Childhood in the CaribbeanAlexander Hamilton was born and spent part of his childhood in Charlestown, the capital of the island of Nevis in the Leeward Islands (then part of the British West Indies). Hamilton and his older brother James Jr. (1753–1786) were born Out-of-wedlock, out of wedlock to Rachel Faucette, a married woman of half-British and half-French Huguenots, French Huguenot descent, and James A. Hamilton, a Scottish people, Scotsman who was the fourth son of Alexander Hamilton, the laird of Grange, Ayrshire, Grange in Ayrshire. Speculation that Hamilton's mother was of mixed race, though persistent, is not substantiated by verifiable evidence. Rachel Faucette was listed as white on tax rolls.Chernow, pp
EducationThe Church of England denied membership to Alexander and James Hamilton Jr.—and education in the church school—because their parents were not legally married. They received "individual tutoring" and classes in a private school led by a Jewish headmistress. Alexander supplemented his education with the family library of 34 books.Chernow
Early military careerIn 1775, after the first engagement of American troops with the British at Battles of Lexington and Concord, Lexington and Concord, Hamilton and other King's College students joined a New York volunteer Militia (United States), militia company called the Corsicans, later renamed or reformed as the Hearts of Oak (New York militia), Hearts of Oak. He drilled with the company, before classes, in the graveyard of nearby St. Paul's Chapel. Hamilton studied military history and tactics on his own and was soon recommended for promotion.Newton (2015)
George Washington's staffHamilton was invited to become an aide to William Alexander, Lord Stirling, and another general, perhaps Nathanael Greene or Alexander McDougall.Newton (2015)
Field commandWhile on Washington's staff, Hamilton long sought command and a return to active combat. As the war drew nearer to an end, he knew that opportunities for military glory were diminishing. On February 15, 1781, Hamilton was reprimanded by Washington after a minor misunderstanding. Although Washington quickly tried to mend their relationship, Hamilton insisted on leaving his staff. He officially left in March and settled with Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, Eliza close to Washington's headquarters. He repeatedly asked Washington and others for a field command. Washington demurred, citing the need to appoint men of higher rank. This continued until early July 1781, when Hamilton submitted a letter to Washington with his Officer (armed forces), commission enclosed, "thus tacitly threatening to resign if he didn't get his desired command." On July 31, Washington relented and assigned Hamilton as commander of a battalion of light infantry companies of the 1st and 2nd New York Regiments and two provisional companies from Connecticut. In the planning for the assault on Siege of Yorktown (1781), Yorktown, Hamilton was given command of three battalions, which were to fight in conjunction with the allied French Army, French troops in taking Redoubts No. 9 and No. 10 of the British fortifications at Yorktown. Hamilton and his battalions took Redoubt No. 10 with bayonets in a nighttime action, as planned. The French also suffered heavy casualties and took Redoubt No. 9. These actions forced the British Army, British surrender of an entire army at Yorktown, Virginia, marking the ''de facto'' end of the war, although small battles continued for two more years until the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Paris and the departure of the last British troops.
Congress of the ConfederationAfter Yorktown, Hamilton returned to New York and resigned his commission in March 1782. He passed the bar in July after six months of self-directed education. He also accepted an offer from Robert Morris (financier), Robert Morris to become receiver of continental taxes for the State of New York. Hamilton was appointed in July 1782 to the as a New York representative for the term beginning in November 1782. Before his appointment to Congress in 1782, Hamilton was already sharing his criticisms of Congress. He expressed these criticisms in his letter to James Duane dated September 3, 1780. In this letter he wrote, "The fundamental defect is a want of power in Congress...the confederation itself is defective and requires to be altered; it is neither fit for war, nor peace." While on Washington's staff, Hamilton had become frustrated with the decentralized nature of the wartime Continental Congress, particularly its dependence upon the states for voluntary financial support. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress had no power to collect taxes or to demand money from the states. This lack of a stable source of funding had made it difficult for the Continental Army both to obtain its necessary provisions and to pay its soldiers. During the war, and for some time after, Congress obtained what funds it could from subsidies from the King of France, from aid requested from the several states (which were often unable or unwilling to contribute), and from European loans. An amendment to the Articles had been proposed by Thomas Burke (North Carolina), Thomas Burke, in February 1781, to give Congress the power to collect a 5% impost, or duty on all imports, but this required ratification by all states; securing its passage as law proved impossible after it was rejected by Rhode Island in November 1782. James Madison joined Hamilton in influencing Congress to send a delegation to persuade Rhode Island to change its mind. Their report recommending the delegation argued the national government needed not just some level of financial autonomy, but also the ability to make laws that superseded those of the individual states. Hamilton transmitted a letter arguing that Congress already had the power to tax, since it had the power to fix the sums due from the several states; but Virginia's Rescission (contract law), rescission of its own ratification ended the Rhode Island negotiations.Chernow
Congress and the armyWhile Hamilton was in Congress, discontented soldiers began to pose a danger to the young United States. Most of the army was then posted at Newburgh, New York. Those in the army were funding much of their own supplies, and they had not been paid in eight months. Furthermore, after Valley Forge, the Continental officers had been promised in May 1778 a pension of half their pay when they were discharged. By the early 1780s, due to the structure of the government under the Articles of Confederation, it had no power to tax to either raise revenue or pay its soldiers.Tucker, p. 470. In 1782 after several months without pay, a group of officers organized to send a delegation to lobby Congress, led by Capt. Alexander McDougall. The officers had three demands: the Army's pay, their own pensions, and commutation of those pensions into a lump-sum payment if Congress were unable to afford the half-salary pensions for life. Congress rejected the proposal. Several congressmen, including Hamilton, Robert Morris (financier), Robert Morris and Gouverneur Morris (no relation), attempted to use this Newburgh Conspiracy as leverage to secure support from the states and in Congress for funding of the national government. They encouraged MacDougall to continue his aggressive approach, threatening unknown consequences if their demands were not met, and defeated proposals that would have resolved the crisis without establishing general federal taxation: that the states assume the debt to the army, or that an Tax#Tariff, impost be established dedicated to the sole purpose of paying that debt.Kohn; Ellis 2004, pp. 141–44. Hamilton suggested using the Army's claims to prevail upon the states for the proposed national funding system. The Morrises and Hamilton contacted General Henry Knox to suggest he and the officers defy civil authority, at least by not disbanding if the army were not satisfied. Hamilton wrote Washington to suggest that Hamilton covertly "take direction" of the officers' efforts to secure redress, to secure continental funding but keep the army within the limits of moderation.Chernow
Return to New YorkHamilton resigned from Congress in 1783. When Evacuation Day (New York), the British left New York in 1783, he practiced there in partnership with Richard Harison. He specialized in defending Tories and British subjects, as in ''Rutgers v. Waddington'', in which he defeated a claim for damages done to a brewery by the Englishmen who held it during the military occupation of New York. He pleaded for the Mayor's Court to interpret state law consistent with the Treaty of Paris (1783), 1783 Treaty of Paris which had ended the Revolutionary War.Chernow
Constitution and the ''Federalist Papers''
Constitutional Convention and ratification of the ConstitutionIn 1787, Hamilton served as assemblyman from New York County in the New York State Legislature and was chosen as a delegate for the Constitutional Convention by his father-in-law Philip Schuyler. Even though Hamilton had been a leader in calling for a new Constitutional Convention, his direct influence at the Convention itself was quite limited. Governor George Clinton (vice president), George Clinton's faction in the New York legislature had chosen New York's other two delegates, John Lansing Jr. and Robert Yates (politician), Robert Yates, and both of them opposed Hamilton's goal of a strong national government.Chernow
