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Alcibiades, son of Cleinias, from the deme of Scambonidae (/ˌælsɪˈbaɪ.ədiːz/;[1] Greek: Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnídēs; c. 450–404 BC), was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. He was the last famous member of his mother's aristocratic family, the Alcmaeonidae, which fell from prominence after the Peloponnesian War. He played a major role in the second half of that conflict as a strategic advisor, military commander, and politician. During the course of the Peloponnesian War, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
changed his political allegiance several times. In his native Athens
Athens
in the early 410s BC, he advocated an aggressive foreign policy and was a prominent proponent of the Sicilian Expedition, but he fled to Sparta
Sparta
after his political enemies brought charges of sacrilege against him. In Sparta, he served as a strategic adviser, proposing or supervising several major campaigns against Athens. In Sparta
Sparta
too, however, Alcibiades soon made powerful enemies and felt forced to defect to Persia. There he served as an adviser to the satrap Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
until his Athenian political allies brought about his recall. He then served as an Athenian general (Strategos) for several years, but his enemies eventually succeeded in exiling him a second time. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was a leading supporter of the Sicilian Expedition, and scholars have argued that, had that expedition been under Alcibiades's command instead of that of Nicias, the expedition might not have met its eventual disastrous fate.[2] In the years when he served Sparta, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
played a significant role in Athens's undoing; the capture of Decelea and the revolts of several critical Athenian subjects occurred either at his suggestion or under his supervision. Once restored to his native city, however, he played a crucial role in a string of Athenian victories that eventually brought Sparta
Sparta
to seek a peace with Athens. He favored unconventional tactics, frequently winning cities over by treachery or negotiation rather than by siege.[3] Alcibiades's military and political talents frequently proved valuable to whichever state currently held his allegiance, but his propensity for making powerful enemies ensured that he never remained in one place for long; and by the end of the war which he had helped to rekindle in the early 410s, his days of political relevance were a bygone memory.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Political career until 412 BC

2.1 Rise to prominence 2.2 Sicilian Expedition 2.3 Defection to Sparta 2.4 Defection to Persian Empire in Asia Minor

3 Recall to Athens

3.1 Negotiations with the Athenian oligarchs 3.2 Reinstatement as an Athenian General 3.3 Battles of Abydos and Cyzicus 3.4 Further military successes

4 Return to Athens, dismissal, and death

4.1 Return to Athens 4.2 Defeat at Notium 4.3 Death

5 Assessments

5.1 Political career 5.2 Military achievements 5.3 Skill in oratory

6 References in comedy, philosophy, art and literature 7 Notes 8 Citations 9 References

9.1 Primary sources 9.2 Secondary sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

Early years[edit]

Jean-Baptiste Regnault: Socrates
Socrates
dragging Alcibiades
Alcibiades
from the Embrace of Sensual Pleasure (1791)

Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was born in Athens. His father was Cleinias, who had distinguished himself in the Persian War both as a fighter himself and by personally subsidizing the cost of a trireme. The family of Cleinias had old connections with the Spartan aristocracy through a relationship of xenia, and the name "Alcibiades" was of Spartan origin.[4][5] Alcibiades' mother was Deinomache, the daughter of Megacles, head of the powerful Alcmaeonid family, and could trace her family back to Eurysaces and the Telamonian Ajax.[6] Alcibiades thereby, through his mother, belonged to the powerful and controversial family of the Alcmaeonidae; the renowned Pericles
Pericles
and his brother Ariphron were Deinomache's cousins, as her father and their mother were siblings.[7] His maternal grandfather, also named Alcibiades, was a friend of Cleisthenes, the famous constitutional reformer of the late 6th century BC.[8] After the death of Cleinias at the Battle of Coronea (447 BC), Pericles
Pericles
and Ariphron became his guardians.[9] According to Plutarch, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had several famous teachers, including Socrates, and was well trained in the art of Rhetoric.a[›] He was noted, however, for his unruly behavior, which was mentioned by ancient Greek and Latin writers on several occasions.b[›] It was believed that Socrates
Socrates
took Alcibiades
Alcibiades
as a student because he believed he could change Alcibiades
Alcibiades
from his vain ways. Xenophon attempted to clear Socrates' name at trial by relaying information that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was always corrupt and that Socrates
Socrates
merely failed in attempting to teach him morality.[10]

Jean-Léon Gérôme: Socrates
Socrates
seeking Alcibiades
Alcibiades
in the House of Aspasia
Aspasia
(1861)

Alcibiades
Alcibiades
took part in the Battle of Potidaea in 432 BC, where Socrates
Socrates
was said to have saved his life[11] and again at the Battle of Delium in 424 BC.c[›] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had a particularly close relationship with Socrates, whom he admired and respected.[12][13] According to Plutarch, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
"feared and reverenced Socrates alone, and despised the rest of his lovers".[14] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was married to Hipparete, the daughter of Hipponicus, a wealthy Athenian. His bride brought with her a large dowry, which significantly increased Alcibiades' already substantial family fortune.[4] According to Plutarch, Hipparete loved her husband, but she attempted to divorce him because he consorted with courtesans but prevented her from appearing at court. She lived with him until her death, which came soon after, and gave birth to two children, a daughter and a son, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
the Younger.[15] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was famed throughout his life for his physical attractiveness, of which he was inordinately vain.[4] Political career until 412 BC[edit] Rise to prominence[edit] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
first rose to prominence when he began advocating aggressive Athenian action after the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, an uneasy truce between Sparta
Sparta
and Athens
Athens
signed midway through the Peloponnesian War, came at the end of seven years of fighting during which neither side had gained a decisive advantage. Historians Arnold W. Gomme and Raphael Sealey believe, and Thucydides reports,[16] that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was offended that the Spartans had negotiated that treaty through Nicias
Nicias
and Laches, overlooking him on account of his youth.[17][18] Disputes over the interpretation of the treaty led the Spartans to dispatch ambassadors to Athens
Athens
with full powers to arrange all unsettled matters. The Athenians initially received these ambassadors well, but Alcibiades
Alcibiades
met with them in secret before they were to speak to the ecclesia (the Athenian Assembly) and told them that the Assembly was haughty and had great ambitions.[19] He urged them to renounce their diplomatic authority to represent Sparta, and instead allow him to assist them through his influence in Athenian politics.[20] The representatives agreed and, impressed with Alcibiades, they alienated themselves from Nicias, who genuinely wanted to reach an agreement with the Spartans.[19] The next day, during the Assembly, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
asked them what powers Sparta
Sparta
had granted them to negotiate and they replied, as agreed, that they had not come with full and independent powers. This was in direct contradiction to what they had said the day before, and Alcibiades seized on this opportunity to denounce their character, cast suspicion on their aims, and destroy their credibility. This ploy increased Alcibiades's standing while embarrassing Nicias, and Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was subsequently appointed General. He took advantage of his increasing power to orchestrate the creation of an alliance between Argos, Mantinea, Elis, and other states in the Peloponnese, threatening Sparta's dominance in the region. According to Gomme, "it was a grandiose scheme for an Athenian general at the head of a mainly Peloponnesian army to march through the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
cocking a snook at Sparta
Sparta
when her reputation was at its lowest".[21] This alliance, however, would ultimately be defeated at the Battle of Mantinea.[22] Somewhere in the years 416–415 BC, a complex struggle took place between Hyperbolos
Hyperbolos
on one side and Nicias
Nicias
and Alcibiades
Alcibiades
on the other. Hyperbolos
Hyperbolos
tried to bring about the ostracism of one of this pair, but Nicias
Nicias
and Alcibiades
Alcibiades
combined their influence to induce the people to expel Hyperbolos
Hyperbolos
instead.[23] This incident reveals that Nicias
Nicias
and Alcibiades
Alcibiades
each commanded a personal following, whose votes were determined by the wishes of the leaders.[18] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was not one of the Generals involved in the capture of Melos in 416–415 BC, but Plutarch
Plutarch
describes him as a supporter of the decree by which the grown men of Melos were killed and the women and children enslaved.[24] An oration urging Alcibiades' ostracism, "Against Alcibiades" (historically attributed to the orator Andocides but not in fact by him), alleges that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had a child by one of these enslaved women.[25] Sicilian Expedition[edit]

Roman copy of a late fifth-century BC Athenian herma. Vandalizing hermai was one of the crimes of which Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was accused.[26]

