ALDERNEY (/ˈɔːldərni/ ; French :
Aoeur'gny) is the northernmost of the inhabited
Channel Islands . It
is part of the Bailiwick of
Guernsey , a British Crown dependency . It
is 3 miles (5 km) long and 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km) wide. The area is 3
square miles (8 km2), making it the third-largest island of the
Channel Islands, and the second largest in the Bailiwick. It is around
10 miles (15 km) from the west of
La Hague on the
Cotentin Peninsula ,
Normandy , in France, 20 miles (30 km) from the north-east of Guernsey
and 60 miles (100 km) from the south coast of Great Britain. It is the
closest of the
Channel Islands to both France and the United Kingdom.
It is separated from Cap de la Hague by the dangerous
(French: Raz Blanchard).
As of April 2013, the island had a population of 1,903; natives are
traditionally nicknamed vaques after the cows, or else lapins after
the many rabbits seen in the island. Formally, they are known as
Ridunians, from the
The only parish of
Alderney is the parish of St Anne, which covers
the whole island.
The main town, St Anne , historically known as La Ville ("The Town"),
is often referred to as "St Anne's" by visitors and incomers, but
rarely by locals (who, in normal conversation, still most frequently
refer to the area centred on Victoria Street simply as "Town"). The
town's "High Street", which formerly had a small handful of shops, is
now almost entirely residential, forming a T-junction with Victoria St
at its highest point. The town area features an imposing church and an
unevenly cobbled main street: Victoria Street (Rue Grosnez – the
English name being adopted on the visit of
Queen Victoria in 1854).
There are a primary school, a secondary school, a post office, and
hotels, as well as restaurants, banks and shops. Other settlements
include Braye , Crabby,
Longis , Mannez, La Banquage and Newtown.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Victorian era
Second World War
Second World War
* 1.3 Since 1945
* 2 Politics
* 3 Law
* 3.1 Legal system
* 3.2 Taxation
* 4 Geography and natural history
* 5 Culture
* 5.1 Language
* 5.2 Sport
* 5.3 Pubs
* 5.4 Broadcasting
* 5.6 Miss
* 5.7 Comedy Rocks
Alderney Annual Motor Sprint and Hill Climb
Alderney Performing Arts Festival
Alderney Literary Festival
* 6 Transport
* 7 Healthcare and emergency services
* 7.1 Ambulance
* 7.2 Fire Service
* 7.3 Police
* 7.4 Lifeboats
* 7.5 Search and rescue
* 8 Numismatic and Philately history
* 9 In popular culture
* 10 Image gallery
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 12.1 Further reading
* 13 External links
Alderney shares its prehistory with the other islands in the
Bailiwick of Guernsey, becoming an island in the
Neolithic period as
the waters of the Channel rose. Formerly rich in dolmens , like the
other Channel Islands,
Alderney with its heritage of megaliths has
suffered through the large-scale military constructions of the 19th
century and also by the Germans during the World War II occupation,
who left the remains at Les Pourciaux unrecognisable as dolmens. A
cist survives near
Fort Tourgis , and
Longis Common has remains of an
Iron Age site. There are traces of Roman occupation including a fort,
built in the late 300s, at 49°43′09″N 2°10′36″W /
49.71917°N 2.17667°W / 49.71917; -2.17667 above the island's
only natural harbour.
The etymology of the island's name is obscure. It is known in Latin
as Riduna but as with the names of all the
Channel Islands in the
Roman period there is a degree of confusion. Riduna may be the
original name of
Tatihou , while
Alderney is conjectured to be
identified with Sarnia. Alderney/
Aurigny is variously supposed to be a
Germanic or Celtic name. It may be a corruption of Adreni or Alrene,
which is probably derived from an Old Norse word meaning "island near
the coast". Alternatively it may derive from three Norse elements:
alda (swelling wave, roller), renna (strong current, race) and öy or
Alderney may be mentioned in Paul the Deacon's Historia
Langobardorum (I.6) as 'Evodia' in which he discussed a certain
dangerous whirlpool. The name 'Evodia' may in turn originate from the
seven 'Haemodae' of uncertain identification in Pliny's Natural
History (IV 16 (30) or Pomponius Mela's Chronographia (III 6,54).