''The Federalist Papers''Hamilton recruited John Jay and James Madison to write a series of essays defending the proposed Constitution, now known as ''The Federalist Papers'', and made the largest contribution to that effort, writing 51 of the 85 essays published (Madison wrote 29, and Jay wrote the other five). Hamilton supervised the entire project, enlisted the participants, wrote the majority of the essays, and oversaw the publication. During the project, each person was responsible for their areas of expertise. Jay covered foreign relations. Madison covered the history of republics and confederacies, along with the anatomy of the new government. Hamilton covered the branches of government most pertinent to him: the executive and judicial branches, with some aspects of the Senate, as well as covering military matters and taxation.Chernow
Reconciliation between New York and VermontIn 1764, George III of the United Kingdom, King George III had ruled in favor of New York in a dispute between New York and New Hampshire over the region that later became the state of Vermont. New York then refused to recognize claims to property derived from grants by New Hampshire governor Benning Wentworth during the preceding 15 years when the territory had been governed as a de facto part of New Hampshire. Consequently, the people of the disputed territory, called the New Hampshire Grants, resisted the enforcement of New York's laws within the grants. Ethan Allen's militia called the Green Mountain Boys, noted for successes in the war against the British in 1775, was originally formed for the purpose of resisting the colonial government of New York. In 1777, the statesmen of the grants declared it a Vermont Republic, separate state to be called Vermont, and by early 1778, had erected a state government. During 1777–1785, Vermont was repeatedly denied representation in the Continental Congress, largely because New York insisted that Vermont was legally a part of New York. Vermont took the position that because its petitions for admission to the Union were denied, it was not a part of the United States, not subject to Congress, and at liberty to negotiate separately with the British. The latter Haldimand negotiations led to some exchanges of prisoners of war. The peace treaty of 1783 that ended the war included Vermont within the boundaries of the United States. On March 2, 1784, Governor George Clinton of New York asked Congress to declare war for the purpose of overthrowing the government of Vermont, but Congress made no decision. By 1787, the government of New York had almost entirely given up plans to subjugate Vermont, but still claimed jurisdiction. As a member of the legislature of New York, Hamilton argued forcefully and at length in favor of a bill to recognize the sovereignty of the State of Vermont, against numerous objections to its constitutionality and policy. Consideration of the bill was deferred to a later date. In 1787 through 1789, Hamilton exchanged letters with Nathaniel Chipman, a lawyer representing Vermont. In 1788, the new Constitution of the United States went into effect, with its plan to replace the unicameral Continental Congress with a new Congress consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Hamilton wrote: In 1790, the New York legislature decided to give up New York's claim to Vermont if Congress decided to admit Vermont to the Union and if negotiations between New York and Vermont on the boundary between the two states were successfully concluded. In 1790, negotiators discussed not only the boundary, but also financial compensation of New York land-grantees whose grants Vermont refused to recognize because they conflicted with earlier grants from New Hampshire. Compensation in the amount of 30,000 Spanish dollars was agreed to, and Vermont was admitted to the Union in 1791.
Secretary of the TreasuryPresident George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, United States secretary of the treasury on September 11, 1789. He left office on the last day of January 1795. Much of the structure of the government of the United States was worked out in those five years, beginning with the structure and function of the cabinet itself. Biographer Forrest McDonald argues that Hamilton saw his office, like that of the British First Lord of the Treasury, first lord of the treasury, as the equivalent of a prime minister. Hamilton oversaw his colleagues under the elective reign of George Washington. Washington requested Hamilton's advice and assistance on matters outside the purview of the United States Department of the Treasury, Treasury Department. In 1791, while secretary, Hamilton was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Hamilton submitted various financial reports to Congress. Among these are the First Report on the Public Credit, Tariff of 1790, Operations of the Act Laying Duties on Imports, Report on a National Bank, On the Establishment of a Mint, Report on Manufactures, and the Report on a Plan for the Further Support of Public Credit. So, the great enterprise in Hamilton's project of an administrative republic is the establishment of stability.
Report on Public CreditBefore the adjournment of the House in September 1789, they requested Hamilton to make a report on suggestions to improve the public credit by January 1790.Murray, p. 121. Hamilton had written to Robert Morris as early as 1781, that fixing the public credit will win their objective of independence. The sources that Hamilton used ranged from Frenchmen such as Jacques Necker and Montesquieu to British writers such as David Hume, Hume, Thomas Hobbes, Hobbes, and Malachy Postlethwayt.Chernow
Report on a National BankHamilton's Report on a National Bank was a projection from the first Report on the Public Credit. Although Hamilton had been forming ideas of a national bank as early as 1779, he had gathered ideas in various ways over the past eleven years. These included theories from Adam Smith, extensive studies on the Bank of England, the blunders of the Bank of North America and his experience in establishing the Bank of New York. He also used American records from James Wilson (justice), James Wilson, Pelatiah Webster, Gouverneur Morris, and from his assistant treasury secretary Tench Coxe. He thought that this plan for a National Bank could help in any sort of financial crisis. Hamilton suggested that Congress should charter the First Bank of the United States, National Bank with a capitalization of $10 million, one-fifth of which would be handled by the government. Since the government did not have the money, it would borrow the money from the bank itself, and repay the loan in ten even annual installments. The rest was to be available to individual investors. The bank was to be governed by a twenty-five-member board of directors that was to represent a large majority of the private shareholders, which Hamilton considered essential for his being under a private direction. Hamilton's bank model had many similarities to that of the Bank of England, except Hamilton wanted to exclude the government from being involved in public debt, but provide a large, firm, and elastic money supply for the functioning of normal businesses and usual economic development, among other differences. The tax revenue to initiate the bank was the same as he had previously proposed, increases on imported spirits: rum, liquor, and whiskey. The bill passed through the Senate practically without a problem, but objections to the proposal increased by the time it reached the House of Representatives. It was generally held by critics that Hamilton was serving the interests of the Northeast by means of the bank, and those of the agrarian lifestyle would not benefit from it. Among those critics was James Jackson (Georgia politician), James Jackson of Georgia, who also attempted to refute the report by quoting from ''The Federalist Papers''. Madison and Jefferson also opposed the bank bill. The potential of the capital not being moved to the Potomac if the bank was to have a firm establishment in Philadelphia was a more significant reason, and actions that Pennsylvania members of Congress took to keep the capital there made both men anxious.The Whiskey Rebellion also showed how in other financial plans, there was a distance between the classes as the wealthy profited from the taxes. Madison warned the Pennsylvania congress members that he would attack the bill as unconstitutional in the House, and followed up on his threat. Madison argued his case of where the power of a bank could be established within the Constitution, but he failed to sway members of the House, and his authority on the constitution was questioned by a few members. The bill eventually passed in an overwhelming fashion 39 to 20, on February 8, 1791. Washington hesitated to sign the bill, as he received suggestions from Attorney General Edmund Randolph and Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson dismissed the 'necessary and proper' clause as reasoning for the creation of a national bank, stating that the enumerated powers "can all be carried into execution without a bank." Along with Randolph and Jefferson's objections, Washington's involvement in the movement of the capital from Philadelphia is also thought to be a reason for his hesitation. In response to the objection of the 'necessary and proper' clause, Hamilton stated that "Necessary often means no more than needful, requisite, incidental, useful, or conductive to", and the bank was a "convenient species of medium in which they (taxes) are to be paid." Washington would eventually sign the bill into law.
