas described a fictional character killing Lord Nelson (Nelson was shot and killed by an unknown sniper). Writing and publishing the novel serially in 1869, Dumas had nearly finished it before his death. It was the third part of the Sainte-Hermine trilogy. Claude Schopp, a Dumas scholar, noticed a letter in an archive in 1990 that led him to discover the unfinished work. It took him years to research it, edit the completed portions, and decide how to treat the unfinished part. Schopp finally wrote the final two-and-a-half chapters, based on the author's notes, to complete the story.[14] Published by Éditions Phébus, it sold 60,000 copies, making it a best seller. Translated into English, it was released in 2006 as The Last Cavalier, and has been translated into other languages.[14] Schopp has since found additional material related to the Saints-Hermine saga. Schopp combined them to publish the sequel Le Salut de l'Empire in 2008.[14] Dumas is briefly mentioned in the 2012 film Django Unchained. The Southern slaveholder Calvin Candie expressed admiration for Dumas, owning his books in his library and even naming one of his slaves D'Artagnan. He is surprised to learn from another white man that Dumas was black (in actuality, quarter-black). Works[edit] Fiction[edit] High adventure[edit] Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
wrote numerous stories and historical chronicles of high adventure. They included the following:

Captain Paul (Le Capitaine Paul, 1838), his first serial novel. Acté of Corinth; or, The convert of St. Paul. a tale of Greece and Rome. (1839), a novel about Rome, Nero, and early Christianity. Othon l'archer (1840) Captain Pamphile (Le Capitaine Pamphile, 1839) The Fencing
Fencing
Master (Le Maître d'armes, 1840) Castle Eppstein; The Specter Mother (Chateau d'Eppstein; Albine, 1843) Georges (1843): The protagonist of this novel is a man of mixed race, a rare allusion to Dumas' own African ancestry. Amaury (1843) The Conspirators (Le chevalier d'Harmental, 1843) adapted by Paul Ferrier for an 1896 opéra comique by Messager. The Regent's Daughter (Une Fille du régent, 1845). Sequel to The Conspirators. Louis XIV and His Century (Louis XIV et son siècle, 1844) The Nutcracker
The Nutcracker
(Histoire d'un casse-noisette, 1844): a revision of Hoffmann's story The Nutcracker
The Nutcracker
and the Mouse King, later set by composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
to music for a ballet also called The Nutcracker. The Corsican Brothers
The Corsican Brothers
(Les Frères Corses, 1844) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(Le Comte de Monte-Cristo, 1844–1846) The Women's War (La Guerre des Femmes, 1845): follows Baron des Canolles, a naïve Gascon soldier who falls in love with two women. The Pale Lady (1849) A vampire tale about a Polish woman who is adored by two very different brothers. The Black Tulip (La Tulipe noire, 1850) Olympe de Cleves (Olympe de Cleves, 1851-2) Catherine Blum (1853–4) The Mohicans of Paris (Les Mohicans de Paris, 1854) The Wolf Leader (Le Meneur de loups, 1857). One of the first werewolf novels ever written. The Last Vendee, or the She Wolves of Machecoul (Les louves de Machecoul, 1859). A romance (not about werewolves). La Sanfelice (1864), set in Naples
Naples
in 1800 Pietro Monaco sua moglie Maria Oliverio e i loro complici, 1864)

First page of the original manuscript to Le Comte de Moret

The Count of Moret; The Red Sphinx; or, Richelieu and his rivals (Le Comte de Moret; Le Sphinx Rouge, 1865–1866) The Prince of Thieves
The Prince of Thieves
(Le Prince des voleurs, 1872, posthumously). About Robin Hood
Robin Hood
(and the inspiration for the 1948 film The Prince of Thieves). Robin Hood
Robin Hood
the Outlaw ( Robin Hood
Robin Hood
le proscrit,1873, posthumously). Sequel to Le Prince des voleurs

In addition, Dumas wrote many series of novels: The d'Artagnan Romances[edit]

The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(Les Trois Mousquetaires, 1844) Twenty Years After
Twenty Years After
(Vingt ans après, 1845) The Vicomte de Bragelonne, sometimes called "Ten Years Later", (Le Vicomte de Bragelonne, ou Dix ans plus tard, 1847): When published in English, it was usually split into three parts: The Vicomte de Bragelonne, Louise de la Valliere, and The Man in the Iron Mask, of which the last part is the best known. (A third sequel, The Son of Porthos, 1883 (a.k.a. The Death of Aramis) was published under the name of Alexandre Dumas; however, the real author was Paul Mahalin.)

