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Alexander I (Russian: Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; 23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777 – 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825[a][1]) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825. He was the son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first Russian King of partitioned Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Finland. He was sometimes called Alexander.[2] He was born in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
to Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Paul Petrovich, later Emperor
Emperor
Paul I, and succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered. He ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. As prince and emperor, Alexander often used liberal rhetoric, but continued Russia's absolutist policies in practice. In the first years of his reign, he initiated some minor social reforms and (in 1803–04) major, liberal educational reforms, such as building more universities. Alexander appointed Mikhail Speransky, the son of a village priest, as one of his closest advisors. The Collegia was abolished and replaced by the State Council, which was created to improve legislation. Plans were also made to set up a parliament and sign a constitution. In foreign policy, he changed Russia's position relative to France four times between 1804 and 1812 among neutrality, opposition, and alliance. In 1805 he joined Britain in the War of the Third Coalition against Napoleon, but after the massive defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz he switched and formed an alliance with Napoleon
Napoleon
by the Treaty of Tilsit
Treaty of Tilsit
(1807) and joined Napoleon's Continental System. He fought a small-scale naval war against Britain between 1807 and 1812. He and Napoleon
Napoleon
hardly agreed, especially regarding Poland, and the alliance collapsed by 1810. The tsar's greatest triumph came in 1812 as Napoleon's invasion of Russia proved a total disaster for the French. As part of the winning coalition against Napoleon
Napoleon
he gained some spoils in Finland and Poland. He formed the Holy Alliance
Holy Alliance
to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe that he saw as immoral threats to legitimate Christian monarchs. He helped Austria's Klemens von Metternich in suppressing all national and liberal movements. In the second half of his reign he was increasingly arbitrary, reactionary and fearful of plots against him; he ended many earlier reforms. He purged schools of foreign teachers, as education became more religiously oriented as well as politically conservative.[3] Speransky was replaced as advisor with the strict artillery inspector Aleksey Arakcheyev, who oversaw the creation of military settlements. Alexander died of typhus in December 1825 while on a trip to southern Russia. He left no heirs, as his two daughters died in childhood. Both of his brothers wanted the other to become emperor. After a period of great confusion that included the failed Decembrist revolt
Decembrist revolt
of liberal army officers, he was succeeded by his younger brother, Nicholas I.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Succession to the throne 3 Domestic policy 4 Napoleonic wars

4.1 Views held by his contemporaries 4.2 Alliances with other powers 4.3 Opposition to Napoleon 4.4 1807 loss to French forces 4.5 Prussia 4.6 Franco-Russian alliance 4.7 War against Persia 4.8 French invasion 4.9 War of the Sixth Coalition

5 Postbellum

5.1 Peace of Paris and the Congress of Vienna 5.2 Liberal political views 5.3 Revolt of the Greeks

6 Private life 7 Death 8 Children 9 Other 10 Ancestry 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Early life[edit]

Portrait of Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Alexander Pavlovich, 1800

Alexander and his younger brother Constantine were raised by their grandmother, Catherine the Great.[4] Some sources[5] allege that she planned to remove her son (Alexander's father) Paul I from the succession altogether. From the free-thinking atmosphere of the court of Catherine and his Swiss tutor, Frédéric-César de La Harpe, he imbibed the principles of Rousseau's gospel of humanity. But from his military governor, Nikolay Saltykov, he imbibed the traditions of Russian autocracy.[6] Andrey Afanasyevich Samborsky, whom his grandmother chose for his religious instruction, was an atypical, unbearded Orthodox priest. Samborsky had long lived in England and taught Alexander (and Constantine) excellent English, very uncommon for potential Russian autocrats at the time. On 9 October 1793, when Alexander was still 15 years old, he married 14-year-old Louise of Baden, who took the name Elizabeth Alexeievna.[7] Succession to the throne[edit] The death of Catherine in November 1796, before she could appoint Alexander as her successor, brought his father, Paul I, to the throne. Paul's unpopular policies led to a successful conspiracy to assassinate him in 1801. Alexander, then 23-year-old, was actually in the palace at the moment of the assassination, to whom General Nicholas Zubov, one of the assassins, announced his accession. Historians still debate Alexander's role in his father's murder. The most common opinion is that he was let into the conspirators' secret and was willing to take the throne but insisted that his father should not be killed. Becoming Tsar
Tsar
through a crime that cost his father's life would give Alexander a strong sense of remorse and shame.[8] Alexander I succeeded to the throne on 24 March 1801[9] and was crowned in the Kremlin on 15 September of that year. Domestic policy[edit]