Establishing the U.S. MintIn 1791, Hamilton submitted the Report on the Establishment of a Mint (coin), Mint to the House of Representatives. Many of Hamilton's ideas for this report were from European economists, resolutions from Continental Congress meetings from 1785 and 1786, and from people such as Robert Morris, Gouverneur Morris and Thomas Jefferson. Because the most circulated coins in the United States at the time were Spanish dollar, Spanish currency, Hamilton proposed that minting a United States dollar weighing almost as much as the Spanish peso would be the simplest way to introduce a national currency. Hamilton differed from European monetary policymakers in his desire to overprice gold relative to silver, on the grounds that the United States would always receive an influx of silver from the West Indies. Despite his own preference for a monometallic gold standard,Studentski; Krooss, p. 62. he ultimately issued a gold standard#Bimetallic standard, bimetallic currency at a fixed 15:1 ratio of silver to gold. Hamilton proposed that the U.S. dollar should have fractional coins using decimals, rather than eighths like the Spanish coinage. This innovation was originally suggested by Superintendent of Finance of the United States, Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris (financier), Robert Morris, with whom Hamilton corresponded after examining one of Morris's Nova Constellatio coins in 1783. He also desired the minting of small value coins, such as silver ten-cent and copper cent and half-cent pieces, for reducing the cost of living for the poor.Cooke, p. 88. One of his main objectives was for the general public to become accustomed to handling money on a frequent basis. By 1792, Hamilton's principles were adopted by Congress, resulting in the Coinage Act of 1792, and the creation of the United States Mint. There was to be a ten-dollar Gold Eagle coin, a silver dollar, and fractional money ranging from one-half to fifty cents. The coining of silver and gold was issued by 1795.
Revenue Cutter ServiceSmuggling off American coasts was an issue before the Revolutionary War, and after the Revolution it was more problematic. Along with smuggling, lack of shipping control, pirating, and a revenue unbalance were also major problems.Gibowicz, p. 256. In response, Hamilton proposed to Congress to enact a naval police force called Revenue Cutter Service, revenue cutters in order to patrol the waters and assist the custom collectors with confiscating contraband.Chernow
Whiskey as tax revenueOne of the principal sources of revenue Hamilton prevailed upon Congress to approve was an excise tax on whiskey. In his first Tariff Bill in January 1790, Hamilton proposed to raise the three million dollars needed to pay for government operating expenses and interest on domestic and foreign debts by means of an increase on duties on imported wines, distilled spirits, tea, coffee, and domestic spirits. It failed, with Congress complying with most recommendations excluding the excise tax on whiskey (Madison's tariff of the same year was a modification of Hamilton's that involved only imported duties and was passed in September). In response of diversifying revenues, as three-fourths of revenue gathered was from commerce with Great Britain, Hamilton attempted once again during his ''Report on Public Credit'' when presenting it in 1790 to implement an excise tax on both imported and domestic spirits.Chernow
Manufacturing and industryHamilton's next report was his ''Report on Manufactures''. Although he was requested by Congress on January 15, 1790, for a report for manufacturing that would expand the United States' independence, the report was not submitted until December 5, 1791. In the report, Hamilton quoted from ''Wealth of Nations'' and used the French physiocrats as an example for rejecting agrarianism and the physiocratic theory; respectively. Hamilton also refuted Smith's ideas of government noninterference, as it would have been detrimental for trade with other countries. Hamilton also thought of the United States being a primarily agrarian country would be at a disadvantage in dealing with Europe. In response to the agrarian detractors, Hamilton stated that the agriculturists' interest would be advanced by manufactures, and that agriculture was just as productive as manufacturing. Hamilton argued that developing an industrialization, industrial economy is impossible without protective tariffs. Among the ways that the government should assist manufacturing, Hamilton argued for government assistance to "infant industry argument, infant industries" so they can achieve economies of scale, by levying protective duties on imported foreign goods that were also manufactured in the United States,Cooke, p. 101. for withdrawing duties levied on raw materials needed for domestic manufacturing, and pecuniary boundaries. He also called for encouraging immigration for people to better themselves in similar employment opportunities. Congress shelved the report without much debate (except for Madison's objection to Hamilton's formulation of the General Welfare clause, which Hamilton construed liberally as a legal basis for his extensive programs). In 1791, Hamilton, along with Coxe and several entrepreneurs from New York and Philadelphia formed the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, a private industrial corporation. In May 1792, the directors decided to scope out The Passaic Falls. On July 4, 1792, the society directors met Philip Schuyler at Abraham Godwin's hotel on the Passaic River, where they would lead a tour prospecting the area for the national manufactory. It was originally suggested that they dig mile-long trenches and build the factories away from the falls, but Hamilton argued that it would be too costly and laborious. The location at Great Falls of the Passaic River in New Jersey was selected due to access to raw materials, it being densely inhabited, and having access to water power from the falls of the Passaic. The factory town was named Paterson after New Jersey's Governor William Paterson (judge), William Paterson, who signed the charter.Cooke, p. 103. The profits were to derive from specific corporates rather than the benefits to be conferred to the nation and the citizens, which was unlike the report.Cooke, p. 102. Hamilton also suggested the first stock to be offered at $500,000 and to eventually increase to $1 million, and welcomed state and federal government subscriptions alike. The company was never successful: numerous shareholders reneged on stock payments, some members soon went bankrupt, and William Duer (Continental Congressman), William Duer, the governor of the program, was sent to debtors' prison where he died. In spite of Hamilton's efforts to mend the disaster, the company folded.
