HOME
The Info List - Alexander The Great


--- Advertisement ---



Alexander
Alexander
III of Macedon
Macedon
(20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander
Alexander
the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas, Koine
Koine
Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas]), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead
Argead
dynasty. He was born in Pella
Pella
in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece
Greece
to northwestern India.[1][2] He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.[3] During his youth, Alexander
Alexander
was tutored by Aristotle
Aristotle
until age 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander
Alexander
was awarded the generalship of Greece
Greece
and used this authority to launch his father's pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia.[4][5] In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(Persian Empire) and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia
Persia
in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew Persian King
King
Darius III
Darius III
and conquered the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in its entirety.[b] At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus
Indus
River. He endeavored to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India
India
in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas
Pauravas
at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander
Alexander
died in Babylon
Babylon
in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria
Alexandria
in Egypt. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the mid-15th century AD and the presence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
until the 1920s. Alexander
Alexander
became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics.[6][c] He is often ranked among the most influential people in history.[7]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Lineage and childhood 1.2 Adolescence and education

2 Philip's heir

2.1 Regency and ascent of Macedon 2.2 Exile and return

3 King
King
of Macedon

3.1 Accession 3.2 Consolidation of power 3.3 Balkan campaign

4 Conquest of the Persian Empire

4.1 Asia Minor 4.2 The Levant
Levant
and Syria 4.3 Egypt 4.4 Assyria and Babylonia 4.5 Persia 4.6 Fall of the Empire
Empire
and the East 4.7 Problems and plots 4.8 Macedon
Macedon
in Alexander's absence

5 Indian campaign

5.1 Forays into the Indian subcontinent 5.2 Revolt of the army

6 Last years in Persia 7 Death and succession

7.1 After death 7.2 Division of the empire 7.3 Will

8 Character

8.1 Generalship 8.2 Physical appearance 8.3 Personality 8.4 Personal relationships

9 Battle record 10 Legacy

10.1 Hellenistic kingdoms 10.2 Founding of cities 10.3 Funding of temples 10.4 Hellenization 10.5 Influence on Rome 10.6 Legend 10.7 In ancient and modern culture

11 Historiography 12 Ancestry 13 See also 14 Annotations 15 References 16 Sources

16.1 Primary sources 16.2 Secondary sources

17 Further reading 18 External links

Early life Lineage and childhood

Bust of a young Alexander
Alexander
the Great from the Hellenistic era, British Museum

Aristotle
Aristotle
Tutoring Alexander, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris

Alexander
Alexander
was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is disputed,[8] in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon.[9] He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus.[10] Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias
Olympias
was his principal wife for some time, likely because she gave birth to Alexander.[11]

Statue of Alexander
Alexander
the Great in Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece

Several legends surround Alexander's birth and childhood.[12] According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, Olympias
Olympias
dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt that caused a flame to spread "far and wide" before dying away. Sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wife's womb with a seal engraved with a lion's image.[13] Plutarch
Plutarch
offered a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympias
Olympias
was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb; or that Alexander's father was Zeus. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias
Olympias
promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage, variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious.[13] On the day Alexander
Alexander
was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea
Potidea
on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian
Paeonian
armies, and that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. It was also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis
Artemis
in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis
Artemis
was away, attending the birth of Alexander.[14] Such legends may have emerged when Alexander
Alexander
was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception.[12] In his early years, Alexander
Alexander
was raised by a nurse, Lanike, sister of Alexander's future general Cleitus the Black. Later in his childhood, Alexander
Alexander
was tutored by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and by Lysimachus
Lysimachus
of Acarnania.[15] Alexander
Alexander
was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read, play the lyre, ride, fight, and hunt.[16] When Alexander
Alexander
was ten years old, a trader from Thessaly
Thessaly
brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted, and Philip ordered it away. Alexander however, detecting the horse's fear of its own shadow, asked to tame the horse, which he eventually managed.[12] Plutarch
Plutarch
stated that Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed his son tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon
Macedon
is too small for you", and bought the horse for him.[17] Alexander
Alexander
named it Bucephalas, meaning "ox-head". Bucephalas
Bucephalas
carried Alexander
Alexander
as far as India. When the animal died (because of old age, according to Plutarch, at age thirty), Alexander named a city after him, Bucephala.[18] Adolescence and education When Alexander
Alexander
was 13, Philip began to search for a tutor, and considered such academics as Isocrates
Isocrates
and Speusippus, the latter offering to resign from his stewardship of the Academy to take up the post. In the end, Philip chose Aristotle
Aristotle
and provided the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as a classroom. In return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile.[19] Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander
Alexander
and the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and Cassander. Many of these students would become his friends and future generals, and are often known as the 'Companions'. Aristotle
Aristotle
taught Alexander
Alexander
and his companions about medicine, philosophy, morals, religion, logic, and art. Under Aristotle's tutelage, Alexander
Alexander
developed a passion for the works of Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle
Aristotle
gave him an annotated copy, which Alexander
Alexander
later carried on his campaigns.[20] Philip's heir Regency and ascent of Macedon Main articles: Philip II of Macedon
Macedon
and Rise of Macedon Further information: History of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

Philip II of Macedon, Alexander's father

At age 16, Alexander's education under Aristotle
Aristotle
ended. Philip waged war against Byzantion, leaving Alexander
Alexander
in charge as regent and heir apparent.[12] During Philip's absence, the Thracian Maedi
Maedi
revolted against Macedonia. Alexander
Alexander
responded quickly, driving them from their territory. He colonized it with Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandropolis.[21] Upon Philip's return, he dispatched Alexander
Alexander
with a small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace. Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus, Alexander
Alexander
is reported to have saved his father's life. Meanwhile, the city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to Apollo
Apollo
near Delphi, a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek affairs. Still occupied in Thrace, he ordered Alexander
Alexander
to muster an army for a campaign in southern Greece. Concerned that other Greek states might intervene, Alexander
Alexander
made it look as though he was preparing to attack Illyria
Illyria
instead. During this turmoil, the Illyrians
Illyrians
invaded Macedonia, only to be repelled by Alexander.[22] Philip and his army joined his son in 338 BC, and they marched south through Thermopylae, taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison. They went on to occupy the city of Elatea, only a few days' march from both Athens
Athens
and Thebes. The Athenians, led by Demosthenes, voted to seek alliance with Thebes against Macedonia. Both Athens
Athens
and Philip sent embassies to win Thebes' favour, but Athens
Athens
won the contest.[23] Philip marched on Amphissa (ostensibly acting on the request of the Amphictyonic League), capturing the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes
Demosthenes
and accepting the city's surrender. Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a final offer of peace to Athens
Athens
and Thebes, who both rejected it.[24]

Statue of Alexander
Alexander
in Istanbul Archaeology Museum

As Philip marched south, his opponents blocked him near Chaeronea, Boeotia. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander
Alexander
the left, accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals. According to the ancient sources, the two sides fought bitterly for some time. Philip deliberately commanded his troops to retreat, counting on the untested Athenian
Athenian
hoplites to follow, thus breaking their line. Alexander
Alexander
was the first to break the Theban lines, followed by Philip's generals. Having damaged the enemy's cohesion, Philip ordered his troops to press forward and quickly routed them. With the Athenians
Athenians
lost, the Thebans
Thebans
were surrounded. Left to fight alone, they were defeated.[25] After the victory at Chaeronea, Philip and Alexander
Alexander
marched unopposed into the Peloponnese, welcomed by all cities; however, when they reached Sparta, they were refused, but did not resort to war.[26] At Corinth, Philip established a "Hellenic Alliance" (modelled on the old anti-Persian alliance of the Greco-Persian Wars), which included most Greek city-states except Sparta. Philip was then named Hegemon
Hegemon
(often translated as "Supreme Commander") of this league (known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth), and announced his plans to attack the Persian Empire.[27][28] Exile and return When Philip returned to Pella, he fell in love with and married Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Eurydice, the niece of his general Attalus.[29] The marriage made Alexander's position as heir less secure, since any son of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Eurydice would be a fully Macedonian heir, while Alexander was only half-Macedonian.[30] During the wedding banquet, a drunken Attalus publicly prayed to the gods that the union would produce a legitimate heir.[29]

At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece. This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, "You villain," said he, "what, am I then a bastard?" Then Philip, taking Attalus's part, rose up and would have run his son through; but by good fortune for them both, either his over-hasty rage, or the wine he had drunk, made his foot slip, so that he fell down on the floor. At which Alexander
Alexander
reproachfully insulted over him: "See there," said he, "the man who makes preparations to pass out of Europe into Asia, overturned in passing from one seat to another." — Plutarch, describing the feud at Philip's wedding.[31]

Alexander
Alexander
fled Macedon
Macedon
with his mother, dropping her off with her brother, King
King
Alexander
Alexander
I of Epirus in Dodona, capital of the Molossians.[32] He continued to Illyria,[32] where he sought refuge with the Illyrian king and was treated as a guest, despite having defeated them in battle a few years before. However, it appears Philip never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son.[32] Accordingly, Alexander
Alexander
returned to Macedon
Macedon
after six months due to the efforts of a family friend, Demaratus, who mediated between the two parties.[33] In the following year, the Persian satrap (governor) of Caria, Pixodarus, offered his eldest daughter to Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus.[32] Olympias
Olympias
and several of Alexander's friends suggested this showed Philip intended to make Arrhidaeus his heir.[32] Alexander
Alexander
reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of Corinth, to tell Pixodarus that he should not offer his daughter's hand to an illegitimate son, but instead to Alexander. When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations and scolded Alexander
Alexander
for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a better bride for him.[32] Philip exiled four of Alexander's friends, Harpalus, Nearchus, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Erigyius, and had the Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in chains.[34] King
King
of Macedon Accession Further information: Government of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

The Kingdom of Macedon
Macedon
in 336 BC.

In summer 336 BC, while at Aegae attending the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra
Cleopatra
to Olympias's brother, Alexander
Alexander
I of Epirus, Philip was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguards, Pausanias.[e] As Pausanias tried to escape, he tripped over a vine and was killed by his pursuers, including two of Alexander's companions, Perdiccas
Perdiccas
and Leonnatus. Alexander
Alexander
was proclaimed king on the spot by the nobles and army at the age of 20.[35][36][37] Consolidation of power Alexander
Alexander
began his reign by eliminating potential rivals to the throne. He had his cousin, the former Amyntas IV, executed.[38] He also had two Macedonian princes from the region of Lyncestis
Lyncestis
killed, but spared a third, Alexander
Alexander
Lyncestes. Olympias
Olympias
had Cleopatra Eurydice and Europa, her daughter by Philip, burned alive. When Alexander
Alexander
learned about this, he was furious. Alexander
Alexander
also ordered the murder of Attalus,[38] who was in command of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Cleopatra's uncle.[39] Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. Attalus also had severely insulted Alexander, and following Cleopatra's murder, Alexander
Alexander
may have considered him too dangerous to leave alive.[39] Alexander
Alexander
spared Arrhidaeus, who was by all accounts mentally disabled, possibly as a result of poisoning by Olympias.[35][37][40] News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes north of Macedon. When news of the revolts reached Alexander, he responded quickly. Though advised to use diplomacy, Alexander
Alexander
mustered 3,000 Macedonian cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly. He found the Thessalian army occupying the pass between Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
and Mount Ossa, and ordered his men to ride over Mount Ossa. When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander
Alexander
in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force. He then continued south towards the Peloponnese.[41] Alexander
Alexander
stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League
Amphictyonic League
before heading south to Corinth. Athens
Athens
sued for peace and Alexander
Alexander
pardoned the rebels. The famous encounter between Alexander
Alexander
and Diogenes the Cynic occurred during Alexander's stay in Corinth. When Alexander
Alexander
asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander
Alexander
to stand a little to the side, as he was blocking the sunlight.[42] This reply apparently delighted Alexander, who is reported to have said "But verily, if I were not Alexander, I would like to be Diogenes."[43] At Corinth, Alexander
Alexander
took the title of Hegemon ("leader") and, like Philip, was appointed commander for the coming war against Persia. He also received news of a Thracian uprising.[44] Balkan campaign Main article: Alexander's Balkan campaign

The emblema of the Stag Hunt Mosaic, c. 300 BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander
Alexander
the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.[45]

Before crossing to Asia, Alexander
Alexander
wanted to safeguard his northern borders. In the spring of 335 BC, he advanced to suppress several revolts. Starting from Amphipolis, he travelled east into the country of the "Independent Thracians"; and at Mount Haemus, the Macedonian army attacked and defeated the Thracian forces manning the heights.[46] The Macedonians marched into the country of the Triballi, and defeated their army near the Lyginus river[47] (a tributary of the Danube). Alexander
Alexander
then marched for three days to the Danube, encountering the Getae
Getae
tribe on the opposite shore. Crossing the river at night, he surprised them and forced their army to retreat after the first cavalry skirmish.[48] News then reached Alexander
Alexander
that Cleitus, King
King
of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open revolt against his authority. Marching west into Illyria, Alexander
Alexander
defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers to flee with their troops. With these victories, he secured his northern frontier.[49] While Alexander
Alexander
campaigned north, the Thebans
Thebans
and Athenians
Athenians
rebelled once again. Alexander
Alexander
immediately headed south.[50] While the other cities again hesitated, Thebes decided to fight. The Theban resistance was ineffective, and Alexander
Alexander
razed the city and divided its territory between the other Boeotian cities. The end of Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece
Greece
temporarily at peace.[50] Alexander
Alexander
then set out on his Asian campaign, leaving Antipater as regent.[51] Conquest of the Persian Empire Main articles: Wars of Alexander
Alexander
the Great and Chronology of the expedition of Alexander
Alexander
the Great into Asia Asia Minor Further information: Battle of the Granicus, Siege
Siege
of Halicarnassus, and Siege
Siege
of Miletus