Alexander I of Russia

The Orthodox Church initially exercised little influence on Alexander's life. The young tsar was determined to reform the inefficient, highly centralised systems of government that Russia relied upon. While retaining for a time the old ministers, one of the first acts of his reign was to appoint the Private Committee, comprising young and enthusiastic friends of his own—Viktor Kochubey, Nikolay Novosiltsev, Pavel Stroganov and Adam Jerzy Czartoryski—to draw up a plan of domestic reform, which was supposed to result in the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in accordance with the teachings of the Age of Enlightenment.[10] In a few years the liberal Mikhail Speransky
Mikhail Speransky
became one of the Tsar's closest advisors, and he drew up many plans for elaborate reforms. In the Government reform of Alexander I
Government reform of Alexander I
the old Collegia were abolished and new Ministries were created in their place, led by ministers responsible to the Crown. A Council of Ministers under the chairmanship of the Sovereign dealt with all interdepartmental matters. The State Council was created to improve the technique of legislation. It was intended to become the Second Chamber of representative legislature. The Governing Senate
Governing Senate
was reorganized as the Supreme Court of the Empire. The codification of the laws initiated in 1801 was never carried out during his reign.[11] Alexander wanted to resolve another crucial issue in Russia, the status of the serfs, although this was not achieved until 1861 (during the reign of his nephew Alexander II). His advisors quietly discussed the options at length. Cautiously, he extended the right to own land to most classes of subjects, including state-owned peasants, in 1801 and created a new social category of "free agriculturalist," for peasants voluntarily emancipated by their masters, in 1803. The great majority of serfs were not affected.[12] When Alexander's reign began, there were three universities in Russia, at Moscow, Vilna (Vilnius), and Dorpat (Tartu). These were strengthened, and three others were founded at St. Petersburg, Kharkov, and Kazan. Literary and scientific bodies were established or encouraged, and the reign became noted for the aid lent to the sciences and arts by the Emperor
Emperor
and the wealthy nobility. Alexander later expelled foreign scholars.[13] After 1815 the military settlements (farms worked by soldiers and their families under military control) were introduced, with the idea of making the army, or part of it, self-supporting economically and for providing it with recruits.[6] Napoleonic wars[edit] Views held by his contemporaries[edit] Called an autocrat and "Jacobin",[6] a man of the world and a mystic, Alexander appeared to his contemporaries as a riddle which each read according to his own temperament. Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte thought him a "shifty Byzantine",[6] and called him the Talma of the North, as ready to play any conspicuous part. To Metternich he was a madman to be humoured. Castlereagh, writing of him to Lord Liverpool, gives him credit for "grand qualities", but adds that he is "suspicious and undecided";[6] and to Jefferson he was a man of estimable character, disposed to do good, and expected to diffuse through the mass of the Russian people "a sense of their natural rights".[14] Alliances with other powers[edit] Upon his accession, Alexander reversed the policy of his father, Paul, denounced the League of Armed Neutrality, and made peace with Britain (April 1801). At the same time he opened negotiations with Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire. Soon afterwards at Memel he entered into a close alliance with Prussia, not as he boasted from motives of policy, but in the spirit of true chivalry, out of friendship for the young King Frederick William III
Frederick William III
and his beautiful wife Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.[15] The development of this alliance was interrupted by the short-lived peace of October 1801, and for a while it seemed as though France and Russia might come to an understanding. Carried away by the enthusiasm of La Harpe, who had returned to Russia from Paris, Alexander began openly to proclaim his admiration for French institutions and for the person of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte. Soon, however, came a change. La Harpe, after a new visit to Paris, presented to the Tsar
Tsar
his Reflections on the True Nature of the Consul for Life, which, as Alexander said, tore the veil from his eyes and revealed Bonaparte "as not a true patriot",[15] but only as "the most famous tyrant the world has produced".[15] Later on, La Harpe and his friend Henri Monod lobbied Alexander, who persuaded the other Allied powers opposing Napoleon
Napoleon
to recognise Vaudois and Argovian independence, in spite of Bern's attempts to reclaim them as subject lands. Alexander's disillusionment was completed by the execution of the duc d'Enghien on trumped up charges. The Russian court went into mourning for the last member of the House of Condé, and diplomatic relations with France were broken off. The Tsar
Tsar
was especially alarmed and decided he had to somehow curb Napoleon's power.[16] Opposition to Napoleon[edit] In opposing Napoleon
Napoleon
I, "the oppressor of Europe and the disturber of the world's peace," Alexander in fact already believed himself to be fulfilling a divine mission. In his instructions to Novosiltsov, his special envoy in London, the Tsar
Tsar
elaborated the motives of his policy in language that appealed little to the prime minister, William Pitt the Younger. Yet the document is of great interest, as it formulates for the first time in an official dispatch the ideals of international policy that were to play a conspicuous part in world affairs at the close of the revolutionary epoch.[17] Alexander argued that the outcome of the war was not only to be the liberation of France, but the universal triumph of "the sacred rights of humanity".[15] To attain this it would be necessary "after having attached the nations to their government by making these incapable of acting save in the greatest interests of their subjects, to fix the relations of the states amongst each other on more precise rules, and such as it is to their interest to respect".[15] A general treaty was to become the basis of the relations of the states forming "the European Confederation".[15] While he believed the effort would not attain universal peace, it would be worthwhile if it established clear principles for the prescriptions of the rights of nations.[15] The body would assure "the positive rights of nations" and "the privilege of neutrality," while asserting the obligation to exhaust all resources of mediation to retain peace, and would form "a new code of the law of nations".[18] 1807 loss to French forces[edit]

Napoleon, Alexander I, Queen Louise, and Frederick William III
Frederick William III
of Prussia
Prussia
in Tilsit, 1807

Meanwhile, Napoleon, a little deterred by the Russian autocrat's youthful ideology, never gave up hope of detaching him from the coalition. He had no sooner entered Vienna
Vienna
in triumph than he opened negotiations with Alexander; he resumed them after the Battle of Austerlitz (2 December). Russia and France, he urged, were "geographical allies";[15] there was, and could be, between them no true conflict of interests; together they might rule the world. But Alexander was still determined "to persist in the system of disinterestedness in respect of all the states of Europe which he had thus far followed",[15] and he again allied himself with the Kingdom of Prussia. The campaign of Jena and the battle of Eylau followed; and Napoleon, though still intent on the Russian alliance, stirred up Poles, Turks and Persians to break the obstinacy of the Tsar. A party too in Russia itself, headed by the Tsar's brother Constantine Pavlovich, was clamorous for peace; but Alexander, after a vain attempt to form a new coalition, summoned the Russian nation to a holy war against Napoleon
Napoleon
as the enemy of the Orthodox faith. The outcome was the rout of Friedland (13/14 June 1807). Napoleon
Napoleon
saw his chance and seized it. Instead of making heavy terms, he offered to the chastened autocrat his alliance, and a partnership in his glory.[15] The two Emperors met at Tilsit
Tilsit
on 25 June 1807. Napoleon
Napoleon
knew well how to appeal to the exuberant imagination of his new-found friend. He would divide with Alexander the Empire of the world; as a first step he would leave him in possession of the Danubian principalities
Danubian principalities
and give him a free hand to deal with Finland; and, afterwards, the Emperors of the East and West, when the time should be ripe, would drive the Turks from Europe and march across Asia to the conquest of India, a realization of which was finally achieved by the British a few years later, and would change the course of modern history. Nevertheless, a thought awoke in Alexander's impressionable mind an ambition to which he had hitherto been a stranger. The interests of Europe as a whole were utterly forgotten.[19] Prussia[edit] The brilliance of these new visions did not, however, blind Alexander to the obligations of friendship, and he refused to retain the Danubian principalities
Danubian principalities
as the price for suffering a further dismemberment of Prussia. "We have made loyal war", he said, "we must make a loyal peace".[15] It was not long before the first enthusiasm of Tilsit
Tilsit
began to wane. The French remained in Prussia, the Russians on the Danube, and each accused the other of breach of faith. Meanwhile, however, the personal relations of Alexander and Napoleon were of the most cordial character, and it was hoped that a fresh meeting might adjust all differences between them. The meeting took place at Erfurt
Erfurt
in October 1808 and resulted in a treaty that defined the common policy of the two Emperors. But Alexander's relations with Napoleon
Napoleon
nonetheless suffered a change. He realised that in Napoleon sentiment never got the better of reason, that as a matter of fact he had never intended his proposed "grand enterprise" seriously, and had only used it to preoccupy the mind of the Tsar
Tsar
while he consolidated his own power in Central Europe. From this moment the French alliance was for Alexander also not a fraternal agreement to rule the world, but an affair of pure policy. He used it initially to remove "the geographical enemy" from the gates of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
by wresting Finland from Sweden (1809), and he hoped further to make the Danube the southern frontier of Russia.[15] Franco-Russian alliance[edit]