Emergence of political partiesHamilton's vision was challenged by Virginia agrarians Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, who formed a rival party, the Democratic-Republican Party, Jeffersonian Republican party. They favored strong state governments based in rural America and protected by state militias as opposed to a strong national government supported by a national army and navy. They denounced Hamilton as insufficiently devoted to republicanism, too friendly toward corrupt Britain and toward monarchy in general, and too oriented toward cities, business and banking. The American First Party System, two-party system began to emerge as political parties coalesced around competing interests. A congressional caucus, led by Madison, Jefferson and William Branch Giles, began as an opposition group to Hamilton's financial programs. Hamilton and his allies began to call themselves ''Federalist Party, Federalists''. The opposition group, now called the Democratic-Republican Party by political scientists, at the time called itself ''Republicans''.See also Smith (2004), p. 832. Hamilton assembled a nationwide coalition to garner support for the Administration, including the expansive financial programs Hamilton had made administration policy and especially the president's policy of neutrality in the European war between Britain and France. Hamilton's public relations campaign attacked the French minister Edmond-Charles Genêt (he called himself "Citizen Genêt") who tried to appeal to voters directly, which Federalists denounced as foreign interference in American affairs. If Hamilton's administrative republic was to succeed, Americans had to see themselves first as citizens of a nation, and experience an administration that proved firm and demonstrated the concepts found within the United States Constitution. The Federalists did impose some internal direct taxes but they departed from the most implications of the Hamilton administrative republic as risky. The Jeffersonian Republicans opposed banks and cities, and favored France. They built their own national coalition to oppose the Federalists. Both sides gained the support of local political factions, and each side developed its own partisan newspapers. Noah Webster, John Fenno, and William Cobbett were energetic editors for the Federalists; Benjamin Franklin Bache (journalist), Benjamin Franklin Bache and Philip Freneau were fiery Republican editors. All of their newspapers were characterized by intense personal attacks, major exaggerations, and invented claims. In 1801, Hamilton established a daily newspaper that is still published, the ''New York Evening Post'' (now the '' ''), and brought in William Coleman (editor), William Coleman as its editor.Allan Nevins, ''The Evening Post: A Century of Journalism'' (1922
Jay Treaty and BritainWhen First Coalition, France and Britain went to war in early 1793, all four members of the Cabinet were consulted on what to do. They and Washington unanimously agreed to remain neutral, and to have the French ambassador who was raising privateers and mercenaries on American soil, Edmond-Charles Genêt, "Citizen" Genêt, recalled. However, in 1794 policy toward Britain became a major point of contention between the two parties. Hamilton and the Federalists wished for more trade with Britain, the largest trading partner of the newly formed United States. The Republicans saw monarchist Britain as the main threat to republicanism and proposed instead to start a trade war. To avoid war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to negotiate with the British; Hamilton largely wrote Jay's instructions. The result was Jay's Treaty. It was denounced by the Republicans, but Hamilton mobilized support throughout the land. The Jay Treaty passed the Senate in 1795 by exactly the required two-thirds majority. The Treaty resolved issues remaining from the Revolution, averted war, and made possible ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain. Historian George Herring notes the "remarkable and fortuitous economic and diplomatic gains" produced by the Treaty. Several European states had formed a Second League of Armed Neutrality, League of Armed Neutrality against incursions on their neutral rights; the Cabinet was also consulted on whether the United States should join the alliance, and decided not to. It kept that decision secret, but Hamilton revealed it in private to George Hammond, the British minister to the United States, without telling Jay or anyone else. His act remained unknown until Hammond's dispatches were read in the 1920s. This "amazing revelation" may have had limited effect on the negotiations; Jay did threaten to join the League at one point, but the British had other reasons not to view the League as a serious threat.
Second Report on Public Credit and resignations from public officeHamilton tendered his resignation from office on December 1, 1794, giving Washington two months' notice, in the wake of his Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, wife Eliza's miscarriage while he was absent during his armed repression of the Whiskey Rebellion.Chernow
1796 presidential electionHamilton's resignation as Secretary of the Treasury in 1795 did not remove him from public life. With the resumption of his law practice, he remained close to Washington as an advisor and friend. Hamilton influenced Washington in the composition of his George Washington's Farewell Address, farewell address by writing drafts for Washington to compare with the latter's draft, although when Washington contemplated retirement in 1792, he had consulted James Madison for a draft that was used in a similar manner to Hamilton's. In the 1796 United States presidential election, election of 1796, under the Constitution as it stood then, each of the presidential Electoral College (United States), electors had two votes, which they were to cast for different men. The one who received the most votes would become president, the second-most, vice president. This system was not designed with the operation of parties in mind, as they had been thought disreputable and factious. The Federalists planned to deal with this by having all their Electors vote for John Adams, then vice president, and all but a few for Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina. Adams resented Hamilton's influence with Washington and considered him overambitious and scandalous in his private life; Hamilton compared Adams unfavorably with Washington and thought him too emotionally unstable to be president.Chernow
Reynolds affair scandalIn the summer of 1797, Hamilton became the first major American politician publicly involved in a sex scandal. Six years earlier, in the summer of 1791, 34-year-old Hamilton started an affair with 23-year-old Maria Reynolds. According to Hamilton's recount, Maria approached him at his house in Philadelphia, claiming that her husband, James Reynolds, had abandoned her and she wished to return to her relatives in New York but lacked the means. Hamilton retrieved her address and delivered her $30 personally at her boarding house where she led him into her bedroom and "Some conversation ensued from which it was quickly apparent that other than pecuniary consolation would be acceptable". The two began an intermittent illicit affair that lasted approximately until June 1792. Over the course of that year, while the affair took place, James Reynolds was well aware of his wife's unfaithfulness. He continually supported their relationship to regularly gain blackmail money from Hamilton. The common practice in the day was for the wronged husband to seek retribution in a pistol duel, but Reynolds, realizing how much Hamilton had to lose if his activity came into public view, insisted on monetary compensation instead. After an initial request of $1,000 to which Hamilton complied, Reynolds invited Hamilton to renew his visits to his wife "as a friend" only to extort forced "loans" after each visit that the most likely colluding Maria solicited with her letters. In the end, the blackmail payments totaled over $1,300 including the initial extortion. Hamilton at this point was possibly aware of both Reynoldses being involved in the blackmail and welcomed as well as strictly complied with Reynolds' request to end the affair. In November 1792, James Reynolds and his associate Jacob Clingman were arrested for counterfeiting and speculating in Revolutionary War veterans' unpaid back wages. Clingman was released on bail and relayed information to James Monroe that Reynolds had evidence that would incriminate Hamilton. Monroe consulted with congressmen Muhlenberg and Venable on what actions to take and the congressmen confronted Hamilton on December 15, 1792. Hamilton refuted the suspicions of speculation by exposing his affair with Maria and producing as evidence the letters by both Reynoldses, proving that his payments to James Reynolds related to blackmail over his adultery, and not to treasury misconduct. The trio were to keep the documents privately with the utmost confidence. In the summer of 1797, however, when "notoriously scurrilous journalist" James T. Callender published ''A History of the United States for the Year 1796'', it contained accusations of James Reynolds being an agent of Hamilton, using documents from the confrontation of December 15, 1792. On July 5, 1797, Hamilton wrote to Monroe, Muhlenberg and Venable asking them to confirm that there was nothing that would damage the perception of his integrity while Secretary of Treasury. All complied with Hamilton's request but Monroe. Hamilton then published a 100-page booklet, later usually referred to as the Hamilton–Reynolds affair, Reynolds Pamphlet, and discussed the affair in exquisite detail. Hamilton's wife Elizabeth eventually forgave him, but not Monroe. Although he faced ridicule from the Democratic-Republican faction, he maintained his availability for public service.
