Albert Bruce Sabin (born Albert Saperstein; August 26, 1906 – March 3, 1993) was a Polish American medical researcher, best known for developing the oral polio vaccine which has played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease.
1 Early life 2 Polio research 3 Later life 4 Philanthropy 5 Honors and awards 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links
Early life Sabin was born in Białystok, Poland, then part of the Russian Empire, to Polish-Jewish parents, Jacob Saperstein and Tillie Krugman. In 1921, he emigrated with his family to America. In 1930, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and changed his name to Sabin, as well as assuming the middle name Bruce. Sabin received a medical degree from New York University in 1931. He trained in internal medicine, pathology, and surgery at Bellevue Hospital in New York City from 1931–1933. In 1934, he conducted research at The Lister Institute for Preventive Medicine in England, then joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University). During this time, he developed an intense interest in research, especially in the area of infectious diseases. In 1939, he moved to Cincinnati Children's Hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. During World War II, he was a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army Medical Corps and helped develop a vaccine against Japanese encephalitis. Maintaining his association with Children's Hospital, by 1946, he had also become the head of Pediatric Research at the University of Cincinnati. At Cincinnati's Children's Hospital, Sabin supervised the fellowship of Robert M. Chanock, whom he called his "star scientific son." Sabin went on a fact-finding trip to Cuba in 1967 to discuss with Cuban officials the possibility of establishing a collaborative relationship between the United States and Cuba through their respective national academies of sciences, in spite of the fact that the two countries did not have formal diplomatic ties. In 1969–72, he lived and worked in Israel as the President of Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot. After his return to the United States, he worked (1974–82) as a research professor at the Medical University of South Carolina. He later moved to Washington, D.C. area, where he was a resident scholar at the John E. Fogarty International Center on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland.
Sabin (right) with Robert C. Gallo, M.D., circa 1985
Polio research With the menace of polio growing, Sabin and other researchers, most notably Jonas Salk in Pittsburgh and Hilary Koprowski and Herald Cox in New York City and Philadelphia, sought a vaccine to prevent or mitigate the illness. The Sabin vaccine is an oral vaccine containing weakened forms of strains of polio viruses. In 1955, Salk's "killed" vaccine was released for use. It was effective in preventing most of the complications of polio, but did not prevent the initial intestinal infection. The Sabin vaccine is easier to give than the earlier vaccine developed by Salk in 1954, and its effects last longer. Sabin first tested his live attenuated oral vaccine at the Chillicothe Ohio Reformatory in late 1954. From 1956–1960, he worked with Russian colleagues to perfect the oral vaccine and prove its extraordinary effectiveness and safety. The Sabin vaccine worked in the intestines to block the poliovirus from entering the bloodstream. In the intestines, Sabin had discovered, the poliovirus multiplied and attacked. Thus, the oral vaccine broke the chain of transmission of the virus and allowed for the possibility that polio might one day be eradicated. Between 1955 and 1961, the oral vaccine was tested on at least 100 million people in the USSR, parts of Eastern Europe, Singapore, Mexico, and the Netherlands. The first industrial production and mass use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from Sabin strains was organized by Soviet scientist Mikhail Chumakov. This provided the critical impetus for allowing large-scale clinical trials of OPV in the United States in April 1960 on 180,000 Cincinnati school children. The mass immunization techniques that Sabin pioneered with his associates effectively eradicated polio in Cincinnati. Against considerable opposition from the March of Dimes Foundation, which supported the relatively effective killed vaccine, Sabin prevailed on the Public Health Service to license his three strains of vaccine. While the PHS stalled, the USSR sent millions of doses of the oral vaccine to places with polio epidemics, such as Japan, and reaped the humanitarian benefit. Indeed, it was not clear to many that the vaccine was an American one, financed by U.S. dollars, as it was not widely available to ordinary Americans. Sabin also developed vaccines against other viral diseases, including encephalitis and dengue. In addition, he investigated possible links between viruses and some forms of cancer. Later life In 1983, Sabin developed calcification of the cervical spine, which caused paralysis and intense pain. Sabin revealed in a television interview that the experience had made him decide to spend the rest of his life working on alleviating pain. This condition was successfully treated by surgery conducted at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1992 when Sabin was 86. A year later, Sabin died in Washington, D.C., from heart failure. Philanthropy Sabin refused to patent his vaccine, waiving every commercial exploitation by pharmaceutical industries, so that the low price would guarantee a more extensive spread of the treatment. From the development of his vaccine Sabin did not gain a single dollar, and continued to live on his salary as a professor. Honors and awards
The CARE/Crawley Building houses the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine.
