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Alessandro Pavolini (September 27, 1903 – April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government, during World War II, and also, for his cruelty against the opponents of fascism.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 Prominence 3 Capture and death 4 References 5 External links

Early life and career[edit] A native of Florence, Pavolini was the son of Paolo Emilio Pavolini, a major scholar of Sanskrit and other Indo-European languages. A brilliant student, he earned a law degree at the University of Florence and a political science degree at La Sapienza in Rome, travelling to and fro between the two cities. His brother was the writer Corrado Pavolini. After joining Benito Mussolini's movement in Florence, he took part in several actions of the Blackshirts, and led a squad during the 1922 March on Rome – the moment when Fascism took over in Italy. Pavolini was assigned tasks in the cultural field (including youth programs launched by the fascists), while contributing to fascist publications such as Battaglie fasciste, Rivoluzione fascista, and Critica fascista. Thanks to his acquaintance with Florentine fascist leader Luigi Ridolfi, he broke into active politics, becoming Ridolfi's deputy in 1927. From 1929 to 1934, he was local leader of the National Fascist Party (PNF) in Florence, as well as editor of the fascist publication Il Bargello (named after a military rank of the Middle Ages), which urged all intellectuals to contribute; Pavolini aimed for an image of Fascism as cultural and aristocratic – he initiated a series of cultural events that survived both Fascism and his death, including the yearly costumed re-enactment of the Italian Renaissance-era sport Calcio Fiorentino, the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino and the Ponte Vecchio Artisans' Exhibit. Between 1934 and 1942, he was a regular contributor to Corriere della Sera as a "special guest". Prominence[edit]

From left to right, the dead bodies of Bombacci, Mussolini, Petacci, Pavolini and Starace in Piazzale Loreto, 1945.

After becoming a member of the national PNF leadership in 1932, he moved on from local politics to become the president of the Fascist Confederation of Professionals and Artists, which propelled him to a leadership position in the Council of Corporations. He took part in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War as a lieutenant inspecting the squadron led by Galeazzo Ciano (a group nicknamed La Disperata), and as a correspondent for Corriere della Sera. Throughout his political career, Pavolini published cultural and literary essays, such as Disperata ("The Desperate"; 1937) and Scomparsa d'Angela ("Angela's Disappearance"; 1940). In 1939, he was appointed by Mussolini Minister of Popular Culture, and served until January 1943. Minister of Popular Culture (Minculpop in short) meant in fact Ministry of Propaganda and Pavolini had an iron grip on what the press could or could not publish. The written instructions to the press (including radio broadcasts and "Luce" cinema newsreels) were dubbed veline by the newsmen and covered an amazing variety of domains (from forbidding to publish photos of boxer Primo Canera knocked out and lying unconscious to the obligation of publishing flattering propaganda photos of Mussolini on a brand new Fiat tractor or forbidding to publish photos of Naples under the snow, fearing it would damage the tourism industry). Minculpop also tackled the cinema industry (the famous and very creative Cinecitta studios in Rome were created by Mussolini's will to act as a counter against Hollywood productions; the Venice film festival is also a creation of the fascist period). Pavolini was deeply involved in the cinema industry (either on the propaganda or on the entertainment sides of it) and famously had a much publicized affair with Doris Duranti, a film actress of the period who starred in the Telefoni Bianchi subgenre of light comedy films and prominently featured in the very first bare-bosomed scene in Italian cinema. The Allied invasion of Sicily and the ousting of Mussolini in Rome brought Nazi intervention and the proclamation of a new fascist puppet state, the northern Italian Social Republic. Pavolini was integrated into the Republic's administration under Mussolini, and was immediately promoted head of the successor of the PNF, the Republican Fascist Party (PFR) (the only person to occupy that post); he took part in the drafting of major documents, including the Verona manifesto that called for the execution of former Grand Council of Fascism members who had voted against Mussolini in April, and was behind the creation of the Black Brigades. Capture and death[edit] Pavolini was captured after a desperate escape attempt which saw him swimming across Lake Como and then trapped in a Mexican standoff over a half submerged rock. When Pavolini ran out of bullets, he was finally apprehended and executed by the partisans in Dongo. Before his burial, he was hung upside down in public, along with Mussolini, his mistress Clara Petacci, the former Party Secretary Achille Starace, Nicola Bombacci and others in Piazzale Loreto, Milan.[1] References[edit]