Quasi-WarDuring the military build-up of the Quasi-War of 1798–1800, and with the strong endorsement of Washington (who had been called out of retirement to lead the Army if a French invasion materialized), Adams reluctantly appointed Hamilton a Major general (United States), major general of the army. At Washington's insistence, Hamilton was made the senior major general, prompting Henry Knox to decline appointment to serve as Hamilton's junior (Knox had been a major general in the and thought it would be degrading to serve beneath him).Chernow
1800 presidential electionIn the 1800 election, Hamilton worked to defeat not only the rival Democratic-Republican candidates, but also his party's own nominee, John Adams. In November 1799, the Alien and Sedition Acts had left one Democratic-Republican newspaper functioning in New York City; when the last, the ''New Daily Advertiser'', reprinted an article saying that Hamilton had attempted to purchase the Philadelphia ''Aurora'' and close it down, Hamilton had the publisher prosecuted for seditious libel, and the prosecution compelled the owner to close the paper. Aaron Burr had won New York for Jefferson in May; now Hamilton proposed a rerun of the election under different rules—with carefully drawn districts and each choosing an elector—such that the Federalists would split the electoral vote of New York. (John Jay, a Federalist who had given up the Supreme Court to be Governor of New York, wrote on the back of the letter the words, "Proposing a measure for party purposes which it would not become me to adopt," and declined to reply.) John Adams was running this time with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina (the elder brother of candidate Thomas Pinckney from the 1796 election). Hamilton now toured New England, again urging northern electors to hold firm for Pinckney in the renewed hope of making Pinckney president; and he again intrigued in South Carolina. Hamilton's ideas involved coaxing middle-state Federalists to assert their non-support for Adams if there was no support for Pinckney and writing to more of the modest supports of Adams concerning his supposed misconduct while president. Hamilton expected to see southern states such as the Carolinas cast their votes for Pinckney and Jefferson, and would result in the former being ahead of both Adams and Jefferson. In accordance with the second of the aforementioned plans, and a recent personal rift with Adams, Hamilton wrote a pamphlet called ''Letter from Alexander Hamilton, Concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq. President of the United States'' that was highly critical of him, though it closed with a tepid endorsement. He mailed this to two hundred leading Federalists; when a copy fell into the Democratic-Republicans' hands, they printed it. This hurt Adams's 1800 reelection campaign and split the Federalist Party, virtually assuring the victory of the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson, in the election of 1800; it destroyed Hamilton's position among the Federalists. Jefferson had beaten Adams, but both he and Aaron Burr had received 73 votes in the Electoral College (Adams finished in third place, Pinckney in fourth, and Jay received one vote). With Jefferson and Burr tied, the United States House of Representatives had to choose between the two men. Several Federalists who opposed Jefferson supported Burr, and for the first 35 ballots, Jefferson was denied a majority. Before the 36th ballot, Hamilton threw his weight behind Jefferson, supporting the arrangement reached by James A. Bayard (elder), James A. Bayard of Delaware, in which five Federalist Representatives from Maryland and Vermont abstained from voting, allowing those states' delegations to go for Jefferson, ending the impasse and electing Jefferson president rather than Burr. Even though Hamilton did not like Jefferson and disagreed with him on many issues, he viewed Jefferson as the Lesser of two evils principle, lesser of two evils. Hamilton spoke of Jefferson as being "by far not so a dangerous man", and that Burr was a "mischievous enemy" to the principal measure of the past administration. It was for that reason, along with the fact that Burr was a northerner and not a Virginian, that many Federalist Representatives voted for him. Hamilton wrote an exceeding number of letters to friends in Congress to convince the members to see otherwise. The Federalists rejected Hamilton's diatribe as reasons to not vote for Burr. Nevertheless, Burr would become Vice President of the United States. When it became clear that Jefferson had developed his own concerns about Burr and would not support his return to the vice presidency, Burr sought the New York governorship in 1804 with Federalist support, against the Jeffersonian Morgan Lewis (governor), Morgan Lewis, but was defeated by forces including Hamilton.