Election to the Polio Hall of Fame, which was dedicated in Warm Springs, Georgia, on January 2, 1958 Robert Koch Prize (1962) Feltrinelli Prize (1964) Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award (1965) National Medal of Science (1970)  Presidential Medal of Freedom (1986) The Cincinnati Convention Center was named after Sabin from 1985 to 2006. In 1999, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center named its new education and conference center for Sabin. The street that runs between the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center was renamed Albert Sabin Way on April 28, 2000. On March 6, 2006, the US Postal Service issued an 87-cent postage stamp bearing his image, in its Distinguished Americans series. In early 2010, Sabin was proposed by the Ohio Historical Society as a finalist in a statewide vote for inclusion in Statuary Hall at the United States Capitol. In 2012, Albert Sabin was named a "Great Ohioan" by the Capitol Square Foundation.
List of Poles
^ Moreno, Barry (4 October 2017). "Ellis Island's Famous Immigrants". Arcadia Publishing. Retrieved 4 October 2017 – via Google Books. ^ "The Legacy of Albert B. Sabin - Sabin". www.sabin.org. Retrieved 4 October 2017. ^ "Albert Sabin Biography - life, children, parents, death, school, information, born, college, siblings, time". www.notablebiographies.com. Retrieved 4 October 2017. ^ Brown, Emma. "Robert M. Chanock, virologist who studied children's diseases, dies at 86", The Washington Post, August 4, 2010. Accessed August 9, 2010. ^ Jiménez, Marguerite (June 9, 2014). "Epidemics and Opportunities for U.S.-Cuba Collaboration". Science & Diplomacy. 3 (2). ^ Sabin A.B. (1987). "Role of my cooperation with Soviet scientists in the elimination of polio: possible lessons for relations between the U.S.A. and the USSR". Perspect Biol Med. 31 (1): 57–64. doi:10.1353/pbm.1987.0023. PMID 3696960. ^ Benison S (1982). "International Medical Cooperation: Dr. Albert Sabin, Live Poliovirus Vaccine and the Soviets". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 56: 460–83. ^ Philip Boffey, Sabin, Paralyzed, Tells of Death Wish. In the New York Times, November 27, 1983. ^ Ezra Bowen, The Doctor Whose Vaccine Saved Millions from Polio Battles Back from a Near-Fatal Paralysis. In People, July 2, 1984. ^ Health Care; The Fight Against Death. Special comment by Keith Olbermann on Countdown, 2009-10-07. ^ "News - Special Reports - Albert B. Sabin -- National Medal of Science 50th Anniversary - NSF - National Science Foundation". www.nsf.gov. Retrieved 4 October 2017. ^ Bonfield, Tim (July 5, 1999). "Sabin has been snubbed before". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Gannett Company. Retrieved October 11, 2015. ^ "Albert Sabin Way to be dedicated". University Currents. www.uc.edu. April 21, 2000. Archived from the original on June 7, 2010. Retrieved March 7, 2016. ^ USPS press release Archived 2006-09-30 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Capitol Square Foundation press release". Retrieved 4 October 2017.