Map of Alexander's empire and his route

Alexander
Alexander
Cuts the Gordian Knot
Gordian Knot
(1767) by Jean-Simon Berthélemy

Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont
Hellespont
in 334 BC with approximately 48,100 soldiers, 6,100 cavalry and a fleet of 120 ships with crews numbering 38,000,[50] drawn from Macedon
Macedon
and various Greek city-states, mercenaries, and feudally raised soldiers from Thrace, Paionia, and Illyria.[52][f] He showed his intent to conquer the entirety of the Persian Empire
Empire
by throwing a spear into Asian soil and saying he accepted Asia as a gift from the gods. This also showed Alexander's eagerness to fight, in contrast to his father's preference for diplomacy.[50] After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus, Alexander
Alexander
accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast, granting autonomy and democracy to the cities. Miletus, held by Achaemenid forces, required a delicate siege operation, with Persian naval forces nearby. Further south, at Halicarnassus, in Caria, Alexander
Alexander
successfully waged his first large-scale siege, eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria, Orontobates, to withdraw by sea.[53] Alexander
Alexander
left the government of Caria
Caria
to a member of the Hecatomnid dynasty, Ada, who adopted Alexander.[54] From Halicarnassus, Alexander
Alexander
proceeded into mountainous Lycia
Lycia
and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases. From Pamphylia
Pamphylia
onwards the coast held no major ports and Alexander
Alexander
moved inland. At Termessos, Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city.[55] At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander
Alexander
"undid" the hitherto unsolvable Gordian Knot, a feat said to await the future "king of Asia".[56] According to the story, Alexander
Alexander
proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot was undone and hacked it apart with his sword.[57] The Levant
Levant
and Syria Further information: Battle of Issus
Battle of Issus
and Siege
Siege
of Tyre (332 BC)

Detail of Alexander
Alexander
Mosaic, showing Battle of Issus, from the House of the Faun, Pompeii

In spring 333 BC, Alexander
Alexander
crossed the Taurus into Cilicia. After a long pause due to illness, he marched on towards Syria. Though outmanoeuvered by Darius' significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus. Darius fled the battle, causing his army to collapse, and left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis, and a fabulous treasure.[58] He offered a peace treaty that included the lands he had already lost, and a ransom of 10,000 talents for his family. Alexander
Alexander
replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial divisions.[59] Alexander
Alexander
proceeded to take possession of Syria, and most of the coast of the Levant.[54] In the following year, 332 BC, he was forced to attack Tyre, which he captured after a long and difficult siege.[60][61] The men of military age were massacred and the women and children sold into slavery.[62] Egypt Further information: Siege
Siege
of Gaza

Name of Alexander
Alexander
the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
(written from right to left), c. 330 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum

When Alexander
Alexander
destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated. However, Alexander
Alexander
met with resistance at Gaza. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege. When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible… this encouraged Alexander
Alexander
all the more to make the attempt".[63] After three unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold fell, but not before Alexander had received a serious shoulder wound. As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children were sold into slavery.[64] Alexander
Alexander
advanced on Egypt
Egypt
in later 332 BC, where he was regarded as a liberator.[65] He was pronounced son of the deity Amun at the Oracle
Oracle
of Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
in the Libyan desert.[66] Henceforth, Alexander
Alexander
often referred to Zeus-Ammon
Zeus-Ammon
as his true father, and after his death, currency depicted him adorned with the horns of a ram as a symbol of his divinity.[67] During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
after his death.[68] Assyria and Babylonia Further information: Battle of Gaugamela Leaving Egypt
Egypt
in 331 BC, Alexander
Alexander
marched eastward into Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(now northern Iraq) and again defeated Darius, at the Battle of Gaugamela.[69] Darius once more fled the field, and Alexander
Alexander
chased him as far as Arbela. Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two. Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana
Ecbatana
(modern Hamedan), while Alexander
Alexander
captured Babylon.[70] Persia Further information: Battle of the Persian Gate

Site of the Persian Gate; the road was built in the 1990s

From Babylon, Alexander
Alexander
went to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury.[70] He sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis
Persepolis
via the Persian Royal Road. Alexander
Alexander
himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city. He then stormed the pass of the Persian Gates
Persian Gates
(in the modern Zagros Mountains) which had been blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis
Persepolis
before its garrison could loot the treasury.[71] On entering Persepolis, Alexander
Alexander
allowed his troops to loot the city for several days.[72] Alexander
Alexander
stayed in Persepolis
Persepolis
for five months.[73] During his stay a fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes I
Xerxes I
and spread to the rest of the city. Possible causes include a drunken accident or deliberate revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens
Athens
during the Second Persian War by Xerxes.[74] Even as he watched the city burn, Alexander
Alexander
immediately began to regret his decision.[75][76][77] Plutarch
Plutarch
claims that he ordered his men to put out the fires,[75] but that the flames had already spread to most of the city.[75] Curtius claims that Alexander
Alexander
did not regret his decision until the next morning.[75] Plutarch
Plutarch
recounts an anecdote in which Alexander
Alexander
pauses and talks to a fallen statue of Xerxes as if it were a live person:

Shall I pass by and leave you lying there because of the expeditions you led against Greece, or shall I set you up again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?[78]

Fall of the Empire
Empire
and the East

Silver coin
Silver coin
of Alexander
Alexander
wearing the lion scalp of Herakles, British Museum

Alexander
Alexander
then chased Darius, first into Media, and then Parthia.[79] The Persian king no longer controlled his own destiny, and was taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian satrap and kinsman.[80] As Alexander approached, Bessus
Bessus
had his men fatally stab the Great King
King
and then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander.[81] Alexander
Alexander
buried Darius' remains next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a regal funeral.[82] He claimed that, while dying, Darius had named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne.[83] The Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
is normally considered to have fallen with Darius.[84] Alexander
Alexander
viewed Bessus
Bessus
as a usurper and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia. Alexander
Alexander
founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar
Kandahar
in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan. The campaign took Alexander
Alexander
through Media, Parthia, Aria (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia
Arachosia
(South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria
Bactria
(North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia.[85] Spitamenes, who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana, in 329 BC betrayed Bessus
Bessus
to Ptolemy, one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus
Bessus
was executed.[86] However, when, at some point later, Alexander
Alexander
was on the Jaxartes dealing with an incursion by a horse nomad army, Spitamenes raised Sogdiana
Sogdiana
in revolt. Alexander personally defeated the Scythians
Scythians
at the Battle of Jaxartes
Battle of Jaxartes
and immediately launched a campaign against Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai. After the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace.[87] Problems and plots

The Killing of Cleitus, by André Castaigne
André Castaigne
(1898–1899)

During this time, Alexander
Alexander
adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis, either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their social superiors.[88] The Greeks regarded the gesture as the province of deities and believed that Alexander
Alexander
meant to deify himself by requiring it. This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it.[89] A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas, was executed for failing to alert Alexander. The death of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion, who had been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana, was assassinated at Alexander's command, to prevent attempts at vengeance. Most infamously, Alexander
Alexander
personally killed the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black, during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda
Maracanda
(modern day Samarkand
Samarkand
in Uzbekistan), in which Cleitus accused Alexander
Alexander
of several judgmental mistakes and most especially, of having forgotten the Macedonian ways in favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle.[90] Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages. His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus, was implicated in the plot, and in the Anabasis of Alexander, Arrian
Arrian
states that Callisthenes and the pages were then tortured on the rack as punishment, and likely died soon after.[91] It remains unclear if Callisthenes was actually involved in the plot, for prior to his accusation he had fallen out of favour by leading the opposition to the attempt to introduce proskynesis.[92] Macedon
Macedon
in Alexander's absence When Alexander
Alexander
set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater, an experienced military and political leader and part of Philip II's "Old Guard", in charge of Macedon.[51] Alexander's sacking of Thebes ensured that Greece
Greece
remained quiet during his absence.[51] The one exception was a call to arms by Spartan king Agis III in 331 BC, whom Antipater defeated and killed in the battle of Megalopolis.[51] Antipater referred the Spartans' punishment to the League of Corinth, which then deferred to Alexander, who chose to pardon them.[93] There was also considerable friction between Antipater and Olympias, and each complained to Alexander
Alexander
about the other.[94] In general, Greece
Greece
enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia.[95] Alexander
Alexander
sent back vast sums from his conquest, which stimulated the economy and increased trade across his empire.[96] However, Alexander's constant demands for troops and the migration of Macedonians throughout his empire depleted Macedon's strength, greatly weakening it in the years after Alexander, and ultimately led to its subjugation by Rome after the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC).[16] Indian campaign Main article: Indian campaign of Alexander
Alexander
the Great Forays into the Indian subcontinent

The Phalanx
Phalanx
Attacking the Centre in the Battle of the Hydaspes
Battle of the Hydaspes
by André Castaigne
André Castaigne
(1898–1899).

Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent.

After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana
Roxana
(Raoxshna in Old Iranian) to cement relations with his new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent. He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara
Gandhara
(a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and northern Pakistan), to come to him and submit to his authority. Omphis (Indian name Ambhi), the ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom extended from the Indus
Indus
to the Hydaspes
Hydaspes
(Jhelum), complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas
Kambojas
(known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas), refused to submit.[97] Ambhi hastened to relieve Alexander
Alexander
of his apprehension and met him with valuable presents, placing himself and all his forces at his disposal. Alexander
Alexander
not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1,000 talents in gold". Alexander
Alexander
was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion
Hephaestion
and Perdiccas
Perdiccas
in constructing a bridge over the Indus
Indus
where it bends at Hund (Fox 1973), supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander
Alexander
himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality. On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5,000 men and took part in the battle of the Hydaspes
Hydaspes
River. After that victory he was sent by Alexander
Alexander
in pursuit of Porus, to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy. Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus. A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip, son of Machatas; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander
Alexander
himself (323 BC), as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus, 321 BC. In the winter of 327/326 BC, Alexander
Alexander
personally led a campaign against these clans; the Aspasioi of Kunar valleys, the Guraeans of the Guraeus valley, and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys.[98] A fierce contest ensued with the Aspasioi in which Alexander
Alexander
was wounded in the shoulder by a dart, but eventually the Aspasioi lost. Alexander
Alexander
then faced the Assakenoi, who fought in the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos.[97] The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody fighting, in which Alexander
Alexander
was wounded seriously in the ankle. According to Curtius, "Not only did Alexander
Alexander
slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubble."[99] A similar slaughter followed at Ora. In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. Alexander followed close behind and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days.[97] After Aornos, Alexander
Alexander
crossed the Indus
Indus
and fought and won an epic battle against King
King
Porus, who ruled a region lying between the Hydaspes
Hydaspes
and the Acesines (Chenab), in what is now the Punjab, in the Battle of the Hydaspes
Battle of the Hydaspes
in 326 BC.[100] Alexander
Alexander
was impressed by Porus' bravery, and made him an ally. He appointed Porus
Porus
as satrap, and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis (Beas).[101][102] Choosing a local helped him control these lands so distant from Greece.[103] Alexander
Alexander
founded two cities on opposite sides of the Hydaspes
Hydaspes
river, naming one Bucephala, in honour of his horse, who died around this time.[104] The other was Nicaea (Victory), thought to be located at the site of modern-day Mong, Punjab.[105] Revolt of the army

Asia in 323 BC, the Nanda Empire
Nanda Empire
and the Gangaridai
Gangaridai
of the Indian subcontinent, in relation to Alexander's Empire
Empire
and neighbours

Alexander's troops beg to return home from India
India
in plate 3 of 11 by Antonio Tempesta of Florence, 1608.