Further information: Sicilian Expedition In 415 BC, delegates from the Sicilian city of Segesta
Segesta
(Greek: Egesta) arrived at Athens
Athens
to plead for the support of the Athenians in their war against Selinus. During the debates on the undertaking, Nicias
Nicias
was vehemently opposed to Athenian intervention, explaining that the campaign would be very costly and attacking the character and motives of Alcibiades, who had emerged as a major supporter of the expedition.[27] On the other hand, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
argued that a campaign in this new theatre would bring riches to the city and expand the empire, just as the Persian Wars
Persian Wars
had. In his speech Alcibiades predicted (over-optimistically, in the opinion of most historians) that the Athenians would be able to recruit allies in the region and impose their rule on Syracuse, the most powerful city of Sicily.[28] In spite of Alcibiades's enthusiastic advocacy for the plan, it was Nicias, not he, who turned a modest undertaking into a massive campaign and made the conquest of Sicily
Sicily
seem possible and safe.[29] It was at his suggestion that the size of the fleet was significantly increased from 60 ships[30] to "140 galleys, 5,100 men at arms, and about 1300 archers, slingers, and light armed men".[31] Philosopher Leo Strauss
Leo Strauss
underscores that the Sicilian expedition surpassed everything undertaken by Pericles. Almost certainly Nicias's intention was to shock the assembly with his high estimate of the forces required, but, instead of dissuading his fellow citizens, his analysis made them all the more eager.[32] Against his wishes Nicias
Nicias
was appointed General along with Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Lamachus, all three of whom were given full powers to do whatever was in the best interests of Athens
Athens
while in Sicily.[33] One night during preparations for the expedition, the hermai, heads of the god Hermes
Hermes
on a plinth with a phallus, were mutilated throughout Athens. This was a religious scandal and was seen as a bad omen for the mission. Plutarch
Plutarch
explains that Androcles, a political leader, used false witnesses who accused Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and his friends of mutilating the statues, and of profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries. Later his opponents, chief among them being Androcles and Thessalus, Cimon's son, enlisted orators to argue that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
should set sail as planned and stand trial on his return from the campaign. Alcibiades was suspicious of their intentions, and asked to be allowed to stand trial immediately, under penalty of death, in order to clear his name.[26] This request was denied, and the fleet set sail soon after, with the charges unresolved.[34]

"Men do not rest content with parrying the attacks of a superior, but often strike the first blow to prevent the attack being made. And we cannot fix the exact point at which our empire shall stop; we have reached a position in which we must not be content with retaining but must scheme to extend it, for, if we cease to rule others, we are in danger of being ruled ourselves. Nor can you look at inaction from the same point of view as others, unless you are prepared to change your habits and make them like theirs."

Alcibiades' Oration before the Sicilian expedition, as recorded by Thucydides
Thucydides
(VI, 18); Thucydides
Thucydides
disclaims verbal accuracy[dead link]d[›].

As Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had suspected, his absence emboldened his enemies, and they began to accuse him of other sacrilegious actions and comments and even alleged that these actions were connected with a plot against the democracy.[35] According to Thucydides, the Athenians were always in fear and took everything suspiciously.[36] When the fleet arrived in Catana, it found the state trireme Salaminia waiting to bring Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and the others indicted for mutilating the hermai or profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries
Eleusinian Mysteries
back to Athens
Athens
to stand trial.[36] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
told the heralds that he would follow them back to Athens in his ship, but in Thurii
Thurii
he escaped with his crew; in Athens
Athens
he was convicted in absentia and condemned to death. His property was confiscated and a reward of one talent was promised to whoever succeeded in killing any who had fled.[37] Meanwhile, the Athenian force in Sicily, after a few early victories, moved against Messina, where the Generals expected their secret allies within the city to betray it to them. Alcibiades, however, foreseeing that he would be outlawed, gave information to the friends of the Syracusans in Messina, who succeeded in preventing the admission of the Athenians.[38] With the death of Lamachus in battle some time later, command of the Sicilian Expedition
Sicilian Expedition
fell into the hands of Nicias, whom modern scholars have judged to be an inadequate military leader.[2] Defection to Sparta[edit] After his disappearance at Thurii, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
quickly contacted the Spartans, "promising to render them aid and service greater than all the harm he had previously done them as an enemy" if they would offer him sanctuary.[39] The Spartans granted this request and received him among them. Because of this defection, the Athenians condemned him to death in absentia and confiscated his property.[40][41] In the debate at Sparta
Sparta
over whether to send a force to relieve Syracuse, Alcibiades spoke and instilled fear of Athenian ambition into the Spartan ephors by informing them that the Athenians hoped to conquer Sicily, Italy, and even Carthage.[42] Yale historian Donald Kagan
Donald Kagan
believes that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
knowingly exaggerated the plans of the Athenians to convince the Spartans of the benefit they stood to gain from his help. Kagan asserts that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had not yet acquired his "legendary" reputation, and the Spartans saw him as "a defeated and hunted man" whose policies "produced strategic failures" and brought "no decisive result". If accurate, this assessment underscores one of Alcibiades's greatest talents, his highly persuasive oratory.[43] After making the threat seem imminent, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
advised the Spartans to send troops and most importantly, a Spartan commander to discipline and aid the Syracusans.[42]

"Our party was that of the whole people, our creed being to do our part in preserving the form of government under which the city enjoyed the utmost greatness and freedom, and which we had found existing. As for democracy, the men of sense among us knew what it was, and I perhaps as well as any, as I have the more cause to complain of it; but there is nothing new to be said of a patent absurdity—meanwhile we did not think it safe to alter it under the pressure of your hostility."

Alcibiades' Speech to the Spartans, as recorded by Thucydides
Thucydides
(VI, 89); Thucydides
Thucydides
disclaims verbal accuracy[dead link]d[›].

