ALBERT BRUCE SABIN (born ALBERT SAPERSTEIN; August 26, 1906 – March
3, 1993) was a
Polish American medical researcher, best known for
developing the oral polio vaccine which has played a key role in
nearly eradicating the disease .
* 1 Early life
* 2 Polio research
* 3 Later life
* 4 Philanthropy
* 5 Honors and awards
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
Sabin was born in
Poland , then part of the Russian
Empire , to Polish-Jewish parents, Jacob Saperstein and Tillie
Krugman. In 1921, he emigrated with his family to America. In 1930,
he became a naturalized citizen of the
United States and changed his
name to Sabin, as well as assuming the middle name Bruce.
Sabin received a medical degree from
New York University
New York University in 1931. He
trained in internal medicine, pathology, and surgery at Bellevue
New York City
New York City from 1931–1933. In 1934, he conducted
The Lister Institute for Preventive Medicine in England,
then joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now
Rockefeller University ). During this time, he developed an intense
interest in research, especially in the area of infectious diseases .
In 1939, he moved to Cincinnati Children\'s Hospital in Cincinnati,
Ohio . During World War II, he was a lieutenant colonel in the U.S.
Army Medical Corps and helped develop a vaccine against Japanese
encephalitis . Maintaining his association with Children's Hospital,
by 1946, he had also become the head of Pediatric Research at the
University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati . At Cincinnati's Children's Hospital, Sabin
supervised the fellowship of
Robert M. Chanock , whom he called his
"star scientific son."
Sabin went on a fact-finding trip to Cuba in 1967 to discuss with
Cuban officials the possibility of establishing a collaborative
relationship between the
United States and Cuba through their
respective national academies of sciences, in spite of the fact that
the two countries did not have formal diplomatic ties.
In 1969–72, he lived and worked in
Israel as the President of
Weizmann Institute of Science
Weizmann Institute of Science in
Rehovot . After his return to the
United States, he worked (1974–82) as a research professor at the
Medical University of South Carolina . He later moved to Washington,
D.C. area, where he was a resident scholar at the John E. Fogarty
International Center on the
NIH campus in
Bethesda, Maryland .
Sabin (right) with Robert C. Gallo, M.D., circa 1985
With the menace of polio growing, Sabin and other researchers, most
Jonas Salk in
Hilary Koprowski and Herald Cox
New York City
New York City and
Philadelphia , sought a vaccine to prevent or
mitigate the illness. The Sabin vaccine is an oral vaccine containing
weakened forms of strains of polio viruses. In 1955, Salk's "killed"
vaccine was released for use. It was effective in preventing most of
the complications of polio, but did not prevent the initial intestinal
infection. The Sabin vaccine is easier to give than the earlier
vaccine developed by Salk in 1954, and its effects last longer. Sabin
first tested his live attenuated oral vaccine at the Chillicothe Ohio
Reformatory in late 1954. From 1956–1960, he worked with Russian
colleagues to perfect the oral vaccine and prove its extraordinary
effectiveness and safety. The Sabin vaccine worked in the intestines
to block the poliovirus from entering the bloodstream. In the
intestines, Sabin had discovered, the poliovirus multiplied and
attacked. Thus, the oral vaccine broke the chain of transmission of
the virus and allowed for the possibility that polio might one day be
Between 1955 and 1961, the oral vaccine was tested on at least 100
million people in the USSR, parts of Eastern Europe, Singapore,
Mexico, and the Netherlands. The first industrial production and mass
use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from Sabin strains was organized
by Soviet scientist
Mikhail Chumakov . This provided the critical
impetus for allowing large-scale clinical trials of OPV in the United
States in April 1960 on 180,000 Cincinnati school children. The mass
immunization techniques that Sabin pioneered with his associates
effectively eradicated polio in Cincinnati. Against considerable
opposition from the
March of Dimes
March of Dimes Foundation, which supported the
relatively effective killed vaccine, Sabin prevailed on the Public
Health Service to license his three strains of vaccine. While the PHS
stalled, the USSR sent millions of doses of the oral vaccine to places
with polio epidemics, such as Japan, and reaped the humanitarian
benefit. Indeed, it was not clear to many that the vaccine was an
American one, financed by U.S. dollars, as it was not widely available
to ordinary Americans.