Duel with Burr and deathSoon after the 1804 gubernatorial election in New York—in which Morgan Lewis (governor), Morgan Lewis, greatly assisted by Hamilton, defeated Aaron Burr—the ''Albany Register'' published Charles D. Cooper's letters, citing Hamilton's opposition to Burr and alleging that Hamilton had expressed "a still more despicable opinion" of the Vice President at an upstate New York dinner party. Cooper claimed that the letter was intercepted after relaying the information, but stated he was "unusually cautious" in recollecting the information from the dinner.Chernow
Married lifeWhile Hamilton was stationed in Morristown, New Jersey, in the winter of December 1779 – March 1780, he met Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, Elizabeth Schuyler, a daughter of General Philip Schuyler and Catherine Van Rensselaer. The two were married on December 14, 1780, at the Schuyler Mansion in Albany, New York.Chernow
Hamilton's religious faithAs a youth in the West Indies, Hamilton was an orthodox and conventional Presbyterian of the "First Great Awakening, New Light" evangelical type (as opposed to the "Old Light" Calvinists); he was taught there by a student of John Witherspoon, a moderate of the New School. He wrote two or three hymns, which were published in the local newspaper.Chernow
Relationship with Jews and JudaismHamilton's birthplace on the island of Nevis had a large Jewish community, constituting one quarter of Charlestown's white population by the 1720s. He came into contact with Jews on a regular basis; as a small boy, he was tutored by a Jewish schoolmistress, and had learned to recite the Ten Commandments in the original Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew. Hamilton exhibited a degree of respect for Jews that was described by Chernow as "a life-long reverence."Chernow
LegacyHamilton's interpretations of the Constitution set forth in the ''Federalist Papers'' remain highly influential, as seen in scholarly studies and court decisions. Although the Constitution was ambiguous as to the exact balance of power between national and state governments, Hamilton consistently took the side of greater federal power at the expense of the states. As Secretary of the Treasury, he established—against the intense opposition of Secretary of State Jefferson—the country's first ''de facto'' central bank. Hamilton justified the creation of this bank, and other increased federal powers, under Congress's constitutional powers to issue currency, to regulate interstate commerce, and to do anything else that would be "Necessary and proper clause, necessary and proper" to enact the provisions of the Constitution. On the other hand, Jefferson took a stricter view of the Constitution. Parsing the text carefully, he found no specific authorization for a national bank. This controversy was eventually settled by the Supreme Court of the United States in ''McCulloch v. Maryland'', which in essence adopted Hamilton's view, granting the federal government broad freedom to select the best means to execute its constitutionally enumerated powers, specifically the doctrine of implied powers. Nevertheless, the American Civil War and the Progressive Era demonstrated the sorts of crises and politics Hamilton's administrative republic sought to avoid. Hamilton's policies as Secretary of the Treasury greatly affected the United States government and still continue to influence it. His constitutional interpretation, specifically of the Necessary and Proper Clause, set precedents for federal authority that are still used by the courts and are considered an authority on constitutional interpretation. The prominent French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, who spent 1794 in the United States, wrote, "I consider Napoleon I of France, Napoleon, Charles James Fox, Fox, and Hamilton the three greatest men of our epoch, and if I were forced to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation the first place to Hamilton", adding that Hamilton had intuited the problems of European conservatives. Opinions of Hamilton have run the gamut as both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson viewed him as unprincipled and dangerously aristocratic. Hamilton's reputation was mostly negative in the eras of Jeffersonian democracy and Jacksonian democracy. By the Progressive era, Herbert Croly, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Theodore Roosevelt praised his leadership of a strong government. Several nineteenth- and twentieth-century History of the Republican Party (United States), Republicans entered politics by writing laudatory biographies of Hamilton. In more recent years, according to Sean Wilentz, favorable views of Hamilton and his reputation have decidedly gained the initiative among scholars, who portray him as the visionary architect of the modern liberal capitalist economy and of a dynamic federal government headed by an energetic executive. Modern scholars favoring Hamilton have portrayed Jefferson and his allies, in contrast, as naïve, dreamy idealists. The older Jeffersonian view attacked Hamilton as a centralizer, sometimes to the point of accusations that he advocated monarchy.Chernow
Monuments and memorials
U.S. Army unit lineageThe lineage of Hamilton's New York Provincial Company of Artillery has been perpetuated in the United States Army in a series of units nicknamed "Hamilton's Own". It was carried as of 2010 by the 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment. In the Regular Army (United States), Regular Army, it is the oldest unit and the only one with Army National Guard and Active Regular Army Units with Colonial Roots, credit for the Revolutionary War.
U.S. Coast Guard vesselsA number of Coast Guard vessels have been given a designation after Alexander Hamilton, including: * ''(Alexander) Hamilton'' (1830) the fastest vessel in Morris-Taney Class of cutters, operated out of Boston for much of her career. It became famous for rescues and saving of property and extremely popular, so much so that music was written in November 1839 titled "The Cutter Hamilton Quick step." ''Hamilton'' was lost in a gale in 1853. * USS ''Alexander Hamilton'' (1871), was a revenue cutter in service from 1871 to 1906, and a participant in the Spanish–American War. * USS_Vicksburg_(PG-11)#Coast_Guard,_1921–1944, ''Alexander Hamilton'' (WIX 272), as the U. S. Navy gunboat ''Vicksburg'' and others of the Annapolis-class were authorized to be built in 1895 with a mission to show the flag and keep order in foreign ports, supporting the "gunboat diplomacy" policy of the period. Gunboat technology advanced rapidly at the turn of the last century, and the class of steam and sail quickly became obsolete. The ''Vicksburg'' was transferred to the Coast Guard in 1921, and in the following year was commissioned with the name ''Alexander Hamilton'', replacing the ''Itasca'' as the Coast Guard Academy's training ship. She was decommissioned in 1944 and was transferred to the War Shipping Administration in 1946. * USCGC Alexander Hamilton, USCGC ''Alexander Hamilton'' (WPG-34) was a Treasury-class United States Coast Guard Cutter launched in 1937. Sunk after an attack by a German U-boat in January 1942, the ''Hamilton'' was the U.S. Coast Guard's first loss of World War II. * USCGC Hamilton (WHEC-715), USCGC ''Hamilton'' (WHEC-715) was a U.S. Coast Guard cutter in service from 1967 to 2011 and transferred to the Philippine Navy as an excess defense article under the Foreign Assistance Act as BRP Gregorio del Pilar (PS-15), BRP ''Gregorio del Pilar''. * USCGC Hamilton (WMSL-753), USCGC ''Hamilton'' (WMSL-753) is a U.S. Coast Guard cutter commissioned in 2014.
U.S.Navy vesselsA number of vessels in the U.S. Navy have borne the designation USS ''Hamilton'', though some have been named for other men. The USS Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617), USS ''Alexander Hamilton'' (SSBN-617) was the second LAFAYETTE - class nuclear-powered fleet ballistic missile submarine.
Portraits on currency and postage stampsSince the beginning of the American Civil War, Hamilton has been List of people on United States banknotes, depicted on more denominations of United States currency, U.S. currency than anyone else. He has appeared on the :File:US-$2-LT-1862-Fr-41.jpg , $2, :File:US-$5-DN-1861-Fr.1.jpg , $5, :File:US-$10-FRN-1934-A-Fr.2303.jpg , $10, :File:US-$20-LT-1875-Fr-128.jpg , $20, :File:US-$50-LT-1862-Fr-148a.jpg , $50, and :File:US-$1000-GC-1882-Fr.1218g.jpg , $1,000 notes. Hamilton also appears on the $500 Series EE Savings Bond. Hamilton's portrait has been featured on the front of the US ten dollar bill, U.S. $10 bill since 1928. The source of the engraving is John Trumbull's 1805 portrait of Hamilton, in the portrait collection of New York City Hall. In June 2015, the United States Treasury, U.S. Treasury announced a decision to replace the engraving of Hamilton with that of Harriet Tubman. It was later decided to leave Hamilton on the $10, and replace Andrew Jackson with Tubman on the $20. Hamilton's portrait remained, and it was announced that a portrait of Harriet Tubman would instead appear on the United States twenty-dollar bill, $20 bill. The first postage stamp to honor Hamilton was issued by the U.S. Post Office in 1870. The portrayals on the 1870 and 1888 issues are from the same engraved die, which was modeled after a Alexander Hamilton (Ceracchi), bust of Hamilton by Italian sculptor Giuseppe Ceracchi. The Hamilton 1870 issue was the first U.S. postage stamp to honor a Secretary of the Treasury. The three-cent red commemorative issue, which was released on the 200th anniversary of Hamilton's birth in 1957, includes a rendition of the Federal Hall#Historic building, Federal Hall building, located in New York City. On March 19, 1956, the United States Postal Service issued the $5 Liberty Issue postage stamp honoring Hamilton.