Along with the other Channel Islands,
Alderney was annexed by the
Normandy in 933. In 1042 William the Bastard, Duke of
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror , King of the English) granted
Alderney to the Abbey of
Mont Saint-Michel . In 1057 the bishop of
Coutances took back control of the island.
After 1204, when mainland
Normandy was incorporated into the kingdom
Alderney remained loyal to the English monarch in his
Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy .
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII of England undertook fortification works, but these ceased
in 1554. Essex Castle perpetuates the name of the Earl of Essex , who
purchased the governorship of
Alderney in 1591. Prior to the Earl's
execution for treason in 1601, he leased the island to William
Alderney remained in the hands of the Chamberlain
family until 1643. From 1612, a Judge was appointed to assist the
Governor's administration of Alderney, along with the Jurats . The
function of the Judge was similar to that of the Bailiffs of Guernsey
Jersey , and continued until 1949.
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms ,
Alderney was held by a
Parliamentary garrison under
Nicholas Ling , Lieutenant-Governor. Ling
built Government House (now the Island Hall). The de Carterets of
Jersey acquired the governorship , later passing it to Sir Edmund
Andros of Guernsey, from whom the
Guernsey family of Le Mesurier
inherited it, thus establishing a hereditary line of governors that
lasted until 1825.
Henry Le Mesurier prospered through privateering , and moved the
Longis to Braye, building a jetty there in 1736.
Warehouses and dwellings were built at Braye, and the export of cattle
generated wealth for the economy. The Court House was built in 1770
and a school in 1790. A
Methodist chapel was constructed in 1790,
John Wesley 's visit in 1787. A telegraph tower was
constructed above La Foulère in 1811, enabling signals to be relayed
visually to Le Mât in
Sark and on to
Guernsey – early warning of
attack during the
Napoleonic Wars was of strategic importance. With
the end of those wars privateering was ended and smuggling suppressed,
leading to economic difficulties.
The last of the hereditary Governors, John Le Mesurier , resigned his
patent to the Crown in 1825, and since then authority has been
exercised by the
States of Alderney
States of Alderney , as amended by the constitutional
settlement of 1948.
Fortifications of Alderney
British Government decided to undertake massive fortifications in
the 19th century and to create a strategic harbour to deter attacks
from France. These fortifications were presciently described by
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone as "a monument of human folly, useless to us
... but perhaps not absolutely useless to a possible enemy, with whom
we may at some period have to deal and who may possibly be able to
extract some profit in the way of shelter and accommodation from the
ruins." An influx of English and Irish labourers, plus the sizeable
British garrison stationed in the island, led to rapid Anglicisation.
The harbour was never completed – the remaining breakwater (designed
by James Walker ) is one of the island's landmarks, and is longer than
any breakwater in the UK.
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visited
Alderney on 9 August 1854.
The Albert Memorial and the renaming of Rue Grosnez to Victoria Street
commemorate this visit.
At the same time as the breakwater was being built in the 1850s, the
island was fortified by a string of 13 forts, designed to protect the
harbour of refuge. The accommodation quarters of several of the forts
have been converted into apartments; two are now private homes; and
Fort Clonque , at the end of a causeway that can be flooded at
high tide, belongs to the
Landmark Trust and can be rented for
comfortable self-catering holidays for up to 13 people. Scenes from
Seagulls Over Sorrento were shot at
Fort Clonque in 1953.
Some of the forts are now in varying stages of dereliction, the most
ruined being Les Hommeaux Florains, perched on outlying rocks, its
access causeway and bridge having been swept away long ago. Houmet
Herbé resembles a Crusader castle with its squat round towers. Like
many of the forts, it included such apparently anachronistic features
as a drawbridge and machicolation , which were still common in
military architecture of the period.