Sabin also developed vaccines against other viral diseases, including
encephalitis and dengue . In addition, he investigated possible links
between viruses and some forms of cancer .
In 1983, Sabin developed calcification of the cervical spine, which
caused paralysis and intense pain. Sabin revealed in a television
interview that the experience had made him decide to spend the rest of
his life working on alleviating pain. This condition was successfully
treated by surgery conducted at
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1992 when
Sabin was 86. A year later, Sabin died in
Washington, D.C. , from
Sabin refused to patent his vaccine, waiving every commercial
exploitation by pharmaceutical industries, so that the low price would
guarantee a more extensive spread of the treatment. From the
development of his vaccine Sabin didn't gain a single dollar,
continuing to live on his salary as a professor.
HONORS AND AWARDS
The CARE/Crawley Building houses the University of Cincinnati
College of Medicine.
* Election to the
Polio Hall of Fame , which was dedicated in Warm
Springs, Georgia , on January 2, 1958
Robert Koch Prize (1962)
Feltrinelli Prize (1964)
Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award (1965)
National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science (1970)
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom (1986)
* The Cincinnati Convention Center was named after Sabin from 1985
* In 1999, Cincinnati Children\'s Hospital Medical Center named its
new education and conference center for Sabin.
* The street that runs between the
University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati College
of Medicine and
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center was
Albert Sabin Way on April 28, 2000.
* On March 6, 2006, the
US Postal Service issued an 87-cent postage
stamp bearing his image, in its
Distinguished Americans series .
* In early 2010, Sabin was proposed by the Ohio Historical Society
as a finalist in a statewide vote for inclusion in
Statuary Hall at
United States Capitol .
* In 2012,
Albert Sabin was named a "Great Ohioan" by the Capitol
* List of Poles
* ^ Moreno, Barry (4 October 2017). "Ellis Island\'s Famous
Immigrants". Arcadia Publishing. Retrieved 4 October 2017 – via
* ^ "The Legacy of Albert B. Sabin - Sabin". www.sabin.org.
Retrieved 4 October 2017.
* ^ "
Albert Sabin Biography - life, children, parents, death,
school, information, born, college, siblings, time".
www.notablebiographies.com. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
* ^ Brown, Emma. "Robert M. Chanock, virologist who studied
children\'s diseases, dies at 86",
The Washington Post
The Washington Post , August 4,
2010. Accessed August 9, 2010.
* ^ Jiménez, Marguerite (June 9, 2014). "Epidemics and
Opportunities for U.S.-Cuba Collaboration". Science & Diplomacy. 3
* ^ Sabin A.B. (1987). "Role of my cooperation with Soviet
scientists in the elimination of polio: possible lessons for relations
between the U.S.A. and the USSR". Perspect Biol Med. 31 (1): 57–64.
doi :10.1353/pbm.1987.0023 . PMID 3696960 .
* ^ Benison S (1982). "International Medical Cooperation: Dr.
Albert Sabin, Live Poliovirus Vaccine and the Soviets". Bulletin of
the History of Medicine. 56: 460–83.
* ^ Philip Boffey, Sabin, Paralyzed, Tells of Death Wish. In the
New York Times, November 27, 1983.
* ^ Ezra Bowen, The Doctor Whose Vaccine Saved Millions from Polio
Battles Back from a Near-Fatal Paralysis. In People, July 2, 1984.
* ^ Health Care; The Fight Against Death.
Special comment by Keith
Olbermann on Countdown, 2009-10-07.
* ^ "News -
Special Reports - Albert B. Sabin -- National Medal of
Science 50th Anniversary - NSF - National Science Foundation".
www.nsf.gov. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
* ^ Bonfield, Tim (July 5, 1999). "Sabin has been snubbed before".
The Cincinnati Enquirer .