East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River, were the Nanda Empire of Magadha
Magadha
and further east the Gangaridai
Gangaridai
Empire
Empire
(of the modern-day Bengal
Bengal
region of the Indian subcontinent). Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River (Beas), refusing to march farther east.[106] This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests.[107]

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus
Porus
blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander
Alexander
when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand war elephants.[108]

Alexander
Alexander
tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther, but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return; the men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland". Alexander
Alexander
eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus. Along the way his army conquered the Malhi (in modern-day Multan) and other Indian tribes and Alexander sustained an injury during the siege.[109] Alexander
Alexander
sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with general Craterus, and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest back to Persia
Persia
through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran.[110] Alexander
Alexander
reached Susa
Susa
in 324 BC, but not before losing many men to the harsh desert.[111] Last years in Persia

Alexander, left, and Hephaestion, right

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander
Alexander
executed several of them as examples on his way to Susa.[112][113] As a gesture of thanks, he paid off the debts of his soldiers, and announced that he would send over-aged and disabled veterans back to Macedon, led by Craterus. His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. They refused to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units.[114]

Alexander
Alexander
at the Tomb of Cyrus the Great, by Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes (1796)

After three days, unable to persuade his men to back down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units. The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander
Alexander
accepted, and held a great banquet for several thousand of his men at which he and they ate together.[115] In an attempt to craft a lasting harmony between his Macedonian and Persian subjects, Alexander
Alexander
held a mass marriage of his senior officers to Persian and other noblewomen at Susa, but few of those marriages seem to have lasted much beyond a year.[113] Meanwhile, upon his return to Persia, Alexander
Alexander
learned that guards of the tomb of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in Pasargadae
Pasargadae
had desecrated it, and swiftly executed them.[116] Alexander
Alexander
admired Cyrus the Great, from an early age reading Xenophon's Cyropaedia, which described Cyrus's heroism in battle and governance as a king and legislator.[117] During his visit to Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Alexander
Alexander
ordered his architect Aristobulus to decorate the interior of the sepulchral chamber of Cyrus' tomb.[117] Afterwards, Alexander
Alexander
travelled to Ecbatana
Ecbatana
to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure. There, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion, died of illness or poisoning.[118][119] Hephaestion's death devastated Alexander, and he ordered the preparation of an expensive funeral pyre in Babylon, as well as a decree for public mourning.[118] Back in Babylon, Alexander
Alexander
planned a series of new campaigns, beginning with an invasion of Arabia, but he would not have a chance to realize them, as he died shortly thereafter.[120] Death and succession Main article: Death of Alexander
Alexander
the Great

A Babylonian astronomical diary
Babylonian astronomical diary
(c. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander
Alexander
(British Museum, London)

19th century depiction of Alexander's funeral procession based on the description of Diodorus

On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander
Alexander
died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon, at age 32.[121] There are two different versions of Alexander's death and details of the death differ slightly in each. Plutarch's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander
Alexander
entertained admiral Nearchus, and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa.[122] He developed a fever, which worsened until he was unable to speak. The common soldiers, anxious about his health, were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them.[123] In the second account, Diodorus recounts that Alexander
Alexander
was struck with pain after downing a large bowl of unmixed wine in honour of Heracles, followed by 11 days of weakness; he did not develop a fever and died after some agony.[124] Arrian
Arrian
also mentioned this as an alternative, but Plutarch
Plutarch
specifically denied this claim.[122] Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination,[125] foul play featured in multiple accounts of his death. Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian
Arrian
and Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander
Alexander
was poisoned. Justin stated that Alexander
Alexander
was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch
Plutarch
dismissed it as a fabrication,[126] while both Diodorus and Arrian
Arrian
noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness.[124][127] The accounts were nevertheless fairly consistent in designating Antipater, recently removed as Macedonian viceroy, and at odds with Olympias, as the head of the alleged plot. Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon
Babylon
as a death sentence,[128] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and Philotas,[129] Antipater purportedly arranged for Alexander
Alexander
to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexander's wine-pourer.[127][129] There was even a suggestion that Aristotle
Aristotle
may have participated.[127] The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were probably not available.[130] However, in a 2003 BBC documentary investigating the death of Alexander, Leo Schep from the New Zealand National Poisons Centre proposed that the plant white hellebore (Veratrum album), which was known in antiquity, may have been used to poison Alexander.[131][132][133] In a 2014 manuscript in the journal Clinical Toxicology, Schep suggested Alexander's wine was spiked with Veratrum album, and that this would produce poisoning symptoms that match the course of events described in the Alexander
Alexander
Romance.[134] Veratrum album
Veratrum album
poisoning can have a prolonged course and it was suggested that if Alexander
Alexander
was poisoned, Veratrum album
Veratrum album
offers the most plausible cause.[134][135] Another poisoning explanation put forward in 2010 proposed that the circumstances of his death were compatible with poisoning by water of the river Styx (modern-day Mavroneri in Arcadia, Greece) that contained calicheamicin, a dangerous compound produced by bacteria.[136] Several natural causes (diseases) have been suggested, including malaria and typhoid fever. A 1998 article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis.[137] Another recent analysis suggested pyogenic (infectious) spondylitis or meningitis.[138] Other illnesses fit the symptoms, including acute pancreatitis and West Nile virus.[139][140] Natural-cause theories also tend to emphasize that Alexander's health may have been in general decline after years of heavy drinking and severe wounds. The anguish that Alexander
Alexander
felt after Hephaestion's death may also have contributed to his declining health.[137] After death See also: Tomb of Alexander
Alexander
the Great

Detail of Alexander
Alexander
on the Alexander
Alexander
Sarcophagus

Alexander's body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket.[141][142] According to Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander
Alexander
was laid to rest "would be happy and unvanquishable forever".[143] Perhaps more likely, the successors may have seen possession of the body as a symbol of legitimacy, since burying the prior king was a royal prerogative.[144] While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis.[141][143] His successor, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
II Philadelphus, transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where it remained until at least late Antiquity. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
IX Lathyros, one of Ptolemy's final successors, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert the original to coinage.[145] The recent discovery of an enormous tomb in northern Greece, at Amphipolis, dating from the time of Alexander
Alexander
the Great[146] has given rise to speculation that its original intent was to be the burial place of Alexander. This would fit with the intended destination of Alexander's funeral cortege. Pompey, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Augustus
Augustus
all visited the tomb in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly, accidentally knocked the nose off. Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use. Around AD 200, Emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
closed Alexander's tomb to the public. His son and successor, Caracalla, a great admirer, visited the tomb during his own reign. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy.[145] The so-called " Alexander
Alexander
Sarcophagus", discovered near Sidon
Sidon
and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander
Alexander
and his companions fighting the Persians and hunting. It was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC), the king of Sidon
Sidon
appointed by Alexander
Alexander
immediately following the battle of Issus in 331.[147][148] However, more recently, it has been suggested that it may date from earlier than Abdalonymus' death. Division of the empire Main articles: Partition of Babylon
Babylon
and Diadochi

Kingdoms of the Diadochi
Diadochi
in 301 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
(dark blue), the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(yellow), Kingdom of Pergamon
Pergamon
(orange), and Kingdom of Macedon
Macedon
(green). Also shown are the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(light blue), the Carthaginian Republic (purple), and the Kingdom of Epirus (red).

Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed.[51] Alexander
Alexander
had no obvious or legitimate heir, his son Alexander
Alexander
IV by Roxane being born after Alexander's death.[149] According to Diodorus, Alexander's companions asked him on his deathbed to whom he bequeathed his kingdom; his laconic reply was "tôi kratistôi"—"to the strongest".[124] Another theory is that his successors willfully or erroneously misheard “tôi Kraterôi” — “to Craterus”, the general leading his Macedonian troops home and newly entrusted with the regency of Macedonia.[150] Arrian
Arrian
and Plutarch
Plutarch
claimed that Alexander
Alexander
was speechless by this point, implying that this was an apocryphal story.[151] Diodorus, Curtius and Justin offered the more plausible story that Alexander passed his signet ring to Perdiccas, a bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby nominating him.[124][149] Perdiccas
Perdiccas
initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager, rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander
Alexander
IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only.[152] Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians, however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas
Perdiccas
at the Partition of Babylon
Babylon
became power bases each general used to bid for power. After the assassination of Perdiccas
Perdiccas
in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed, and 40 years of war between "The Successors" (Diadochi) ensued before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable power blocks: Ptolemaic Egypt, Seleucid Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Central Asia, Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon. In the process, both Alexander
Alexander
IV and Philip III were murdered.[153] Will

Commemorative coin by Agathocles of Bactria
Bactria
(190–180 BC) for Alexander
Alexander
the Great

Diodorus stated that Alexander
Alexander
had given detailed written instructions to Craterus
Craterus
some time before his death.[154] Craterus
Craterus
started to carry out Alexander's commands, but the successors chose not to further implement them, on the grounds they were impractical and extravagant.[154] Nevertheless, Perdiccas
Perdiccas
read Alexander's will to his troops.[51] Alexander's will called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations. It included:

Construction of a monumental tomb for his father Philip, “to match the greatest of the pyramids of Egypt”[51] Erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, Dium, Amphipolis, and a monumental temple to Athena
Athena
at Troy[51] Conquest of Arabia and the entire Mediterranean Basin[51] Circumnavigation of Africa[51] Development of cities and the “transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continent to common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties.”[155]

Character Generalship

The Battle of the Granicus, 334 BC

The Battle of Issus, 333 BC

Alexander
Alexander
earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered.[50] This was due to use of terrain, phalanx and cavalry tactics, bold strategy, and the fierce loyalty of his troops.[156] The Macedonian phalanx, armed with the sarissa, a spear 6 metres (20 ft) long, had been developed and perfected by Philip II through rigorous training, and Alexander
Alexander
used its speed and maneuverability to great effect against larger but more disparate[clarification needed] Persian forces.[157] Alexander
Alexander
also recognized the potential for disunity among his diverse army, which employed various languages and weapons. He overcame this by being personally involved in battle,[73] in the manner of a Macedonian king.[156] In his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander
Alexander
used only a small part of his forces[citation needed], perhaps 13,000 infantry with 5,000 cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40,000. Alexander
Alexander
placed the phalanx at the center and cavalry and archers on the wings, so that his line matched the length of the Persian cavalry line, about 3 km (1.86 mi). By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry. This ensured that Alexander would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the Persian's scimitars and javelins. Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians.[158] At Issus in 333 BC, his first confrontation with Darius, he used the same deployment, and again the central phalanx pushed through.[158] Alexander
Alexander
personally led the charge in the center, routing the opposing army.[159] At the decisive encounter with Darius at Gaugamela, Darius equipped his chariots with scythes on the wheels to break up the phalanx and equipped his cavalry with pikes. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming. The advance was successful and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to flee once again.[158] When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander
Alexander
adapted his forces to his opponents' style. Thus, in Bactria
Bactria
and Sogdiana, Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements, while massing his cavalry at the center.[159] In India, confronted by Porus' elephant corps, the Macedonians opened their ranks to envelop the elephants and used their sarissas to strike upwards and dislodge the elephants' handlers.[115] Physical appearance

Roman copy of a herma by Lysippos, Louvre Museum. Plutarch
Plutarch
reports that sculptures by Lysippos
Lysippos
were the most faithful.

Greek biographer Plutarch
Plutarch
(c. 45 – c. 120 AD) describes Alexander's appearance as:

¹ The outward appearance of Alexander
Alexander
is best represented by the statues of him which Lysippus
Lysippus
made, and it was by this artist alone that Alexander
Alexander
himself thought it fit that he should be modelled. ² For those peculiarities which many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate, namely, the poise of the neck, which was bent slightly to the left, and the melting glance of his eyes, this artist has accurately observed. ³ Apelles, however, in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt, did not reproduce his complexion, but made it too dark and swarthy. Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face. 4 Moreover, that a very pleasant odour exhaled from his skin and that there was a fragrance about his mouth and all his flesh, so that his garments were filled with it, this we have read in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus.[160]

Greek historian Arrian
Arrian
(Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' c. 86 – c. 160 AD) described Alexander
Alexander
as:

[T]he strong, handsome commander with one eye dark as the night and one blue as the sky.[161][162]

The semi-legendary Alexander
Alexander
Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum: that one eye was dark and the other light.[163] British historian Peter Green provided a description of Alexander's appearance, based on his review of statues and some ancient documents:

Physically, Alexander
Alexander
was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough. His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His eyes (one blue, one brown) revealed a dewy, feminine quality. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice.[164]

Ancient authors recorded that Alexander
Alexander
was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos
Lysippos
that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.[165] Lysippos
Lysippos
had often used the contrapposto sculptural scheme to portray Alexander
Alexander
and other characters such as Apoxyomenos, Hermes
Hermes
and Eros.[166] Lysippos' sculpture, famous for its naturalism, as opposed to a stiffer, more static pose, is thought to be the most faithful depiction.[167] Personality Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.[164] Olympias' influence instilled a sense of destiny in him,[168] and Plutarch
Plutarch
tells how his ambition "kept his spirit serious and lofty in advance of his years".[169] However, his father Philip was Alexander's most immediate and influential role model, as the young Alexander watched him campaign practically every year, winning victory after victory while ignoring severe wounds.[38] Alexander's relationship with his father forged the competitive side of his personality; he had a need to out-do his father, illustrated by his reckless behaviour in battle.[164] While Alexander
Alexander
worried that his father would leave him "no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world",[170] he also downplayed his father's achievements to his companions.[164]

Alexander
Alexander
(left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion
Asiatic lion
with his friend Craterus
Craterus
(detail); late 4th century BC mosaic,[171] Pella Museum

According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature,[172] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.[164] Although Alexander
Alexander
was stubborn and did not respond well to orders from his father, he was open to reasoned debate.[173] He had a calmer side—perceptive, logical, and calculating. He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader.[174] This was no doubt in part due to Aristotle's tutelage; Alexander
Alexander
was intelligent and quick to learn.[164] His intelligent and rational side was amply demonstrated by his ability and success as a general.[172] He had great self-restraint in "pleasures of the body", in contrast with his lack of self-control with alcohol.[175] Alexander
Alexander
was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.[169][174] However, he had little interest in sports or the Olympic games (unlike his father), seeking only the Homeric
Homeric
ideals of honour (timê) and glory (kudos).[176] He had great charisma and force of personality, characteristics which made him a great leader.[149][172] His unique abilities were further demonstrated by the inability of any of his generals to unite Macedonia and retain the Empire
Empire
after his death—only Alexander
Alexander
had the ability to do so.[149] During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander
Alexander
began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia.[128] His extraordinary achievements, coupled with his own ineffable sense of destiny and the flattery of his companions, may have combined to produce this effect.[177] His delusions of grandeur are readily visible in his will and in his desire to conquer the world,[128] in as much as he is by various sources described as having boundless ambition,[178][179] an epithet, the meaning of which has descended into an historical cliché.[180][181] He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself.[128] Olympias
Olympias
always insisted to him that he was the son of Zeus,[182] a theory apparently confirmed to him by the oracle of Amun
Amun
at Siwa.[183] He began to identify himself as the son of Zeus-Ammon.[183] Alexander
Alexander
adopted elements of Persian dress and customs at court, notably proskynesis, a practice of which Macedonians disapproved, and were loath to perform.[88] This behaviour cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen.[184] However, Alexander
Alexander
also was a pragmatic ruler who understood the difficulties of ruling culturally disparate peoples, many of whom lived in kingdoms where the king was divine.[185] Thus, rather than megalomania, his behaviour may simply have been a practical attempt at strengthening his rule and keeping his empire together.[186] Personal relationships Main article: Personal relationships of Alexander
Alexander
the Great

A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander
Alexander
to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC; the couple are apparently dressed as Ares
Ares
and Aphrodite.