Alcibiades
Alcibiades
served as a military adviser to Sparta
Sparta
and helped the Spartans secure several crucial successes. He advised them to build a permanent fort at Decelea, just over ten miles (16 km) from Athens
Athens
and within sight of the city.[44] By doing this, the Spartans cut the Athenians off entirely from their homes and crops and the silver mines of Sunium.[43] This was part of Alcibiades's plan to renew the war with Athens
Athens
in Attica. The move was devastating to Athens
Athens
and forced the citizens to live within the long walls of the city year round, making them entirely dependent on their seaborne trade for food. Seeing Athens
Athens
thus beleaguered on a second front, members of the Delian League
Delian League
began to contemplate revolt. In the wake of Athens's disastrous defeat in Sicily, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
sailed to Ionia with a Spartan fleet and succeeded in persuading several critical cities to revolt.[45][46] In spite of these valuable contributions to the Spartan cause, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
fell out of favor with the Spartan government at around this time, ruled by Agis II.[47] Leotychides, the son born by Agis's wife Timaia shortly after this, was believed by many to be Alcibiades's son.[48][49] Alcibiades's influence was further reduced after the retirement of Endius, the ephor who was on good terms with him.[50] It is alleged that Astiochus, a Spartan Admiral, was sent orders to kill him, but Alcibiades
Alcibiades
received warning of this order and defected to the Persian satrap Tissaphernes, who had been supporting the Peloponnesian forces financially in 412 BC.[51] Defection to Persian Empire in Asia Minor[edit] On his arrival in the local Persian court, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
won the trust of the powerful satrap and made several policy suggestions which were well received. According to Thucydides, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
immediately began to do all he could with Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
to injure the Peloponnesian cause. At his urging, the satrap reduced the payments he was making to the Peloponnesian fleet and began delivering them irregularly.[51] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
next advised Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
to bribe the Generals of the cities to gain valuable intelligence on their activities. Lastly, and most importantly, he told the satrap to be in no hurry to bring the Persian fleet into the conflict, as the longer the war dragged out the more exhausted the combatants would become. This would allow the Persians to more easily conquer the region in the aftermath of the fighting. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
tried to convince the satrap that it was in Persia's interest to wear both Athens
Athens
and Sparta
Sparta
out at first, "and after docking the Athenian power as much as he could, forthwith to rid the country of the Peloponnesians".[52] Although Alcibiades's advice benefited the Persians, it was merely a means to an end; Thucydides tells us that his real motive was to use his alleged influence with the Persians to effect his restoration to Athens.[53] Recall to Athens[edit] Negotiations with the Athenian oligarchs[edit] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
seemed to assume that the "radical democracy" would never agree to his recall to Athens.[54] Therefore, he exchanged messages with the Athenian leaders at Samos
Samos
and suggested that if they could install an oligarchy friendly to him he would return to Athens
Athens
and bring with him Persian money and possibly the Persian fleet of 147 triremes.[55] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
set about winning over the most influential military officers, and achieved his goal by offering them a threefold plan: the Athenian constitution was to be changed, the recall of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was to be voted, and Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was to win over Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
and the King of Persia
Persia
to the Athenian side. Most of the officers in the Athenian fleet accepted the plan and welcomed the prospect of a narrower constitution, which would allow them a greater share in determining policy. According to Thucydides, only one of the Athenian Generals at Samos, Phrynichus, opposed the plan and argued that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
cared no more for the proposed oligarchy than for the traditional democracy.[56] The involvement in the plot of another General, Thrasybulus, remains unclear.e[›] These officers of the Athenian fleet formed a group of conspirators, but were met with opposition from the majority of the soldiers and sailors; these were eventually calmed down "by the advantageous prospect of the pay from the king".[57] The members of the group assembled and prepared to send Pisander, one of their number, on an embassy to Athens
Athens
to treat for the restoration of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and the abolition of the democracy in the city, and thus to make Tissaphernes the friend of the Athenians.[58] Phrynichus, fearing that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
if restored would avenge himself upon him for his opposition, sent a secret letter to the Spartan Admiral, Astyochus, to tell him that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was ruining their cause by making Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
the friend of the Athenians, and containing an express revelation of the rest of the intrigue. Astyochus went up to Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
at Magnesia and communicated to them Phrynichus's letter. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
responded in kind, sending to the authorities at Samos
Samos
a letter against Phrynichus, stating what he had done, and requiring that he should be put to death.[59] Phrynichus in desperation wrote again to Astyochus, offering him a chance to destroy the Athenian fleet at Samos. This also Astyochus revealed to Alcibiades
Alcibiades
who informed the officers at Samos
Samos
that they had been betrayed by Phrynichus. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
however gained no credit, because Phrynichus had anticipated Alcibiades's letter and, before the accusations could arrive, told the army that he had received information of an enemy plan to attack the camp and that they should fortify Samos
Samos
as quickly as possible.[60] Despite these events, Pisander and the other envoys of the conspirators arrived at Athens
Athens
and made a speech before the people. Pisander won the argument, putting Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and his promises at the center. The Ecclesia deposed Phrynichus and elected Pisander and ten other envoys to negotiate with Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
and Alcibiades.[61] At this point, Alcibiades's scheme encountered a great obstacle. Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
would not make an agreement on any terms, wanting to follow his policy of neutrality.[62] As Kagan points out, Tissaphernes was a prudent leader and had recognized the advantages of wearing each side out without direct Persian involvement.[63] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
realized this and, by presenting the Athenians with stiffer and stiffer demands on Tissaphernes's behalf, attempted to convince them that he had persuaded Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
to support them, but that they had not conceded enough to him. Although the envoys were angered at the audacity of the Persian demands, they nevertheless departed with the impression that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
could have brought about an agreement among the powers if he had chosen to do so.[64] This fiasco at the court of Tissaphernes, however, put an end to the negotiations between the conspirators and Alcibiades.[62] The group was convinced that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
could not deliver his side of the bargain without demanding exorbitantly high concessions of them and they accordingly abandoned their plans to restore him to Athens.[64] Reinstatement as an Athenian General[edit] See also: Athenian coup of 411 BC In spite of the failure of the negotiations, the conspirators succeeded in overthrowing the democracy and imposing the oligarchic government of the Four Hundred, among the leaders of which were Phrynichus and Pisander. At Samos, however, a similar coup instigated by the conspirators did not go forward so smoothly. Samian democrats learned of the conspiracy and notified four prominent Athenians: the generals Leon and Diomedon, the trierarch Thrasybulus, and Thrasyllus, at that time a hoplite in the ranks. With the support of these men and the Athenian soldiers in general, the Samian democrats were able to defeat the 300 Samian oligarchs who attempted to seize power there.[65] Further, the Athenian troops at Samos
Samos
formed themselves into a political assembly, deposed their generals, and elected new ones, including Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
and Thrasyllus. The army, stating that they had not revolted from the city but that the city had revolted from them, resolved to stand by the democracy while continuing to prosecute the war against Sparta.[66] After a time, Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
persuaded the assembled troops to vote Alcibiades's recall, a policy that he had supported since before the coup. Then he sailed to retrieve Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and returned with him to Samos. The aim of this policy was to win away Persian support from the Spartans, as it was still believed that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had great influence with Tissaphernes.[67] Plutarch
Plutarch
claims that the army sent for Alcibiades
Alcibiades
so as to use his help in putting down the tyrants in Athens.[68] Kagan argues that this reinstatement was a disappointment to Alcibiades, who had hoped for a glorious return to Athens
Athens
itself but found himself only restored to the rebellious fleet, where the immunity from prosecution he had been granted "protected him for the time being but not from a reckoning in the future"; furthermore, the recall, which Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had hoped to bring about through his own prestige and perceived influence, was achieved through the patronage of Thrasybulus.[69] At his first speech to the assembled troops, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
complained bitterly about the circumstances of his exile, but the greatest part of the speech consisted of boasting about his influence with Tissaphernes. The primary motives of his speech were to make the oligarchs at Athens
Athens
afraid of him and to increase his credit with the army at Samos. Upon hearing his speech the troops immediately elected him General alongside Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
and the others. In fact, he roused them so much that they proposed to sail at once for Piraeus
Piraeus
and attack the oligarchs in Athens.[70] It was primarily Alcibiades, along with Thrasybulus, who calmed the people and showed them the folly of this proposal, which would have sparked civil war and led to the immediate defeat of Athens.[68] Shortly after Alcibiades's reinstatement as an Athenian general, the government of the Four Hundred was overthrown and replaced by a broader oligarchy, which would eventually give way to democracy.[71] Presently Alcibiades
Alcibiades
sailed to Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
with a detachment of ships. According to Plutarch, the supposed purpose of this mission was to stop the Persian fleet from coming to the aid of the Peloponnesians.[68] Thucydides
Thucydides
is in agreement with Plutarch
Plutarch
that the Persian fleet was at Aspendus
Aspendus
and that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
told the troops he would bring the fleet to their side or prevent it from coming at all, but Thucydides
Thucydides
further speculates that the real reason was to flaunt his new position to Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
and try to gain some real influence over him.[70] According to the historian, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had long known that Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
never meant to bring the fleet at all.[72] Battles of Abydos and Cyzicus[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Battle of Abydos and Battle of Cyzicus

The Athenian strategy at Cyzicus. Left: Alcibiades's decoy force (blue) lures the Spartan fleet (black) out to sea. Right: Thrasybulus and Theramenes
Theramenes
bring their squadrons in behind the Spartans to cut off their retreat towards Cyzicus, while Alcibiades
Alcibiades
turns to face the pursuing force.

Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was recalled by the "intermediate regime" of The Five Thousand, the government which succeeded the Four Hundred in 411, but it is most likely that he waited until 407 BC to actually return to the city.[73] Plutarch
Plutarch
tells us that, although his recall had already been passed on motion of Critias, a political ally of his, Alcibiades was resolved to come back with glory.[74] While this was certainly his goal, it was again a means to an end, that end being avoiding prosecution upon his return to Athens. The next significant part he would play in the war would occur at the Battle of Abydos. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had remained behind at Samos
Samos
with a small force while Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
and Thrasyllus led the greater part of the fleet to the Hellespont. During this period, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
succeeded in raising money from Caria
Caria
and the neighboring area, with which he was able to pay the rowers and gain their favor.[75] After the Athenian victory at Cynossema, both fleets summoned all their ships from around the Aegean to join them for what might be a decisive next engagement. While Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was still en route, the two fleets clashed at Abydos, where the Peloponnesians had set up their main naval base. The battle was evenly matched, and raged for a long time, but the balance tipped towards the Athenians when Alcibiades
Alcibiades
sailed into the Hellespont
Hellespont
with eighteen triremes.[74][76] The Persian satrap Pharnabazus, who had replaced Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
as the sponsor of the Peloponnesian fleet, moved his land army to the shore to defend the ships and sailors who had beached their ships. Only the support of the Persian land army and the coming of night saved the Peloponnesian fleet from complete destruction.[77] Shortly after the battle, Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
had arrived in the Hellespont and Alcibiades
Alcibiades
left the fleet at Sestos
Sestos
to meet him, bringing gifts and hoping to once again try to win over the Persian governor. Evidently Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had gravely misjudged his standing with the satrap, and he was arrested on arrival.[74] Within a month he would escape and resume command.[78] It was now obvious, however, that he had no influence with the Persians; from now on his authority would depend on what he actually could accomplish rather than on what he promised to do.[79] After an interlude of several months in which the Peloponnesians constructed new ships and the Athenians besieged cities and raised money throughout the Aegean, the next major sea battle took place the spring of 410 BC at Cyzicus. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had been forced to flee from Sestos
Sestos
to Cardia
Cardia
to protect his small fleet from the rebuilt Peloponnesian navy, but as soon as the Athenian fleet was reunited there its commanders led it to Cyzicus, where the Athenians had intelligence indicating that Pharnabazus and Mindarus, the Peloponnesian fleet commander, were together plotting their next move. Concealed by storm and darkness, the combined Athenian force reached the vicinity without being spotted by the Peloponnesians.[78] Here the Athenians devised a plot to draw the enemy into battle. According to Diodorus
Diodorus
Siculus, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
advanced with a small squadron in order to draw the Spartans out to battle, and, after he successfully deceived Mindarus with this ploy, the squadrons of Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
and Theramenes
Theramenes
came to join him, cutting off the Spartans' retreat.f[›][80] The Spartan fleet suffered losses in the flight and reached the shore with the Athenians in close pursuit. Alcibiades's troops, leading the Athenian pursuit, landed and attempted to pull the Spartan ships back out to sea. The Peloponnesians fought to prevent their ships from being towed away, and Pharnabazus's troops came up to support them.[81] Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
landed his own force to temporarily relieve pressure on Alcibiades, and meanwhile ordered Theramenes
Theramenes
to join up with Athenian land forces nearby and bring them to reinforce the sailors and marines on the beach. The Spartans and Persians, overwhelmed by the arrival of multiple forces from several directions, were defeated and driven off, and the Athenians captured all the Spartan ships which were not destroyed.[82][83] A letter dispatched to Sparta
Sparta
by Hippocrates, vice-admiral under Mindarus, was intercepted and taken to Athens; it ran as follows: "The ships are lost. Mindarus is dead. The men are starving. We know not what to do".[81] A short time later Sparta
Sparta
petitioned for peace, but their appeals were ultimately rejected by the Athenians.[84] Further military successes[edit]

Satellite image of the Thracian Chersonese
Thracian Chersonese
(now known as the Gallipoli Peninsula) and surrounding area. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
traveled to the Chersonese in 408 BC and attacked the city of Selymbria
Selymbria
on the north shore of the Propontis.

After their victory, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
began the siege of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
in 409 BC with about 190 ships.[85] Although unable to attain a decisive victory or induce the city to surrender, Alcibiades was able to win a small tactical land battle outside of the city gates and Theramenes
Theramenes
concluded an agreement with the Chalcedonians.[86] Afterwards they concluded a temporary alliance with Pharnabazus which secured some much needed immediate cash for the army, but despite this Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was still forced to depart in search for more booty to pay the soldiers and oarsmen of the fleet. In pursuit of these funds he traveled to the Thracian Chersonese
Thracian Chersonese
and attacked Selymbria. He plotted with a pro-Athenian party within the city and offered the Selymbrians reasonable terms and imposed strict discipline to see that they were observed. He did their city no injury whatsoever, but merely took a sum of money from it, set a garrison in it and left.[87] Epigraphical evidence indicates the Selymbrians surrendered hostages until the treaty was ratified in Athens.[3] His performance is judged as skillful by historians, since it saved time, resources, and lives and still fully achieved his goal.[3][88] From here Alcibiades
Alcibiades
joined in the siege of Byzantium
Byzantium
along with Theramenes
Theramenes
and Thrasyllus. A portion of the citizens of the city, demoralized and hungry, decided to surrender the city to Alcibiades for similar terms as the Selymbrians had received. On the designated night the defenders left their posts, and the Athenians attacked the Peloponnesian garrison in the city and their boats in the harbor. The portion of the citizenry that remained loyal to the Peloponnesians fought so savagely that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
issued a statement in the midst of the fighting which guaranteed their safety and this persuaded the remaining citizens to turn against the Peloponnesian garrison, which was nearly totally destroyed.[86] Return to Athens, dismissal, and death[edit] Return to Athens[edit] It was in the aftermath of these successes that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
resolved to finally return to Athens
Athens
in the spring of 407 BC. Even in the wake of his recent victories, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was exceedingly careful in his return, mindful of the changes in government, the charges still technically hanging over him, and the great injury he had done to Athens. Thus Alcibiades, instead of going straight home, first went to Samos
Samos
to pick up 20 ships and proceeded with them to the Ceramic Gulf where he collected 100 talents. He finally sailed to Gytheion
Gytheion
to make inquiries, partly about the reported preparations of the Spartans there, and partly about the feelings in Athens
Athens
about his return.[89] His inquiries assured him that the city was kindly disposed towards him and that his closest friends urged him to return.[90] Therefore, he finally sailed into Piraeus
Piraeus
where the crowd had gathered, desiring to see the famous Alcibiades.[91] He entered the harbor full of fear till he saw his cousin and others of his friends and acquaintance, who invited him to land. Upon arriving on shore he was greeted with a hero's welcome.[92] Nevertheless, some saw an evil omen in the fact that he had returned to Athens
Athens
on the very day when the ceremony of the Plynteria (the feast where the old statue of Athena
Athena
would get cleansed) was being celebrated.[93] This was regarded as the unluckiest day of the year to undertake anything of importance. His enemies took note of this and kept it in mind for a future occasion.[94] All the criminal proceedings against him were canceled and the charges of blasphemy were officially withdrawn. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was able to assert his piety and to raise Athenian morale by leading the solemn procession to Eleusis
Eleusis
(for the celebration of the Eleusinian Mysteries) by land for the first time since the Spartans had occupied Decelea.[95] The procession had been replaced by a journey by sea, but this year Alcibiades
Alcibiades
used a detachment of soldiers to escort the traditional procession.[96] His property was restored and the ecclesia elected him supreme commander of land and sea (strategos autokrator).[97] Defeat at Notium[edit] Further information: Battle of Notium In 406 BC Alcibiades
Alcibiades
set out from Athens
Athens
with 1,500 hoplites and a hundred ships. He failed to take Andros
Andros
and then he went on to Samos. Later he moved to Notium, closer to the enemy at Ephesus.[98] In the meanwhile Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
had been replaced by Cyrus the Younger
Cyrus the Younger
(son of Darius II of Persia) who decided to financially support the Peloponnesians. This new revenue started to attract Athenian deserters to the Spartan navy. Additionally the Spartans had replaced Mindarus with Lysander, a very capable admiral. These factors caused the rapid growth of the Peloponnesian fleet at the expense of the Athenian. In search of funds and needing to force another decisive battle, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
left Notium
Notium
and sailed to help Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
in the siege of Phocaea.[99] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was aware the Spartan fleet was nearby, so he left nearly eighty ships to watch them under the command of his personal helmsman Antiochus, who was given express orders not to attack. Antiochus disobeyed this single order and endeavored to draw Lysander
Lysander
into a fight by imitating the tactics used at Cyzicus. The situation at Notium, however, was radically different from that at Cyzicus; the Athenians possessed no element of surprise, and Lysander had been well informed about their fleet by deserters.[100] Antiochus's ship was sunk, and he was killed by a sudden Spartan attack; the remaining ships of the decoy force were then chased headlong back toward Notium, where the main Athenian force was caught unprepared by the sudden arrival of the whole Spartan fleet. In the ensuing fighting, Lysander
Lysander
gained an entire victory. Alcibiades
Alcibiades
soon returned and desperately tried to undo the defeat at Notium
Notium
by scoring another victory, but Lysander
Lysander
could not be compelled to attack the fleet again.[101] Responsibility for the defeat ultimately fell on Alcibiades, and his enemies used the opportunity to attack him and have him removed from command, although some modern scholars believe that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was unfairly blamed for Antiochus's mistake.[102] Diodorus
Diodorus
reports that, in addition to his mistake at Notium, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was discharged on account of false accusations brought against him by his enemies.[82] According to Anthony Andrewes, professor of ancient history, the extravagant hopes that his successes of the previous summer had created were a decisive element in his downfall.[98] Consequently, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
condemned himself to exile.[82] Never again returning to Athens, he sailed north to the castles in the Thracian Chersonese, which he had secured during his time in the Hellespont. The implications of the defeat were severe for Athens. Although the defeat had been minor, it occasioned the removal of not only Alcibiades
Alcibiades
but also his allies like Thrasybulus, Theramenes
Theramenes
and Critias.[97] These were likely the most capable commanders Athens
Athens
had at the time, and their removal would help lead to the Athenian surrender only two years later, after their complete defeat at Aegospotami.[103] Death[edit]