SECOND WORLD WAR
Main articles: German occupation of the
Channel Islands and
Fortifications of Alderney
In June 1940 the entire population of Alderney, about 1,500
residents, were evacuated. Most went on the official evacuation boats
sent from mainland Britain. Some, however, decided to make their own
way, mostly via Guernsey, but due to the impending occupation many
found themselves unable to leave and were forced to stay on Guernsey
for the duration of the war. A few
Alderney people elected not to
Alderney with the general evacuation. However, boats from
Guernsey came and collected them before the German Army arrived, on
the basis that it was best for their personal safety. During the
Second World War
Second World War , the
Channel Islands were the only part of the
British Isles that was occupied by Germany , although other parts of
the Empire were occupied by the
Axis powers .
The Germans arrived to a deserted island, and began to follow their
orders to fortify
Alderney as part of Hitler's
Atlantic Wall . In
January 1942 they built four camps in Alderney: two work camps, Lager
Lager Borkum , and two concentration camps, Lager Sylt
Lager Norderney . They were built by the
Nazi Organisation Todt
(OT) to house the labour used to build fortifications including
bunkers , gun emplacements, tunnels, air-raid shelters and other
concrete and field fortifications. Lager Norderney, containing Russian
and Polish POWs , and the
Lager Sylt camp holding Jewish slave
labourers , were transferred to SS administration in March 1943 under
the control of
Maximilian List . There are 397
graves in Alderney, which when added to the men who died in ships,
takes the total to over 700 out of a total inmate population of 6,000
who lost their lives before the camps were closed and the remaining
inmates transferred to France in 1944. On the return to their island,
Alderney evacuees had little or no knowledge of the crimes committed
on their island during the occupation, because by December 1945, the
first date civilians could return home, all the slave labourers had
been sent away and the majority of the German troops left behind were
not senior staff. Evidence, however, was all over the island, with
concrete fortifications and graveyards for the prisoners kept there
during the occupation.
Royal Navy blockaded the islands from time to time, particularly
following the liberation of
Normandy in 1944. Intense negotiations
resulted in some
Red Cross humanitarian aid, but there was
considerable hunger and privation during the five years of German
occupation, particularly in the final months when the Germans
themselves were close to starvation. The Germans surrendered Alderney
on 16 May 1945, eight days after the Allies formally accepted the
unconditional surrender of the armed forces of
Nazi Germany and the
Adolf Hitler 's
Third Reich , and seven days after the
Guernsey and Jersey. 2,332 German prisoners of war were
Alderney on 20 May 1945, leaving 500 Germans to undertake
clearing up operations under British military supervision. The people
Alderney could not start returning until December 1945 due to the
huge cleanup operation needed simply to make the island safe for
civilians. When the islanders returned home they were shocked to see
the state of the island, with many houses completely derelict: the
Germans had burned anything wooden, including front doors, for fuel.
Archival and object evidence of the general evacuation in 1940 and the
subsequent occupation of
Alderney can be found in the
A series of tunnels also remain in place on Alderney, constructed by
forced labour. These are in varying degrees of decay, being left open
to the public and the elements.
For two years after the end of the war,
Alderney was operated as a
communal farm. Craftsmen were paid by their employers, whilst others
were paid by the local government out of the profit from the sales of
farm produce. Remaining profits were put aside to repay the British
Government for repairing and rebuilding the island. The local people
resented being unable to control their own land; this led to the
Home Office setting up an enquiry that led to the
Alderney Law 1948", which came into force on 1 January
1949. The law organised the construction and election of the States of
Alderney and the justice system; and, for the first time in Alderney,
the imposition of taxes. The legislature and judiciary were separated.
