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The Alcázar of Toledo
Alcázar of Toledo
(Spanish: Alcázar de Toledo, IPA: [alˈkaθar ðe toˈleðo]) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and his son Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
in the 1540s.[1] In 1521, Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
was received by Charles I at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs.[2]

Contents

1 Spanish Civil War 2 See also 3 References 4 Sources 5 External links

Spanish Civil War[edit] During the Spanish Civil War, Colonel José Moscardó Ituarte
José Moscardó Ituarte
held the building against overwhelming Spanish Republican forces in the Siege of the Alcázar. The incident became a central piece of Spanish Nationalist lore, especially the story of Moscardó's son Luis. The Republicans took 16-year-old Luis hostage, and demanded that the Alcázar be surrendered or they would kill him. Luis told his father, "Surrender or they will shoot me." His father replied, "Then commend your soul to God, shout 'Viva Cristo Rey' and die like a hero."[3] Moscardó refused to surrender. Contemporary reports indicated that the Republicans then murdered Moscardó's son. Other historians have reported that Luis was not in fact shot until a month later "in reprisal for an air raid".[4] The dramatic story also camouflages the fact that the fate of a number of male hostages, mainly from the Guardia Civil, taken into the Alcázar at the beginning of the siege is unclear. Some sources say the men "were never heard of again".[5] However at least one journalist who visited the Alcázar in the immediate aftermath of its liberation saw a number of prisoners chained to a railing in a cellar.[6] The events of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
at the Alcázar made the structure a symbol for Spanish Nationalism and inspired the naming of El Alcázar, a far-right newspaper that began during the civil war and ended during the Spanish transition to democracy
Spanish transition to democracy
as the mouthpiece for Búnker, a faction of Francoists who opposed reform after Francisco Franco's death. By the end of the siege, the building had been severely damaged. After the war, it was rebuilt. It now houses the Castilla-La Mancha Regional Library ("Biblioteca Autonómica") and the Museum of the Army ("Museo del Ejército"), the latter having previously been housed in the Salón de Reinos
Salón de Reinos
in Madrid.

Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
visits the Alcázar with José Moscardó
José Moscardó
in October 1940.

Interior of the Alcázar in 1901.

Rear view of the Alcázar in 1887.

Monument to the siege.

See also[edit]

Siege of the Alcázar

References[edit]

^ Henry Kamen, Philip of Spain, (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. ^ Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century, Javier Malagón-Barceló, The Americas, Vol. 20, No. 2 (October 1963), 124. ^ "The Siege of the Alcazar, Toledo, Spain. 1936". www.idealspain.com. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ Thomas, p 311 ^ Beevor, p122 ^ Eby, p187

Sources[edit]

Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, 4th Rev. Ed. 2001. Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain, 2006. Cecil Eby, The Siege Of The Alcázar, 1965

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alcázar of Toledo.

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Historic Centre of Toledo

Gates

Puerta Bab al-Mardum Puerta de Alarcones Puerta de Alcántara Puerta de Bisagra Puerta de Bisagra
Puerta de Bisagra
Nueva Puerta del Cambrón Puerta de los Doce Cantos Puerta del Sol Puerta del Vado

Religious buildings

Agustinas Calzadas Carmelitas Descalzas de San José Carmelitas Descalzos Cristo de la Vega El Salvador La Magdalena Las Concepcionistas Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes Monastery of Santo Domingo el Antiguo Monastery of Santo Domingo el Real Mosque of Cristo de la Luz Mosque of las Tornerías Nuestra Señora de la Estrella Purísima Concepción San Andrés San Antonio de Padua San Bartolomé San Cipriano San Clemente San Felipe de Neri San Idelfonso San Juan de la Penitencia San Lorenzo San Lucas San Miguel el Alto San Pedro Mártir San Román San Sebastián Santa Clara la Real Santa Fé Santa Isabel de los Reyes Santa Leocadia Santas Justa y Rufina Santa Úrsula Santiago del Arrabal Santos Justo y Pastor Santo Tomé San Vicente Synagogue Santa María la Blanca Synagogue of El Transito Toledo Cathedral Tower of San Cristóbal

Bridges

Puente de San Martín Roman Puente de Alcántara

Other landmarks

Alcázar of Toledo Alhóndiga Arab baths of Ángel Arab baths of Caballel Arab baths of Cenizal Arab baths of Tenerías Archbishop's Palace Artificio de Juanelo Basements of Cardenal Cisneros Bullring Castle of San Servando City Walls Cigarrales Colegio de Nuestra Señora de los Infantes Cortes of Castile-La Mancha Flour factory San José Former Casino Hospital del Nuncio Nuevo Infantry Academy Islamic Halls of Colegio de Doncellas Palacio de Fuensalida Palacio de Galiana Palacio de La Cava Real Colegio de Doncellas Nobles Roman aqueduct Roman baths Roman Cave of Hercules Roman circus of Toledo Roman remains under Alfonso X Roman vaults of Nuncio Viejo School of Arts and Crafts of Toledo The Jewish House The Templar House Toledo railway station Well of El Salvador University of Castilla-La Mancha

Juridical and Social Sciences faculty Vice-Rectorate of Teaching and International Relations

Museums and performing arts

Caja Castilla-La Mancha Foundation El Greco Museum Hospital de Tavera Army Museum of Toledo Museum of Santa Cruz Museum of Words San Marcos Arts Centre Sephardic Museum Teatro Rojas Workshop of the Moor

Streets and squares

Plaza de San Justo Plaza de las Cuatro Calles Plaza de Zocodover Plaza Nueva

See also

Jewish quarter of Toledo Subterranean Toledo

Coordinates: 39°51′29″N 4°01′14″W / 39.858084°N 4.020631°W / 39.858084; -4.020631

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 305243040 GND: 44436

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