Michele de Napoli
Michele de Napoli
(1808–1892): Death of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
(c. 1839), Naples National Archaeological Museum

With one exception, Alcibiades's role in the war ended with his command. Prior to the Battle of Aegospotami, in the last attested fact of his career,[104] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
recognized that the Athenians were anchored in a tactically disadvantageous spot and advised them to move to Sestus
Sestus
where they could benefit from a harbor and a city.[105] Diodorus, however, does not mention this advice, arguing instead that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
offered the Generals Thracian aid in exchange for a share in the command.g[›] In any case, the Generals of the Athenians, "considering that in case of defeat the blame would attach to them and that in case of success all men would attribute it to Alcibiades", asked him to leave and not come near the camp ever again.[105][106] Days later the fleet would be annihilated by Lysander. After the Battle of Aegospotami, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
crossed the Hellespont
Hellespont
and took refuge in Phrygia, with the object of securing the aid of Artaxerxes against Sparta.[107] Much about Alcibiades's death is now uncertain, as there are conflicting accounts. According to the oldest of these, the Spartans and specifically Lysander
Lysander
were responsible.[108] Though many of his details cannot be independently corroborated, Plutarch's version is this: Lysander
Lysander
sent an envoy to Pharnabazus who then dispatched his brother to Phrygia
Phrygia
where Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was living with his mistress, Timandra.h[›] In 404 BC, as he was about to set out for the Persian court, his residence was surrounded and set on fire. Seeing no chance of escape he rushed out on his assassins, dagger in hand, and was killed by a shower of arrows.[109] According to Aristotle, the site of Alcibiades's death was Elaphus, a mountain in Phrygia.[110] Assessments[edit]

Epitaph for Ipparetea, daughter of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
(Kerameikos Cemetery, Athens).

Political career[edit] In ancient Greece, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was a polarizing figure. According to Thucydides, Alcibiades, being "exceedingly ambitious", proposed the expedition in Sicily
Sicily
in order "to gain in wealth and reputation by means of his successes". Alcibiades
Alcibiades
is not held responsible by Thucydides
Thucydides
for the destruction of Athens, since "his habits gave offence to every one, and caused the Athenians to commit affairs to other hands, and thus before long to ruin the city".[111] Plutarch regards him as "the least scrupulous and most entirely careless of human beings".[112] On the other hand, Diodorus
Diodorus
argues that he was "in spirit brilliant and intent upon great enterprises".[113] Sharon Press of Brown University
Brown University
points out that Xenophon
Xenophon
emphasizes Alcibiades's service to the state, rather than the harm he was charged with causing it.[114][115] Demosthenes
Demosthenes
defends Alcibiades's achievements, saying that he had taken arms in the cause of democracy, displaying his patriotism, not by gifts of money or by speeches, but by personal service.[116] For Demosthenes
Demosthenes
and other orators, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
epitomized the figure of the great man during the glorious days of the Athenian democracy and became a rhetorical symbol.[117] One of Isocrates' speeches, delivered by Alcibiades
Alcibiades
the Younger, argues that the statesman deserved the Athenians' gratitude for the service he had given them.[118] Lysias, on the other hand, argued in one of his orations that the Athenians should regard Alcibiades
Alcibiades
as an enemy because of the general tenor of his life, as "he repays with injury the open assistance of any of his friends".[119][120] In the Constitution of the Athenians, Aristotle
Aristotle
does not include Alcibiades in the list of the best Athenian politicians, but in Posterior Analytics he argues that traits of a proud man like Alcibiades
Alcibiades
are "equanimity amid the vicissitudes of life and impatience of dishonor".[121][122] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
excited in his contemporaries a fear for the safety of the political order.[123] Therefore, Andocides said of him that "instead of holding that he ought himself to conform with the laws of the state, he expects you to conform with his own way of life".[124] Central to the depiction of the Athenian statesman is Cornelius Nepos' famous phrase that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
"surpassed all the Athenians in grandeur and magnificence of living".[125] Even today, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
divides scholars. For Malcolm F. McGregor, former head of the Department of Classics in the University of British Columbia, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was rather a shrewd gambler than a mere opportunist.[126] Evangelos P. Fotiadis, a prominent Greek philologist, asserts that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was "a first class diplomat" and had "huge skills". Nevertheless, his spiritual powers were not counterbalanced with his magnificent mind and he had the hard luck to lead a people susceptible to demagoguery.[8] K. Paparrigopoulos, a major modern Greek historian, underlines his "spiritual virtues" and compares him with Themistocles, but he then asserts that all these gifts created a "traitor, an audacious and impious man".[127] Walter Ellis believes that his actions were outrageous, but they were performed with panache.[128] For his part, David Gribble argues that Alcibiades's actions against his city were misunderstood and believes that "the tension which led to Alcibiades's split with the city was between purely personal and civic values".[129] Russell Meiggs, a British ancient historian, asserts that the Athenian statesman was absolutely unscrupulous despite his great charm and brilliant abilities. According to Meiggs his actions were dictated by selfish motives and his feud with Cleon and his successors undermined Athens. The same scholar underscores the fact that "his example of restless and undisciplined ambition strengthened the charge brought against Socrates".[47] Even more critically, Athanasios G. Platias and Constantinos Koliopoulos, professors of strategic studies and international politics, state that Alcibiades's own arguments "should be sufficient to do away with the notion that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was a great statesman, as some people still believe".[130] Writing from a different perspective, psychologist Anna C. Salter cites Alcibiades
Alcibiades
as exhibiting "all the classic features of psychopathy."[131] A similar assessment is made by Hervey Cleckley at the end of chapter 5 in his The Mask of Sanity
The Mask of Sanity
[132]. Military achievements[edit]

Pietro Testa: The Drunken Alcibiades
Alcibiades
Interrupting the Symposium (1648)

Félix Auvray
Félix Auvray
(1800–1833): Alcibiades
Alcibiades
with the Courtesans (1833)

Despite his critical comments, Thucydides
Thucydides
admits in a short digression that "publicly his conduct of the war was as good as could be desired".[111] Diodorus
Diodorus
and Demosthenes
Demosthenes
regard him as a great general.[113][116] According to Fotiadis, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was an invincible general and, wherever he went, victory followed him; had he led the army in Sicily, the Athenians would have avoided disaster and, had his countrymen followed his advice at Aegospotami, Lysander
Lysander
would have lost and Athens
Athens
would have ruled Greece.[8] On the other hand, Paparrigopoulos believes that the Sicilian Expedition, prompted by Alcibiades, was a strategic mistake.[133] In agreement with Paparrigopoulos, Platias and Koliopoulos underscore the fact that the Sicilian expedition was a strategic blunder of the first magnitude, resulting from a "frivolous attitude and an unbelievable underestimation of the enemy".[28] For his part, Angelos Vlachos, a Greek Academician, underlines the constant interest of Athens
Athens
for Sicily
Sicily
from the beginning of the war.i[›] According to Vlachos the expedition had nothing of the extravagant or adventurous and constituted a rational strategic decision based on traditional Athenian aspirations.[134] Vlachos asserts that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had already conceived a broader plan: the conquest of the whole West.[135] He intended to conquer Carthage
Carthage
and Libya, then to attack Italy
Italy
and, after winning these, to seize Italy
Italy
and Peloponnesus.[136] The initial decision of the ecclesia provided however for a reasonable military force, which later became unreasonably large and costly because of Nicias's demands.[135] Kagan criticizes Alcibiades
Alcibiades
for failing to recognize that the large size of the Athenian expedition undermined the diplomatic scheme on which his strategy rested.[137] Kagan believes that while Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was a commander of considerable ability, he was no military genius, and his confidence and ambitions went far beyond his skills. He thus was capable of important errors and serious miscalculations. Kagan argues that at Notium, Alcibiades committed a serious error in leaving the fleet in the hands of an inexperienced officer, and that most of the credit for the brilliant victory at Cyzicus
Cyzicus
must be assigned to Thrasybulus.[137] In this judgement, Kagan agrees with Cornelius Nepos, who said that the Athenians' extravagant opinion of Alcibiades's abilities and valor was his chief misfortune.[138] Press argues that "though Alcibiades
Alcibiades
can be considered a good General on the basis of his performance in the Hellespont, he would not be considered so on the basis of his performance in Sicily", but "the strengths of Alcibiades's performance as a General outweigh his faults".[114] Skill in oratory[edit] Plutarch
Plutarch
asserts that " Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was a most able speaker in addition to his other gifts", while Theophrastus
Theophrastus
argues that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was the most capable of discovering and understanding what was required in a given case. Nevertheless, he would often stumble in the midst of his speech, but then he would resume and proceed with all the caution in the world.[139] Even the lisp he had, which was noticed by Aristophanes, made his talk persuasive and full of charm.[140][141] Eupolis says that he was "prince of talkers, but in speaking most incapable";[23] which is to say, more eloquent in his private discourses than when orating before the ecclesia. For his part, Demosthenes
Demosthenes
underscores the fact that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was regarded as "the ablest speaker of the day".[116] Paparrigopoulos does not accept Demosthenes's opinion, but acknowledges that the Athenian statesman could sufficiently support his case.[127] Kagan acknowledges his rhetorical power, whilst Thomas Habinek, professor of Classics at the University of Southern California, believes that the orator Alcibiades seemed to be whatever his audience needed on any given occasion.[142][143] According to Habinek, in the field of oratory, the people responded to Alcibiades's affection with affection of their own. Therefore, the orator was "the institution of the city talking to—and loving—itself".[143] According to Aristophanes, Athens "yearns for him, and hates him too, but wants him back".[144] References in comedy, philosophy, art and literature[edit]