Meeting of Napoleon
Napoleon
and Alexander I in Tilsit, a 19th-century painting

Events were rapidly heading towards the rupture of the Franco-Russian alliance. While Alexander assisted Napoleon
Napoleon
in the war of 1809, he declared plainly that he would not allow the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
to be crushed out of existence. Napoleon
Napoleon
subsequently complained bitterly of the inactivity of the Russian troops during the campaign. The tsar in turn protested against Napoleon's encouragement of the Poles. In the matter of the French alliance he knew himself to be practically isolated in Russia, and he declared that he could not sacrifice the interest of his people and empire to his affection for Napoleon. "I don't want anything for myself", he said to the French ambassador, "therefore the world is not large enough to come to an understanding on the affairs of Poland, if it is a question of its restoration".[20][21] Alexander complained that the Treaty of Vienna, which added largely to the Duchy of Warsaw, had "ill requited him for his loyalty", and he was only mollified for the time being by Napoleon's public declaration that he had no intention of restoring Poland, and by a convention, signed on 4 January 1810, but not ratified, abolishing the Polish name and orders of chivalry.[22]

Portrait of Alexander I (1824) by George Dawe

But if Alexander suspected Napoleon's intentions, Napoleon
Napoleon
was no less suspicious of Alexander. Partly to test his sincerity, Napoleon
Napoleon
sent an almost peremptory request for the hand of the grand-duchess Anna Pavlovna, the tsar's youngest sister. After some little delay Alexander returned a polite refusal, pleading the princess's tender age and the objection of the dowager empress to the marriage. Napoleon's answer was to refuse to ratify the 4 January convention, and to announce his engagement to the archduchess Marie Louise in such a way as to lead Alexander to suppose that the two marriage treaties had been negotiated simultaneously. From this time on, the relationship between the two emperors gradually became more and more strained.[22] Another personal grievance for Alexander towards Napoleon
Napoleon
was the annexation of Oldenburg by France in December 1810, as the Duke of Oldenburg (3 January 1754 – 2 July 1823) was the uncle of the tsar. Further, the ruinous impact of "the continental system" on Russian trade made it impossible for the Tsar
Tsar
to maintain a policy that was Napoleon's chief motive for the alliance.[22] Alexander kept Russia as neutral as possible in the ongoing French war with Britain. He allowed Russians to secretly continue to trade with Britain and did not enforce the blockade required by the Continental System.[23] In 1810 he withdrew Russia from the Continental System
Continental System
and trade between Britain and Russia grew.[24] Franco-Russian relations
Franco-Russian relations
became progressively worse after 1810. By 1811, it became clear that Napoleon
Napoleon
was not keeping to his side of the terms of the Treaty of Tilsit. He had promised assistance to Russia in its war against Turkey, but as the campaign went on, France offered no support at all.[23] With war imminent between France and Russia, Alexander started to prepare the ground diplomatically. In April 1812 Russia and Sweden signed an agreement for mutual defence. A month later Alexander secured his southern flank through the Treaty of Bucharest (1812), which formally ended the war against Turkey.[24] His diplomats managed to extract promises from Prussia
Prussia
and Austria that should Napoleon invade Russia, the former would help Napoleon
Napoleon
as little as possible and that the latter would give no aid at all. Militarily Mikhail Speransky
Mikhail Speransky
had managed to improve the standard of the Russian land forces above that before the start of the 1807 campaign. Primarily on the advice of his sister and Count Aleksey Arakcheyev, Alexander did not take operational control as he had done during the 1807 campaign, instead delegating control to his generals, Prince Michael Barclay de Tolly, Prince Pyotr Bagration
Pyotr Bagration
and Mikhail Kutuzov.[24] War against Persia[edit] Main articles: Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)
Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)
and Treaty of Gulistan

The Battle of Ganja (1804)
Battle of Ganja (1804)
during the Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)

Despite brief hostilities in the Persian Expedition of 1796, eight years passed before a new conflict erupted between the two empires. After the Russian annexation of Georgia in 1801,[25] a subject of Persia
Persia
for centuries, and the incorporation of the Derbent khanate
Derbent khanate
as well quickly thereafter, Alexander was determined to increase and maintain Russian influence in the strategically valuable Caucasus region.[26] In 1801, Alexander appointed Pavel Tsitsianov, a die-hard Russian imperialist of Georgian origin, as Russian commander in chief of the Caucasus. Between 1802 and 1804 he proceeded to impose Russian rule on Western Georgia and some of the Persian controlled khanates around Georgia. Some of these khanates submitted without a fight, but the Ganja Khanate
Ganja Khanate
resisted, prompting an attack. Ganja was ruthlessly sacked during the siege of Ganja, with some 3,000 [27][28] – 7,000 [29] inhabitants of Ganja executed, and thousands expelled to Iran. These attacks by Tsitsianov formed another casus belli. On 23 May 1804, Iran demanded withdrawal from the regions Russia had occupied from Iran, comprising what is now Georgia, Dagestan, and parts of Azerbaijan. Russia refused, stormed Ganja, and declared war. Following an almost ten year stalemate centred around what is now Dagestan, east Georgia, Azerbaijan, northern Armenia, with neither party being able to gain the clear upper hand, Russia eventually managed to turn the tide. After a series of successful offensives led by General Pyotr Kotlyarevsky, including a decisive victory in the storming of Lankaran, Persia
Persia
was forced to sue for peace. On October 1813, the Treaty of Gulistan, negotiated with British mediation and signed at Gulistan, made the Persian Shah Fath Ali Shah
Fath Ali Shah
cede all Persian territories in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
and most of its territories in the South Caucasus
Caucasus
to Russia. This included what is now Dagestan, Georgia, and most of Azerbaijan. It also began a large demographic shift in the Caucasus, as many Muslim families emigrated to Iran.[30] French invasion[edit] Main article: French invasion of Russia In the summer of 1812 Napoleon
Napoleon
invaded Russia. It was the occupation of Moscow
Moscow
and the desecration of the Kremlin, the sacred centre of Holy Russia, that changed his sentiment for Napoleon
Napoleon
into passionate hatred.[31][b] The campaign of 1812 was the turning point of Alexander's life; after the burning of Moscow, he declared that his own soul had found illumination, and that he had realized once and for all the divine revelation to him of his mission as the peacemaker of Europe.[22] While the Russian army retreated into the depth of Russia for almost three months, the Russian nobility pressured Alexander I to relieve the commander of the Russian army, Field Marshal Barclay de Tolly. Alexander I complied and appointed Prince Mikhail Kutuzov
Mikhail Kutuzov
to take over command of the army. On 7 September, the French faced the Russian army at a village Borodino, seventy miles west of Moscow. The battle that followed was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 soldiers and resulting in 70,000 casualties. The outcome of the battle was inconclusive. The Russian army, undefeated in spite of the heavy losses, was able to withdraw the following day, leaving the French without the decisive victory Napoleon
Napoleon
sought.