^ Steve Cole (August 5, 2009). "The Execution of Mussolini". 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alessandro Pavolini

Italian Government (Archived 2009-10-25) at www.geocities.com

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Members of Mussolini Cabinet

Head of government and duce of Fascism

Benito Mussolini

Minister of the Air Force (since 1925)

Italo Balbo

Minister of Foreign Affairs

Benito Mussolini Dino Grandi Galeazzo Ciano

Minister of agriculture (abolished in 1923)

Giuseppe De Capitani D'Arzago

Minister of Agriculture and Forestry (since 1929)

Giacomo Acerbo Edmondo Rossoni Giuseppe Tassinari Carlo Pareschi

Minister of the Colonies (abolished in 1937)

Luigi Federzoni Benito Mussolini Pietro Lanza di Scalea Emilio De Bono Alessandro Lessona

Minister of Italian Africa (since 1937)

Alessandro Lessona Benito Mussolini Attilio Teruzzi

Minister of Communications (since 1924)

Costanzo Ciano Umberto Puppini Antonio Stefano Benni Nino Host Venturi Vittorio Cini Giuseppe Peverelli

Minister of Corporations (since 1926)

Benito Mussolini Giuseppe Bottai Ferruccio Lantini Renato Ricci Carlo Tiengo Tullio Cianetti

Ministry of People's Culture (since 1937)

Dino Alfieri Alessandro Pavolini Gaetano Polverelli

Minister of the Interior

Benito Mussolini Luigi Federzoni

Minister of domestic economy

Orso Mario Corbino Cesare Nava Giuseppe Belluzzo Alessandro Martelli

Minister of domestic education

Balbino Giuliano Francesco Ercole Cesare Maria De Vecchi Giuseppe Bottai Carlo Alberto Biggini

Minister of Finance

Alberto De Stefani Giuseppe Volpi Antonio Mosconi Guido Jung Paolo Ignazio Maria Thaon di Revel Giacomo Acerbo

Minister of Justice and Affairs of Religion

Aldo Oviglio Alfredo Rocco Pietro De Francisci Arrigo Solmi Dino Grandi Alfredo De Marsico

Minister of Industry and Commerce

Teofilo Rossi

Minister of Public Works

Gabriello Carnazza Gino Sarrocchi Giovanni Giuriati Benito Mussolini Michele Bianchi Araldo di Crollalanza Luigi Razza Giuseppe Cobolli Gigli Adelchi Serena Giuseppe Gorla Zenone Benini

Minister of War

Armando Diaz Antonino Di Giorgio Benito Mussolini Pietro Gazzera Benito Mussolini

Minister of Labour and Social Security

Stefano Cavazzoni

Minister of Posts and Telegraphs

Giovanni Antonio Colonna di Cesarò Costanzo Ciano

Minister of War Production (since 6 February 1943)

Carlo Favagrossa

Minister of Public Education

Giovanni Gentile Alessandro Casati Pietro Fedele Giuseppe Belluzzo

Minister of Trades and Currencies

Felice Guarneri Raffaello Riccardi Oreste Bonomi

Minister of Press and Propaganda

Galeazzo Ciano Dino Alfieri

Minster of Freed Territories from enemies (abolished on 5 February 1923)

Giovanni Giuriati

Minister of Treasure (merged into Ministry of Finance on 31 December 1922)

Vincenzo Tangorra Alberto De Stefani

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45176546 LCCN: n83215546 ISNI: 0000 0001 0968 4566 GND: 122192168 SUDOC: 069754160 BNF: cb144501550 (data) ICC

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