An engraving by Agostino Veneziano, reflecting a Renaissance
Renaissance
view of Alcibiades

Main article: Alcibiades
Alcibiades
(character) Alcibiades
Alcibiades
has not been spared by ancient comedy and stories attest to an epic confrontation between Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Eupolis resembling that between Aristophanes
Aristophanes
and Cleon.[117] He also appears as a character in several Socratic dialogues (Symposium, Protagoras, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
I and II, as well as the eponymous dialogues by Aeschines Socraticus and Antisthenes). Purportedly based on his own personal experience, Antisthenes
Antisthenes
described Alcibiades's extraordinary physical strength, courage, and beauty, saying, "If Achilles
Achilles
did not look like this, he was not really handsome."[145] In his trial, Socrates
Socrates
must rebut the attempt to hold him guilty for the crimes of his former students, including Alcibiades.[146] Hence, he declares in Apology: "I have never been anyone's teacher".[147] Long after his death, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
continues to appear in art, both in Medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
works, and in several significant works of modern literature as well.[148] He still fascinates the modern world, doing so most notably as the main character in historical novels of authors like Anna Bowman Dodd, Gertrude Atherton, Rosemary Sutcliff, Daniel Chavarria, Steven Pressfield
Steven Pressfield
and Peter Green.[149] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
is a major character in Paul Levinson's The Plot to Save Socrates, whose plot assumes that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
did not die when history records, but lived on secretly and had many further adventures.

Notes[edit]

Timeline of Alcibiades' life (c. 450–404 BC)

^ a:  Isocrates
Isocrates
asserts that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was never a pupil of Socrates.[150] Thus he does not agree with Plutarch's narration.[151] According to Isocrates, the purpose of this tradition was to accuse Socrates. The rhetorician makes Alcibiades
Alcibiades
wholly the pupil of Pericles.[152] ^ b: According to Plutarch, who is however criticized for using "implausible or unreliable stories" in order to construct Alcibiades's portrait,[153] Alcibiades
Alcibiades
once wished to see Pericles, but he was told that Pericles
Pericles
could not see him, because he was studying how to render his accounts to the Athenians. "Were it not better for him," said Alcibiades, "to study how not to render his accounts to the Athenians?".[151] Plutarch
Plutarch
describes how Alcibiades "gave a box on the ear to Hipponicus, whose birth and wealth made him a person of great influence." This action received much disapproval, since it was "unprovoked by any passion of quarrel between them". To smooth the incident over, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
went to Hipponicus's house and, after stripping naked, "desired him to scourge and chastise him as he pleased". Hipponicus not only pardoned him but also bestowed upon him the hand of his daughter.[15] Another example of his flamboyant nature occurred during the Olympic games of 416 where "he entered seven teams in the chariot race, more than any private citizen had ever put forward, and three of them came in first, second, and fourth".[154] According to Andocides, once Alcibiades
Alcibiades
competed against a man named Taureas as choregos of a chorus of boys and " Alcibiades
Alcibiades
drove off Taureas with his fists. The spectators showed their sympathy with Taureas and their hatred of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
by applauding the one chorus and refusing to listen to the other at all."[155] ^ c:  Plutarch
Plutarch
and Plato
Plato
agree that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
"served as a soldier in the campaign of Potidaea and had Socrates
Socrates
for his tentmate and comrade in action" and "when Alcibiades
Alcibiades
fell wounded, it was Socrates
Socrates
who stood over him and defended him".[151][156] Nonetheless, Antisthenes
Antisthenes
insists that Socrates
Socrates
saved Alcibiades
Alcibiades
at the Battle of Delium.[157] ^ d:  Thucydides
Thucydides
records several speeches which he attributes to Pericles; but Thucydides
Thucydides
acknowledges that: "it was in all cases difficult to carry them word for word in one's memory, so my habit has been to make the speakers say what was in my opinion demanded of them by the various occasions, of course adhering as closely as possible to the general sense of what they really said."[158] ^ e: Kagan has suggested that Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
was one of the founding members of the scheme and was willing to support moderate oligarchy, but was alienated by the extreme actions taken by the plotters.[159] Robert J. Buck, on the other hand, maintains that Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
was probably never involved in the plot, possibly because he was absent from Samos
Samos
at the time of its inception.[160] ^ f: In the case of the battle of Cyzicus, Robert J. Littman, professor at Brandeis University, points out the different accounts given by Xenophon
Xenophon
and Diodorus. According to Xenophon, Alcibiades's victory was due to the luck of a rainstorm, while, according to Diodorus, it was due to a carefully conceived plan. Although most historians prefer the accounts of Xenophon,[161] Jean Hatzfeld remarks that Diodorus's accounts contain many interesting and unique details.[162] ^ g:  Plutarch
Plutarch
mentions Alcibiades's advice, writing that "he rode up on horseback and read the generals a lesson. He said their anchorage was a bad one; the place had no harbor and no city, but they had to get their supplies from Sestos".[163][164] B. Perrin regards Xenophon's testimony as impeachable[104] and prefers Diodorus's account.[106] According to A. Wolpert, "it would not have required a cynical reader to infer even from Xenophon's account that he (Alcibiades) was seeking to promote his own interests when he came forward to warn the generals about their tactical mistakes".[165] ^ h: According to Plutarch, some say that Alcibiades
Alcibiades
himself provoked his death, because he had seduced a girl belonging to a well-known family.[109] Thus there are two versions of the story: The assassins were probably either employed by the Spartans or by the brothers of the lady whom Alcibiades
Alcibiades
had seduced.[166] According to Isocrates, when the Thirty Tyrants established their rule, all Greece became unsafe for Alcibiades.[167] ^ i: Since the beginning of the war, the Athenians had already initiated two expeditions and sent a delegation to Sicily.[168] Plutarch
Plutarch
underscores that "on Sicily
Sicily
the Athenians had cast longing eyes even while Pericles
Pericles
was living".[136]

Citations[edit]