The retreat across the Berezina of the remnants of Napoleon's Grande Armée in November 1812

Napoleon
Napoleon
entered Moscow
Moscow
a week later. There was no delegation to meet the Emperor. The Russians had evacuated the city, and the city's governor, Count Fyodor Rostopchin, ordered several strategic points in Moscow
Moscow
set ablaze. The loss of Moscow
Moscow
did not compel Alexander I to sue for peace. After staying a month Napoleon
Napoleon
moved his army out southwest toward Kaluga, where Kutuzov was encamped with the Russian army. The French advance toward Kaluga
Kaluga
was checked by the Russian army, and Napoleon
Napoleon
was forced to retreat to the areas already devastated by the invasion. In the weeks that followed the Grande Armée starved and suffered from the onset of the Russian Winter. Lack of food and fodder for the horses and persistent attacks upon isolated troops from Russian peasants and Cossacks led to great losses in men. When the remnants of Napoleon's army crossed the Berezina River
Berezina River
in November, only 27,000 effective soldiers remained; the Grand Armée had lost some 380,000 men dead and 100,000 captured. Following the crossing of the Berezina, Napoleon
Napoleon
left the army and returned to Paris to protect his position as Emperor
Emperor
and to raise more forces to resist the advancing Russians. The campaign effectively ended on 14 December 1812, with the last French troops leaving Russian soil. The campaign was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. The reputation of Napoleon
Napoleon
was severely shaken, and French hegemony in Europe was dramatically weakened. The Grande Armée, made up of French and allied invasion forces, was reduced to a fraction of its initial strength. These events triggered a major shift in European politics. France's ally Prussia, soon followed by Austria, broke their imposed alliance with France[32] and switched sides. This triggered the War of the Sixth Coalition. War of the Sixth Coalition[edit]

Alexander I, Francis II of Austria and Frederick William III
Frederick William III
of Prussia
Prussia
meet after defeating Napoleon
Napoleon
at the Battle of Leipzig.

With the Russian armies following up victory over Napoleon
Napoleon
in the Russian Campaign of 1812, the Sixth Coalition was formed with Russia, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Sweden, Spain and some other nations. Even though the French were victorious in the initial battles during the campaign in Germany, the Coalition armies eventually defeated them at the decisive Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
in the autumn of 1813. After the battle, the Pro-French German Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
collapsed, thereby losing Napoleon's hold on Germany east of the Rhine. The supreme commander of the Coalition forces in the theatre and the paramount monarch among the three main Coalition monarchs, the Russian Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I, then ordered all Coalition forces in Germany to cross the Rhine and invade France. The Coalition forces, divided into three groups, entered northeastern France in January 1814. Facing them in the theatre were the French forces numbering only about 70,000 men. In spite of being heavily outnumbered, Napoleon
Napoleon
defeated the divided Coalition forces in the battles at Brienne and La Rothière, but could not stop the Coalition's advance. The Austrian emperor Francis I and King Frederick William III of Prussia
Prussia
felt demoralized upon hearing about Napoleon's victories since the start of the campaign. They even considered ordering a general retreat. But the Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I was far more determined than ever to victoriously enter Paris whatever the cost, imposing his will upon Schwarzenberg, and the wavering monarchs.[33] On 28 March, the Coalition forces advanced towards Paris, and the city surrendered on 31 March.[34]. Until this battle it had been nearly 400 years since a foreign army had entered Paris, during the Hundred Years' War.

Russian army enters Paris

Camping outside the city on 29 March, the Coalition forces were to assault the city from its northern and eastern sides the next morning on 30 March. The battle started that same morning with intense artillery bombardment from the Coalition army.[35] Early in the morning the Coalition attack began when the Russians attacked and drove back the French skirmishers near Belleville before themselves driven back by French cavalry from the city's eastern suburbs. By 7:00 a.m. the Russians attacked the Young Guard near Romainville in the center of the French lines and after some time and hard fighting pushed them aback. A few hours later the Prussians, under Blücher, attacked north of the city and carried the French position around Aubervilliers, but did not press their attack. The Württemberg troops seized the positions at Saint-Maur to the southwest, with Austrian troops in support. The Russian forces then assailed the Montmartre Heights in the city's northeast. Control of the heights was severely contested, until the French forces surrendered. Alexander I sent an envoy to meet with the French to hasten the surrender. He offered generous terms to the French and, although having intended to avenge Moscow,[33] declared himself to be bringing peace to France rather than its destruction. On 31 March Talleyrand gave the key of the city to the Tsar. Later that day the Coalition armies triumphantly entered the city with the Tsar
Tsar
at the head of the army followed by the King of Prussia
Prussia
and Prince Schwarzenberg. On 2 April, the Senate passed the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur, which declared Napoleon
Napoleon
deposed. Napoleon
Napoleon
was in Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
when he heard that Paris had surrendered. Outraged, he wanted to march on the capital, but his marshals refused to fight for him and repeatedly urged him to surrender. He abdicated in favour of his son on 4 April, but the Allies rejected this out of hand, forcing Napoleon
Napoleon
to abdicate unconditionally on 6 April. The terms of his abdication, which included his exile to the Isle of Elba, were settled in the Treaty of Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
on 11 April. A reluctant Napoleon
Napoleon
ratified it two days later. The War of the Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition
was over. Postbellum[edit] Peace of Paris and the Congress of Vienna[edit]

