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(i) (i) (i)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

ALENçON (French pronunciation: ( listen )) is a commune in Normandy
Normandy
, France, capital of the Orne department . It is situated 173 kilometres (107 mi) west of Paris. Alençon
Alençon
belongs to the intercommunality of Alençon
Alençon
(with 52,000 people).

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Climate

* 3 Population

* 3.1 Heraldry

* 4 Economy * 5 Education * 6 Transport * 7 Personalities

* 8 International relations

* 8.1 Twin towns – sister cities

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

The name of Alençon
Alençon
is first recorded in a document dated in the seventh century. During the tenth century, Alençon
Alençon
was a buffer state between Normandy
Normandy
and the Maine regions. In 1049-1051, William Duke of Normandy, later known as William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and king of England, laid siege to the town, which had risen in support of the Count of Anjou along with two other towns of the Bellême estates, Domfront (then in Maine) and Bellême (held directly from King Henry I of France). According to Duke William's chaplain and panegyrist, William of Poitiers
Poitiers
, the citizens insulted William by hanging animal skins from the walls, in reference to his ancestry as the illegitimate son of Duke Robert and a tanner's daughter. On capturing the town, William had a number of the citizens' hands and feet cut off in revenge. Alençon
Alençon
was occupied by the English during the Anglo-Norman wars of 1113 to 1203.

The city became the seat of a dukedom in 1415, belonging to the sons of the King of France
France
until the French Revolution
French Revolution
, and some of them played important roles in French history: see Duke of Alençon . The French Revolution
French Revolution
caused relatively little disorder in this area although there were some royalist uprisings nearby.

A long-standing local fabric industry gave birth to the town's famous point d’ Alençon lace in the 18th century. The economic development of the nineteenth century was based on iron foundries and mills in the surrounding region. In the first half of the twentieth century the city developed a flourishing printing industry.

Alençon
Alençon
was home to St. Marie-Azélie Guérin Martin and Louis Martin , the parents of St. Thérèse of Lisieux
Thérèse of Lisieux
. They were the first spouses in the history of the Catholic Church to be proposed for sainthood as a couple, in 2008. Zélie and Louis were married at the Basilica of Notre-Dame in Alençon
Alençon
on 13 July 1858 and spent their whole married life in Alençon, where Thérèse was born in January 1873 and spent her early childhood until the death of her mother in 1877.

On 17 June 1940 the German Army took occupation of Alençon. On 12 August 1944 Alençon
Alençon
was the first French city to be liberated by the French Army
French Army
under General Leclerc , after minor bomb damage.

After the war the population sharply increased and new industries settled. Many of these were related to plastics and the town is now a major plastics educational centre.

CLIMATE

CLIMATE DATA FOR ALENçON (1981–2010 AVERAGES)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 17.7 (63.9) 19.0 (66.2) 22.4 (72.3) 28.9 (84) 31.0 (87.8) 35.5 (95.9) 39.0 (102.2) 38.5 (101.3) 34.2 (93.6) 28.4 (83.1) 21.0 (69.8) 16.5 (61.7) 39.0 (102.2)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 7.0 (44.6) 8.1 (46.6) 11.6 (52.9) 14.4 (57.9) 18.1 (64.6) 21.5 (70.7) 24.0 (75.2) 24.0 (75.2) 20.7 (69.3) 15.9 (60.6) 10.6 (51.1) 7.3 (45.1) 15.3 (59.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 1.4 (34.5) 3.2 (37.8) 4.7 (40.5) 8.2 (46.8) 10.9 (51.6) 12.9 (55.2) 12.6 (54.7) 10.0 (50) 7.7 (45.9) 4.2 (39.6) 2.0 (35.6) 6.6 (43.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −17.4 (0.7) −18.0 (−0.4) −9.4 (15.1) −5.2 (22.6) −2.6 (27.3) 0.3 (32.5) 3.0 (37.4) 2.2 (36) 0.0 (32) −6.0 (21.2) −10.6 (12.9) −17.0 (1.4) −18.0 (−0.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 77.1 (3.035) 55.0 (2.165) 57.5 (2.264) 52.0 (2.047) 67.5 (2.657) 51.1 (2.012) 55.4 (2.181) 41.7 (1.642) 61.8 (2.433) 75.9 (2.988) 68.2 (2.685) 83.5 (3.287) 746.7 (29.398)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 12.5 9.9 10.6 10.0 10.7 7.5 7.6 7.3 8.0 11.0 11.2 12.8 119.1

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 3.8 3.8 2.8 1.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 2.5 15.4

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 89 86 81 77 78 77 76 78 82 88 89 90 82.6

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 62.0 85.0 131.4 163.4 190.3 217.7 215.0 212.4 168.2 113.6 70.5 60.4 1,689.5

Source #1: Météo France
France

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)

POPULATION

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1793 12,954 —

1800 12,407 −4.2%

1806 13,222 +6.6%

1821 13,955 +5.5%

1836 13,934 −0.2%

1841 13,917 −0.1%

1846 14,388 +3.4%

1851 14,760 +2.6%

1856 16,473 +11.6%

1861 16,110 −2.2%

1866 16,115 +0.0%

1872 16,037 −0.5%

1876 16,615 +3.6%

1881 17,237 +3.7%

1886 17,550 +1.8%

1891 18,319 +4.4%

1896 17,841 −2.6%

1901 17,270 −3.2%

1906 17,843 +3.3%

1911 17,378 −2.6%

1921 16,249 −6.5%

1926 16,044 −1.3%

1931 16,688 +4.0%

1936 17,731 +6.2%

1946 16,691 −5.9%

1954 21,893 +31.2%

1962 25,584 +16.9%

1968 31,656 +23.7%

1975 33,680 +6.4%

1982 31,608 −6.2%

1990 29,988 −5.1%

1999 28,935 −3.5%

2006 28,458 −1.6%

2009 27,325 −4.0%

2012 ≈39000 —

*

La Halle aux Blé *

Château des Ducs *

Library

HERALDRY

The arms of Alençon
Alençon
are blazoned : Azure, a double-headed eagle displayed Or.