The position of Judge, who had headed the island's government since
the resignation of the last Governor in 1825, was abolished, and the
Jurats were removed from their legislative function. Because of the
island's small population, it was believed that the island could not
be self-sufficient in running the airport and the harbour , or
providing services that would match those of the UK. Taxes were
therefore collected into the general Bailiwick of
funds at the same rate as in Guernsey, and administered by the States
Guernsey became responsible for providing many
government functions and services.
The 20th century saw much change in Alderney, from the building of
the airport in the late 1930s to the death of the last speakers of the
Auregnais language, a dialect of the
Norman language . The
economy has gone from depending largely on agriculture to earning
money from the tourism and finance industries. E-commerce has become
increasingly important, and the island hosts the domain name registry
for both Bailiwicks and dozens of gambling website operators. Alderney
has a full regulatory authority in operation.
As a result of these upheavals and of substantial immigration, the
island has been more or less completely anglicised.
Politics of Alderney
States of Alderney
States of Alderney (French: États d'Aurigny) is the legislature
of the island; it sends two representatives to the States of Guernsey
as well. The origin of the States is unknown, but it has operated from
the Middle Ages.
States of Alderney
States of Alderney consists of the President , directly elected
every four years, and ten States Members , half elected every two
years for a four-year mandate. The whole island is a single
constituency . In June 2011, due to a vacancy,
Stuart Trought was
elected President of the
States of Alderney
States of Alderney until the end of 2012,
with 487 votes against in total 344 for the two other candidates. At
the presidential elections in October 2012 and again in November 2016
Trought was the only nominated candidate. Therefore, he was without
actual elections re-appointed for further four-year periods of office,
the second one due to expire on 31 December 2020.
Alderney enjoys full autonomy in law (except in matters of
foreign affairs and defence, like the other
Channel Islands and the
Isle of Man), under the provisions of a formal agreement (known as
"the 1948 Agreement") entered into between the Governments of Alderney
and of Guernsey, certain matters have been delegated to Guernsey.
These are known as 'the transferred services'.
Transferred services include policing, customs and excise, airport
operations, health, education, social services, childcare and
States of Alderney
States of Alderney retains policy control of aviation
to and from the island).
In return for providing the transferred services
various taxes and duties on Alderney. From 2016
Alderney took back
control of Tax on Real Property (TRP).
Immigration is the responsibility of the UK (UK law applies), with
day-to-day operations carried out by the
Guernsey Border Agency. In
addition to the transferred services, both the UK and
legislate on other matters with the consent of the States of Alderney.
The Court of
Alderney exercises unlimited original jurisdiction in
civil matters and limited jurisdiction in criminal matters. The Court
sits with a Chairman (the
Judge of Alderney ) and at least three of
the six Jurats . Appeals are made to the Royal Court of Guernsey,
which also exercises some original jurisdiction in criminal matters in
Alderney, and thence to the
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council .
For taxation purposes,
Alderney is treated as if it were part of
GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY
Alderney (cabbage trees ) Les Étacs –
Alderney (centre) and
Burhou (upper right)
Ortac in the distance, seen from the ferry.
Alderney is in the
background. Breakwater by James Walker .
Alderney is similar to the other
Channel Islands in having sheer
cliffs broken by stretches of sandy beach and dunes. The highest point
is on the central plateau of the island at 296 feet (90 metres).
Its climate is temperate, moderated by the sea, and summers are
usually warmer than elsewhere in the
British Isles .
Alderney and its surrounding islets support a rich flora and fauna.
Trees are rather scarce, as many were cut down in the 17th century to
fuel the lighthouses on
Alderney and the
Casquets . Those trees that
remain include cabbage trees , due to the mild climate – often
miscalled "palms" but of the lily family), and there are some small
woods dotted about the island. Puffins on
Burhou and gannets on Les
Étacs (popularly called
Gannet Rock) just off
Alderney are a
favourite of many visitors to the island.