Saldías G, Ernesto (December 2006). "Centenary of Albert B. Sabin MD birthdate". Revista chilena de infectología : órgano oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología. 23 (4): 368–9. doi:10.4067/S0716-10182006000400013. PMID 17186087. Smith, Derek R; Leggat Peter A (2005). "Pioneering figures in medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin--inventor of the oral polio vaccine". The Kurume medical journal. 52 (3): 111–6. doi:10.2739/kurumemedj.52.111. PMID 16422178. Emed, A (April 2000). "[Albert B Sabin (1906-1993)]". Harefuah. 138 (8): 702–3. PMID 10883218. Chanock, R M (March 1996). "Reminiscences of Albert Sabin and his successful strategy for the development of the live oral poliovirus vaccine". Proc. Assoc. Am. Physicians. 108 (2): 117–26. PMID 8705731. Dalakas, M C (May 1995). "Opening remarks. On post-polio syndrome and in honor of Dr. Albert B. Sabin". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 753: xi–xiv. PMID 7611615. Beumer, J (1994). "[Academic eulogy of Professor Albert Bruce Sabin, foreign honorary member]". Bull. Mem. Acad. R. Med. Belg. 149 (5–7): 220–4. PMID 7795544. Horaud, F (December 1993). "Albert B. Sabin and the development of oral poliovaccine". Biologicals. 21 (4): 311–6. doi:10.1006/biol.1993.1089. PMID 8024745. Melnick, J L; Horaud F (December 1993). "Albert B. Sabin". Biologicals. 21 (4): 297–303. doi:10.1006/biol.1993.1087. PMID 8024743. "Homage to Albert Sabin". Biologicals. 21 (4): 295–384. December 1993. doi:10.1006/biol.1993.1087. PMID 8024742. Newsom, B (June 1993). "In memoriam: Albert B. Sabin, M.D., 1906-1993". Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association (1975). 89 (6): 311. PMID 8320975. Grouse, L D (April 1993). "Albert Bruce Sabin". JAMA. 269 (16): 2140. doi:10.1001/jama.269.16.2140. PMID 8468772. Koprowski, H (April 1993). "Albert B. Sabin (1906-1993)". Nature. 362 (6420): 499. Bibcode:1993Natur.362..499K. doi:10.1038/362499a0. PMID 8464487. Sabin, A B; Ramos-Alvarez M; Alvarez-Amezquita J; Pelon W; Michaels R H; Spigland I; Koch M A; Barnes J M; Rhim J S (June 1984). "Landmark article Aug 6, 1960: Live, orally given poliovirus vaccine. Effects of rapid mass immunization on population under conditions of massive enteric infection with other viruses. By Albert B. Sabin, Manuel Ramos-Alvarez, José Alvarez-Amezquita, William Pelon, Richard H. Michaels, Ilya Spigland, Meinrad A. Koch, Joan M. Barnes, and Johng S. Rhim". JAMA. 251 (22): 2988–93. doi:10.1001/jama.251.22.2988. PMID 6371279. Benison, S (1982). "International medical cooperation: Dr. Albert Sabin, live poliovirus vaccine and the Soviets". Bulletin of the history of medicine. 56 (4): 460–83. PMID 6760938. Dixon, B (December 1977). "Medicine and the media: polio still paralyses (Albert Sabin, Jonas Salk)". British journal of hospital medicine. 18 (6): 595. PMID 342023. Draffin, R W (January 1977). "Citation for Dr. Albert B. Sabin of Charleston, S.C. on presentation of Honorary Fellowship 1976". The Journal of the American College of Dentists. 44 (1): 28–30. PMID 320241.
The Myth of Jonas Salk: It was Albert Sabin’s vaccine, not Salk’s, that truly defeated polio. By Angela Matysiak July 1, 2005 MIT Technology Review Archives holding his papers
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Albert Sabin.
Dr. Albert Sabin's Discovery of the Oral Polio Vaccine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Obituary, NY Times, March 4, 1993 Sabin Vaccine Institute Hauck Center for the Albert B. Sabin Archives, University of Cincinnati The Albert B. Sabin Digitization Project Blog, University of Cincinnati The Albert B. Sabin Archives Digital Collection, University of Cincinnati The Finding Aid for the Albert B. Sabin Papers, University of Cincinnati
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Presidents of Weizmann Institute of Science
Chaim Weizmann Abba Eban Meyer Weisgal Albert Sabin Israel Dostrovsky Michael Sela Aryeh Dvoretzky Haim Harari Ilan Chet Daniel Zajfman
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United States National Medal of Science laureates
Behavioral and social science
1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller
1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman
1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow
2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin
2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura
1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr
1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss
1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood
1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis
2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner
2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin
1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell
1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon
2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox
2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond
1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby
1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo
1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier
1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens
2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv
2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath
Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences
1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller
1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth
1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer
1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman
2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford
2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin
1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky
1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf
1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel
1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff
2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington
2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 70596333 LCCN: n92803353 ISNI: 0000 0001 1667 6812 GND: 172836