Polish General's Uniform of Emperor
Emperor
Alexander I

Alexander tried to calm the unrest of his conscience by correspondence with the leaders of the evangelical revival on the continent, and sought for omens and supernatural guidance in texts and passages of scripture. It was not, however, according to his own account, till he met the Baroness de Krüdener—a religious adventuress who made the conversion of princes her special mission—at Basel, in the autumn of 1813, that his soul found peace. From this time a mystic pietism became the avowed force of his political, as of his private actions. Madame de Krüdener, and her colleague, the evangelist Henri-Louis Empaytaz, became the confidants of the emperor's most secret thoughts; and during the campaign that ended in the occupation of Paris the imperial prayer-meetings were the oracle on whose revelations hung the fate of the world.[22] Such was Alexander's mood when the downfall of Napoleon
Napoleon
left him one of the most powerful sovereigns in Europe. With the memory of the treaty of Tilsit
Tilsit
still fresh in men's minds, it was not unnatural that to cynical men of the world like Klemens Wenzel von Metternich
Klemens Wenzel von Metternich
he merely seemed to be disguising "under the language of evangelical abnegation" vast and perilous schemes of ambition.[22] The puzzled powers were, in fact, the more inclined to be suspicious in view of other, and seemingly inconsistent, tendencies of the emperor, which yet seemed all to point to a like disquieting conclusion. For Madame de Krüdener was not the only influence behind the throne; and, though Alexander had declared war against the Revolution, La Harpe (his erstwhile tutor) was once more at his elbow, and the catchwords of the gospel of humanity were still on his lips. The very proclamations which denounced Napoleon
Napoleon
as "the genius of evil", denounced him in the name of "liberty," and of "enlightenment".[22] A monstrous intrigue was suspected for the alliance of the eastern autocrat with the Jacobinism of all Europe, which would have issued in the submission of an all-powerful Russia for an all-powerful France. At the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
Alexander's attitude accentuated this distrust. Castlereagh, whose single-minded aim was the restoration of "a just equilibrium" in Europe, reproached the Tsar
Tsar
to his face for a "conscience" which suffered him to imperil the concert of the powers by keeping his hold on Poland in violation of his treaty obligation.[36] Liberal political views[edit] Once a supporter of limited liberalism, as seen in his approval of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815,[citation needed] from the end of the year 1818 Alexander's views began to change. A revolutionary conspiracy among the officers of the guard, and a foolish plot to kidnap him on his way to the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, are said to have shaken the foundations of his Liberalism. At Aix he came for the first time into intimate contact with Metternich. From this time dates the ascendancy of Metternich over the mind of the Russian Emperor
Emperor
and in the councils of Europe. It was, however, no case of sudden conversion. Though alarmed by the revolutionary agitation in Germany, which culminated in the murder of his agent, the dramatist August von Kotzebue
August von Kotzebue
(23 March 1819), Alexander approved of Castlereagh's protest against Metternich's policy of "the governments contracting an alliance against the peoples", as formulated in the Carlsbad Decrees
Carlsbad Decrees
of July 1819, and deprecated any intervention of Europe to support "a league of which the sole object is the absurd pretensions of "absolute power".[37] He still declared his belief in "free institutions, though not in such as age forced from feebleness, nor contracts ordered by popular leaders from their sovereigns, nor constitutions granted in difficult circumstances to tide over a crisis." "Liberty", he maintained, "should be confined within just limits. And the limits of liberty are the principles of order".[38] It was the apparent triumph of the principles of disorder in the revolutions of Naples
Naples
and Piedmont, combined with increasingly disquieting symptoms of discontent in France, Germany, and among his own people, that completed Alexander's conversion. In the seclusion of the little town of Troppau, where in October 1820 the powers met in conference, Metternich found an opportunity for cementing his influence over Alexander, which had been wanting amid the turmoil and feminine intrigues of Vienna
Vienna
and Aix. Here, in confidence begotten of friendly chats over afternoon tea, the disillusioned autocrat confessed his mistake. "You have nothing to regret," he said sadly to the exultant chancellor, "but I have!".[39] The issue was momentous. In January Alexander had still upheld the ideal of a free confederation of the European states, symbolised by the Holy Alliance, against the policy of a dictatorship of the great powers, symbolised by the Quadruple Treaty; he had still protested against the claims of collective Europe to interfere in the internal concerns of the sovereign states. On 19 November he signed the Troppau Protocol, which consecrated the principle of intervention and wrecked the harmony of the concert.[7] Revolt of the Greeks[edit]

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Imperial Monogram

At the Congress of Laibach, to which the congress had been adjourned in the spring of 1821, Alexander first heard of the Revolt of the Greeks. From this time until his death, his mind was torn between his anxiety to realise his dream of a confederation of Europe and his traditional mission as leader of the Orthodox crusade against the Ottoman Empire. At first, under the careful nursing of Metternich, the former motive prevailed.[15] He struck the name of Alexander Ypsilanti (a colonel in the Imperial Cavalry and a leader of the Greek revolt) from the Russian army list, and directed his foreign minister, Ioannis Kapodistrias or Giovanni, Count Capo d'Istria, himself a Greek, to disavow all sympathy of Russia with his enterprise; and, in 1822, issued orders to turn back a deputation of the Morea
Morea
to the Congress of Verona
Congress of Verona
on the road.[15] He made some effort to reconcile the principles at conflict in his mind. He offered to surrender the claim, successfully asserted when the Ottoman Sultan
Ottoman Sultan
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
had been excluded from the Holy Alliance and the affairs of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from the deliberations of Vienna, that the affairs of the East were the "domestic concerns of Russia," and to march into the Ottoman Empire, as Austria had marched into Naples, "as the mandatory of Europe".[15] Metternich's opposition to this, illogical, but natural from the Austrian point of view, first opened Alexander's eyes to the true character of Austria's attitude towards his ideals. Once more in Russia, far from the fascination of Metternich's personality, the timeless spirit of his people drew him back into itself.[15] Private life[edit] On 9 October 1793, Alexander married Louise of Baden, known as Elizabeth Alexeievna after her conversion to the Orthodox Church. He later told his friend Frederick William III
Frederick William III
that the marriage, a political match devised by his grandmother, Catherine the Great, regrettably proved to be a misfortune for him and his spouse.[7] Their two children died young.[40] Their common sorrow drew the spouses closer together. Towards the close of his life their reconciliation was completed by the wise charity of the Empress
Empress
in sympathising deeply with him over the death of his beloved daughter Sophia Naryshkina, the daughter of his mistress Maria Naryshkina,[7] with whom he had a relationship from 1799 until 1818. In 1809, Alexander I was widely and famously rumored to have had an affair with the Finnish noble Ulla Möllersvärd and to have had a child by her, but this is not confirmed.[41] Historians found that "Alexander greatest achievement was his victory over Napoleon, who had attacked Russia in 1812, and marched with his Grande Armée
Grande Armée
from France to Moscow, but was then expelled from Russia and later defeated by a coalition of allies, Russia among them. Over the course of a number of diplomatic congresses, victorious Russia played an impressive role in determining the political restructuring of post-Napoleonic Europe". [42] Death[edit] Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I became increasingly suspicious of those around him, especially after an attempt was made to kidnap him when he was on his way to the conference in Aachen, Germany. In the autumn of 1825 the Emperor
Emperor
undertook a voyage to the south of Russia due to the increasing illness of his wife. During his trip he himself caught a cold which developed into typhus from which he died in the southern city of Taganrog
Taganrog
on 19 November (O.S.)/ 1 December 1825. His two brothers disputed who would become tsar—each wanted the other to become tsar. Rumours circulated for years that he had not died but had become the monk Feodor Kuzmich. His wife died a few months later as the emperor's body was transported to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
for the funeral. He was interred at the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral
Peter and Paul Cathedral
of the Peter and Paul Fortress
Peter and Paul Fortress
in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
on 13 March 1826.[43]

Death of Alexander I in Taganrog
Taganrog
(19th century lithograph)

Alexander I Palace
Alexander I Palace
in Taganrog, where the Russian Emperor
Emperor
died in 1825

The funeral procession from Taganrog
Taganrog
to St. Petersburg

Children[edit]

Children of Alexander I of Russia.[44][45]

Name Birth Death Notes

By his wife Louise of Baden

Maria/Maryia Alexandrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia 29 May 1799 8 July 1800 Sometimes rumoured to be the child of Adam Czartoryski, died aged one.

Elisabeta/Elisaveta Alexandrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia 15 November 1806 12 May 1808 Sometimes rumoured to be the child of Alexei Okhotnikov, died aged one of an infection.

By Sophia Sergeievna Vsevolozhskaya

Nikolai Yevgenyevich Lukash 11 December 1796 20 January 1868 Married Princess Alexandra Lukanichna Guidianova and Princess Alexandra Mikhailovna Schakhovskaya; had four children from first marriage and one child from second marriage.

By Maria Narishkin

Zenaida, Narishkin c. 1806 18 May 1810 Died aged four.

Sophia, Narishkin 1808 18 June 1824 Died aged sixteen, unmarried.