ECONOMY

In the seventeenth century Alençon
Alençon
was chiefly noted for its lace called point d\' Alençon
Alençon
.

Today, Alençon
Alençon
is home to a prosperous plastics industry , and, since 1993, to a plastics engineering school.

MPO Fenêtres is a local PVC windows company established in Alençon since 1970, is one of the first company in Alençon
Alençon
with around 170 employees (2009) and a turnover of 28 million euros in 2008. It is also the oldest French PVC windows company still in activity.

EDUCATION

"Écoles".

"Collèges".

"Lycées".

TRANSPORT

Alençon
Alençon
is linked by the A28 autoroute (motorway/freeway) with the nearby cities of Le Mans
Le Mans
to the south ( Sarthe
Sarthe
) and Rouen ( Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
) to the north.

The A88 autoroute links the A28 just north of Alençon
Alençon
to the coastal port of Caen
Caen
.

A comprehensive town bus system operates from 7:00 to 19:00.

There is a comprehensive network of cycle paths.

PERSONALITIES

Alençon
Alençon
was the birthplace of:

* Anne d\' Alençon
Alençon
(1492–1562), marquise of Montferrat ; * Marie-Catherine de Villedieu , (1640–1683), novelist * Pierre Allix (1641–1717), Protestant pastor and author * Léonard Bourdon (1754–1807), Revolutionist * Jean Castaing (playwright) (1723–1805), printer, playwright * Louis de Frotté , dit « Blondel » (1766–1800), chouan general * Edme Castaing (1796–1824), doctor and murderer * Jacques Hébert (1757–1794), editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne
Le Père Duchesne
during the French Revolution
French Revolution
* Jacques-Julien Houtou de Labillardière (1755–1834), botanist * Juste Lisch (1828–1910), architect * Raoul Le Mouton de Boisdeffre , 1839–1919, general * Éléonore-Aglaé-Marie Despierres (1843–1895), historian * Adolphe Gérard (1844–1900), American restaurateur * Adhémar Leclère (1853–1917), author * Thérèse de Lisieux (1873–1897), Roman Catholic nun who was canonised as a saint, and is one of only 33 Doctors of the Church * Auguste Poulet-Malassis (1825–1878), publisher and friend of Baudelaire
Baudelaire
* Marie-Azélie Guérin Martin (1831–1877), the mother of St. Thérèse of Lisieux
Thérèse of Lisieux
who, along with her husband Louis Martin , is one of the few married couples ever to be beatified by the Catholic Church. * Daniel Balavoine (1952–1986), singer and songwriter * Louis Barillet (1880–1948), glass blower * André Couder (1897–1979), astronomer * Alain Lambert (1946–), politician * Anne Consigny (1963–), actress * Yoann Chivard , dit « Yoann », (1971–), graphic artist * Laurence Leboucher
Laurence Leboucher
(1972–), female cyclist * Lorànt Deutsch (1975–), actor and writer ; * Benoît Tréluyer (1976–), car racer, two-time winner of the Le Mans 24 Hours * Jonathan Cochet (1976–), car racer * Anthony Geslin (1980–), cyclist * Orelsan
Orelsan
(1982–), rapper * Arnold Mvuemba
Arnold Mvuemba
(1985–) footballer

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
France

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Alençon
Alençon
is twinned with:

* Basingstoke
Basingstoke
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Braine-l\'Alleud , Belgium * Koutiala , Mali * Quakenbrück , Germany * Crynant
Crynant
, United Kingdom

SEE ALSO

* Normandy
Normandy
portal

* Alençon lace * Communes of the Orne department * Gare d\' Alençon
Alençon

REFERENCES

* INSEE commune file

* ^ A B Shrine Louis and Zelie Martin (Alençon-France) - Zelie Martin\'s life * ^ A B Shrine Louis and Zelie Martin (Alençon-France) - Louis Martin\'s life * ^ A B Shrine Louis and Zelie Martin (Alençon-France) - St. Therese\'s life * ^ Shrine Louis and Zelie Martin (Alençon-France) - The basilica of Notre Dame * ^ Shrine Louis and Zelie Martin (Alençon-France) - Alençon, the birthplace of St. Therese * ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Alençon" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 9, 2016. * ^ "Climat Basse-Normandie" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 9, 2016. * ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Alençon
Alençon
- Valframbert
Valframbert
(61) - altitude 144m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved January 9, 2016. * ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ALENçON .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ALENçON .

* Official town website * Alençon
Alençon
Tourist Office * Shrine of Alençon
Alençon
: pilgrimage on the steps

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