Alexander
Alexander
married three times: Roxana, daughter of the Sogdian nobleman Oxyartes
Oxyartes
of Bactria,[187][188][189] out of love;[190] and the Persian princesses Stateira II
Stateira II
and Parysatis II, the former a daughter of Darius III
Darius III
and latter a daughter of Artaxerxes III, for political reasons.[191][192] He apparently had two sons, Alexander
Alexander
IV of Macedon by Roxana
Roxana
and, possibly, Heracles
Heracles
of Macedon
Macedon
from his mistress Barsine. He lost another child when Roxana
Roxana
miscarried at Babylon.[193][194] Alexander
Alexander
also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble.[118][164][195] Hephaestion's death devastated Alexander.[118][196] This event may have contributed to Alexander's failing health and detached mental state during his final months.[128][137] Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy.[197] No ancient sources stated that Alexander
Alexander
had homosexual relationships, or that Alexander's relationship with Hephaestion
Hephaestion
was sexual. Aelian, however, writes of Alexander's visit to Troy
Troy
where " Alexander
Alexander
garlanded the tomb of Achilles
Achilles
and Hephaestion
Hephaestion
that of Patroclus, the latter riddling that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus
Patroclus
was of Achilles."[198] Noting that the word eromenos (ancient Greek for beloved) does not necessarily bear sexual meaning, Alexander
Alexander
may have been bisexual, which in his time was not controversial.[199] Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander
Alexander
had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life.[164] However, he was relatively young when he died, and Ogden suggests that Alexander's matrimonial record is more impressive than his father's at the same age.[200] Apart from wives, Alexander
Alexander
had many more female companions. Alexander accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly,[201] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".[175] Nevertheless, Plutarch
Plutarch
described how Alexander
Alexander
was infatuated by Roxana
Roxana
while complimenting him on not forcing himself on her.[202] Green suggested that, in the context of the period, Alexander
Alexander
formed quite strong friendships with women, including Ada of Caria, who adopted him, and even Darius' mother Sisygambis, who supposedly died from grief upon hearing of Alexander's death.[164] Battle record

Date War Action Opponent/s Type Country Rank Outcome Record

338-08-02 2 August 338 BC Rise of Macedon Chaeronea
Chaeronea
Battle of Chaeronea .Thebans, Athenians Battle Greece Prince Victory ⁂

1–0

335 335 BC Balkan Campaign Mount Haemus Battle of Mount Haemus .Getae, Thracians Battle present-day Bulgaria King Victory ⁂

2–0

335-12 December 335 BC Balkan Campaign Pelium Siege
Siege
of Pelium .Illyrians Siege Greece King Victory ⁂

3–0

335-12 December 335 BC Balkan Campaign Pelium Battle of Thebes .Thebans Battle Greece King Victory ⁂

4–0

334-05 May 334 BC Persian Campaign Granicus Battle of the Granicus .Achaemenid Empire Battle present-day Turkey King Victory ⁂

5–0

334 334 BC Persian Campaign Miletus
Miletus
Siege
Siege
of Miletus .Achaemenid Empire, Milesians Siege present-day Turkey King Victory ⁂

6–0

334 334 BC Persian Campaign Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
Siege
Siege
of Halicarnassus .Achaemenid Empire Siege present-day Turkey King Victory ⁂

7–0

333-11-05 5 November 333 BC Persian Campaign Issus Battle of Issus .Achaemenid Empire Battle present-day Turkey King Victory ⁂

8–0

332 January–July 332 BC Persian Campaign Tyre Siege
Siege
of Tyre .Achaemenid Empire, Tyrians Siege present-day Lebanon King Victory ⁂

9–0

332-10 October 332 BC Persian Campaign Tyre Siege
Siege
of Gaza .Achaemenid Empire Siege present-day Palestine King Victory ⁂

10–0

331-10-01 1 October 331 BC Persian Campaign Gaugamela Battle of Gaugamela .Achaemenid Empire Battle present-day Iraq King Victory ⁂

11–0

331-12 December 331 BC Persian Campaign Uxian Defile Battle of the Uxian Defile .Uxians Battle present-day Iran King Victory ⁂

12–0

330-01-20 20 January 330 BC Persian Campaign Persian Gate
Persian Gate
Battle of the Persian Gate .Achaemenid Empire Battle present-day Iran King Victory ⁂

13–0

329 329 BC Persian Campaign Cyropolis Siege
Siege
of Cyropolis .Sogdians Siege present-day Turkmenistan King Victory ⁂

14–0

329-10 October 329 BC Persian Campaign Jaxartes Battle of Jaxartes .Scythians Battle present-day Uzbekistan King Victory ⁂

15–0

327 327 BC Persian Campaign Sogdian Rock
Sogdian Rock
Siege
Siege
of the Sogdian Rock .Sogdians Siege present-day Uzbekistan King Victory ⁂

16–0

327 May 327 – March 326 BC Indian Campaign Cophen Cophen Campaign .Aspasians Expedition present-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan King Victory ⁂

17–0

326-04 April 326 BC Indian Campaign Aornos
Aornos
Siege
Siege
of Aornos .Aśvaka Siege present-day Pakistan King Victory ⁂

18–0

326-05 May 326 BC Indian Campaign Hydaspes
Hydaspes
Battle of the Hydaspes .Paurava Battle present-day Pakistan King Victory ⁂

19–0

325 November 326 – February 325 BC Indian Campaign Aornos
Aornos
Siege
Siege
of Multan .Malli Siege present-day Pakistan King Victory ⁂

20–0

Legacy

The Hellenistic world view after Alexander: ancient world map of Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
(276–194 BC), incorporating information from the campaigns of Alexander
Alexander
and his successors.[203]

Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.[16] Some of the cities he founded became major cultural centers, many surviving into the 21st century. His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean.[16] Hellenistic kingdoms Main article: Hellenistic period

Plan of Alexandria
Alexandria
c. 30 BC

Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. At the time of his death, Alexander's empire covered some 5,200,000 km2 (2,000,000 sq mi),[204] and was the largest state of its time. Many of these areas remained in Macedonian hands or under Greek influence for the next 200–300 years. The successor states that emerged were, at least initially, dominant forces, and these 300 years are often referred to as the Hellenistic period.[205] The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.[149] However, the power vacuum he left in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
directly gave rise to one of the most powerful Indian dynasties in history, the Maurya Empire. Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
(referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos"), of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab, and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire.[206] Founding of cities Over the course of his conquests, Alexander
Alexander
founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most of them east of the Tigris.[89][207] The first, and greatest, was Alexandria
Alexandria
in Egypt, which would become one of the leading Mediterranean cities.[89] The cities' locations reflected trade routes as well as defensive positions. At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons.[89] Following Alexander's death, many Greeks who had settled there tried to return to Greece.[89][207] However, a century or so after Alexander's death, many of the Alexandrias were thriving, with elaborate public buildings and substantial populations that included both Greek and local peoples.[89] Funding of temples

Dedication of Alexander
Alexander
the Great to Athena
Athena
Polias at Priene, now housed in the British Museum[208]

In 334 BC, Alexander
Alexander
the Great donated funds for the completion of the new temple of Athena
Athena
Polias in Priene.[209][210] An inscription from the temple, now housed in the British Museum, declares: "King Alexander
Alexander
dedicated [this temple] to Athena
Athena
Polias."[208] This inscription is one of the few independent archaeological discoveries confirming an episode from Alexander's life.[208] The temple was designed by Pytheos, one of the architects of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.[208][209][210][211] Hellenization Main article: Hellenistic civilization

Alexander's empire was the largest state of its time, covering approximately 5.2 million square km.

Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest.[205] That this export took place is undoubted, and can be seen in the great Hellenistic cities of, for instance, Alexandria, Antioch[212] and Seleucia
Seleucia
(south of modern Baghdad).[213] Alexander
Alexander
sought to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture. This culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the successor states.[214] The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian.[215] The close association of men from across Greece
Greece
in Alexander's army directly led to the emergence of the largely Attic-based "koine", or "common" Greek dialect.[216] Koine spread throughout the Hellenistic world, becoming the lingua franca of Hellenistic lands and eventually the ancestor of modern Greek.[216] Furthermore, town planning, education, local government, and art current in the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
were all based on Classical Greek ideals, evolving into distinct new forms commonly grouped as Hellenistic.[212] Aspects of Hellenistic culture were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the mid-15th century.[217]

The Buddha, in Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
style, 1st to 2nd century AD, Gandhara, ancient India. Tokyo National Museum.

Some of the most pronounced effects of Hellenization can be seen in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India, in the region of the relatively late-rising Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
(250–125 BC) (in modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan) and the Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
(180 BC – 10 AD) in modern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India.[218] There on the newly formed Silk Road
Silk Road
Greek culture apparently hybridized with Indian, and especially Buddhist
Buddhist
culture. The resulting syncretism known as Greco-Buddhism
Greco-Buddhism
heavily influenced the development of Buddhism[citation needed] and created a culture of Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art. These Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdoms sent some of the first Buddhist
Buddhist
missionaries to China, Sri Lanka, and the Mediterranean (Greco-Buddhist monasticism). Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo
Apollo
in the Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
style.[218] Several Buddhist
Buddhist
traditions may have been influenced by the ancient Greek religion: the concept of Boddhisatvas
Boddhisatvas
is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes,[219] and some Mahayana
Mahayana
ceremonial practices (burning incense, gifts of flowers, and food placed on altars) are similar to those practiced by the ancient Greeks; however, similar practices were also observed amongst the native Indic culture. One Greek king, Menander
Menander
I, probably became Buddhist, and was immortalized in Buddhist
Buddhist
literature as 'Milinda'.[218] The process of Hellenization also spurred trade between the east and west.[220] For example, Greek astronomical instruments dating to the 3rd century BC were found in the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
city of Ai Khanoum
Ai Khanoum
in modern-day Afghanistan,[221] while the Greek concept of a spherical earth surrounded by the spheres of planets eventually supplanted the long-standing Indian cosmological belief of a disc consisting of four continents grouped around a central mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a flower.[220][222][223] The Yavanajataka
Yavanajataka
(lit. Greek astronomical treatise) and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy. Following the conquests of Alexander
Alexander
the Great in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art
Hellenistic influence on Indian art
was far-ranging. In the area of architecture, a few examples of the Ionic order
Ionic order
can be found as far as Pakistan
Pakistan
with the Jandial
Jandial
temple near Taxila. Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna, especially with the Pataliputra capital, dated to the 3rd century BC.[224] The Corinthian order
Corinthian order
is also heavily represented in the art of Gandhara, especially through Indo-Corinthian capitals. Influence on Rome

This medallion was produced in Imperial Rome, demonstrating the influence of Alexander's memory. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Alexander
Alexander
and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.[225] Polybius
Polybius
began his Histories by reminding Romans of Alexander's achievements, and thereafter Roman leaders saw him as a role model. Pompey
Pompey
the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's 260-year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness.[225] Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
dedicated a Lysippean equestrian bronze statue but replaced Alexander's head with his own, while Octavian
Octavian
visited Alexander's tomb in Alexandria
Alexandria
and temporarily changed his seal from a sphinx to Alexander's profile.[225] The emperor Trajan
Trajan
also admired Alexander, as did Nero
Nero
and Caracalla.[225] The Macriani, a Roman family that in the person of Macrinus
Macrinus
briefly ascended to the imperial throne, kept images of Alexander
Alexander
on their persons, either on jewelry, or embroidered into their clothes.[226]

The Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
king Demetrius (reigned c. 200 – c. 180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, took over Alexander's legacy in the east by again invading India, and establishing the Indo-Greek kingdom
Indo-Greek kingdom
(180 BC–10 AD).