Emanuel, Narishkin 30 July 1813 31 December/1 January 1901 Married Catherine Novossiltzev, no issue. *unconfirmed and disputed

By Marguerite-Josephine Weimer

Maria Alexandrovna Parijskaia 19 March 1814 1874 Married Vassili Joukov, had issue.

By an unknown mother

Wilhelmine Alexandrine Pauline Alexandrov 1816 4 June 1863 Married Ivan Arduser von Hohendachs, had issue.

By Veronica Dzierzanowska

Gustave Ehrenberg 14 February 1818 28 September 1895 Married firstly Felicite Pantcherow, no issue. Married secondly, Emilie Pantcherow, had one son.

By Barbara Tourkestanov, Princess Tourkestanova

Maria Tourkestanova, Princess Tourkestanova 20 March 1819 19 December 1843 Died aged twenty-four, no issue.

By Maria Ivanovna Katatcharova

Nicolas Vassilievich Isakov 10 February 1821 25 February 1891 Married Anna Petrovna Lopukhina (a descendant of Eudoxia Lopukhina), had issue.

Other[edit]

Alexander I was the godfather of the future Queen Victoria, who was christened "Alexandrina Victoria" in honour of the tsar. Alexander I was the namesake for the Alexanderplatz
Alexanderplatz
in Berlin, Germany. It was due to Alexander I that the first name "Alexander", hitherto virtually unknown in Russia, became one of the most common Russian names.

Ancestry[edit]

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Ancestors of Alexander I of Russia

16. Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

8. Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

17. Princess Hedvig Sophia of Sweden

4. Peter III of Russia

18. Peter I of Russia

9. Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia

19. Catherine I of Russia

2. Paul I of Russia

20. John Louis I, Prince of Anhalt-Dornburg

10. Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst

21. Christine Eleonore von Zeutch

5. Catherine II of Russia

22. Christian August, Prince of Eutin

11. Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp

23. Princess Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach

1. Alexander I of Russia

24. Frederick Charles, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental

12. Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg

25. Princess Eleonore Juliane of Brandenburg-Ansbach

6. Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg

26. Anselm Franz, Prince of Thurn and Taxis

13. Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis

27. Princess Maria Ludovika of Lobkowicz

3. Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg

28. Philip William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt

14. Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt

29. Princess Johanna Charlotte of Anhalt-Dessau

7. Princess Friederike of Brandenburg-Schwedt

30. Frederick William I of Prussia

15. Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia

31. Princess Sophia Dorothea of Hanover

Notes[edit]

^ During Alexander's lifetime Russia used the Julian calendar (Old Style), but unless otherwise stated, any date in this article uses the Gregorian Calendar (New Style) — see the article "Old Style and New Style dates" for a more detailed explanation. ^ On the historiography, see Lieven 2006, pp. 283–308.

^ Maiorova 2010, p. 114. ^ Troubetzkoy 2002, pp. 7, 205 and 258. ^ Walker 1992, pp. 343–360. ^ "Alexander I". Retrieved 2009-01-01.  ^ McGrew 1992, p. 184. ^ a b c d e Phillips 1911, p. 556. ^ a b c d Phillips 1911, p. 559. ^ Palmer 1974, ch 3. ^ "Alexander I emperor of Russia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-01-24.  ^ Palmer 1974, pp. 52–55. ^ Palmer 1974, pp. 168–72. ^ McCaffray 2005, pp. 1–21. ^ Flynn 1988, p. [page needed]. ^ Lipscomb & Bergh; Jefferson to Priestley, Washington, 29 November 1802 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Phillips 1911, p. 557. ^ Esdaile 2009, pp. 192–193. ^ It was issued at the end of the 19th century in the Rescript of Nicholas II and the conference of the Hague. Phillips 1911, p. 557 cites: Circular of Count Muraviev, Aug. 24, 1898. ^ Phillips 1911, p. 557 cites Instructions to M. Novosiltsov, Sept. 11, 1804. Tatischeff, p. 82 ^ Phillips 1911, p. 557 cites: Savary to Napoleon, Nov. 18, 1807. Tatischeff, p. 232. ^ Phillips 1911, pp. 557,558 cites: Coulaincourt to Napoleon, 4th report, Aug. 3, 1809. Tatischeff, p. 496. ^ Zawadzki 2009, pp. 110–124. ^ a b c d e f g Phillips 1911, p. 558. ^ a b Nolan 2002, p. 1666. ^ a b c Chapman 2001, p. 29. ^ "Annexation of Georgia in Russia Empire (1801–1878)". tedsnet.de.  ^ "Russia and Britain in Persia: Imperial Ambitions in Qajar Iran". Retrieved 16 December 2014.  ^ Avery et al. 1991, p. 332. ^ Baddeley 1908, p. 67 cites "Tsitsianoff's report to the Emperor: Akti, ix (supplement), p. 920". ^ Mansoori 2008, p. 245. ^ "Islam, nationalism and state in the Muslim Caucasus1". Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ Phillips 1911, p. 558 cites: Alexander speaking to Colonel Michaud. Tatischeff, p. 612. ^ Austrian K.u.K. interests were not identical with Russian imperialism. Austria not only could not afford to switch sides straight away, because she was since 1809 French ally in dynastical sense also - and this was one of the motives, why Austria joined coalition only after Napoleon
Napoleon
refused solution by negotiation. Austria was generally not happy with Russian Tzar's line: e.g. in 1809, as French ally, Russia attempted to seize Austrian Krakow and was only thwarted by Poniatowski in the head of Polish hulans (who thus managed to seize the town for the Grand Duchy of Warsaw); and above all wished to avert Russian expansion to Balkan, which intention during time became to be understood as common interest of the power balance in Europe, and finally manifested itself as the Crimean War. At the same time Austria wished to avert supposed Russian enmity, which would result, when Austria could be seen as intending to block Russian imperial ambitions; an attitude justified by the mentioned war, when Austria took neutral stance. Only then begun Russia understand, Austria is not condescending to further Russian expansion, and further on took this neutrality as hostility, which became one of the causes of World War I. (Kissinger, Diplomacy, 1994) ^ a b Montefiore 2016, p. 313. ^ Napolun.com - The Battle of Paris, 1814 ^ Napolun.com - The Battle of Paris, 1814 ^ Phillips 1911, p. 558 cites Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 2, 1814. F.O. Papers. Vienna
Vienna
VII. ^ Phillips 1911, p. 558 cites: Despatch of Lieven, Nov. 30 (Dec. 12), 1819, and Russ. Circular of Jan. 27, 1820. Martens IV. part i. p. 270. ^ Phillips 1911, pp. 558,559 cites: Aperçu des idées de l'Empereur, Martens IV. part i. p. 269. ^ Phillips 1911, p. 559 cites: Metternich Mem. ^ Palmer 1974, pp. 154–55. ^ Möllersvärd (Möllerswärd), släkt, urn:sbl:8681, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon (art av H G-m), hämtad 2016-11-05. ^ http://www.saint-petersburg.com/royal-family/alexander-i/ ^ Palmer 1974, ch 22. ^ Palmer 1974, p. [page needed]. ^ McNaughton 1973, pp. 293–306.