The GrangeHamilton Grange National Memorial, The Grange is the only home Alexander Hamilton ever owned. It is a Federal style mansion designed by John McComb Jr.. It was built on Hamilton's 32-acre country estate in Hamilton Heights in upper Manhattan, and was completed in 1802. Hamilton named the house "The Grange" after the estate of his grandfather Alexander in Ayrshire, Scotland. The house remained in the family until 1833, when his widow Eliza sold it to Thomas E. Davis, a British-born real estate developer, for $25,000. Part of the proceeds were used by Eliza to purchase a new townhouse from Davis in Greenwich Village (now known as the Hamilton-Holly House, where Eliza lived until 1843 with her grown children Alexander and Eliza, and their spouses). The Grange was first moved from its original location in 1889, and was moved again in 2008 to a spot in St. Nicholas Park in Hamilton Heights, on land that was once part of the Hamilton estate. The historic structure, now designated as the Hamilton Grange National Memorial, was restored to its original 1802 appearance in 2011, and is maintained by the National Park Service.
Colleges and universitiesColumbia University, Hamilton's alma mater, has official memorials to Hamilton on its campus in New York City. The college's main classroom building for the humanities is Hamilton Hall (Columbia University), Hamilton Hall, and a large statue of Hamilton stands in front of it. The Columbia University Press, university press has published his complete works in a multivolume letterpress edition. Columbia University's student group for ROTC cadets and Marine officer candidates is named the Alexander Hamilton Society. Hamilton served as one of the first trustees of the Hamilton-Oneida Academy in Clinton, New York, which was renamed Hamilton College (New York), Hamilton College in 1812, after receiving a college charter. The main administration building of the United States Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut, is named Hamilton Hall to commemorate Hamilton's creation of the United States Revenue Cutter Service, one of the predecessor services of the United States Coast Guard.
=Secondary schools= * Alexander Hamilton High School (Los Angeles) * Alexander Hamilton Jr./Sr. High School (Elmsford, New York) * Alexander Hamilton High School (Brooklyn) * Alexander Hamilton High School (Milwaukee)
Buildings, public works and public artAt Hamilton's birthplace in Charlestown, Nevis, the Alexander Hamilton Museum was located in Hamilton House, a Georgian architecture, Georgian-style building rebuilt on the foundations of the house where Hamilton was once believed to have been born and to have lived during his childhood. The Nevis Heritage Centre, located next door (to the south) of the museum building, is the current site of the museum's Alexander Hamilton exhibit. The wooden building, historically of the same age as the museum building, was known locally as the Trott House, as Trott was the surname of the family that owned the house in recent times. Evidence gradually accumulated that the wooden house was the actual historical home of Hamilton and his mother, and in 2011, the wooden house and land were acquired by the Nevis Historical and Conservation Society. The U.S. Army's Fort Hamilton (1831) in Brooklyn at the entrance to New York Harbor is named after Hamilton. It is the fourth oldest installation in the nation, after: West Point (1778), Carlisle Barracks (1779), and Fort Leslie J McNair (1791). In 1880, Hamilton's son John Church Hamilton commissioned Carl Conrads to sculpt a granite Alexander Hamilton (Conrads), statue, now located in Central Park, New York City. The Hamilton Club in Brooklyn, NY commissioned William Ordway Partridge to cast a bronze statue of Hamilton that was completed in 1892 for exhibition at the World's Columbian Exposition and later installed in front of the club on the corner of Remsen and Clinton Streets in 1893. The club was absorbed by another and the building demolished, and so the statue was removed in 1936 to Hamilton Grange National Memorial, then located on Convent Avenue in Manhattan. Though the home it stood in front of on Convent Avenue was itself relocated in 2007, the statue remains at that location. A bronze statue of Hamilton by Franklin Simmons, dated 1905–06, overlooks the Great Falls (Passaic River), Great Falls of the Passaic River at Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park in New Jersey. In Washington, D.C., the south terrace of the Treasury Building (Washington, D.C.), Treasury Building features a Alexander Hamilton (Fraser), statue of Hamilton by James Earle Fraser (sculptor), James Earle Fraser, which was dedicated on May 17, 1923. In Chicago, a thirteen-foot tall Statue of Alexander Hamilton (Chicago), statue of Hamilton by sculptor John Angel (sculptor), John Angel was cast in 1939. It was not installed at Lincoln Park until 1952, due to problems with a John Angel (sculptor)#Chicago Hamilton statue, controversial 78-foot tall columned shelter designed for it and later demolished in 1993. Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen was to create a "colossal architectural setting" for it, which was ultimately rejected. It was redesigned by another architect, completed in 1952, and demolished due to structural problems in 1993. The statue has remained on public display, and was restored and gilded, regilded in 2016. Connecting the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and The Bronx is the Alexander Hamilton Bridge, an eight-lane steel arch bridge that carries traffic over the Harlem River, near his former Grange estate. It connects the Trans-Manhattan Expressway in the Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washington Heights section of Manhattan and the Cross-Bronx Expressway, as part of Interstate 95 in New York, Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1 in New York, U.S. 1. The bridge opened to traffic on January 15, 1963, the same day that the Cross-Bronx Expressway was completed. In 1990, the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, U.S. Custom House in New York City was renamed after Hamilton. A bronze sculpture of Hamilton titled ''The American Cape'', by Kristen Visbal, was unveiled at Journal Square in downtown Hamilton, Ohio, in October 2004.
Geographic sitesNumerous American towns and cities, including Hamilton, Kansas; Hamilton, Missouri; Hamilton, Massachusetts; and Hamilton, Ohio; were named in honor of Alexander Hamilton. In eight states, counties have been named for Hamilton: Two additional counties, in Iowa and Texas, were named Hamilton after other individuals.