About a quarter of
Alderney hedgehogs are of the "white" or "blonde"
variety, which does not carry fleas. These are not albinos, but
descent of rarely met blonde European hedgehogs , with a blonde pair
released on the island in the 1960s. The island had its own breed of
cattle, called the
Alderney . The pure breed became extinct in 1944,
but hybrids remain elsewhere, though no longer on Alderney. In August
2005, the west coast of
Alderney and associated islands, including
Ortac , were designated as Ramsar wetlands of international
importance . The
Alderney Wildlife Trust helps to manage the two
nature reserves , at
Longis and Vau du Saou.
The island is surrounded by rocks, which have caused hundreds of
wrecks. There are treacherous tidal streams on either side of the
island: the Swinge between
Alderney and Burhou, just outside the
harbour, and Le Raz between the island and the
Normandy mainland. The
Corbet Rock lies in the Swinge.
The geology of
Alderney is mostly granites from the Precambrian
The language of the island is now English with a few minor variants,
Channel Island English
Channel Island English .
For centuries the island had its own dialect of the Norman language
Auregnais , now extinct. It was primarily a spoken language,
with only a few known poems and written works using it.
French was once widely used on the island, and increasingly replaced
Auregnais since the late 19th century, but ceased to be an official
language there in 1966. French declined partly because of the many
English and Irish workers in the island from 1850 onwards, building
fortifications and providing the garrison soldiers; French fell out of
use not only from neglect, especially in schools, but also because
most of the population was evacuated in the Second World War.
However, there is a strong cultural legacy of both languages in the
island: most of the local place-names are in French or Auregnais, as
are many local surnames. The pronunciation of various local names is
also dialectal, e.g. Dupont as "dip-oh" rather than in the traditional
Parisian fashion, and Saye (the name of a beach on the island) as
"soy". One or two French/
Auregnais words are still in common use, e.g.
vraic (seaweed fertiliser ).
Island sports include golf, fishing and water sports, supported by
clubs and associations.
Alderney competes in the biannual Island Games
. Every September, the
Alderney Air Races attract a number of aircraft
to compete in the deciding and final round for the European Air Racing
champtionship, organised by the
Royal Aero Club
Royal Aero Club . This involves
high-speed circuits round the airfield, lighthouse,
Casquets and then
Partly because of the tourist industry, but mainly to the Ridunians'
own drinking culture (there is a common expression elsewhere in the
Channel Islands that
Alderney is composed of 'two thousand alcoholics,
clinging to a rock' ), there are restaurants and public houses.
Nightlife includes informal dance music events often taking place in
abandoned bunkers ('bunker parties') and more organised events in and
Alderney Week at the Corporation Quarry ('Quarry parties').
It was one of the last places in the
British Isles to introduce a
smoking ban in pubs, shops, restaurants and other indoor public places
(Guernsey, Jersey, the UK, and the Isle of Man all having outlawed
this already). The
States of Alderney
States of Alderney passed the anti-smoking
legislation with the President's casting vote on 13 January 2010; the
legislation came into force at 4am on 1 June 2010.
The island has an ageing population. Notable residents of Alderney
T. H. White (The Once and Future King) and Elisabeth
Beresford (The Wombles), cricket commentator
John Arlott , cricketer
Ian Botham , Beatles producer Sir
George Martin , actress Dame
Julie Andrews , and Olympic swimmer
Duncan Goodhew .
Alderney has its own radio station,
QUAY-FM , which broadcasts on
107.1 and online. Initially it only operated at seasonal highpoints
such as the summer
Alderney Week festival, but from 2015 it has
broadcast 24 hours a day. It features local news and interviews,
music, news from Sky and overnight broadcasting from BBC World Service
Alderney Week is the island's annual summer festival, beginning the
Saturday before the first Monday of August and lasting eight days, it
involves islanders and attracts visitors.