References[edit]

Avery, Peter; Fisher, William Bayne; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles (1991). The Cambridge history of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.  Baddeley, John F. (1908). The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus. London: Longmans, Green and Company. p. 67.  Chapman, Tim (2001). Imperial Russia, 1801–1905 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Routledge. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-415-23110-7.  Dowling, Timothy C. (2014). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 728. ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6.  Esdaile, Charles (2009). Napoleon's Wars: An International History. Penguin. pp. 192–193.  Flynn, James T. (1988). University Reform of Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I, 1802–1835.  "Jefferson to Priestley, Washington, 29 November 1802". The Thomas Jefferson Papers Series 1. General Correspondence. 1651-1827. Library of Congress.  Lipscomb; Bergh (eds.). "Jefferson to Harris, Washington, 18 April 1806". The Writings of Thomas Jefferson.  Lieven, Dominic (2006). "Review article: Russia and the defeat of Napoleon". Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 7 (2): 283–308.  McCaffray, Susan P. (2005). "Confronting Serfdom in the Age of Revolution: Projects for Serf Reform in the Time of Alexander I". Russian Review. 64 (1): 1–21. JSTOR 3664324.  Maiorova, Olga (2010). From the Shadow of Empire: Defining the Russian Nation through Cultural Mythology, 1855–1870. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 114.  Mansoori, Firooz (2008). "17". Studies in History,Language and Culture of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(in Persian). Tehran: Hazar-e Kerman. p. 245. ISBN 978-600-90271-1-8.  McNaughton, C. Arnold (1973). The Book of Kings: A Royal Genealogy, in 3 volumes. 1. London, U.K.: Garnstone Press. pp. 293–306.  Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2016). The Romanovs 1613–1918. Orion Publishing Group Ltd. ISBN 978 0 297 85266 7.  Nolan, Cathal J. (2002). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations: S-Z. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations, Cathal. 4 (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1666. ISBN 978-0-313-32383-6.  "Noxçiyçö". www.worldleadersindex.org. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.  Palmer, Alan (1974). Alexander I: Tsar
Tsar
of War and Peace. New York: Harper and Row.  Troubetzkoy, Alexis S. (2002). Imperial Legend: The Mysterious Disappearance of Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I. Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1-55970-608-2.  Walker, Franklin A (1992). "Enlightenment and Religion in Russian Education in the Reign of Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I". History of Education Quarterly. 32 (3): 343–360. JSTOR 368549.  Zawadzki, Hubert (2009). "Between Napoleon
Napoleon
and Tsar
Tsar
Alexander: The Polish Question at Tilsit, 1807". Central Europe. 7 (2): 110–124. 

Attribution:

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Phillips, Walter Alison (1911). "Alexander I.". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 556–559. 

Further reading[edit]

Cate, Curtis. The War of the Two Emperors: The Duel between Napoleon and Alexander: Russia, 1812 (1985) Flynn, James T. The University Reform of Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I, 1802–1835 (Catholic University of America Press, 1988) Hartley, Janet M. Alexander I (1994) 256pp Lieven, Dominic. "Review article: Russia and the defeat of Napoleon." Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History (2006)7#2 pp: 283–308. Lieven, Dominic (2009). Russia Against Napoleon: The Battle for Europe, 1807 to 1814. Allen Lane/The Penguin Press. p. 617. [1] McConnell, Allen. Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I: Paternalistic Reformer (1970) Raeff, Marc. Michael Speransky: Statesman of Imperial Russia, 1772–1839 (The Hague: Mouton, 1968); Rey, Marie-Pierre. Alexander I: The Tsar
Tsar
Who Defeated Napoleon (Northern Illinois University Press; 2012) 439 pages; translation of a 2009 French scholarly biography Schnitzler, Jean-Henri; Schnitzler, Johann Heinrich (1847). "Chapter I. Character of Alexander I". Secret History of the Court and Government
Government
of Russia Under the Emperors Alexander and Nicholas. R. Bentley. p. 37. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I of Russia
at Wikimedia Commons Romanovs. The sixth film. Paul I; Alexander I on YouTube
YouTube
– Historical reconstruction "The Romanovs". StarMedia. Babich-Design(Russia, 2013)

Alexander I of Russia House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg Born: 23 December 1777 Died: 1 December 1825

Regnal titles

Preceded by Paul I Emperor
Emperor
of Russia 1801–1825 Succeeded by Nicholas I

Preceded by Gustav IV Adolf Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Finland 1809–1825

Preceded by Stanisław August King of Poland Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania 1815–1825

v t e

Sovereigns of the Vladimir-Suzdal
Vladimir-Suzdal
Principality, Grand Principality of Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire

Grand Princes

Yuri Dolgorukiy Andrei I Bogolyubsky Mikhail of Vladimir Vsevolod the Big Nest Yuri II of Vladimir Konstantin of Rostov Yuri II of Vladimir Yaroslav II of Vladimir Sviatoslav III of Vladimir Andrey II of Vladimir Alexander Nevsky Yaroslav of Tver Vasily of Kostroma Dmitry of Pereslavl Andrey of Gorodets Mikhail of Tver Yuri of Moscow Dmitry the Terrible Eyes Alexander of Tver Ivan I Simeon the Proud Ivan II Dmitry of Suzdal Dmitry Donskoy Vasily I Vasily II Ivan III the Great Vasily III Ivan IV

Tsars

Ivan IV the Terrible Feodor I Boris Feodor II Dmitry I (also as Emperor) Vasili IV Vladislav I Michael I Alexis Feodor III Peter I and Ivan V (co-rulers)

Emperors and Empresses

Peter I the Great Catherine I Peter II Anna Ivan VI Elizabeth Peter III Catherine II the Great Paul Alexander I Nicholas I Alexander II Alexander III Nicholas II

v t e

Russian Tsareviches and Tsesareviches

Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
(1547–1721) / Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1721–1917)

Ivan (1611–1614) Alexei (1690–1718) Paul (1762–1796) Alexander (1796–1801) Constantine (1801–1825) Alexander (1825–1855) Nicholas (1855–1865) Alexander (1865–1881) Nicholas (1881–1894) George (1894–1899) Michael (1899–1904) Alexei (1904–1917)

v t e

Grand Dukes of Russia

The generations are numbered from Peter I of Russia

1st generation

Tsarevich
Tsarevich
Alexei Petrovich Alexander Petrovich Paul Petrovich Pyotr Petrovich

2nd generation

Peter II Peter III

3rd generation

Paul I

4th generation

Alexander I Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Constantine Pavlovich Nicholas I Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Michael Pavlovich

5th generation

Alexander II Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Constantine Nikolaevich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Nicholas Nikolaevich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Michael Nikolaevich