Gannett Company . Retrieved October 11,
* ^ "
Albert Sabin Way to be dedicated". University Currents.
www.uc.edu. April 21, 2000. Archived from the original on June 7,
2010. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
* ^ USPS press release Archived 2006-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
* ^ "Capitol Square Foundation press release". Retrieved 4 October
* Saldías G, Ernesto (December 2006). "Centenary of Albert B. Sabin
MD birthdate". Revista chilena de infectología : órgano oficial de
la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología. 23 (4): 368–9. doi
:10.4067/S0716-10182006000400013 . PMID 17186087 .
* Smith, Derek R; Leggat Peter A (2005). "Pioneering figures in
medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin--inventor of the oral polio vaccine". The
Kurume medical journal. 52 (3): 111–6. doi
:10.2739/kurumemedj.52.111 . PMID 16422178 .
* Emed, A (April 2000). "". Harefuah. 138 (8): 702–3. PMID
* Chanock, R M (March 1996). "Reminiscences of
Albert Sabin and his
successful strategy for the development of the live oral poliovirus
vaccine". Proc. Assoc. Am. Physicians. 108 (2): 117–26. PMID 8705731
* Dalakas, M C (May 1995). "Opening remarks. On post-polio syndrome
and in honor of Dr. Albert B. Sabin". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 753:
xi–xiv. PMID 7611615 .
* Beumer, J (1994). "". Bull. Mem. Acad. R. Med. Belg. 149 (5–7):
220–4. PMID 7795544 .
* Horaud, F (December 1993). "Albert B. Sabin and the development of
oral poliovaccine". Biologicals. 21 (4): 311–6. doi
:10.1006/biol.1993.1089 . PMID 8024745 .
* Melnick, J L; Horaud F (December 1993). "Albert B. Sabin".
Biologicals. 21 (4): 297–303. doi :10.1006/biol.1993.1087 . PMID
* "Homage to Albert Sabin". Biologicals. 21 (4): 295–384. December
1993. doi :10.1006/biol.1993.1087 . PMID 8024742 .
* Newsom, B (June 1993). "In memoriam: Albert B. Sabin, M.D.,
1906-1993". Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association (1975).
89 (6): 311. PMID 8320975 .
* Grouse, L D (April 1993). "Albert Bruce Sabin". JAMA . 269 (16):
2140. doi :10.1001/jama.269.16.2140 . PMID 8468772 .
* Koprowski, H (April 1993). "Albert B. Sabin (1906-1993)". Nature .
362 (6420): 499.
Bibcode :1993Natur.362..499K. doi :10.1038/362499a0 .
PMID 8464487 .
* Sabin, A B; Ramos-Alvarez M; Alvarez-Amezquita J; Pelon W;
Michaels R H; Spigland I; Koch M A; Barnes J M; Rhim J S (June 1984).
"Landmark article Aug 6, 1960: Live, orally given poliovirus vaccine.
Effects of rapid mass immunization on population under conditions of
massive enteric infection with other viruses. By Albert B. Sabin,
Manuel Ramos-Alvarez, José Alvarez-Amezquita, William Pelon, Richard
H. Michaels, Ilya Spigland, Meinrad A. Koch, Joan M. Barnes, and Johng
S. Rhim". JAMA . 251 (22): 2988–93. doi :10.1001/jama.251.22.2988 .
PMID 6371279 .
* Benison, S (1982). "International medical cooperation: Dr. Albert
Sabin, live poliovirus vaccine and the Soviets". Bulletin of the
history of medicine. 56 (4): 460–83. PMID 6760938 .
* Dixon, B (December 1977). "Medicine and the media: polio still
paralyses (Albert Sabin, Jonas Salk)". British journal of hospital
medicine. 18 (6): 595. PMID 342023 .
* Draffin, R W (January 1977). "Citation for Dr. Albert B. Sabin of
Charleston, S.C. on presentation of Honorary Fellowship 1976". The
Journal of the American College of Dentists. 44 (1): 28–30. PMID
* The Myth of Jonas Salk: It was Albert Sabin’s vaccine, not
Salk’s, that truly defeated polio. By Angela Matysiak July 1, 2005
MIT Technology Review
MIT Technology Review
* Archives holding his papers
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