^ (listen) ^ a b A. Vlachos, Thucydides' Bias, 59 &c. ^ a b c P.B. Kern, Ancient Siege
Siege
Warfare, 151. ^ a b c Smith, William (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology. vol. 1. London: James Walton. p. 99.  ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
8.17, Thucydides
Thucydides
8.6. ^ Plato, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
1, 121a. ^ C.A. Cox, Household Interests, 144. ^ a b c "Alcibiades". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios. 1952.  ^ N. Denyer, Commentary of Plato's Alcibiades, 88–89. ^ http://praxeology.net/sqalcibiades.htm ^ Plato, Symposium, 220e. ^ I. Sykoutris, Introduction to Symposium, 159–10. ^ Plato, Symposium, 215a–22b. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 6. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 8. ^ Thucydides, "The History of the Peloponnesian Wars", 5.43. ^ A.W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 339. ^ a b R. Sealey, A History of the Greek City States, 353. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 14. ^ Thucydides, V, 45. ^ A.W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 70. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 15. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 13. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, XVI. ^ Andocides, Against Alcibiades, 22. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 19. ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
6.8–23 ^ a b Platias-Koliopoulos, Thucydides
Thucydides
on Strategy, 237–46. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 322 ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
History of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
VII 8 ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 20. ^ L. Strauss, The City and Man, 104. ^ Thucydides, 6.26. ^ Thucydides, 6.29. ^ Thucydides, 6.61. ^ a b Thucydides, 6.53. ^ D. Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 273 ^ Thucydides, 6.74 ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 23. ^ Bury, J. B.; Meiggs, Russell (1956). A history of Greece to the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
(3 ed.). London: Macmillan. p. 469.  ^ Smith, William (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology. London: James Walton. p. 100.  ^ a b Thucydides, 6.89–90. ^ a b D. Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 282–83. ^ Thucydides, 7.18. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 24. ^ Thucydides, 8.26. ^ a b "Alcibiades". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002.  ^ Plutarch, Lysander, 22. ^ Plutarch, Agesilaus, III. ^ P.J. Rhodes, A History of the Classical Greek World, 144. ^ a b Thucydides, 8.45 ^ Thucydides, 8.46 ^ Thucydides, 8.47 ^ T. Buckley, Aspects of Greek History, 411. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 25. ^ R. Sealey, A History of the Greek City States, 359. ^ Thucydides, 8.48. ^ Thucydides, 8.49. ^ Thucydides, 8.50. ^ Thucydides, 8.51. ^ Thucydides, 8.53. ^ a b D. Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 136–38. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 366. ^ a b Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, 8.56. ^ Thucydides, 8.73. ^ Thucydides, 8.76. ^ Thucydides, 8.81. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alcibiades, 26. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 389. ^ a b Thucydides, 8.82. ^ Thucydides, 8.97. ^ Thucydides, 8.88. ^ Cartwright-Warner, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 301. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alcibiades, 27. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 406. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.1.5. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 408 ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 28. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 410. ^ Diodorus, XIII, 50–51. ^ a b Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.1.17–23. ^ a b c Diodorus, Library, xiii, 74.4 ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 410–13. ^ Diodorus, Library, 52–53. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 429 ^ a b Diodorus, Library, xiii, 67.1 ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 30 ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 410 ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1, 4, 8–12. ^ B. Due, The Return of Alcibiades, 39 ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1, 4, 13. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 32. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 34. ^ D Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 290. ^ S. Price, Religions of the Ancient Greeks, 54 ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1, 4, 18 ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 33 ^ a b A. Andrewes, The Spartan Resurgence, 490 ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 443 ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 444 ^ For the accepted account of the battle see Plutarch, Alcibiades, 35 or the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia, 4. ^ G. Cawkwell, Thucydides
Thucydides
and the Peloponnesian War, 143 ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 447 ^ a b B. Perrin, The Death of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
, 25–37. ^ a b Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.1.25. ^ a b Diodorus, Library, xiii, 105. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alcibiades". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 522.  ^ Isocrates, Concerning the Team of Horses, 16.40 ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 39. ^ Aristotle, History of Animals, 578b27 Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine.; cf. John & William Langhorne, Plutarch's Lives (1819), vol. 2, p. 172, n. 99. ^ a b Thucydides, VI, 15. ^ Plutarch, The Comparison of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
with Coriolanus, 5 ^ a b Diodorus, Library, xiii, 68.5. ^ a b S. Press, Was Alcibiades
Alcibiades
a Good General? ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.4. 18. ^ a b c Demosthenes, Against Meidias, 144–45[permanent dead link]. ^ a b D. Gribble, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Athens, 32–33. ^ Isocrates, Concerning the Team of Horses, 15. ^ Lysias, Against Alcibiades
Alcibiades
1, 1. ^ Lysias, Against Alcibiades
Alcibiades
2, 10. ^ Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians, 28. ^ Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, ii, 13. ^ D. Gribble, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Athens, 41. ^ Andocides, Against Alcibiades, 19. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Alcibiades, XI. ^ M.F. McGregor, The Genius of Alkibiades, 27–50. ^ a b Κ. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Αβ, 264–68. ^ W. Ellis, Alcibiades, 18. ^ D. Gribble, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Athens, 55 &c. ^ A.G. Platias and C. Koliopoulos, Thucydides
Thucydides
on Strategy, 240. ^ Anna C. Salter, Predators: Pedophiles, Rapists, And Other Sex Offenders,Basic Books, 2005,pg. 128. ^ The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues about the So-Called Psychopathic Personality. Martino Fine Books; 2 edition (February 18, 2015) (original ed. 1941) ^ Κ. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Αβ, 272. ^ A. Vlachos, Thucydides' Bias, 206. ^ a b A. Vlachos, Thucydides' Bias, 202–03. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 17. ^ a b D. Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 419–20. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Alcibiades, VII. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 10. ^ Aristophanes, Wasps, 44. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 1. ^ D. Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 178. ^ a b T. Habinek, Ancient Rhetoric
Rhetoric
and Oratory, 23–24. ^ Aristophanes, Frogs, 1425. ^ E. Corrigan, Plato's Dialectic at Play, 169; C. Kahn, " Aeschines
Aeschines
on Socratic Eros", 90. ^ G.A. Scott, Plato's Socrates
Socrates
as Educator, 19 ^ Plato, Apology, 33a ^ N. Endres, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
Archived 2006-10-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ T.T.B. Ryder, Alcibiades, 32 ^ Isocrates, Busiris, 5. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alcibiades, 7. ^ Y. Lee Too, The Rhetoric
Rhetoric
of Identity in Isocrates, 216. ^ D. Gribble, Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Athens, 30. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 12. ^ Andocides, Against Alcibiades, 20. ^ Plato, Symposium, 221a. ^ I. Sykoutris, Symposium of Plato
Plato
(Comments), 225. ^ Thucydides, 1.22. ^ Donald Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 385. ^ R.J. Buck, Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
and the Athenian Democracy, 27–28. ^ R.J. Littman, The Strategy of the Battle of Cyzicus, 271. ^ J. Hatzfeld, Alcibiade, 271 ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 36. ^ Plutarch, Comparison with Coriolanus, 2 ^ A. Wolpert, Remembering Defeat, 5. ^ H.T. Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities and W. Smith, New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, 39. ^ Isocrates, Concerning the Team of Horses, 40. ^ A. Vlachos, Thucydides' Bias, 204.

References[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Andocides, Against Alcibiades. See original text in Perseus program Aristophanes.  The Frogs. Wikisource.  Aristophanes, Wasps. See original text in Perseus program Aristotle.  Athenian Constitution. Trans. Frederic George Kenyon. Wikisource.  Aristotle, History of Animals (translated in English by Wentworth Thompson) Aristotle.  Posterior Analytics. Trans. Edmund Spenser Bouchier. Wikisource. 

Translation by G. R. G. Mure

Cornelius Nepos
Cornelius Nepos
(1886). " Alcibiades". Lives of the Eminent Commanders. Trans. Rev. John Selby Watson. Wikisource.  Demosthenes, Against Meidias. See original text in Perseus program Diodorus
Diodorus
Siculus, Library, 13th Book. See original text in Perseus program. Isocrates, Busiris. See original text in Perseus program Isocrates, Concerning the Team of Horses. See original text in Perseus program Lysias
Lysias
(1898). " Alcibiades". The Orations of Lysias. David McKay. Wikisource.  Lysias, Against Alcibiades
Alcibiades
2. See original text in Perseus program Plato, Alcibiades. See original text in Perseus program. Translated in English by Sanderson Beck. Plato
Plato
(1871).  Apology. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Wikisource.  Plato
Plato
(1871).  Symposium. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Wikisource.  Plutarch
Plutarch
(1683) [written in the late 1st century]. " Agesilaus". Lives. Trans. John Dryden. Wikisource. 

Translated in English by John Dryden

Plutarch
Plutarch
(1683) [written in the late 1st century]. " Alcibiades". Lives. Trans. John Dryden. Wikisource. 

Translated in English by Arthur H. Clough (New York: Collier Press, 1909), Aubrey Stewart-George Long and John Dryden.