6th generation

Tsarevich
Tsarevich
Nicholas Alexandrovich Alexander III Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Vladimir Alexandrovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Alexei Alexandrovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Paul Alexandrovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Nicholas Konstantinovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Konstantine Konstantinovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Dmitri Konstantinovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Nicholas Nikolaevich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Peter Nikolaevich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Nicholas Mikhailovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Michael Mikhailovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
George Mikhailovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Alexander Mikhailovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Sergei Mikhailovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Alexei Mikhailovich

7th generation

Nicholas II Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Alexander Alexandrovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
George Alexandrovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Michael Alexandrovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Alexander Vladimirovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Kirill Vladimirovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Boris Vladimirovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Andrew Vladimirovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Dmitri Pavlovich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
John Konstantinovich 1

8th generation

Tsarevich
Tsarevich
Alexei Nikolaevich Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Vladimir Kirillovich 2

9th generation

Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Michael Pavlovich 3

10th generation

Grand Duke
Grand Duke
George Mikhailovich 3

1 born a Grand Duke, but stripped of his title by Alexander III's ukase of 1886, limiting the style to sons and male-line grandsons of a tsar

2 title of pretence granted by Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Kirill Vladimirovich as claimant to the Russian throne

3 title of pretence granted by Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Vladimir Kirillovich as claimant to the Russian throne

v t e

Napoleonic Wars

Third Coalition Fourth Coalition Peninsular War Fifth Coalition French Invasion of Russia Sixth Coalition Seventh Coalition

Belli- gerents

France, client states and allies

France Polish Legions Italy Holland Etruria Swiss Confederation Naples Confederation of the Rhine

Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg

Denmark–Norway Ottoman Empire Persia Spain

Coalition forces

United Kingdom Austria Russia Prussia Spain Portugal Sicily Papal States Ottoman Empire Persia Sardinia Sweden Netherlands Brunswick Hanover Nassau French Royalists

Major battles

Prelude

French Revolution First Coalition Second Coalition 18 Brumaire Planned invasion of the United Kingdom Duc d'Enghien Execution Coronation of Napoleon

1805

Diamond Rock Cape Finisterre Wertingen Günzburg Haslach-Jungingen Elchingen Ulm Verona Trafalgar Caldiero Cape Ortegal Amstetten Dürenstein Schöngrabern Austerlitz

1806

Gaeta Campo Tenese Maida Schleiz Saalfeld Jena–Auerstedt Erfurt Halle Magdeburg Prenzlau Pasewalk Stettin Waren-Nossentin Lübeck Greater Poland Uprising Hameln Czarnowo Golymin Pułtusk

1807

Mohrungen Stralsund Eylau Ostrołęka Kolberg Danzig Mileto Guttstadt-Deppen Heilsberg Friedland Copenhagen Invasion of Portugal

1808

Dos de Mayo Bruch Rosily Squadron Cabezón 1st Zaragoza Valencia Medina de Rioseco Bailén Roliça Vimeiro Pancorbo Valmaseda Burgos Espinosa Tudela Somosierra 2nd Zaragoza Sahagún Benavente

1809

Castellón Uclés Corunna Valls Tyrolean Rebellion Villafranca Yevenes/Yébenes Ciudad Real 1st Porto Medellín Bergisel Sacile Teugen-Hausen Raszyn Abensberg Landshut Eckmühl Ratisbon Neumarkt-Sankt Veit Dalmatian Campaign Ebelsberg Gerona Piave River Grijó 2nd Porto Wörgl Tarvis Aspern-Essling Alcañiz Sankt Michael Stralsund Raab María Graz Wagram Korneuburg Stockerau Gefrees Hollabrunn Schöngrabern Armistice of Znaim Talavera Walcheren Campaign Ölper Almonacid Tamames Ocaña Alba de Tormes

1810

Cádiz Astorga Ciudad Rodrigo Barquilla Côa Almeida Bussaco

1811

Gebora Barrosa Pombal Redinha Casal Novo Campo Maior Sabugal Almeida Fuentes de Oñoro Tarragona Albuera Usagre Saguntum Arroyo dos Molinos Valencia

1812

Ciudad Rodrigo Badajoz Villagarcia Almaraz Maguilla Mir Salamanca García Hernández Saltanovka Ostrovno Vitebsk Klyastitsy Majadahonda Smolensk 1st Polotsk Valutino Mesoten Borodino Burgos Tarutino 2nd Polotsk Venta del Pozo Maloyaroslavets Chashniki Vyazma Smoliani Krasnoi Berezina

1813

Castalla Lützen Bautzen Tarragona Luckau Vitoria San Sebastián Pyrenees Sorauren Großbeeren Katzbach Dresden 1st Kulm San Marcial Dennewitz 2nd Kulm Göhrde Bidassoa Leipzig Hanau Nivelle Bornhöved Sehested

1814

Brienne La Rothière Mincio River Champaubert Montmirail Château-Thierry Vauchamps Garris Mormant Montereau Orthez Bar-sur-Aube Laon Reims Craonne Arcis-sur-Aube Fère-Champenoise Saint-Dizier Montmartre Paris Toulouse Bayonne

1815

Panaro Occhiobello Carpi Casaglia Ronco Cesenatico Pesaro Scapezzano Tolentino Ancona Castel di Sangro San Germano Gaeta Quatre Bras Ligny Waterloo Wavre Rocheserviere La Suffel Rocquencourt Issy

Info

French and ally military and political leaders

Napoleon Louis-Alexandre Berthier Joachim Murat Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean Lannes Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Michel Ney Jean-de-Dieu Soult Marshal Victor Jean-Baptiste Bessières Pierre-Charles Villeneuve Joseph I Louis Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Prince Poniatowski Prince Eugène Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick I of Württemberg Frederick VI of Denmark

Coalition military and political leaders

Duke of Wellington Rowland Hill John Moore Horatio Nelson Thomas Cochrane Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Manuel Lapeña Archduke Charles Prince von Schwarzenberg Archduke John of Austria Alexander I of Russia Mikhail Kutuzov Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Count Bennigsen Pyotr Bagration Frederick William III
Frederick William III
of Prussia Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe Ferdinand VII of Spain Miguel de Álava Maria I of Portugal Prince Regent John of Portugal Count of Feira William, Prince of Orange Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden Prince Charles John of Sweden Louis XVIII of France

Related conflicts

Anglo-Russian War Anglo-Spanish War Anglo-Swedish War Anglo-Turkish War English Wars

Gunboat War Dano-Swedish War

Finnish War Pomeranian War (Franco-Swedish War) Russo-Persian War Russo-Turkish War Spanish American Wars of Independence Swedish–Norwegian War War of 1812

Treaties

Campo Formio Lunéville Amiens Artlenburg Pressburg Finckenstein Tilsit Cintra Schönbrunn Paris (1810) Tauroggen Ried Chaumont Kiel Mantua Casalanza Paris (1815)

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Bourbon Restoration Casualties Congress of Erfurt Continental System England expects that every man will do his duty Grande Armée Longwood House

Portal Military History definition media quotes

Authority control

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