The Valois romances[edit] The Valois were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589, so, many of Dumas romances cover their reign. Traditionally, the so-called "Valois Romances" are the three that portray the Reign of Queen Marguerite, the last of the Valois:

La Reine Margot, also published as Marguerite de Valois (1845) La Dame de Monsoreau
La Dame de Monsoreau
(1846) (later adapted as a short story titled, Chicot the Jester) The Forty-Five Guardsmen (1847) (Les Quarante-cinq (fr))

Dumas, however, wrote four more novels that cover this family and portray similar characters, starting with François or Francis I, his son Henry II, and Marguerite and François II, sons of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici.

Ascanio (novel) (1843); Written in collaboration with Paul Meurice. Is a Romance of Francis I (1515–1547), but the main character is Italian artist Benvenuto Cellini. Ascanio (opera) was based on this novel. The Two Dianas (Les Deux Diane, 1846), is a novel about Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, who mortally wounded king Henry II and was lover to his daughter, Diana de Castro. Although published under Dumas's name, it was wholly or mostly written by Paul Meurice.[24] The Page of the Duke of Savoy, (1855) is a sequel to the Two Dianas (1846), and it covers the struggle for supremacy between the Guises and Catherine de Médicis, the Florentine mother of the last three Valois Kings of France (and wife of Henry II). The main character in this novel is Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. The Horoscope: a romance of the reign of François II (1858), covers François II, who reigned one year (1559–1560) and died at the age of 16.

The Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
romances[edit] The Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
romances comprise eight novels. The unabridged versions (normally 100 chapters or more) comprise only five books (numbers 1,3,4,7 and 8); the short versions (50 chapters or less) number eight in total:

Joseph Balsamo (Mémoires d'un médecin: Joseph Balsamo, 1846–1848) (a.k.a. Memoirs of a Physician, Cagliostro, Madame Dubarry, The Countess Dubarry, or The Elixir of Life)(Joseph Balsamo is about 1000 pages long, and is usually published in two volumes in English translations: Vol 1. Joseph Balsamo and Vol 2. Memoirs of a Physician.) The long unabridged version includes the contents of book two, Andrée de Taverney; the short abridged versions usually are divided in "Balsamo" and "Andrée de Taverney" as completely different books. Andrée de Taverney, or The Mesmerist's Victim The Queen's Necklace
The Queen's Necklace
(Le Collier de la Reine, 1849(−1850) Ange Pitou (1853) (a.k.a. Storming the Bastille or Six Years Later). From this book, there are also long unabridged versions which include the contents of book five, but there are many short versions that treat "The Hero of the People" as a separated volume. The Hero of the People The Royal Life Guard or The Flight of the Royal Family. The Countess de Charny (La Comtesse de Charny, 1853–1855). Same situation as with the other books, there are long unabridged versions which include the contents of book six; but many short versions that leave contents in "The Royal Life Guard" as a separated volume. Le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge
Le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge
(1845) (a.k.a. The Knight of the Red House, or The Knight of Maison-Rouge)

The Sainte-Hermine trilogy[edit]

The Companions of Jehu (Les Compagnons de Jehu, 1857) The Whites and the Blues (Les Blancs et les Bleus, 1867) The Knight of Sainte-Hermine (Le Chevalier de Sainte-Hermine, 1869)

Drama[edit] Although best known now as a novelist, Dumas first earned fame as a dramatist. His Henri III et sa cour (1829) was the first of the great Romantic historical dramas produced on the Paris stage, preceding Victor Hugo's more famous Hernani (1830). Produced at the Comédie-Française
Comédie-Française
and starring the famous Mademoiselle Mars, Dumas' play was an enormous success and launched him on his career. It had fifty performances over the next year, extraordinary at the time. Other hits followed.