Alderney is chosen during the Easter Holiday weekend each year
at a public event held at the Island Hall. Application to the event is
online, with the winner chosen by a panel of judges made up by
non-residents and holidaymakers
Comedy Rocks is an annual run of live stand up comedy gigs mid to
late July and early August. The shows feature well known and
established comedians from the UK comedy circuit and have so far
featured BBCR4 Marcus Brigstocke and Zoe Lyons and Celebrity Get Me
Outta here runner up Joel Dommett.
ALDERNEY ANNUAL MOTOR SPRINT AND HILL CLIMB
Every year in mid-September
Alderney hosts a motorsport weekend that
is organized by the
Guernsey Kart and Motor Club. The event has been
held for more than 20 years. The event attracts
Guernsey drivers who
Alderney with high powered cars, motorbikes, sidecars and
Race vehicles are shipped to
Alderney a two days before the event. On
the Friday a sprint is held on the public roads of Fort Corbelets in
the east of the island, which are closed for the event. The following
day a hill climb is held at
Fort Tourgis in the west of the island,
and on a public road which is closed for the event. Spectators travel
from Guernsey. Local
Alderney people watch as the closed roads have
vehicles racing at high speed where normally speed limits of 35 miles
per hour (56 kilometres per hour) apply.
ALDERNEY PERFORMING ARTS FESTIVAL
Alderney Performing Arts Festival began in 2013, and
features music, dance and theatre.
ALDERNEY LITERARY FESTIVAL
Alderney Literary Festival began in March 2015, with talks and
events relating to historical fiction and non-fiction. It is organised
Alderney Literary Trust.
In April 2011, sculptor
Andy Goldsworthy completed a project called
Alderney Stones", commenced in 2008, in which 11 large dried-earth
spheres were placed at different sites on the island. The intention is
that each stone will gradually erode, at different speeds depending on
the location, and in some cases revealing objects buried inside.
Goldsworthy has stated that he selected
Alderney as "It seems to have
a strong sense of layered past and a wide variety of locations in a
Alderney is served by
Alderney Airport . There are several flights
each day from Southampton and
Guernsey , with links to many parts of
the United Kingdom and Europe.
Aurigny serves the island with Dornier
Do 228s .
Boats sail regularly between the island and France, and to the other
Channel Islands. A high-speed passenger ferry is operated in summer by
to Diélette in the commune of
Flamanville, Manche in France, and to
St Peter Port
St Peter Port , Guernsey. Weekly freight services, also carrying
Poole and St Peter Port. A 12-passenger boat operates
Sark and St Peter Port.
Alderney is 72.5
miles (116.7 kilometres) from
St Malo and 70.3 miles (113.1
There are boat trips, water-taxi services and water and fuel access
to visiting yacht crews. The busiest time is during the peak months of
June, July and August as nearly 30,000 yacht crew members visit this
harbour every year.
Because of the island's size, vehicular transport is often
unnecessary, although taxis, cars and bicycles are used. The Alderney
Railway is the only remaining railway in the
Channel Islands providing
a timetabled public service, with scheduled trains to the lighthouse
during the summer and special occasions such as Easter and Christmas.
There is an occasional bus service around the island.
Alderney allows people to ride motorbikes and mopeds without helmets
and drive cars without seatbelts , but it is compulsory for under 18s
to wear helmets. The international vehicle registration code is GBA.
HEALTHCARE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES
The St John
Alderney Ambulance Service operates the ambulance service
on the island, and is staffed by volunteers. It has served Alderney
since 1952 and is registered as a private company. Patients are
transferred to the Mignot Memorial Hospital in St Anne, and any having
major complications are then transferred to
Guernsey or Southampton by
Aurigny on a 24-hour emergency basis. In the event of bad weather
preventing an air evacuation the transfer is achieved with the aid of
RNLI lifeboat service. There is no paramedic service available on
Alderney Voluntary Fire Brigade has a crew of 10 volunteer
firefighters, and a fleet of One Iveco Daily Light Water Tender
(Carry's 10.5M ladder), Two Iveco Water Carriers both carry up to
4,500 litres of water each. One Ford Ranger Rapid Response Unit and
Two Trailer Units. A new station was officially opened by Lt.-General
Sir John Foley , the Lieutenant Governor of
Guernsey , on 20 October
2004. Located near
Braye Harbour , it gives an average response time
of just 9 minutes and includes four appliance bays, a workshop, kit
room, mess and a training room. The
Alderney Airport Fire and Rescue
Service is sometimes called to help with larger conflagrations.