The coronation of Alexander
Alexander
depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles

On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly Republican figures, used Alexander
Alexander
as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by republican values.[227] Alexander was used by these writers as an example of ruler values such as amicita (friendship) and clementia (clemency), but also iracundia (anger) and cupiditas gloriae (over-desire for glory).[227] Legend Main article: Alexander
Alexander
the Great in legend Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander
Alexander
the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself.[228] His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia
Cilicia
as drawing back from him in proskynesis. Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus, invented a tryst between Alexander
Alexander
and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons. When Onesicritus
Onesicritus
read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King
King
Lysimachus
Lysimachus
reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time."[229] In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander
Alexander
Romance, later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages,[230] containing many dubious stories,[228] and was translated into numerous languages.[231] In ancient and modern culture Main articles: Cultural depictions of Alexander
Alexander
the Great and Alexander
Alexander
the Great in the Quran

Alexander
Alexander
the Great depicted in a 14th-century Byzantine manuscript

Alexander
Alexander
the Great depicted in a 15th-century Persian miniature painting

Alexander
Alexander
the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Alexander
Alexander
has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day. The Alexander
Alexander
Romance, in particular, has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander
Alexander
in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek.[231] Alexander
Alexander
features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure.[232] The colloquial form of his name in modern Greek ("O Megalexandros") is a household name, and he is the only ancient hero to appear in the Karagiozis
Karagiozis
shadow play.[232] One well-known fable among Greek seamen involves a solitary mermaid who would grasp a ship's prow during a storm and ask the captain "Is King Alexander
Alexander
alive?" The correct answer is "He is alive and well and rules the world!" causing the mermaid to vanish and the sea to calm. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.[232] In pre-Islamic Middle Persian (Zoroastrian) literature, Alexander
Alexander
is referred to by the epithet gujastak, meaning "accursed", and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.[233] In Sunni Islamic Persia, under the influence of the Alexander
Alexander
Romance (in Persian: اسکندرنامه‎ Iskandarnamah), a more positive portrayal of Alexander
Alexander
emerges.[234] Firdausi's Shahnameh
Shahnameh
("The Book
Book
of Kings") includes Alexander
Alexander
in a line of legitimate Persian shahs, a mythical figure who explored the far reaches of the world in search of the Fountain of Youth.[235] Later Persian writers associate him with philosophy, portraying him at a symposium with figures such as Socrates, Plato
Plato
and Aristotle, in search of immortality.[234] The figure of Dhul-Qarnayn
Dhul-Qarnayn
(literally "the Two-Horned One") mentioned in the Quran
Quran
is believed by some scholars to represent Alexander, due to parallels with the Alexander Romance.[234] In this tradition, he was a heroic figure who built a wall to defend against the nations of Gog and Magog.[236] He then travelled the known world in search of the Water of Life and Immortality, eventually becoming a prophet.[236] The Syriac version of the Alexander
Alexander
Romance portrays him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed to "the one true God".[234] In Egypt, Alexander
Alexander
was portrayed as the son of Nectanebo II, the last pharaoh before the Persian conquest.[236] His defeat of Darius was depicted as Egypt's salvation, "proving" Egypt
Egypt
was still ruled by an Egyptian.[234] According to Josephus, Alexander
Alexander
was shown the Book of Daniel
Book of Daniel
when he entered Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire. This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem.[237] In Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu, the name "Sikandar", derived from Persian, denotes a rising young talent.[238] In medieval Europe, Alexander
Alexander
the Great was revered as a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes whose lives were believed to encapsulate all the ideal qualities of chivalry.[239] Irish playwright Aubrey Thomas de Vere
Aubrey Thomas de Vere
wrote Alexander
Alexander
the Great, a Dramatic Poem. Historiography Main article: Alexander
Alexander
the Great in historiography Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander
Alexander
or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander
Alexander
were all lost.[16] Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life included Alexander's campaign historian Callisthenes; Alexander's generals Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Nearchus; Aristobulus, a junior officer on the campaigns; and Onesicritus, Alexander's chief helmsman. Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. The earliest of these is Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC), followed by Quintus Curtius Rufus (mid-to-late 1st century AD), Arrian
Arrian
(1st to 2nd century AD), the biographer Plutarch
Plutarch
(1st to 2nd century AD), and finally Justin, whose work dated as late as the 4th century.[16] Of these, Arrian
Arrian
is generally considered the most reliable, given that he used Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Aristobulus as his sources, closely followed by Diodorus.[16] Ancestry

Ancestors of Alexander
Alexander
the Great

8. Arrhidaeus

4. Amyntas III of Macedon

2. Philip II of Macedon

10. Sirras

5. Eurydice I of Macedon

1. Alexander
Alexander
the Great

24. Tharrhypas

12. Alcetas I of Epirus

6. Neoptolemus I of Epirus

3. Olympias

See also

History portal Greece
Greece
portal Iran
Iran
portal Egypt
Egypt
portal War portal

Library resources about Alexander
Alexander
the Great

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Alexander
Alexander
the Great in the Qur'an Ancient Macedonian army Bucephalus Chronology of European exploration of Asia Diogenes and Alexander Ptolemaic cult of Alexander
Alexander
the Great List of people known as The Great The Mahabharata Quest: The Alexander
Alexander
Secret

Annotations

^ Macedon
Macedon
was an Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
polity. The Macedonians were a Greek tribe. Historiography and scholarship agree that Alexander
Alexander
the Great was Greek.[240] ^ By the time of his death, he had conquered the entire Achaemenid Persian Empire, adding it to Macedon's European territories; according to some modern writers, this was most of the world then known to the ancient Greeks (the 'Ecumene').[241][242] An approximate view of the world known to Alexander
Alexander
can be seen in Hecataeus of Miletus's map; see Hecataeus world map. ^ For instance, Hannibal
Hannibal
supposedly ranked Alexander
Alexander
as the greatest general;[243] Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
wept on seeing a statue of Alexander, since he had achieved so little by the same age;[244] Pompey consciously posed as the 'new Alexander';[245] the young Napoleon Bonaparte also encouraged comparisons with Alexander.[246] ^ The name Ἀλέξανδρος derives from the Greek verb ἀλέξω (aléxō, lit. 'ward off, avert, defend')[247][248] and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anḗr, lit. 'man'),[249][248] and means "protector of men".[250] ^ There have been, since the time, many suspicions that Pausanias was actually hired to murder Philip. Suspicion has fallen upon Alexander, Olympias
Olympias
and even the newly crowned Persian Emperor, Darius III. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered.[251] ^ However, Arrian, who used Ptolemy
Ptolemy
as a source, said that Alexander crossed with more than 5,000 horse and 30,000 foot; Diodorus quoted the same totals, but listed 5,100 horse and 32,000 foot. Diodorus also referred to an advance force already present in Asia, which Polyaenus, in his Stratagems of War (5.44.4), said numbered 10,000 men.

References

^ Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila S. (2009) The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture: Mosul to Zirid, Volume 3. (Oxford University Press Incorporated, 2009), 385; "[Khojand, Tajikistan]; As the easternmost outpost of the empire of Alexander
Alexander
the Great, the city was renamed Alexandria
Alexandria
Eschate ("furthest Alexandria") in 329 BCE."