Antony (1831)-—a drama with a contemporary Byronic
Byronic
hero-—is considered the first non-historical Romantic drama. It starred Mars' great rival Marie Dorval. Charles VII at the Homes of His Great Vassals (Charles VII chez ses grands vassaux, 1831). This drama was adapted by the Russian composer César Cui
César Cui
for his opera The Saracen. La Tour de Nesle (1832), a historical melodrama Kean (1836), based on the life of the notable late English actor Edmund Kean. The great French actor Frédérick Lemaître
Frédérick Lemaître
played him in the production. The Gold Thieves (after 1857): an unpublished five-act play. It was discovered in 2002 by the Canadian scholar Reginald Hamel, who was researching in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. The play was published in France in 2004 by Honoré-Champion. Hamel said that Dumas was inspired by a novel written in 1857 by his mistress Célèste de Mogador.[3]

Dumas wrote many plays and adapted several of his novels as dramas. In the 1840s, he founded the Théâtre Historique, located on the Boulevard du Temple
Boulevard du Temple
in Paris. The building was used after 1852 by the Opéra National
Opéra National
(established by Adolphe Adam
Adolphe Adam
in 1847). It was renamed the Théâtre Lyrique
Théâtre Lyrique
in 1851. Nonfiction[edit] Dumas was a prolific writer of nonfiction. He wrote journal articles on politics and culture and books on French history. His lengthy Grand Dictionnaire de cuisine (Great Dictionary of Cuisine) was published posthumously in 1873. A combination of encyclopaedia and cookbook, it reflects Dumas' interests as both a gourmet and an expert cook. An abridged version (the Petit Dictionnaire de cuisine, or Small Dictionary of Cuisine) was published in 1883. He was also known for his travel writing. These books included:

Impressions de voyage: En Suisse (Travel Impressions: In Switzerland, 1834) Une Année à Florence
Florence
(A Year in Florence, 1841) De Paris à Cadix (From Paris to Cadiz, 1847) Montevideo, ou une nouvelle Troie, 1850 (The New Troy), inspired by the Great Siege of Montevideo Le Journal de Madame Giovanni (The Journal of Madame Giovanni, 1856) Travel Impressions in the Kingdom of Napoli/ Naples
Naples
Trilogy: Impressions of Travel in Sicily (Le Speronare (Sicily – 1835), 1842 Captain Arena (Le Capitaine Arena (Italy – Aeolian Islands
Aeolian Islands
and Calabria
Calabria
– 1835), 1842 Impressions of Travel in Naples
Naples
(Le Corricolo (Rome – Naples
Naples
– 1833), 1843 Travel Impressions in Russia – Le Caucase Original edition: Paris 1859 Adventures in Czarist Russia, or From Paris to Astrakhan
Astrakhan
(Impressions de voyage: En Russie; De Paris à Astrakan: Nouvelles impressions de voyage (1858), 1859–1862 Voyage to the Caucasus
Caucasus
(Le Caucase: Impressions de voyage; suite de En Russie (1859), 1858–1859

Dumas Society[edit] French historian Alain Decaux
Alain Decaux
founded the "Société des Amis d'Alexandre Dumas" (The Society of Friends of Alexandre Dumas) in 1971. The purpose in creating this society was to preserve the Château de Monte-Cristo, where the society is currently located. The other objectives of the Society is to bring together fans of Dumas, to proceed cultural activities of the Château de Monte-Cristo, and to collect book manuscripts, autographs and other materials on Dumas. The Society is presided over by Claude Schopp.[25] Personal images[edit]

Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
about 1832

Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
in his library, by Maurice Leloir

Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
in 1860

Alexandre Dumas, cliché by Charles Reutlinger

Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
by Gill

Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
and Adah Isaacs Menken, 1866

See also[edit]

Illegitimacy in fiction Afro European

France portal Biography portal Books portal

Notes[edit]

^ Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
on Encarta. Archived 31 October 2009. ^ "Alexandre Dumas, père". The Guardian. 22 July 2008. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ a b c d e f French Studies: "Quebecer discovers an unpublished manuscript by Alexandre Dumas", iForum, University of Montreal, 30 September 2004, accessed 11 August 2012. ^ a b " Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
Books – Biography and List of Works – Author of '20 Ans Apres'". biblio.co.nz. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ Watts Phillips: Artist and Playwright by Emma Watts Phillips. 1891 pg 63 ^ John G. Gallaher, General Alexandre Dumas: Soldier of the French Revolution, Southern Illinois University, 1997, p. 98 ^ Claude Schopp, Société des Amis d' Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
– 1998–2008 ^ " Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
> Sa vie > Biographie". Dumaspere.com. Archived from the original on 20 January 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2010.  ^ "Le métissage rentre au Panthéon". Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "L'association des Amis du Général Alexandre Dumas", Website, accessed 11 August 2012. ^ a b Webster, Paul (29 November 2002). "Lavish reburial for Three Musketeers author". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 31 January 2012.  ^ a b Samuel, Henry (10 February 2010). " Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
novels penned by 'fourth musketeer' ghost writer". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ See Andrew Lang's essay, "Alexandre Dumas", in his Essays in Little (1891), for a full description of these collaborations. ^ a b c d e f Crace, John (6 May 2008). "Claude Schopp: The man who gave Dumas 40 mistresses". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2008.  ^ Christian Biet; Jean-Paul Brighelli; Jean-Luc Rispail (1986). Alexandre Dumas: Ou les Aventures d'un romancier (in French). Editions Gallimard. p. 75. ISBN 978-2-07-053021-2. Mon père était un mulâtre, mon grand-père était un nègre et mon arrière grand-père un singe. Vous voyez, Monsieur: ma famille commence où la vôtre finit.  ^ "Dumas et la négritude" (in French). Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008.  ^ Mike Phillips (19 August 2005). "Alexander Dumas (1802 – 1870)" (PDF). British Library Online. Retrieved 16 March 2018.  ^ Dorsey Kleitz, "Adah Isaacs Menken", in Encyclopedia of American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century, ed. by Eric L. Haralson, pp. 294–296 (1998) (ISBN 978-1-57958-008-7) ^ Sharp, Iain (2007). Real gold : treasures of Auckland City Libraries. Auckland University Press. ISBN 978-1-86940-396-6.  ^ Kerr, Donald (1996). "Bibliographies: Reed's 'Labour of Love'". The Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
père Web Site. CadyTech. Retrieved 25 July 2015.  ^ "Reed, Frank Wild". The Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
père Web Site. CadyTech. Retrieved 25 July 2015.  ^ a b Chirac, Jacques (30 November 2002). "Discours prononcé lors du transfert des cendres d' Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
au Panthéon" (in French). Retrieved 19 August 2008.  ^ "Paris Monuments Panthéon-Close up picture of the interior of the crypt of Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
(left) Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
(middle) Émile Zola (right)". ParisPhotoGallery. Retrieved 30 January 2012.  ^ Hemmings, F. W. J. (2011). Alexandre Dumas: The King of Romance. A&C Black. p. 130. ISBN 9781448204830.  ^ " Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
>". www.dumaspere.com. Retrieved 22 August 2017. 

References[edit]

Gorman, Herbert (1929). The Incredible Marquis, Alexandre Dumas. New York: Farrar & Rinehart. OCLC 1370481.  Hemmings, F.W.J. (1979). Alexandre Dumas, the King of Romance. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-16391-8.  Lucas-Dubreton, Jean (1928). The Fourth Musketeer. trans. by Maida Castelhun Darnton. New York: Coward-McCann. OCLC 230139.  Maurois, André (1957). The Titans, a Three-Generation Biography of the Dumas. trans. by Gerard Hopkins. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. OCLC 260126.  Phillips, Emma Watts (1891). Watts Phillips: Artist and Playwright. London: Cassell & Company.  Reed, F. W. (Frank Wild) (1933). A Bibliography of Alexandre Dumas, père. Pinner Hill, Middlesex: J.A. Neuhuys. OCLC 1420223.  Ross, Michael (1981). Alexandre Dumas. Newton Abbot, London, North Pomfret (Vt): David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7758-2.  Schopp, Claude (1988). Alexandre Dumas, Genius of Life. trans. by A. J. Koch. New York, Toronto: Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-531-15093-3.  Spurr, Harry A. (October 1902). The Life and Writings of Alexandre Dumas. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, Company. OCLC 2999945. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Alexandre Dumas

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alexandre Dumas

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexandre Dumas.

