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Aldgate
Aldgate
is an area of Central London, England, within the City of London. is located 2.3 miles (4 km) east north-east of Charing Cross. It lies within the Historic County of Middlesex. It was the eastern-most gateway through the London
London
Wall leading from the City of London
London
to Whitechapel
Whitechapel
and the East End of London. It gives its name to a City ward bounded by White Kennet Street in the north and Crutched Friars in the south, taking in Leadenhall and Fenchurch Streets, which remain principal thoroughfares through the City, each splitting from the short street named Aldgate
Aldgate
that connects to Aldgate
Aldgate
High Street. John Cass's school, where a plaque records the former placement of London
London
Wall, is sited on the north side of Aldgate
Aldgate
(the street).

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Today 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology[edit] The etymology of the name "Aldgate" is disputed. It is first recorded in 1052 as Æst geat ("east gate") but had become Alegate by 1108.[1] Writing in the 16th century, John Stow
John Stow
derived the name from "Old Gate" (Aeld Gate). However, Henry Harben, writing in 1918, contended that this was wrong and that documents show that the "d" is missing in documents written before 1486–7. Alternative meanings include "Ale Gate" in connection with a putative ale-house or "All Gate" meaning the gate was free to all. Other possibilities canvassed by Harben include reference to a Saxon named "Ealh," or reference to foreigners ("el") or oil ("ele") or "awl". Gillian Bebbington, writing in 1972, suggests Alegate, Aelgate ("public gate") or Aeldgate" (Old Gate") as equally viable alternatives whilst Weinreb and Hibbert, writing in 1983, revert to Stow's theory that the name means "Old Gate".[2][3][4] History[edit] It is thought that a gate at Aldgate
Aldgate
spanned the road to Colchester
Colchester
in the Roman period, when London
London
Wall was constructed. The gateway – which probably had two circular towers – stood at the corner of the modern Duke's Place, on the east side of the City, with a busy thoroughfare passing through it.[5] It was rebuilt between 1108 and 1147, again in 1215, and reconstructed completely between 1607 and 1609 “in a more classical and less functional style”.[6] Like London’s other gates, Aldgate
Aldgate
was “fortified with porticullises and chained” in 1377 due to concerns about potential attacks by the French.[5] The gate was finally removed in 1761; it was temporarily re-erected at Bethnal Green. Aldgate
Aldgate
did have defensive functions, and, between its early 13th and early 17th-century reconstructions, was breached on only two occasions. The first occurred during the Great Rising in the summer of 1381 when thousands of insurgents from surrounding region, assisted by sympathizers within and without, entered the City through Aldgate. The second breach came in the summer of 1471 when troops led by the Bastard of Fauconberg forced open the gate. According to Chaucer scholar Paul Strohm,[7] the assault was only successful “by the design of [Aldgate’s] defenders”: after a number of Fauconberg’s men were allowed to gain entry, the gate’s "portcullis was lowered to trap them inside, where they were taken and slain".[6]

An old illustration of the gate, c. 1650

The Augustinians
Augustinians
priory of Holy Trinity Aldgate
Aldgate
was founded by Matilda, the wife of King Henry I, in 1108, on ground just inside the gate.[8] Within Aldgate
Aldgate
ward, a short distance to the north of the gate, Jews settled from 1181, until their expulsion in 1290 by King Edward I. The area became known as Old Jewry. Jews were welcomed back by Oliver Cromwell, and once again they settled in the area, founding London's oldest synagogue at Bevis Marks
Bevis Marks
in 1698.[9] While he was a customs official, from 1374 until 1386, Geoffrey Chaucer occupied apartments above the gate,[4] where he wrote some of his poems. London’s aldermen had first conceived of renting unneeded space over the City gates earlier in the century. Although keenly sought after due to their location, the rooms “were built for military occupancy and remained rough-hewn [and] nonprivate”. Chaucer likely occupied the single tower on the south end of the gate. A 1585 sketch of Aldgate’s north tower reveals an interior room of approximately 16' by 14'; its southern sibling probably had similar dimensions. The space would have been “cramped, cold, rudimentary in its sanitary arrangements, and (perhaps most seriously in the case of a writer) ill lit, even at midday”.[6] In about 1420 the Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Bell Foundry was founded in Aldgate, but it later moved to nearby Whitechapel. The foundry continued to supply bells to churches in the City, including the rebuilt church of St Botolph Without Aldgate
Aldgate
in 1744.[10] During the late 16th-century, an immigrant from Antwerp
Antwerp
named Jacob Jansen (d. 1593) established a pottery producing English Delftware
English Delftware
at Aldgate.[11] In his Survey of London
London
(1598), John Stowe
John Stowe
wrote that Aldgate, “hath had two pair of gates, though now but one; the hooks remaineth yet. Also there hath been two portcullisses; the one of them remaineth, the other wanteth, but the place of letting down is manifest”.[5]