Golden, Peter B. Central Asia in World History (Oxford University Press, 2011), 25;"[...] his campaigns in Central Asia brought Khwarazm, Sogdia
Sogdia
and Bactria
Bactria
under Graeco-Macedonian rule. As elsewhere, Alexander
Alexander
founded or renamed a number of cities, such as Alexandria
Alexandria
Eschate ("Outernmost Alexandria", near modern Khojent in Tajikistan)." ^ " Alexander
Alexander
the Great (356–323 BC)". UK: BBC.  ^ Yenne 2010, p. 159. ^ Heckel, Waldemar; Tritle, Lawrence A., eds. (2009). "The Corinthian League". Alexander
Alexander
the Great: A New History. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 99. ISBN 1-4051-3082-2.  ^ Burger, Michael (2008). The Shaping of Western Civilization: From Antiquity to the Enlightenment. University of Toronto Press. p. 76. ISBN 1-55111-432-1.  ^ Yenne 2010, p. viii. ^ "Guardian on Time Magazine's 100 personalities of all time".  ^ "The birth of Alexander
Alexander
the Great". Livius. Retrieved 16 December 2011. Alexander
Alexander
was born the sixth of Hekatombaion.  ^ Green, Peter (1970), Alexander
Alexander
of Macedon, 356–323 B.C.: a historical biography, Hellenistic culture and society (illustrated, revised reprint ed.), University of California Press, p. xxxiii, ISBN 978-0-520-07165-0, 356 – Alexander
Alexander
born in Pella. The exact date is not known, but probably either 20 or 26 July.  ^ McCarty 2004, p. 10, Renault 2001, p. 28, Durant 1966, p. 538 ^ Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 171. ^ a b c d Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 188. ^ a b Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, III, 2 ^ Renault 2001, p. 28, Bose 2003, p. 21 ^ Renault 2001, pp. 33–34. ^ a b c d e f g Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 186. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, VI, 5 ^ Durant 1966, p. 538, Fox 1980, p. 64, Renault 2001, p. 39 ^ Fox 1980, pp. 65–66, Renault 2001, p. 44, McCarty 2004, p. 15 ^ Fox 1980, pp. 65–66, Renault 2001, pp. 45–47, McCarty 2004, p. 16 ^ Fox 1980, p. 68, Renault 2001, p. 47, Bose 2003, p. 43 ^ Renault 2001, pp. 47–49. ^ Renault 2001, pp. 50–51, Bose 2003, pp. 44–45, McCarty 2004, p. 23 ^ Renault 2001, p. 51, Bose 2003, p. 47, McCarty 2004, p. 24 ^ Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
1989, XVI, 86 ^ "History of Ancient Sparta". Sikyon. Archived from the original on 5 March 2001. Retrieved 14 November 2009.  ^ Renault 2001, p. 54. ^ McCarty 2004, p. 26. ^ a b Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 179. ^ McCarty 2004, p. 27. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, IX, 1 ^ a b c d e f Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 180. ^ Bose 2003, p. 75, Renault 2001, p. 56 ^ McCarty 2004, p. 27, Renault 2001, p. 59, Fox 1980, p. 71 ^ a b McCarty 2004, pp. 30–31. ^ Renault 2001, pp. 61–62 ^ a b Fox 1980, p. 72 ^ a b c Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 190. ^ a b Green 2007, pp. 5–6 ^ Renault 2001, pp. 70–71 ^ McCarty 2004, p. 31, Renault 2001, p. 72, Fox 1980, p. 104, Bose 2003, p. 95 ^ Stoneman 2004, p. 21. ^ Dillon 2004, pp. 187–88. ^ Renault 2001, p. 72, Bose 2003, p. 96 ^ Chugg, Andrew (2006). Alexander's Lovers. Raleigh, N.C.: Lulu. ISBN 978-1-4116-9960-1, pp. 78–79. ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 1 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 2 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 3–4, Renault 2001, pp. 73–74 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 5–6, Renault 2001, p. 77 ^ a b c d e Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 192. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 199 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 11 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 20–23 ^ a b Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 23 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 27–28 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 3 ^ Green 2007, p. 351 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, I, 11–12 ^ The Anabasis of Alexander/ Book
Book
II/Chapter XIV/Darius’s Letter, and Alexander’s Reply – Arrian ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, II, 16–24 ^ Gunther 2007, p. 84 ^ Sabin, van Wees & Whitby 2007, p. 396 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, II, 26 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, II, 26–27 ^ Ring et al. 1994, pp. 49, 320 ^ Bosworth 1988, pp. 71–74. ^ Dahmen 2007, pp. 10–11 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 1 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III 7–15; also in a contemporary Babylonian account of the battle of Gaugamela ^ a b Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 16 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 18 ^ Foreman 2004, p. 152 ^ a b Morkot 1996, p. 121. ^ Hammond 1983, pp. 72–73. ^ a b c d Yenne, Bill (2010). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: Lessons from History's Undefeated General. New York City, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-230-61915-9.  ^ Freeman, Philip (2011). Alexander
Alexander
the Great. New York City, New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-4391-9328-0.  ^ Briant, Pierre (2010) [1974]. Alexander
Alexander
the Great and His Empire: A Short Introduction. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-691-15445-9.  ^ O'Brien, John Maxwell (1994). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: The Invisible Enemy: A Biography. Psychology Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-415-10617-7.  ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 19–20. ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 21. ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 21, 25. ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 22. ^ Gergel 2004, p. 81. ^ "The end of Persia". Livius. Retrieved 16 November 2009.  ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 23–25, 27–30; IV, 1–7. ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, III, 30. ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, IV, 5–6, 16–17. ^ a b Arrian
Arrian
1976, VII, 11 ^ a b c d e f Morkot 1996, p. 111. ^ Gergel 2004, p. 99. ^ The Anabasis of Arrian ^ Heckel & Tritle 2009, pp. 47–48 ^ Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 201 ^ Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 202 ^ Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 203 ^ Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 205 ^ a b c Tripathi 1999, pp. 118–21. ^ Narain 1965, pp. 155–65 ^ McCrindle, J. W. (1997). "Curtius". In Singh, Fauja; Joshi, L. M. History of Punjab. I. Patiala: Punjabi University. p. 229.  ^ Tripathi 1999, pp. 124–25. ^ p. xl, Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Warfare, J, Woronoff & I. Spence ^ Arrian
Arrian
Anabasis of Alexander, V.29.2 ^ Tripathi 1999, pp. 126–27. ^ Gergel 2004, p. 120. ^ Worthington 2003, p. 175 ^ Kosmin 2014, p. 34. ^ Tripathi 1999, pp. 129–30. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, LXII, 1 ^ Tripathi 1999, pp. 137–38. ^ Tripathi 1999, p. 141. ^ Morkot 1996, p. 9 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, VI, 27 ^ a b Arrian
Arrian
1976, VII, 4 ^ Worthington 2003, pp. 307–08 ^ a b Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 194 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, II, 29 ^ a b Ulrich Wilcken (1967). Alexander
Alexander
the Great. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-393-00381-9.  ^ a b c d Arrian
Arrian
1976, VII, 14 ^ Berkley 2006, p. 101 ^ Arrian
Arrian
1976, VII, 19 ^ Depuydt, L. "The Time of Death of Alexander
Alexander
the Great: 11 June 323 BC, ca. 4:00–5:00 pm". Die Welt des Orients. 28: 117–35.  ^ a b Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, LXXV, 1 ^ Wood 2001, pp. 2267–70. ^ a b c d Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
1989, XVII, 117 ^ Green 2007, pp. 1–2. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, LXXVII, 1 ^ a b c Arrian
Arrian
1976, VII, 27 ^ a b c d e Green 2007, pp. 23–24. ^ a b Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
1989, XVII, 118 ^ Fox 2006, chapter 32. ^ "NZ scientist's detective work may reveal how Alexander
Alexander
died". The Royal Society of New Zealand. Dunedin. 16 October 2003. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014.  ^ Cawthorne 2004, p. 138. ^ Bursztajn, Harold J (2005). "Dead Men Talking". Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin (Spring). Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ a b Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Vale JA, Wheatley P (January 2014). "Was the death of Alexander
Alexander
the Great due to poisoning? Was it Veratrum album?". Clinical Toxicology. 52 (1): 72–77. doi:10.3109/15563650.2013.870341 . PMID 24369045.  ^ Bennett-Smith, Meredith (14 January 2014). "Was Alexander
Alexander
The Great Poisoned By Toxic Wine?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 15 January 2014.  ^ Squires, Nick (4 August 2010). " Alexander
Alexander
the Great poisoned by the River Styx". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 December 2011.  ^ a b c Oldach, DW; Richard, RE; Borza, EN; Benitez, RM (June 1998). "A mysterious death". N. Engl. J. Med. 338 (24): 1764–69. doi:10.1056/NEJM199806113382411. PMID 9625631.  ^ Ashrafian, H (2004). "The death of Alexander
Alexander
the Great – a spinal twist of fate". J Hist Neurosci. 13 (2): 138–42. doi:10.1080/0964704049052157. PMID 15370319.  ^ Marr, John S; Calisher, Charles H (2003). " Alexander
Alexander
the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 (12): 1599–1603. doi:10.3201/eid0912.030288. PMC 3034319 . PMID 14725285.  ^ Sbarounis, CN (2007). "Did Alexander
Alexander
the Great die of acute pancreatitis?". J Clin Gastroenterol. 24 (4): 294–96. doi:10.1097/00004836-199706000-00031. PMID 9252868.  ^ a b Kosmetatou, Elizabeth (1998). "The Location of the Tomb: Facts and Speculation". Greece.org. Archived from the original on 31 May 2004. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ "Bayfront Byline Bug Walk". UCSD. Mar 1996. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ a b Aelian, "64", Varia Historia, XII  ^ Green 2007, p. 32. ^ a b Kosmetatou, Elizabeth (1998). "The Aftermath: The Burial of Alexander
Alexander
the Great". Greece.org. Archived from the original on 27 August 2004. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ "Greeks captivated by Alexander-era tomb at Amphipolis". BBC News.  ^ Studniczka 1894, pp. 226ff ^ Bieber, M (1965). "The Portraits of Alexander". Greece
Greece
& Rome, Second Series. 12.2 (2): 183–88. doi:10.1017/s0017383500015345.  ^ a b c d e Green 2007, pp. 24–26. ^ Graham Shipley. "The Greek World After Alexander
Alexander
323–30 BC". p. 40.  ^ Green 2007, p. 20 ^ Green 2007, pp. 26–29. ^ Green 2007, pp. 29–34. ^ a b Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
1989, XVIII, 4 ^ McKechnie 1989, p. 54 ^ a b Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 193, Morkot 1996, p. 110 ^ Morkot 1996, p. 110. ^ a b c Morkot 1996, p. 122. ^ a b Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 193. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, IV, 1. ^ " Alexander
Alexander
the Great". Mithec.  ^ Popovic, John J. " Alexander
Alexander
the Great" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2013.  ^ Grafton 2010, p. 27. ^ a b c d e f g h i Green 2007, pp. 15–16. ^ "Images of Authority II: The Greek Example". SUNY Oneonta. 2005. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ Grout, James. "Lysippus: Apoxyomenos". Encyclopaedia Romana. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ Bosworth 1988, pp. 19–20. ^ Green 2007, p. 4. ^ a b Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, IV, 4 ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, V, 2 ^ Olga Palagia (2000). "Hephaestion's Pyre and the Royal Hunt of Alexander," in A.B. Bosworth and E.J. Baynham (eds), Alexander
Alexander
the Great in Fact and Fiction. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198152873, p. 185. ^ a b c Arrian
Arrian
1976, VII, 29 ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, VII, 1 ^ a b Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, VIII, 1 ^ a b Arrian
Arrian
1976, VII, 28 ^ Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 190, Green 2007, p. 4 ^ Green 2007, pp. 20–21. ^ M Wood (edited by T Gergel) – Alexander: Selected Texts from Arrian, Curtius and Plutarch
Plutarch
Penguin, 2004 ISBN 0-14-101312-5 [Retrieved 2015-04-08] ^ Google Books ^ G Highet – The Classical Tradition: Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature: Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature, Oxford University Press, 31 Dec 1949 p. 68 [Retrieved 2015-04-08] (ed. c.f. – Merriam-webster.com) ^ Merriam-Webster – epithet [Retrieved 2015-04-08] ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, IX, IV ^ a b Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, XXVII, 1 ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, LXV, 1 ^ Morkot 1996, p. 111, Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 195 ^ Morkot 1996, p. 121, Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 195 ^ Ahmed, S. Z. (2004), Chaghatai: the Fabulous Cities and People of the Silk Road, West Conshokoken: Infinity Publishing, p. 61. ^ Strachan, Edward and Roy Bolton (2008), Russia and Europe in the Nineteenth Century, London: Sphinx
Sphinx
Fine Art, p. 87, ISBN 978-1-907200-02-1. ^ Livius.org. "Roxane." Articles on Ancient History. Retrieved on 30 August 2016. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, LXVII, 1. ^ Carney, Elizabeth Donnelly (2000), Women and Monarchy in Macedonia, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 0-8061-3212-4  ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1936, II, 6. ^ " Alexander
Alexander
IV". Livius. Retrieved 13 December 2009.  ^ Renault 2001, p. 100. ^ Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
1989, XVII, 114 ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, LXXII, 1 ^ Ogden 2009, p. 204. ^ Aelian, "7", Varia Historia, XII  ^ Sacks 1995, p. 16. ^ Ogden 2009, p. 208: "...three attested pregnancies in eight years produces an attested impregnation rate of one every 2.7 years, which is actually superior to that of his father's." ^ Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
1989, XVII, 77 ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1936, I, 11. ^ "World map according to Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
(194 B.C.)". henry-davis.com. Henry Davis Consulting. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ Peter Turchin, Thomas D. Hall and Jonathan M. Adams, "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires Archived 22 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.", Journal of World-Systems Research Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219–29 (2006). ^ a b Green 2007, pp. xii–xix. ^ Keay 2001, pp. 82–85. ^ a b " Alexander
Alexander
the Great: his towns". livius.org. Retrieved 13 December 2009.  ^ a b c d Burn, Lucilla (2004). Hellenistic Art: From Alexander
Alexander
the Great to Augustus. London, England: The British Museum
British Museum
Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-89236-776-4.  ^ a b " Alexander
Alexander
the Great". British Museum.  "On reaching Priene, he made a further dedication to Athena. There the townspeople were laying out their new city and building a temple to its patron goddess. Alexander
Alexander
offered funds to complete the temple, and the inscription on this wall block, cut into a block of marble, records his gift. The inscription was found in the 19th century by the architect-archaeologist Richard Pullan leading an expedition on behalf of the Society of Dilettanti. It reads: ‘ King
King
Alexander
Alexander
dedicated the Temple to Athena
Athena
Polias’." ^ a b "Collection online". British Museum.  "Marble wall block from the temple of Athena
Athena
at Priene, inscribed on two sides. The inscription on the front records the gift of funds from Alexander
Alexander
the Great to complete the temple." ^ " Priene
Priene
Inscription". British Museum.  "Marble wall block from the temple of Athena
Athena
at Priene, inscribed. Part of the marble wall of the temple of Athena
Athena
at Priene. Above: " King
King
Alexander
Alexander
dedicated the temple to Athena
Athena
Polias." ^ a b Green 2007, pp. 56–59. ^ Waterman, Leroy; McDowell, Robert H.; Hopkins, Clark (1998). " Seleucia
Seleucia
on the Tigris, Iraq". umich.edu. The Kelsey Online. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ Green 2007, pp. 21, 56–59. ^ Green 2007, pp. 56–59, McCarty 2004, p. 17 ^ a b Harrison 1971, p. 51. ^ Baynes 2007, p. 170, Gabriel 2002, p. 277 ^ a b c Keay 2001, pp. 101–09. ^ Luniya 1978, p. 312 ^ a b Pingree 1978, pp. 533, 554ff ^ Cambon, Pierre; Jarrige, Jean-François (2006). Afghanistan, les trésors retrouvés: Collections du Musée national de Kaboul [Afghanistan, the treasures found: collections of the Kabul
Kabul
national museum] (in French). Réunion des musées nationaux. p. 269. ISBN 978-2-7118-5218-5.  ^ Glick, Livesey & Wallis 2005, p. 463 ^ Hayashi (2008), Aryabhata I ^ A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture
Architecture
by Deborah S. Hutton, John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p. 438 [1] ^ a b c d Roisman & Worthington 2010, Chapter 6, p. 114 ^ Holt 2003, p. 3. ^ a b Roisman & Worthington 2010, Chapter 6, p. 115 ^ a b Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 187. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, LXVI, 1 ^ Stoneman 1996, passim ^ a b Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 117. ^ a b c Fermor 2006, p. 215 ^ Curtis, Tallis & Andre-Salvini 2005, p. 154 ^ a b c d e Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 120. ^ Fischer 2004, p. 66 ^ a b c Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 122. ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, XI, 337 viii, 5 ^ Connerney 2009, p. 68 ^ Noll, Thomas (2016). "The Visual Image of Alexander
Alexander
the Great". In Stock, Markus. Alexander
Alexander
the Great in the Middle Ages: Transcultural Perspectives. Translated by Boettcher, Susan. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-4426-4466-3.  ^ Hornblower 2008, pp. 55–58; Joint Association of Classical Teachers 1984, pp. 50–51;[citation not found] Errington 1990, pp. 3–4; Fine 1983, pp. 607–08; Hall 2000, p. 64; Hammond 2001, p. 11; Jones 2001, p. 21; Osborne 2004, p. 127; Hammond 1989, pp. 12–13; Hammond 1993, p. 97; Starr 1991, pp. 260, 367; Toynbee 1981, p. 67; Worthington 2008, pp. 8, 219; Cawkwell 1978, p. 22; Perlman 1973, p. 78; Hamilton 1974, Chapter 2: The Macedonian Homeland, p. 23; Bryant 1996, p. 306; O'Brien 1994, p. 25. ^ Danforth 1997, pp. 38, 49, 167. ^ Stoneman 2004, p. 2. ^ Goldsworthy 2003, pp. 327–28. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, XI, 2 ^ Holland 2003, pp. 176–83. ^ Barnett 1997, p. 45. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, IV, 57: 'ἀλέξω'. ^ a b Liddell & Scott 1940. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
1919, IV, 57: 'ἀνήρ'. ^ "Alexander". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 December 2009.  ^ Fox 1980, pp. 72–73.

Sources

Primary sources

Arrian
Arrian
(1976). de Sélincourt, Aubrey, ed. Anabasis Alexandri
Anabasis Alexandri
(The Campaigns of Alexander). Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044253-7.  Quintus Curtius Rufus
Quintus Curtius Rufus
(1946). Rolfe, John, ed. History of Alexander. Loeb Classical Library. Retrieved 28 April 2015.  Siculus, Diodorus (1989). "Library of History". CH Oldfather, translator. Perseus Project. Retrieved 14 November 2009.  Plutarch
Plutarch
(1919). Perrin, Bernadotte, ed. Plutarch, Alexander. Perseus Project. Retrieved 6 December 2011.  Plutarch
Plutarch
(1936). Babbitt, Frank Cole, ed. On the Fortune of Alexander. IV. Loeb Classical Library. pp. 379–487. Retrieved 26 November 2011.  Trogus, Pompeius (1853). Justin, ed. "Epitome of the Philippic History". Rev. John Selby Watson, translator. Forum romanum. Retrieved 14 November 2009. .