On slaveryHamilton is not known to have ever owned slaves, although members of his family were slave owners. At the time of her death, Hamilton's mother owned two slaves named Christian and Ajax, and she had written a will leaving them to her sons; however, due to their illegitimacy, Hamilton and his brother were held ineligible to inherit her property, and never took ownership of the slaves. Later, as a youth in St. Croix, Hamilton worked for a company trading in commodities that included slaves. During his career, Hamilton did occasionally purchase or sell slaves for others as their legal representative, and one of Hamilton's grandsons interpreted some of these journal entries as being purchases for himself. By the time of Hamilton's early participation in the American Revolution, his abolitionist sensibilities had become evident. Hamilton was active during the Revolution in trying to raise black troops for the army, with the promise of freedom. In the 1780s and 1790s, he generally opposed pro-slavery southern interests, which he saw as hypocritical to the values of the American Revolution. In 1785, he joined his close associate John Jay in founding the New York Manumission Society, New-York Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, and Protecting Such of Them as Have Been, or May be Liberated, the main anti-slavery organization in New York. The society successfully promoted the abolition of the international slave trade in New York City and passed a state law to end slavery in New York through a decades-long process of emancipation, with a final end to slavery in the state on July 4, 1827. At a time when most white leaders doubted the capacity of blacks, Hamilton believed slavery was morally wrong and wrote that "their natural faculties are as good as ours." Unlike contemporaries such as Jefferson, who considered the removal of freed slaves (to a western territory, the West Indies, or Africa) to be essential to any plan for emancipation, Hamilton pressed for emancipation with no such provisions. Hamilton and other Federalists supported Toussaint Louverture's revolution against France in Haiti, which had originated as a slave revolt. Hamilton's suggestions helped shape the Haitian constitution. In 1804 when Haiti became the Western Hemisphere's first independent state with a majority Black population, Hamilton urged closer economic and diplomatic ties.
On economicsHamilton has been portrayed as the "patron saint" of the American School (economics), American School of economic philosophy that, according to one historian, dominated economic policy after 1861. His ideas and work influenced the 18th century German economist Friedrich List, and Abraham Lincoln's chief economic advisor Henry C. Carey, among others. Hamilton firmly supported government intervention in favor of business, after the manner of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, as early as the fall of 1781.Chernow
In popular cultureImage:Lin-Manuel Miranda in Hamilton.jpg , thumb , Lin-Manuel Miranda performs the title role in the Hamilton (musical), 2015 musical ''Hamilton''. Hamilton has appeared as a significant figure in popular works of historical fiction, including many that focused on other American political figures of his time. In comparison to other Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Fathers, Hamilton attracted relatively little attention in American popular culture in the 20th century,Hamilton was not mentioned in standard reference guides to popular culture. See, ''e.g.'', apart from his portrait on the $10 bill.
Theatre and film* A stage play called ''Hamilton (play), Hamilton'', which ran on Broadway theatre, Broadway in 1917, was co-written by George Arliss, who played the title role. Arliss reprised the role of Hamilton in Alexander Hamilton (film), a 1931 film based on the stage play. * In 2015, Hamilton's profile in popular culture was significantly raised by the hit Broadway show ''Hamilton (musical), Hamilton: An American Musical'', written by Lin-Manuel Miranda, who débuted the title role. The musical, which Miranda based on a Alexander Hamilton (book), biography by Ron Chernow, was described by ''The New Yorker'' as "an achievement of historical and cultural reimagining. In Miranda's telling, the headlong rise of one self-made immigrant becomes the story of America." The Off-Broadway production of ''Hamilton'' won the 2015 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical as well as seven other Drama Desk Awards. In 2016, ''Hamilton'' received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, and set a record with 16 Tony Award nominations, of which the show won 11, including Tony Award for Best Musical, Best Musical. An Obama administration plan to replace Hamilton on the $10 bill was shelved due in part to the popularity of the musical. * On July 3, 2020, Disney+ released the movie Hamilton (2020 film), ''Hamilton'', an authorized film of the Broadway stage production performed by the original cast.
Literature* Novelist Gertrude Atherton wrote a fictionalized biography, ''The Conqueror, Being the True and Romantic Story of Alexander Hamilton'', published in 1902. * Gore Vidal's 1973 historical novel ''Burr (novel), Burr'' included Hamilton as a major character. * L. Neil Smith cast Hamilton as a principal villain in the historical background of his 1980 libertarian alternative history novel ''The Probability Broach'' and its sequels in the ''North American Confederacy'' series.
Television* ''The Adams Chronicles'', a 1976 PBS miniseries, featured Hamilton in a major recurring role. * ''George Washington II: The Forging of a Nation'', a 1986 TV series, included Hamilton as a main character, portrayed by Richard Bekins. * In the 2000 ''A&E (TV network), A&E'' TV movie ''The Crossing (2000 film), The Crossing'', about Valley Forge, Hamilton is played by Canadian actor Steven McCarthy and is portrayed memorably at the start of the Battle of Trenton.The Crossing, Sony Pictures, 2000 * ''John Adams (miniseries), John Adams'', a 2008 HBO miniseries in seven parts, featured Rufus Sewell as Hamilton in two episodes. * ''Legends & Lies'', a television documentary, documentary series produced by Bill O'Reilly (political commentator), Bill O'Reilly, featured Alexander McPherson as Hamilton in eight episodes that aired on Fox News in 2016. * ''Turn: Washington's Spies'', an AMC (TV channel), AMC period drama, included Sean Haggerty in a recurring role as Hamilton in its final two seasons (2016–2017).
Other* An organized group of faithless electors in the 2016 United States presidential election called themselves "Hamilton electors", seeking to link their efforts to Hamilton's Federalist No. 68.
See also* Compromise of 1790 * History of central banking in the United States * List of foreign-born United States Cabinet Secretaries * Panic of 1792
Biographies* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Specialized studies* * * * Balogh, Brian. 2009. ''A Government out of Sight: The Mystery of National Authority in Nineteenth Century American''. New York: Cambridge University Press. * Bordewich, Fergus M. ''The First Congress: How James Madison, George Washington, and a Group of Extraordinary Men Invented the Government'' (2016) on 1789–91. * A one-volume recasting of Brant's six-volume life. * * * * * Detailed political history of the 1790s
Primary sources* Cooke, Jacob E., ed. ''Alexander Hamilton: A Profile''. 1967. (short excerpts from Hamilton and his critics) * Cunningham, Noble E. ''Jefferson vs. Hamilton: Confrontations that Shaped a Nation''. 2000. (short collection of primary sources, with commentary) * (all of Hamilton's major writings and many of his letters) * Freeman, Joanne B., ed., ''The Essential Hamilton: Letters & Other Writings'' (Library of America, 2017) 424 pp. (abridged ed.) * Frisch, Morton J., ed. ''Selected Writings and Speeches of Alexander Hamilton.'' 1985. * Goebel, Julius, Jr., and Joseph H. Smith, eds. ''The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton''. 5 vols. Columbia University Press, 1964–80. (comprehensive edition of Hamilton's legal papers) * Hamilton, Alexander. ''Report on Manufactures''. (economic program for the United States) * Hamilton, Alexander. ''Report on Public Credit''. (financial program for the United States) * Hamilton, Alexander; John Church Hamilton, Hamilton, John Church. ''The Works of Alexander Hamilton: Miscellanies, 1789–1795: France; Duties on imports; National bank; Manufactures; Revenue circulars; Reports on claims''. 1850. John F. Trow, printer.