Plutarch
Plutarch
(1683) [written in the late 1st century]. " Lysander". Lives. Trans. John Dryden. Wikisource.  Plutarch
Plutarch
(1683) [written in the late 1st century]. " Comparison of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
with Coriolanus". Lives. Trans. John Dryden. Wikisource. 

Translated into English by Aubrey Stewart-George Long and John Dryden.

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, V–VIII. See original text in Perseus program. Xenophon.  Hellenica. Trans. Henry Graham Dakyns. Wikisource. 

Secondary sources[edit]

"Alcibiades". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005.  "Alcibiades". Encyclopaedia of Ancient Greece. Routledge
Routledge
(UK). 2002. ISBN 0-415-97334-1.  "Alcibiades". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios. 1952.  In Greek. Andrewes, A. (1992). "The Spartan Resurgence". The Cambridge Ancient History edited by David M. Lewis, John Boardman, J. K. Davies, M. Ostwald (Volume V). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23347-X.  Buck, R.J. (1998). Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
and the Athenian Democracy: the Life of an Athenian Statesman. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-07221-7.  Buckley, Terry (1996). Aspects of Greek History 750–323 BC. Routledge
Routledge
(UK). ISBN 0-415-09957-9.  Cartwright David, Warner Rex (1997). A Historical Commentary on Thucydides: A Companion to Rex Warner's Penguin Translation. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08419-4.  Cawkwell, George (1997). Thucydides
Thucydides
and the Peloponnesian War. Routledge
Routledge
(UK). ISBN 0-415-16552-0.  Corrigan, Elena (2004). " Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and the Conclusion of the Symposium". Plato's Dialectic at Play. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-02462-3.  Cox, C.A. (1997). "What Was an Oikos?". Household Interests. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01572-4.  Denyer, Nicolas (2001). Alcibiades
Alcibiades
(commentary). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63414-8.  Due, Bodil (1991). "The Return of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
in Xenophon's Hellenica". "Classica et Mediaevalia—Revue Danoise de Philologie et D'Histoire". Museum Tusculanum Press. XLII: 39–54. ISBN 0-521-38867-8. Retrieved 2006-09-23.  Ellis, Walter M. (1989). Alcibiades. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00994-4.  Gomme, A. W.; A. Andrewes; K. J. Dover (1945–81). An Historical Commentary on Thucydides
Thucydides
(I–V). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814198-X.  Gribble, David (1999). Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Athens: A Study in Literary Presentation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815267-1.  Habinek, Thomas N. (2004). Ancient Rhetoric
Rhetoric
and Oratory. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23515-9.  Hatzfeld, Jean (1951). Alcibiade (in French). Presses Universitaires de France.  Kagan, Donald (1991). The Fall of the Athenian Empire. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9984-4.  Kagan, Donald (2003). The Peloponnesian War. Viking Penguin (Penguin Group). ISBN 0-670-03211-5.  Kahn, C. (1994). " Aeschines
Aeschines
on Socratic Eros". In Paul A. Vander Waerdt. The Socratic Movement. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9903-8.  Kern, Paul Bentley (1999). "Treatment of Captured Cities". Ancient Siege
Siege
Warfare. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33546-9.  Lee Too, Yun (1995). "The Politics of Discipleship". The Rhetoric
Rhetoric
of Identity in Isocrates. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47406-X.  Littman, Robert J. (1968). "The Strategy of the Battle of Cyzicus". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 99: 265–72. doi:10.2307/2935846. JSTOR 2935846.  McCann David, Strauss Barry (2001). War and Democracy: A Comparative Study of the Korean War and the Peloponnesian War. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0695-X.  McGregor, Malcolm F. (1965). "The Genius of Alkibiades". Phoenix. 19 (1): 27–50. doi:10.2307/1086688. JSTOR 1086688.  Paparrigopoulos, Konstantinos (-Pavlos Karolidis) (1925), History of the Hellenic Nation (Volume Ab). Eleftheroudakis (in Greek). Peck, Harry Thurston (1898). Harper's Dictionary Of Classical Literature And Antiquities.  Perrin, Bernadotte (1906). "The Death of Alcibiades". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 37: 25–37. doi:10.2307/282699. JSTOR 282699.  Platias Athanasios G., Koliopoulos Constantinos (2006). Thucydides
Thucydides
on Strategy. Eurasia Publications. ISBN 960-8187-16-8.  Press, Sharon (1991). "Was Alcibiades
Alcibiades
a Good General?". Brown Classical Journal. 7.  Price, Simon (1999). "Religious Places". Religions of the Ancient Greeks. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38867-8.  Rhodes, P.J. (2005). A History of the Classical Greek World. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22564-1.  Rhodes, P.J. (2011). Alcibiades: Athenian Playboy, General and Traitor. Pen and Sword Military Books. ISBN 978-1-84884-069-0.  Sealey, Raphael (1976). "The Peloponnesian War". A History of the Greek City States, 700–338 BC. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03177-6.  Scott, Gary Alan (2000). " Socrates
Socrates
and Teaching". Plato's Socrates
Socrates
as Educator. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-4723-5.  Smith, Willian (1851). A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography. Harper & brothers.  Strauss, Leo (1978). The City and Man. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-77701-4.  Sykoutris, Ioannis (1934). Symposium (Introduction and Comments). Estia.  In Greek. Vlachos, Angelos (1974). Thucydides' Bias. Estia (in Greek). Wolpert, Andrew (2002). Remembering Defeat: Civil War and Civic Memory in Ancient Athens. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6790-8. 

Library resources about Alcibiades

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Atherton, Gertrude (2004). The Jealous Gods. Kessinger Publishing Co. ISBN 1-4179-2807-7.  Benson, E.F. (1929). The Life of Alcibiades: The Idol of Athens. New York: D. Appleton Co. ISBN 1-4563-0333-3.  Bury, J.B.; Meiggs, Russell (1975). A History of Greece (4th ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.  Bury, J.B.; Cook, S.A.; Adcock, F.E., eds. (1927). The Cambridge Ancient History. 5. New York: Macmillan. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Chavarria, Daniel (2005). The Eye Of Cybele. Akashic Books. ISBN 1-888451-67-X.  Forde, Steven (1989). The Ambition to Rule Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and the Politics of Imperialism in Thucydides. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.  Green, Peter (1967). Achilles
Achilles
his Armour. Doubleday.  Henderson, Bernard W. (1927). The Great War Between Athens
Athens
and Sparta: A Companion to the Military History of Thucydides. London: Macmillan.  Hughes-Hallett, Lucy. Heroes: A History of Hero Worship. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York, 2004. ISBN 1-4000-4399-9. Meiggs, Russell (1972). The Athenian Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Pressfield, Steven. Tides of War: A Novel of Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and the Peloponnesian War. Doubleday, New York, New York, 2000. ISBN 0-385-49252-9. Robinson, Cyril Edward (1916). The Days of Alkibiades. E. Arnold.  Romilly de, Jacqueline (1997). Alcibiade, ou, Les Dangers de l'Ambition (in French). LGF. ISBN 2-253-14196-8.  Sutcliff, Rosemary (1971). Flowers of Adonis. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. ISBN 0-340-15090-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alcibiades.

Biographical

" Alcibiades
Alcibiades
was an Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War". Bingley.  "Alcibiades". Endres, Nikolai. Archived from the original on 5 September 2006. Retrieved 22 September 2006.  "Alcibiades: Aristocratic Ideal or Antisocial Personality Disorder". Evans, Kathleen. Archived from the original on 28 August 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2006.  "Alcibiades". Meiggs, Russell. Retrieved 5 August 2006.  "Alcibiades". Prins, Marco-Lendering, Jona. Archived from the original on 31 August 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2006.  "Alcibiades". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05. Archived from the original on 2008-02-22. Retrieved 5 August 2006. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

Texts and analyses

"Good Man, Bad Man, Traitor: Aspects of Alcibiades". Arcan, Gabriela. Archived from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2006.  " Thucydides
Thucydides
and Civil War: the Case of Alcibiades". Faulkner, Robert. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2006.  "Survie d'un lion: Alcibiade". Loicq-Berger, Marie-Paule. Archived from the original on 27 August 2006. Retrieved 22 September 2006.  " Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and the Sicilian Expedition". Rubio, Alexander G. Retrieved 5 August 2006.  "Plato, Thucydides, and Alcibiades". Syse, Henrik. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2006.  "Alcibiades, Athens, and the Human Condition in Thucydides' History". Warren, Brian. Archived from the original on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2006. 

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