Aldgate
Aldgate
Pump, at the junction of Aldgate, Leadenhall Street
Leadenhall Street
and Fenchurch Street

At Aldgate's junction with Leadenhall Street
Leadenhall Street
and Fenchurch Street
Fenchurch Street
is the site of the old Aldgate
Aldgate
Pump. From 1700 it was from this point that distances were measured into the counties of Essex
Essex
and Middlesex. The original pump was taken down in 1876, and a 'faux' pump and drinking fountain was erected several yards to the west of the original; it was supplied by water from the New River. In ancient deeds, Alegate Well is mentioned, adjoining the City wall, and this may have been the source (of water) for the original pump. A section of the remains of Holy Trinity Priory can be seen through a window in a nearby office block, on the north side. In 1773 Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
by Phillis Wheatley, the first book by an African American
African American
was published in Aldgate
Aldgate
after her owners could not find a publisher in Boston, Massachusetts.[12] Daniel Mendoza
Daniel Mendoza
was born in 1764 to a Jewish family in Aldgate. He was author of The Art of Boxing
Boxing
and became an English boxing champion from 1792 to 1795.[13] Aldgate
Aldgate
is one of 25 wards in the City of London, each electing an Alderman to the Court of Aldermen
Court of Aldermen
and Commoners (the City equivalent of a councillor) to the Court of Common Council
Court of Common Council
of the City of London Corporation. Only electors who are Freemen of the City are eligible to stand.

Cole's 1755 map of Aldgate
Aldgate
ward (note east is to top of page)

The area around the large traffic roundabout to the east of where the gate stood is also often referred to as Aldgate
Aldgate
(although strictly, this is Aldgate
Aldgate
High Street, and extends a short distance into Whitechapel; it is also known occasionally by the epithet 'Gardiners' Corner', in honour of a long-disappeared department store). Today[edit]

Location within the City

The City ward of Aldgate
Aldgate
is bounded on the east by the line of the former London
London
Wall, effectively parallel with Houndsditch, which separates it from the Portsoken
Portsoken
ward; it is bounded on the south by Tower ward and on the west and north by the Langbourn, Lime Street, and Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
wards.[14]

St Katharine Cree, with 30 St Mary Axe
30 St Mary Axe
behind

The ward today is dominated by the insurance industry, with several brokers and underwriters based there; prominent buildings include the Lloyd's Register
Lloyd's Register
building, 30 St Mary Axe
30 St Mary Axe
(formerly the Swiss Re Building), the Willis Building and the London
London
Metal Exchange. On 10 April 1992 the Provisional IRA detonated a bomb close to the Baltic Exchange, severely damaging the historic building and neighbouring structures.[15] 30 St Mary Axe
30 St Mary Axe
now occupies the site and the Baltic Exchange
Baltic Exchange
is located at No. 38, St Mary Axe. Three churches are located in Aldgate
Aldgate
ward: St. Botolph's, St Katharine Cree (1631) and St Andrew Undershaft
St Andrew Undershaft
(1532) – administered from St. Helen's in Lime Street ward. The Bevis Marks Synagogue
Bevis Marks Synagogue
(1699), the oldest in the United Kingdom, is also located in the ward, on Bevis Marks. The nearest London
London
Underground station is Aldgate
Aldgate
on the Circle and Metropolitan lines. Nearby mainline railway stations are located at Liverpool Street and Fenchurch Street, and Tower Gateway is the closest Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
station. See also[edit]

London
London
portal

Aldersgate City gate City wall Battle of Cable Street Stepney Historical Trust

References[edit]

