ALDO ROMEO LUIGI MORO (Italian pronunciation: ; 23 September 1916
– 9 May 1978) was an Italian statesman and politician, and a
prominent member of the Christian Democracy party. He served as 38th
Prime Minister of Italy
A leader of Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana, DC), Moro was
considered an intellectual and a patient mediator, especially in the
internal life of his party. He was kidnapped on 16 March 1978 by the
* 1 Early career
* 2 Political activities
* 2.1 Historic compromise
* 3 Kidnapping and death
* 3.1 Kidnapping
* 3.2 Negotiations
* 3.3 Captivity letters
* 3.4 Murder
* 3.5 Antonio Negri\'s 1979 arrest and release
* 3.6 Alternative points of view about Moro\'s death
* 3.7 "Sacrifice
* 4 See also * 5 Cinematic adaptations * 6 References
* 7 Further reading
* 7.1 Primary sources
* 8 External links
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Moro was born in
Maglie , in the province of Lecce (
Apulia ), into a
Ugento . At age 4, he moved with his family to
In 1935, he joined the Catholic university students' association
(Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana) of
In 1945, he married Eleonora Chiavarelli (1915–2010), with whom he had four children: Maria Fida (born 1946), Agnese (1952), Anna, and Giovanni (1958).
Moro developed his interest in politics between 1943 and 1945.
Initially, he seemed to be very interested in the social-democratic
component of the
Italian Socialist Party
In 1946, he was nominated vice-president of the Democrazia Cristiana
and elected member of the Constitutional Assembly , where he took part
in the work to redact the
Italian Constitution . In 1948 he was
elected to the
In 1953 Moro, was re-elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies , where he held the position of chairman of the DC parliamentary group. He was chosen as Minister of Grace and Justice in the Antonio Segni 1st cabinet in 1955. Moro speaks to the Chamber of Deputies , 1963.
Minister of Education in the following Adone Zoli and Amintore Fanfani -II cabinets, he introduced civic education into the national curriculum. In 1959, at the 6th party's congress he gained the post of National Secretary of the DC.
In 1963, he was nominated
Prime Minister of Italy
In the 1968 DC's congress, Moro yielded the Secretariat and passed to
internal opposition, while serving as Foreign Minister between 1969
and 1974. From 1974 to 1976, he re-gained the post of Prime Minister,
and concluded the
Osimo Treaty with
A wide range of social reforms were carried out during Moro's periods as prime minister. The 1967 Ponte Law (Legge Ponte) introduced urgent housing provisions as part of an envisioned reform of the entire sector, such as the introduction of minimum standards for housing and environment. A law promulgated on 14 December 1963 introduced an annual allowance for university students with income below a given level. Another law, promulgated on 10 March 1968, introduced voluntary public pre-elementary education for children aged three to five years. A law promulgated on 21 July 1965 introduced new pension provisions under the general scheme. The legal minima was raised, all current pensions were revalued, seniority pensions (pensioni d’anzianità) were introduced (after 35 years of contributions workers could retire even before attaining pensionable age), and within the national social security institution (Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale), a Social Fund (Fondo Sociale) was established, ensuring to all members pensioners a basic uniform pension largely financed by state, known as the social pension (not related to the later social pension introduced in 1968). A law of 22 July 1966 extended pension insurance to small traders. A law of 22 July 1966 extended health insurance to retired traders, and a law of 29 May 1967 extended compulsory health insurance to retired farmers, tenant farmers, and sharecroppers, and extended health insurance to the unemployed in receipt of unemployment benefits. A law of 18 March 1968 introduced the principle of earnings-related pensions within the general scheme, with the pension formula to equal 1.626% of average earnings in the last 3 years of work multiplied by the number of contribution years (maximum pension: 65% of previous earnings) up to 40. A law of 5 November 1968 extended family allowances to the unemployed in receipt of unemployment benefits.
A law of 9 June 1975 increased the number of eligible occupational diseases and extended the duration of benefits. A law of 3 June 1975 introduced various benefit improvements for pensioners. The multiplying coefficient was raised to 2% and applied to average earnings of the best 3 years in the last 10 years of work, and automatic annual adjustment of minimum pensions to increase of the minimum contractual wage in the industrial sector (with a smaller adjustment made for pensions higher than the minima). A law of 27 December 1975 introduced ad hoc upgrading of cash benefits for certain diseases and of all flat-rate allowances. A law of 14 July 1967 extended family allowances to self-employed farmers, sharecroppers, and tenant farmers. On 29 April 1976, pension linkage to the industrial wage was extended to civil servants.
Main article: Historic compromise
Moro was considered a very tenacious mediator, particularly skilled in coordinating the different internal trends of DC.
At the beginning of the 1960s, Moro was one of the most convinced
supporters of an alliance between the DC and the Italian Socialist
Party, in order to widen the majority and integrate the socialists in
the government system. In the 1963 party congress in
Moro's main aim was to widen the democratic base of the government: the cabinets should have been able to represent a bigger number of voters and parties. He thought of the DC as the fulcrum of a coalition system, on the principles of consociative democracy .
Moro faced big challenges, especially, the necessity to conciliate
the Christian and popular mission of the Democrazia Cristiana with the
rising laicist and liberal values of the Italian society in the 1960s,
and the necessity to integrate new important social groups (youth,
women, workers) in the democratic system. DC's mission, in Moro's
vision, was intended to recover the popular class that supported
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 , the Italian Socialist
Party had taken a definitive distance from the Italian Communist Party
Pietro Nenni had collaborated with the DC in the early 1960s.