Works by Alexandre Dumas, père at Project Gutenberg Works by Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
at Faded Page (Canada) Works by or about Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
at Internet Archive Works by Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Herald Sun: Lost Dumas play discovered Lost Dumas novel hits bookshelves Dumas' Works: text, concordances and frequency lists The Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
père website, with a complete bibliography and notes about many of the works 1866 Caricature of Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
by André Gill Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
et compagnie : Freely downloadable works of Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
in PDF format (text mode) Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
Collection at the Harry Ransom Center
Harry Ransom Center
at the University of Texas at Austin Alejandro Dumas Vida y Obras First Spanish Website about Alexandre Dumas and his works. Rafferty, Terrence. "All for One", The New York Times, 20 August 2006 (a review of the new translation of The Three Musketeers, ISBN 0-670-03779-6) Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
(pere) at the Internet Book List Works by Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
at Open Library The Reed Dumas collection held at Auckland Libraries

v t e

Alexandre Dumas, père

Novels

The Count of Monte Cristo The Three Musketeers The Corsican Brothers The Black Tulip Captain Pamphile Le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge La Dame de Monsoreau Georges The Knight of Sainte-Hermine The Queen's Necklace La Reine Margot The New Troy Twenty Years After The Two Dianas The Vicomte de Bragelonne The Wolf Leader La Sanfelice The Women's War

Characters

Edmond Dantès Aramis Athos Anne of Austria d'Artagnan Abbé Faria Milady de Winter Porthos Cardinal Richelieu Comte de Rochefort M. de Tréville

Films

The Brigand (1952) The Corsican Brothers
The Corsican Brothers
(1941) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1934) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1975) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1998) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(2002) D'Artagnan and Three Musketeers The Fifth Musketeer The Four Musketeers (1936) The Four Musketeers (1974) The Iron Mask The Man in the Iron Mask
Man in the Iron Mask
(1939) The Man in the Iron Mask
Man in the Iron Mask
(1977) The Man in the Iron Mask
Man in the Iron Mask
(1998) The Man in the Iron Mask Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers The Musketeer La Reine Margot (1954) La Reine Margot (1994)

soundtrack

The Return of the Musketeers Les Trois Mousquetaires The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1921) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1933) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1948) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1969) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1973) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1992 animated) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1993) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(2011)

TV programmes

Gankutsuou Albert the Fifth Musketeer The Count of Monte Cristo Dogtanian and the Three Muskehounds Young Blades The Three Musketeers The Musketeers

Related

Alexandre Dumas, fils
Alexandre Dumas, fils
(son) Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
(father) Marie-Cessette Dumas (grandmother) Auguste Maquet
Auguste Maquet
(collaborator) Théâtre Historique Château de Monte-Cristo L'Autre Dumas (2010 film)

v t e

The d'Artagnan Romances by Alexandre Dumas

The Three Musketeers Twenty Years After The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later

Characters

Athos Aramis Porthos d'Artagnan Cardinal Richelieu Milady de Winter Comte de Rochefort George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham Anne of Austria Louis XIII Louis XIV Tréville

Films

The Three Musketeers

The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1916) Les Trois Mousquetaires (1921) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1921) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1932) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1933) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1935) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1939) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1942) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1946) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1948) Blades of the Musketeers (1953) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1953) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1959) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1961) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1969) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1973) The Four Musketeers (1974) d'Artagnan and Three Musketeers (1978) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1993) The Musketeer
Musketeer
(2001) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(2011) 3 Musketeers (2011) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(2013)

Twenty Years After

The Return of the Musketeers
The Return of the Musketeers
(1989) Musketeers Twenty Years After
Twenty Years After
(1992)