Secondary sources

Barnett, C. (1997). Bonaparte. Wordsworth. ISBN 1-85326-678-7.  Baynes, Norman G (2007). "Byzantine art". Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization. Baynes. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-4067-5659-3.  Berkley, Grant (2006). Moses in the Hieroglyphs. Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-5600-4. Retrieved 13 January 2011.  Bose, Partha (2003). Alexander
Alexander
the Great's Art of Strategy. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-113-3.  Bosworth, A. B. (1988). Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. New York: Cambridge University Press.  Cawthorne, Nigel (2004). Alexander
Alexander
the Great. Haus. ISBN 1-904341-56-X.  Connerney, R. D. (2009). The upside-down tree: India's changing culture. Algora. p. 214. ISBN 0-87586-649-2.  Curtis, J.; Tallis, N; Andre-Salvini, B (2005). Forgotten empire: the world of ancient Persia. University of California Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-520-24731-0.  Dahmen, Karsten (2007). The Legend of Alexander
Alexander
the Great on Greek and Roman Coins. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-39451-1.  Danforth, Loring M. (1997). The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04356-6.  Dillon, John M. (2004). Morality and custom in ancient Greece. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34526-4.  Durant, Will (1966). The Story of Civilization: The Life of Greece. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-41800-9.  Fermor, Patrick Leigh (2006). "Mani: Travels in the Southern Peloponnese". New York Book
Book
Review: 358. ISBN 1-59017-188-8.  Fischer, MMJ (2004). Mute dreams, blind owls, and dispersed knowledges: Persian poesis in the transnational circuitry. Duke University Press. p. 66. ISBN 0-8223-3298-1.  Foreman, Laura (2004). Alexander
Alexander
the conqueror: the epic story of the warrior king. Da Capo Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-306-81293-4.  Fox, Robin Lane (1980). The Search for Alexander. Boston: Little Brown & Co. ISBN 0-316-29108-0.  ——— (2006). Alexander
Alexander
the Great. ePenguin. ASIN B002RI9DYW.  Gabriel, Richard A (2002). "The army of Byzantium". The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood. p. 277. ISBN 0-275-97809-5.  Gergel, Tania, ed. (2004). The Brief Life and Towering Exploits of History's Greatest Conqueror as Told By His Original Biographers. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-200140-6.  Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith, eds. (2005). Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96930-1.  Goldsworthy, A. (2003). The Fall of Carthage. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-36642-0.  Grafton, Anthony (2010). Most, Glenn W; Settis, Salvatore, eds. The Classical Tradition. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.  Green, Peter (2007). Alexander
Alexander
the Great and the Hellenistic Age. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-0-7538-2413-9.  Gunther, John (2007). Alexander
Alexander
the Great. Sterling. ISBN 1-4027-4519-2.  Hammond, NGL (1983). Sources for Alexander
Alexander
the Great. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-71471-6.  ——— (1986). A History of Greece
Greece
to 323 BC. Cambridge University.  Harrison, E. F. (1971). The language of the New Testament. Wm B Eerdmans. p. 508. ISBN 0-8028-4786-2.  Holland, Tom (2003). Rubicon: Triumph and Tragedy in the Roman Republic. Abacus. ISBN 978-0-349-11563-4.  Holt, Frank Lee (2003). Alexander
Alexander
the Great and The Mystery of the Elephant Medallions. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23881-8.  Hornblower, Simon (2008). "Greek Identity in the Archaic and Classical Periods". In Zacharia, K. Hellenisms: Culture, Identity and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity. Ashgate. pp. 37–58. ISBN 978-0-7546-6525-0.  Keay, John (2001). India: A History. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.  Kosmin, Paul J. (2014), The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space, Territory, and Ideology in Seleucid Empire, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-72882-0  Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). Jones, Sir Henry Stuart; McKenzie, Roderick, eds. A Greek-English Lexicon on Perseus Digital Library. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Luniya, Bhanwarlal Nathuram (1978). Life and Culture in Ancient India: From the Earliest Times to 1000 AD. Lakshmi Narain Agarwal. LCCN 78907043.  McCarty, Nick (2004). Alexander
Alexander
the Great. Camberwell, Victoria: Penguin. ISBN 0-670-04268-4.  McKechnie, Paul (1989). Outsiders in the Greek cities in the fourth century BC. Taylor & Francis. p. 54. ISBN 0-415-00340-7. Retrieved 28 December 2010.  Morkot, Robert (1996). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece. Penguin.  Narain, A. K. (1965). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: Greece
Greece
and Rome–12.  Ogden, Daniel (2009). "Alexander's Sex Life". In Heckel, Alice; Heckel, Waldemar; Tritle, Lawrence A. Alexander
Alexander
the Great: A New History. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3082-2.  Pingree, D. (1978). "History of Mathematical Astronomy in India". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 15. pp. 533–633.  Pratt, James Bissett (1996). The Pilgrimage of Buddhism and a Buddhist Pilgrimage. Laurier Books. ISBN 81-206-1196-9.  Renault, Mary (2001). The Nature of Alexander
Alexander
the Great. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-139076-X.  Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M; Berney, KA; Schellinger, Paul E, eds. (1994). International dictionary of historic places. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994–1996. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.  Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1-4051-7936-8.  Sabin, P; van Wees, H; Whitby, M (2007). The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare: Greece, the Hellenistic World and the Rise of Rome. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78273-2.  Sacks, David (1995). Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
World. Constable & Co. ISBN 0-09-475270-2.  Stoneman, Richard (2004). Alexander
Alexander
the Great. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31932-3.  Stoneman, Richard (1996). "The Metamorphoses of Alexander
Alexander
Romance". In Schmeling, Gareth L. The Novel in the Ancient World. Brill. pp. 601–12. ISBN 90-04-09630-2.  Studniczka, Franz (1894). Achäologische Jahrbook 9.  Tripathi, Rama Shankar (1999). History of Ancient India. ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2.  Heckel, Waldemar; Tritle, Lawrence A, eds. (2009). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: A New History. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-1-4051-3082-0.  Wood, Michael (2001). In the Footsteps of Alexander
Alexander
the Great: A Journey from Greece
Greece
to Asia. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23192-4.  Worthington, Ian (2003). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: A Reader. Routledge. p. 332. ISBN 0-415-29187-9.  Yenne, Bill (2010). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: Lessons From History's Undefeated General. Palmgrave McMillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61915-9. 

Library resources about Alexander
Alexander
the Great

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading

Badian, Ernst (1958). " Alexander
Alexander
the Great and the Unity of Mankind". Historia. 7.  Beazley, JD; Ashmole, B (1932). Greek Sculpture and Painting. Cambridge University Press.  Bowra, Maurice (1994). The Greek Experience. Phoenix. ISBN 1-85799-122-2.  Burn, AR (1951). Alexander
Alexander
the Great and the Hellenistic Empire
Empire
(2 ed.). London: English Universities Press.  Rufus, Quintus Curtius. "Quintus Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander the Great" (in Latin). U Chicago. Retrieved 16 November 2009.  Cartledge, Paul (2004). " Alexander
Alexander
the Great". Overlook.  Doherty, Paul (2004). "The Death of Alexander
Alexander
the Great". Carroll & Graf.  Engels, Donald W (1978). Alexander
Alexander
the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Berkeley: University of California Press.  Fawcett, Bill, ed. (2006). How To Lose A Battle: Foolish Plans and Great Military Blunders. Harper. ISBN 0-06-076024-9.  Fuller, JFC (1958). The Generalship of Alexander
Alexander
the Great. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. ISBN 9780306803710.  Green, Peter (1992). Alexander
Alexander
of Macedon: 356–323 BC. A Historical Biography. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07166-2.  Greene, Robert (2000). The 48 Laws of Power. Penguin. p. 351. ISBN 0-14-028019-7.  Hammond, NGL (1989). The Macedonian State: Origins, Institutions, and History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814883-6.  Hammond, NGL (1994). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: King, Commander, and Statesman (3 ed.). London: Bristol Classical Press.  Hammond, NGL (1997). The Genius of Alexander
Alexander
the Great. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  Mercer, Charles (1962). The Way of Alexander
Alexander
the Great (1 ed.). Boston: American Heritage Inc.  McCrindle, J. W. (1893). The Invasion of India
India
by Alexander
Alexander
the Great as Described by Arrian, Q Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Justin. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co.  Murphy, James Jerome; Katula, Richard A; Hill, Forbes I; Ochs, Donovan J (2003). A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 17. ISBN 1-880393-35-2.  Nandan, Y; Bhavan, BV (2003). British Death March Under Asiatic Impulse: Epic of Anglo-Indian Tragedy in Afghanistan. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. ISBN 81-7276-301-8.  O'Brien, John Maxwell (1992). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: The Invisible Enemy. London: Routledge.  Pomeroy, S; Burstein, S; Dolan, W; Roberts, J (1998). Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509742-4.  Prevas, John (2004). Envy of the Gods: Alexander
Alexander
the Great's Ill-Fated Journey Across Asia (3 ed.). Da Capo.  Roisman, Joseph, ed. (1995). Alexander
Alexander
the Great Ancient and Modern Perspectives. Problems in European Civilization. Lexington, MA: DC Heath.  Savill, Agnes (1959). Alexander
Alexander
the Great and His Time (3 ed.). London: Barrie & Rockliff.  Stewart, Andrew (1993). Faces of Power: Alexander's Image and Hellenistic Politics. Hellenistic Culture and Society. 11. Berkeley: University of California Press.  Stoneman, Richard (2008). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: A Life in Legend. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11203-0.  Tarn, WW (1948). Alexander
Alexander
the Great. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Wheeler, Benjamin Ide (1900). Alexander
Alexander
the Great; the merging of East and West in universal history. New York: GP Putnam's sons.  Wilcken, Ulrich (1997) [1932]. Alexander
Alexander
the Great. New York: WW Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-00381-7.  Worthington, Ian (2004). Alexander
Alexander
the Great: Man And God. Pearson. ISBN 978-1-4058-0162-1. 

External links

Find more about Alexander
Alexander
the Greatat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Delamarche, Félix (1833), The Empire
Empire
and Expeditions of Alexander
Alexander
the Great . Romm, James; Cartledge, Paul, "Two Great Historians On Alexander
Alexander
the Great", Forbes (conversations)  Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6. Alexander
Alexander
the Great at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Alexander
Alexander
the Great: An annotated list of primary sources, Livius . The Elusive Tomb of Alexander
Alexander
the Great, Archæology . Alexander
Alexander
the Great and Sherlock Holmes, Sherlockian Sherlock . In Our Time: Alexander
Alexander
the Great BBC discussion with Paul Cartledge, Diana Spencer and Rachel Mairs hosted by Melvyn Bragg, first broadcast 1 October 2015.

Alexander
Alexander
the Great Argead
Argead
dynasty Born: 356 BC 323 BC

Regnal titles

Preceded by Philip II King
King
of Macedon 336–323 BC Succeeded by Philip III and Alexander
Alexander
IV

Preceded by Darius III Great King
King
(Shah) of Persia 330–323 BC

Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt 332–323 BC

New creation Lord of Asia 331–323 BC

v t e

Kings of Macedon

Argead

Caranus Coenus Tyrimmas Perdiccas
Perdiccas
I Argaeus I Philip I Aeropus I Alcetas I Amyntas I Alexander
Alexander
I Alcetas II Perdiccas
Perdiccas
II Archelaus I Craterus Orestes / Aeropus II Archelaus II Amyntas II Pausanias Argaeus II Amyntas III Alexander
Alexander
II Perdiccas
Perdiccas
III Amyntas IV Philip II Alexander
Alexander
III ( Alexander
Alexander
the Great) Philip III Alexander
Alexander
IV

Regents

Ptolemy
Ptolemy
of Aloros Perdiccas Peithon and Arrhidaeus Antipater Polyperchon Cassander

Antipatrid

Cassander Philip IV Alexander
Alexander
V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Antigonid

Demetrius I Antigonus II Demetrius II Antigonus III Philip V Perseus Andriscus
Andriscus
(Philip VI)

Non-dynastic

Lysimachus Pyrrhus Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Keraunos Meleager

v t e

Hellenistic rulers

Argeads

Philip II Alexander
Alexander
III the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander
Alexander
IV

Antigonids

Antigonus I Monophthalmus Demetrius I Poliorcetes Antigonus II Gonatas Demetrius II Aetolicus Antigonus III Doson Philip V Perseus Philip VI (pretender)

Ptolemies

Ptolemy
Ptolemy
I Soter Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Keraunos Ptolemy
Ptolemy
II Philadelphus Ptolemy
Ptolemy
III Euergetes Ptolemy
Ptolemy
IV Philopator Ptolemy
Ptolemy
V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra I Syra
(regent) Ptolemy
Ptolemy
VI Philometor Ptolemy
Ptolemy
VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II Philometor Soter Ptolemy
Ptolemy
VIII Physcon Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III Ptolemy
Ptolemy
IX Lathyros Ptolemy
Ptolemy
X Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy
Ptolemy
XI Alexander Ptolemy
Ptolemy
XII Auletes Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy
Ptolemy
XIII Ptolemy
Ptolemy
XIV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Philopator Ptolemy
Ptolemy
XV Caesarion

Kings of Cyrene

Magas Demetrius the Fair Ptolemy
Ptolemy
VIII Physcon Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Apion

Seleucids

Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus III Ceraunus Antiochus III the Great Seleucus IV Philopator Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Demetrius I Soter Alexander
Alexander
I Balas Demetrius II Nicator Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes Alexander
Alexander
II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus

Lysimachids

Lysimachus Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Epigonos

Antipatrids

Cassander Philip IV Alexander
Alexander
V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Attalids

Philetaerus Eumenes I Attalus I Eumenes II Attalus II Attalus III Eumenes III

Greco-Bactrians

Diodotus I Diodotus II Euthydemus I Demetrius I Euthydemus II Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Demetrius II Eucratides I Plato Eucratides II Heliocles I

Indo-Greeks

Demetrius I Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Apollodotus I Demetrius II Antimachus II Menander
Menander
I Zoilos I Agathokleia Lysias Strato I Antialcidas Heliokles II Polyxenos Demetrius III Philoxenus Diomedes Amyntas Epander Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso Nicias Menander
Menander
II Artemidoros Hermaeus Archebius Telephos Apollodotus II Hippostratos Dionysios Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Strato III

Kings of Bithynia

Boteiras Bas Zipoetes I Nicomedes I Zipoetes II Etazeta (regent) Ziaelas Prusias I Prusias II Nicomedes II Nicomedes III Nicomedes IV Socrates
Socrates
Chrestus

Kings of Pontus

Mithridates I Ctistes Ariobarzanes Mithridates II Mithridates III Pharnaces I Mithridates IV Philopator Philadephos Mithridates V Euergetes Mithridates VI Eupator Pharnaces II Darius Arsaces Polemon I Pythodorida Polemon II

Kings of Commagene

Ptolemaeus Sames II Mithridates I Antiochus I Mithridates II Antiochus II Mithridates III Antiochus III Antiochus IV

Kings of Cappadocia

Ariarathes I Ariarathes II Ariamnes II Ariarathes III Ariarathes IV Ariarathes V Orophernes Ariarathes VI Ariarathes VII Ariarathes VIII Ariarathes IX Ariobarzanes I Ariobarzanes II Ariobarzanes III Ariarathes X Archelaus

Kings of the Cimmerian Bosporus

Paerisades I Satyros II Prytanis Eumelos Spartokos III Hygiainon (regent) Paerisades II Spartokos IV Leukon II Spartokos V Paerisades III Paerisades IV Paerisades V Mithridates I Pharnaces Asander with Dynamis Mithridates II Asander with Dynamis Scribonius’ attempted rule with Dynamis Dynamis with Polemon Polemon with Pythodorida Aspurgus Mithridates III with Gepaepyris Mithridates III Cotys I

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander
Alexander
the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander
Alexander
IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy
Ptolemy
I Soter Ptolemy
Ptolemy
II Philadelphus Ptolemy
Ptolemy
III Euergetes Ptolemy
Ptolemy
IV Philopator Ptolemy
Ptolemy
V Epiphanes Ptolemy
Ptolemy
VI Philometor Ptolemy
Ptolemy
VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy
Ptolemy
VIII Euergetes Ptolemy
Ptolemy
IX Soter Ptolemy
Ptolemy
X Alexander
Alexander
I Ptolemy
Ptolemy
XI Alexander
Alexander
II Ptolemy
Ptolemy
XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

v t e

Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi

Characters

Pishdadian

Keyumars Hushang Tahmuras Jamshid Fereydun Iraj Manuchehr Nowzar Zaav Garshasp

Kayanian

Kay Kawād Kay Kāvus Kay Khosrow Kay Lohrasp Goshtāsb Kay Bahman Homai Kay Darab Dara

Characters

Siamak Mardas Zahhak Shahrasp Abtin Kayanoush Kāve Arash Salm Tur Qobád Qaren Tous Gostaham Nariman Sām Zāl Rostam Sohrab Esfandiyār Pashotan Faramarz Fariborz Siyâvash Farud Zangay-i Shavaran Kashvad Goudarz Rohham Hojir Bahram Giv Bizhan Japasp Garshasp Gorgin Mehrab Kaboli Zavara Shaghad Rostam
Rostam
Farrokhzād

Women

Faranak Arnavāz Shahrnāz Sindukht Rudaba Sudabeh Tahmina Gordafarid Farangis Manizheh Katāyoun

Turanian

Zadashm Pashang Aghrirat Garsivaz Afrasiab Shideh Arjasp Viseh Nastihan Piran Viseh Houman Barman Biderafsh

Clans and families

Kashvadian House of Goudarz House of Viseh House of Nowzar House of Sasan House of Sām

Creatures & animals

Akvan Div Khazawran-i Div Arzhang Div Div-e Sepid Koulad-Ghandi Huma bird Simurgh Rakhsh Shabdiz Shabrang

Places

Iran Turan Zabulistan Sistan Kabul Balkh Ctesiphon Estakhr Mazandaran Alborzkouh Mount Damavand Tammisha Kasa-Roud ...

Structures

Gonbadan Castle Dez-i Roein White Castle Bahman Castle Dez-i Alanan Kang-dez

Manuscripts

Baysonghor Shahnameh Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Shah
Shah
Tahmasp Florence Shahnameh Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Rashida Windsor Shahnameh Great Mongol Shahnameh
Shahnameh
(or Demotte) Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ghavam al-Din

See also

Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Abu-Mansuri Shahnameh Derafsh Kaviani Babr-e Bayan Zal and Rudabeh Rostam
Rostam
and Sohrab Rostam's Seven Labours Davazdah Rokh Khosrow and Shirin Bijan and Manijeh Persian mythology

Category Book

v t e

Ancient Greece

Outline Timeline

History Geography

Periods

Cycladic civilization Minoan civilization Mycenaean civilization Greek Dark Ages Archaic period Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece

Geography

Aegean Sea Aeolis Alexandria Antioch Cappadocia Crete Cyprus Doris Ephesus Epirus Hellespont Ionia Ionian Sea Macedonia Magna Graecia Miletus Peloponnesus Pergamon Pontus Taurica Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
colonies

City states Politics Military

City states

Argos Athens Byzantion Chalcis Corinth Eretria Kerkyra Larissa Megalopolis Megara Rhodes Samos Sparta Syracuse Thebes

Politics

Boeotarch Boule Koinon Proxeny Strategos Tagus Tyrant Amphictyonic League

Athenian

Agora Areopagus Ecclesia Graphē paranómōn Heliaia Ostracism

Spartan

Apella Ephor Gerousia Harmost

Macedon

Synedrion Koinon

Military

Wars Athenian
Athenian
military Antigonid Macedonian army Army of Macedon Ballista Cretan archers Hellenistic armies Hippeis Hoplite Hetairoi Macedonian phalanx Phalanx Peltast Pezhetairos Sarissa Sacred Band of Thebes Sciritae Seleucid army Spartan army Toxotai Xiphos Xyston

People

List of ancient Greeks

Rulers

Kings of Argos Archons of Athens Kings of Athens Kings of Commagene Diadochi Kings of Lydia Kings of Macedonia Kings of Paionia Attalid kings of Pergamon Kings of Pontus Kings of Sparta Tyrants of Syracuse

Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno

Authors

Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon

Others

Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander
Alexander
the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles

Groups

Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants

By culture

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes Thracian Greeks Ancient Macedonians

Society Culture

Society

Agriculture Calendar Clothing Coinage Cuisine Economy Education Festivals Funeral and burial practices Homosexuality Law Olympic Games Pederasty Philosophy Prostitution Religion Slavery Warfare Wedding customs Wine

Arts and science

Architecture

Greek Revival architecture

Astronomy Literature Mathematics Medicine Music

Musical system

Pottery Sculpture Technology Theatre

Religion

Funeral and burial practices Mythology

mythological figures

Temple Twelve Olympians Underworld

Sacred places

Eleusis Delphi Delos Dodona Mount Olympus Olympia

Structures

Athenian
Athenian
Treasury Lion Gate Long Walls Philippeion Theatre of Dionysus Tunnel of Eupalinos

Temples

Aphaea Artemis Athena
Athena
Nike Erechtheion Hephaestus Hera, Olympia Parthenon Samothrace Zeus, Olympia

Language

Proto-Greek Mycenaean Homeric Dialects

Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic Doric Ionic Locrian Macedonian Pamphylian

Koine

Writing

Linear A Linear B Cypriot syllabary Greek alphabet Greek numerals Attic numerals

Lists

Cities

in Epirus

People Place names Stoae Temples Theatres

Category Portal

v t e

The works of Plutarch

Works

Parallel Lives Moralia Pseudo-Plutarch

Lives

Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Coriolanus1 Alexander
Alexander
the Great and Julius Caesar Aratus of Sicyon
Aratus of Sicyon
/ Artaxerxes and Galba
Galba
/ Otho2 Aristides
Aristides
and Cato the Elder1 Crassus and Nicias1 Demetrius and Antony1 Demosthenes
Demosthenes
and Cicero1 Dion and Brutus1 Fabius and Pericles1 Lucullus
Lucullus
and Cimon1 Lysander
Lysander
and Sulla1 Numa and Lycurgus1 Pelopidas
Pelopidas
and Marcellus1 Philopoemen
Philopoemen
and Flamininus1 Phocion
Phocion
and Cato the Younger Pompey
Pompey
and Agesilaus1 Poplicola and Solon1 Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius Romulus
Romulus
and Theseus1 Sertorius and Eumenes1 Agis / Cleomenes1 and Tiberius Gracchus
Tiberius Gracchus
/ Gaius Gracchus Timoleon
Timoleon
and Aemilius Paulus1 Themistocles
Themistocles
and Camillus

Translators and editors

Jacques Amyot Arthur Hugh Clough John Dryden Philemon Holland Thomas North

1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives

v t e

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Roman wars

Ancient Greece

Trojan War First Messenian War Second Messenian War Lelantine War Greek–Punic Wars
Greek–Punic Wars
(Sicilian Wars) Greco-Persian Wars Aeginetan War Wars of the Delian League Samian War Peloponnesian War Corinthian War First / Second / Third Sacred War Social War (357–355 BC) Rise of Macedon Wars of Alexander
Alexander
the Great Wars of the Diadochi Lamian War Chremonidean War Cleomenean War Social War (220–217 BC) Cretan War Aetolian War War against Nabis Maccabean Revolt

Roman Republic

Roman–Latin wars (First Latin War (Battle of Lake Regillus) Second Latin War) Samnite Wars Pyrrhic War Punic Wars (First Second Third) Macedonian Wars (Illyrian First Macedonian Second Macedonian Seleucid Third Macedonian Fourth Macedonian) Jugurthine War Cimbrian War Roman Servile Wars (First Second Third) Social War (90–88 BC) Sulla's civil wars (First Second) Mithridatic Wars (First Second Third) Gallic Wars Julius Caesar's civil war Augustus' rise to power (Battle of Mutina Liberators' civil war Sicilian revolt Perusine War (Fulvia's civil war) Final War of the Roman Republic)

Roman Empire

Germanic Wars (Marcomannic Alemannic Gothic Visigothic) Conquest of Britain Wars of Boudica Armenian War Four Emperors Jewish wars Domitian's Dacian War Trajan's Dacian Wars Parthian Wars Wars against Persia Third-century civil wars Decline and fall of the Western Empire

Military history

v t e

Empires

Ancient

Akkadian Egyptian Assyrian Babylonian Carthaginian Chinese

Qin Han Jin Northern Wei Tang

Hellenistic

Macedonian Seleucid

Hittite Indian

Nanda Maurya Satavahana Shunga Gupta Harsha

Iranian

Elamite Median Achaemenid Parthian Sasanian

Kushan Mongol

Xianbei Xiongnu

Roman

Western Eastern

Teotihuacan

Post-classical

Arab

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Fatimid Córdoba

Aragonese Angevin Aztec Benin Bornu Bruneian Bulgarian

First Second

Byzantine

Nicaea Trebizond

Carolingian Chinese

Sui Tang Song Yuan

Ethiopian

Zagwe Solomonic

Georgian Hunnic Inca Indian

Chola Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Eastern Ganga dynasty Delhi Vijayanagara

Iranian

Samanid

Kanem Khmer Latin Majapahit Malaccan Mali Mongol

Yuan Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate

Moroccan

Idrisid Almoravid Almohad Marinid

North Sea Oyo Roman Serbian Somali

Ajuran Ifatite Adalite Mogadishan Warsangali

Songhai Srivijaya Tibetan Turko-Persian

Ghaznavid Great Seljuk Khwarezmian Timurid

Vietnamese

Ly Tran Le

Wagadou

Modern

Ashanti Austrian Austro-Hungarian Brazilian Central African Chinese

Ming Qing China Manchukuo

Ethiopian French

First Second

German

First/Old Reich Second Reich Third Reich

Haitian

First Second

Indian

Maratha Sikh Mughal British Raj

Iranian

Safavid Afsharid

Japanese Johor Korean Mexican

First Second

Moroccan

Saadi Alaouite

Russian USSR Somali

Gobroon Majeerteen Hobyo Dervish

Swedish Tongan Turkish

Ottoman Karaman Ramazan

Vietnamese

Tay Son Nguyen Vietnam

Colonial

American Belgian British

English

Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Omani Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish

Lists

Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 101353608 LCCN: n79004067 ISNI: 0000 0001 2283 5816 GND: 118501828 SELIBR: 229496 SUDOC: 027417077 BNF: cb11946296j (data) BIBSYS: 90577037 ULAN: 500280655 NLA: 35002922 NDL: 00620255 NKC: jn19981000073 ICCU: ITICCUVEAV23322 BNE: XX1031

.