After the rise of the
Italian Communist Party of
In 1976–1977, Berlinguer's Italian Communist Party broke with Moscow, and convened with the Spanish and French parties to draw the lines of Eurocommunism . Such a move made an eventual collaboration more acceptable for DC voters, and the two parties began an intense parliamentary debate, in a moment of deep social crises.
In 1977, Moro was personally involved in international disputes. He strongly defended Mariano Rumor during the parliamentary debate on the Lockheed scandal , and some in the press reported that he might have been "Antelope Cobbler", an alleged bribe recipient. The accusation, aimed at politically destroying Moro and avoiding the risk of a " Historic Compromise " cabinet, failed when Moro was cleared on March 3, 1978, 13 days before his kidnapping.
The early-1978 proposition by Moro of a Christian Democracy-Italian Socialist Party cabinet supported also by the Italian Communist Party was strongly opposed by both super-powers. The United States feared that the collaboration of an Italian government with the Communists might have allowed these later to gain information on strategic NATO military plans and installations, and pass them to Soviet agents. Moreover, the participation in government of the Communists in a Western country would have represented a cultural failure for the USA. The Soviets considered potential participation by the Italian Communist Party in a cabinet a form of emancipation from Moscow and rapprochement to the Americans, therefore also opposing it.
KIDNAPPING AND DEATH
Main article: Kidnapping of Aldo Moro
Moro, photographed during his kidnapping by the
On 16 March 1978, on Via Fani, a street in Rome, a unit of the
militant far-left organisation known as the
On the day of his kidnapping, Moro was on his way to a session of the Chamber of Deputies, where a discussion was to take place regarding a vote of confidence for a new government led by Giulio Andreotti (DC) that would have, for the first time, the support of the Communist Party. It was to be the first implementation of Moro's strategic political vision as defined by the Compromesso storico (historic compromise).
In the following days, trade unions called for a general strike , while security forces made hundreds of raids in Rome, Milan, Turin, and other cities searching for Moro's location. Held for two months, he was allowed to send letters to his family and politicians. The government refused to negotiate, despite demands by family, friends and Pope Paul VI. In fact, Paul VI "offered himself in exchange ... for Aldo Moro".
During the investigation of Moro's kidnapping, General Carlo Alberto
Dalla Chiesa reportedly responded to a member of the security services
who suggested torturing a suspected brigatista, "
Romano Prodi ,
Mario Baldassarri , and Alberto Clò, of the faculty
University of Bologna
During this period, Moro wrote several letters to the leaders of the Christian Democrats and to Pope Paul VI, who later personally officiated in Moro's Funeral Mass . Those letters, at times very critical of Andreotti, were kept secret for more than a decade, and published only in the early 1990s. In his letters, Moro said that the state's primary objective should be saving lives, and that the government should comply with his kidnappers' demands. Most of the Christian Democrat leaders argued that the letters did not express Moro's genuine wishes, claiming they were written under duress, and thus refused all negotiation. This was in stark contrast to the requests of Moro's family. In his appeal to the terrorists, Pope Paul asked them to release Moro "without conditions".
After the recovery of Moro's body, the Minister of the Interior Francesco Cossiga resigned.
ANTONIO NEGRI\'S 1979 ARREST AND RELEASE
On 7 April 1979,
Antonio Negri was arrested along
with other leaders of
Autonomia Operaia (
In 2003, Alexander Stille accused Negri of bearing moral but not legal responsibility for the crimes, citing Negri's words from one year later:
Every action of destruction and sabotage seems to me a manifestation of class solidarity.... Nor does the pain of my adversary affect me: proletarian justice has the productive force of self-affirmation and the faculty of logical conviction.
The antagonistic process tends toward hegemony, toward the destruction and the annihilation of the adversary.... The adversary must be destroyed.
ALTERNATIVE POINTS OF VIEW ABOUT MORO\'S DEATH
Memorial to Aldo Moro, in via Caetani,
Left wing writers have accused the United States as responsible for
Moro's death. The "Gladio network ", directed by
"SACRIFICE ALDO MORO TO MAINTAIN THE STABILITY OF ITALY"
Steve Pieczenik , a former member of the U.S. State Department sent
He alleged that the U.S. had to "instrumentalize the Red Brigades,"
and that the decision to have him killed was taken during the fourth
week of Moro's detention, when he started revealing state secrets
through his letters (allegedly the existence of Gladio). Francesco
Cossiga also said the "crisis committee" also leaked a false
statement, attributed to the
According to media reports on 26 September 2012, the
In April 2015, it was reported that controversies around Moro could cause the suspension or closing of the cause. The postulator has stated the cause will continue when the discrepancies are cleared up. The halting of proceedings was due to Antonio Mennini - the priest who heard his last confession - being allowed to provide a statement to a tribunal in regards to Moro's kidnapping and confession. The cause was able to resume its initial investigations following this.
A number of films have portrayed the events of Moro's kidnapping and murder with varying degrees of fictionalization including the following:
* Todo modo (1985), directed by
Elio Petri , based on a novel by
* Il caso Moro (1986), directed by
Giuseppe Ferrara and starring
Gian Maria Volontè as Moro
* Year of the Gun (1991), directed by
* ^ Renato Moro,
* Drake, Richard (1996). The
( Wagner-Pacifici, Robin. The Moro morality play: Terrorism as social drama (University of Chicago Press, 1986).
* Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp. 339–45
* Interview with Giovanni Moro, Aldo Moro\'s son by
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