The Vicomte of Bragelonne

The Iron Mask
The Iron Mask
(1929) The Man in the Iron Mask
Man in the Iron Mask
(1939) Uthama Puthiran (1940) Lady in the Iron Mask (1952) Uthama Puthiran (1958) Le Masque de fer
Le Masque de fer
(1962) The Man in the Iron Mask
Man in the Iron Mask
(1977) The Fifth Musketeer
Musketeer
(1979) The Secret of Queen Anne or Musketeers Thirty Years After (1993) The Man in the Iron Mask
Man in the Iron Mask
(1998)

Other sequels

At Sword's Point (1952) The Secret Mark of D'Artagnan
The Secret Mark of D'Artagnan
(1962) Revenge of the Musketeers
Revenge of the Musketeers
(1994) La Femme Musketeer
Musketeer
(2004) The Return of the Musketeers, or The Treasures of Cardinal Mazarin (2009)

Animated

Tom and Jerry

The Two Mouseketeers Touché, Pussy Cat! Tom and Chérie Royal Cat Nap

The Four Musketeers (1936) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1973) The Man in the Iron Mask
Man in the Iron Mask
(1985) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1986) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1992) Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(2004) Barbie and the Three Musketeers
Barbie and the Three Musketeers
(2009)

Television

The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1968) The Mind Robber Dogtanian and the Three Muskehounds The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
Anime Albert the Fifth Musketeer Young Blades The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(puppetry) The Musketeers
The Musketeers
(2014)

Games

Touché: The Adventures of the Fifth Musketeer The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1987 video game) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(2006 video game) The Three Musketeers: One for All!

Musicals

The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(1928) 3 Musketiers

Other adaptations

The Three Mesquiteers Dog in Boots The Three Must-Get-Theres The Three Mouseketeers
The Three Mouseketeers
(comics) The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
(South Korean adaptation)

Related

Auguste Maquet
Auguste Maquet
(collaborator) A Modern Musketeer The Three Muscatels Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno Man in the Iron Mask Musketeers of the Guard 3 Musketeers (chocolate bar)

v t e

The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
by Alexandre Dumas

Characters

Edmond Dantès Abbé Faria

Films

The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1913) Monte Cristo (1922) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1929) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1934) The Son of Monte Cristo
The Son of Monte Cristo
(1940) El Conde de Monte Cristo (1942) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1943) The Return of Monte Cristo (1946) The Wife of Monte Cristo
The Wife of Monte Cristo
(1946) Mask of the Avenger
Mask of the Avenger
(1951) The Sword of Monte Cristo
The Sword of Monte Cristo
(1951) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1953) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1954) Vanjikottai Valiban
Vanjikottai Valiban
(1958) Raj Tilak (1958) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1961) The Treasure of Monte Cristo (1961) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1975) Padayottam Veta The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(2002)

Television

The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1956) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1964) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(1998 miniseries) Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo Montecristo Ezel Revenge Yago

Literature

The Stars My Destination The Stars' Tennis Balls A Prisoner of Birth

Other

The Black Count: Glory, Revolution, Betrayal, and the Real Count of Monte Cristo (biography) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(Wildhorn-Murphy musical) The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
(Behr musical) Christ 0
Christ 0
(album)

Related

Auguste Maquet
Auguste Maquet
(collaborator) Pierre Picaud L'Autre Dumas (2010 film) "Revenge Is a Dish Best Served Three Times" Gankutsuou
Gankutsuou
characters

v t e

The Corsican Brothers
The Corsican Brothers
by Alexandre Dumas

Play

The Corsican Brothers
The Corsican Brothers
(1852)

Films

The Corsican Brothers
The Corsican Brothers
(1917) The Corsican Brothers
The Corsican Brothers
(1941) Apoorva Sagodharargal (1949) The Bandits of Corsica
The Bandits of Corsica
(1953) Los Hermanos corsos (1955) The Corsican Brothers
The Corsican Brothers
(1961) Aggi Pidugu
Aggi Pidugu
(1964) Neerum Neruppum
Neerum Neruppum
(1971) Gora Aur Kala
Gora Aur Kala
(1972)