Because of Alderney's low crime rate, day-to-day policing of
Alderney is provided by a team of five locally based officers from the
Guernsey Police , consisting of a sergeant in charge, two constables,
and two special constables. They are regularly assisted by visiting
Guernsey The police station is in QEII Street.
Alderney lifeboat station was established in 1869, was closed in
1884, and was re-established in 1985 by the
RNLI . It serves Alderney
with an all-weather
Trent class lifeboat
SEARCH AND RESCUE
Search and rescue services are provided by
Channel Islands Air
Search, which uses a
Britten-Norman Islander to search large areas of
water using infrared cameras and a number of other technologies.
Formed in 1980, it is staffed entirely by volunteers and is based in
Guernsey. When a major search is underway, the French coastguard and
Royal Navy are often involved, co-ordinated by the Maritime Rescue
Co-ordination Centre in
Jobourg , France.
NUMISMATIC AND PHILATELY HISTORY
Alderney pound and coinage
List of postage stamps of Alderney
* Postal orders of Alderney
IN POPULAR CULTURE
* In the song "Alderney" on her 2013 album
The Sea Cabinet , Gwyneth
Herbert tells the story of the sudden evacuation of Alderney's
inhabitants during the
Second World War
Second World War and the irrevocable changes
introduced during the
Nazi occupation of the island.
Overlooking Braye Bay
Fort Clonque –
Burhou in the background
The inner harbour, breakwater designed by James Walker in the
Channel Islands portal
Fortifications of Alderney
Alderney Steam Packet Company
* Maritime history of the
* Archaeology of the
* ^ "News report". BBC. 2016-04-08. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
* ^ Dictionnaire Jersiais-Français, 1966; Customs, Ceremonies &
Traditions of the Channel Islands, Lemprière, 1976, ISBN
* ^ Dictionnaire Jersiais-Français, 1966
* ^ A B C D A Visitor's Guide to Guernsey,
Alderney and Sark",
Victor Coysh, 1983 ISBN 0-86190-084-7
* ^ "
Alderney ruin found to be Roman fort", BBC News, 25 November
2011, accessed 7 December 2011.
* ^ Nicholas Hogben, "ALDERNEY’S ‘SHORE FORT’": "My best
guess is that the outer structure was constructed in the second half
of the third century or later by the Roman navy around an existing
combined harbour master's and revenue office, perhaps to protect it,
and hence the island, from the ‘pirates’ that Carausius hunted."
THE ASSOCIATION FOR ROMAN ARCHAEOLOGY Newsletter no. 23, not dated.
* ^ "Old Norse Words in the Norman Dialect". Viking Network.
* ^ Davenport, T.G., Partridge CW, "The Victorian
Alderney", Fort (
Fortress Study Group ), 1980, (8), pp21-47
* ^ A B Portrait of the Channel Islands, Lemprière, London 1970
* ^ The German Occupation of the Channel Islands, Charles G.
Guernsey Press, (1975) ISBN 0-902550-02-0
* ^ Bonnard, Brian.
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Alderney Story: 1939–1949, Michael St John Packe and Maurice
Dreyfus (1966?) "The
Alderney Society and Museum decided shortly after
its inception in 1966 to collect all reliable reminiscences whether
written or verbal lest with the passage of time they would be lost."
Alderney Place Names, Royston Raymond, 1999
* Noms de lieux de Normandie, René Lepelley, 1999 Paris ISBN
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