^ Mills, A.D. (2010). A Dictionary of London
London
Place-Names. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780199566785.  ^ Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert (1983) The London
London
Encyclopedia. London, BCA:14 ^ Gillian Bebbington (1972) Street Names of London. London, Batsford: 21 ^ a b 'Aldermary Churchyard – Aldgate
Aldgate
Ward', A Dictionary of London (1918) accessed: 21 May 2007 ^ a b c Gray, Douglas., ed. (2005). "Aldgate". The Oxford Companion to Chaucer. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-191-72735-1.  ^ a b c Strohm, Paul (2014). Chaucer’s Tale: 1386 and the Road to Canterbury. Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-698-17037-7.  ^ Strohm’s profile page at Columbia University ^ John Schofield, Richard Lea Holy Trinity Priory, Aldgate, City of London: an archaeological reconstruction and history ( MoLAS 2005) ISBN 1-901992-45-4 ^ Bevis Marks Synagogue
Bevis Marks Synagogue
Joseph Jacobs and Edgar Mels (Jewish Encyclopedia) accessed 30 March 2010 ^ Whitechapel
Whitechapel
Bell foundry 500 years of history accessed 21 May 2007 ^ Campbell, Gordon, ed. (2005). "English Delftware". The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-191-72779-5.  ^ Frontispiece to Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral accessed 21 May 2007 ^ Daniel Mendoza
Daniel Mendoza
— International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame accessed 21 May 2007 ^ 'Book 2, Ch. 5: Aldgate
Aldgate
Ward', A New History of London: Including Westminster and Southwark (1773), pp. 545–49 accessed: 21 May 2007 ^ Extreme restoration Megan Lane 5 July 2007 (BBC News magazine) accessed 23 Sep 2007

External links[edit]

City of London
City of London
Corporation Map of Aldgate
Aldgate
ward (2003 —) Aldgate
Aldgate
Ward Elected Members Aldgate
Aldgate
Ward Club Map of Early Modern London: Aldgate
Aldgate
Ward – Historical Map and Encyclopedia of Shakespeare's London
London
(Scholarly)

v t e

City of London

City of London
City of London
Corporation

Parks and open spaces

Wards

Aldersgate Aldgate Bassishaw Billingsgate Bishopsgate Bread Street Bridge Broad Street Candlewick Castle Baynard Cheap Coleman Street Cordwainer Cornhill Cripplegate Dowgate Farringdon Within Farringdon Without Langbourn Lime Street Portsoken Queenhithe Tower Vintry Walbrook

Enclaves

Inner Temple Middle Temple

Localities

Barbican Bishops Square Blackfriars Broadgate Farringdon Holborn Minories Smithfield Temple

Attractions

20 Fenchurch Street Bank of England
England
Museum Barbican Centre Clockmakers' Museum College of Arms Dr Johnson's House Finsbury Circus Guildhall Art Gallery Leadenhall Market London
London
Mithraeum London
London
Stone Mansion House The Monument Museum of London One New Change Prince Henry's Room Royal Exchange St Paul's Cathedral Smithfield Market

Notable structures

2 Hare Court 2 King's Bench Walk 30 St Mary Axe Aldgate
Aldgate
Pump Bank of England Bevis Marks
Bevis Marks
Synagogue Golden Boy of Pye Corner Guildhall Heron Tower Holborn
Holborn
Circus Lloyd's building London
London
Stock Exchange Merchant Taylors' Hall National Firefighters Memorial Old Bailey Old Billingsgate
Billingsgate
Market Tower 42

Civil parishes

List of civil parishes in the City of London

Bridges

Blackfriars Bridge Blackfriars Railway Bridge Cannon Street Railway Bridge Holborn
Holborn
Viaduct London
London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge

Rail and tube stations

 Aldgate   Bank–Monument  Barbican    Blackfriars   Cannon Street  City Thameslink  Fenchurch Street     Liverpool Street  Mansion House   Moorgate  St. Paul's  Tower Gateway

Topics

Coat of arms Flag History Listed buildings

at Grade I at Grade II*

Livery companies Lord Lieutenants Lord Mayors Lord Mayor's Show Public art and memorials Sheriffs Street names

Category Commons

v t e

Gates and bars of the City of London

Former gates of London
London
Wall and City bars Listed clockwise from the West

Temple Bar Ludgate† Holborn
Holborn
Bar Newgate† Aldersgate† Cripplegate† Moorgate Bishopsgate† Bars Aldgate† (Tower) Posterngate

Water-gates: Billingsgate
Billingsgate
and Dowgate

Bridge-gates: Great Stone Gateway and New Stone Gate

†T

.