Parody

Start the Revolution Without Me
Start the Revolution Without Me
(1970) Cheech and Chong's The Corsican Brothers
The Corsican Brothers
(1984)

Musical

Blood Brothers (1983)

v t e

Romanticism

Countries

Denmark England (literature) France (literature) Germany Norway Poland Russia (literature) Scotland

Movements

Bohemianism Counter-Enlightenment Dark romanticism Düsseldorf School Gesamtkunstwerk Gothic fiction Gothic Revival (architecture) Hudson River School Indianism Nazarene movement Ossian Romantic hero Romanticism
Romanticism
in science Romantic nationalism Opium and Romanticism Transcendentalism Ultra-Romanticism Wallenrodism

Writers

Abovian Alencar Alfieri Andersen A. v. Arnim B. v. Arnim Azevedo Baratashvili Baratynsky Barbauld (Aikin) Batyushkov Baudelaire Beer Bertrand Blake Botev Brentano Bryant Burns Byron Castelo Branco Castilho Cazotte Chateaubriand Chavchavadze Clare Coleridge Cooper De Quincey Dias Dumas Eichendorff Emerson Eminescu Espronceda Fouqué Foscolo Garrett Gautier Goethe Grimm Brothers Gutzkow Hauff Hawthorne Heine Heliade Herculano Hoffmann Hölderlin Hugo Ilić Irving Jakšić Jean Paul Karamzin Keats Kleist Krasiński Lamartine Larra Leopardi Lermontov Lowell Macedonski Mácha Magalhães Malczewski Manzoni Maturin Mérimée Mickiewicz Musset Nalbandian Nerval Nodier Norwid Novalis Oehlenschläger Orbeliani Poe Polidori Potocki Prešeren Pushkin Raffi Schiller Schwab Scott Seward M. Shelley P. B. Shelley Shevchenko Słowacki De Staël Stendhal Tieck Tyutchev Uhland Vörösmarty Vyazemsky Wordsworth Zhukovsky Zorrilla

Music

Adam Alkan Auber Beethoven Bellini Bennett Berlioz Bertin Berwald Brahms Bruckner Cherubini Chopin Dargomyzhsky Félicien David Ferdinand David Donizetti Fauré Field Franck Franz Glinka Gomis Halévy Kalkbrenner Liszt Loewe Marschner Masarnau Méhul Fanny Mendelssohn Felix Mendelssohn Méreaux Meyerbeer Moniuszko Moscheles Mussorgsky Niedermeyer Onslow Paganini Prudent Reicha Rimsky-Korsakov Rossini Rubinstein Schubert Clara Schumann Robert Schumann Smetana Sor Spohr Spontini Thalberg Verdi Voříšek Wagner Weber

Theologians and philosophers

Chaadayev Coleridge Feuerbach Fichte Goethe Hegel Khomyakov Müller Ritschl Rousseau Schiller A. Schlegel F. Schlegel Schopenhauer Schleiermacher Tieck Wackenroder

Visual artists

Aivazovsky Bierstadt Blake Bonington Bryullov Chassériau Church Constable Cole Corot Dahl David d'Angers Delacroix Friedrich Fuseli Géricault Girodet Głowacki Goya Gude Hayez Janmot Jones Kiprensky Koch Lampi Leutze Loutherbourg Maison Martin Michałowski Palmer Porto-Alegre Préault Révoil Richard Rude Runge Saleh Scheffer Stattler Stroj Tidemand Tropinin Turner Veit Ward Wiertz

 « Age of Enlightenment Realism » 

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 51688902 LCCN: n79042162 ISNI: 0000 0001 2101 2885 GND: 118528068 SELIBR: 184155 SUDOC: 026842718 BNF: cb119010630 (data) BIBSYS: 90543244 ULAN: 500335873 MusicBrainz: abdfcc03-a0bd-4212-99d5-e7e0d0f1a107 NLA: 35048656 NDL: 00438367 NKC: jn19990001907 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV12080 BNE: XX1721

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