Inkosi ALBERT JOHN LUTULI (commonly spelled LUTHULI; c. 1898 – 21
July 1967), also known by his Zulu name MVUMBI, was a South African
teacher , activist,
Nobel Peace Prize
* 1 Early life
* 2 Teaching
* 3 Tribal chief
* 4 Anti-
The third son of Seventh-day Adventist missionary John Bunyan Lutuli
and Mtonya Gumede,
Albert Lutuli was born near
Bulawayo in what was
then called Rhodesia (present day Zimbabwe), around 1898. His father
died, and he and his mother returned to her ancestral home of
KwaDukuza (Stanger), Natal ,
On completing a teaching course at Edendale , near
In 1928 he became secretary of the African Teacher's Association and in 1933 its president. He was also active in missionary work.
In 1933 the tribal elders asked Lutuli to become chief of the Zulu tribe in succession to his uncle. For two years he hesitated, but accepted the call in early 1936 and became a chieftain . He held this position until he was removed from his office by the Apartheid government in 1953. Their having done so notwithstanding, amongst his people he retained the use of the dignity "chief" as a pre-nominal style for the remainder of his life.
In 1936 the government disenfranchised the only black Africans who
had voting rights at that time — those in
Prior to Luthuli's involvement with the African National Congress
(ANC) Luthuli also had served on the executive committee of the
In 1944 Lutuli joined the
African National Congress
The government, charging Lutuli with a conflict of interest, demanded that he withdraw his membership in ANC or forfeit his office as tribal chief. Refusing to do either, he was dismissed from his chieftainship.
A month later Lutuli was elected president-general of ANC, formally nominated by the future Pan Africanist Congress leader Potlako Leballo . Responding immediately, the government imposed two two-year bans on Lutuli's movement. When the second ban expired in 1956, he attended an ANC conference only to be arrested and charged with treason a few months later, along with 155 others. In December 1957, after nearly a year in custody during the preliminary hearings, Lutuli was released and the charges against him and sixty-four of his compatriots were dropped.
Another five-year ban confined him to a 15-mile (24 km) radius of his
home. The ban was temporarily lifted while he testified at the
continuing treason trials. It was lifted again in March 1960, to
permit his arrest for publicly burning his pass following the
Sharpeville massacre . In the ensuing state of emergency he was
arrested, found guilty, fined, given a suspended jail sentence, and
finally returned to Groutville. One final time the ban was lifted,
this time for 10 days in early December 1961, to permit Lutuli and his
wife to attend the
Nobel Peace Prize
Lutuli's leadership of the ANC covered the period of violent disputes
between the party's "Africanist" and "Charterist" wings. Africanist
critics claim Lutuli was peripherialized in Natal and the Transvaal
ANC Provincial branch and its Communist Party (CPSA officially
dissolved 1950 but secretly reconstituted 1953 as
SACP ) allies took
advantage of this situation. Lutuli did not see the Freedom Charter
before it was adopted by acclaim at
Kliptown in 1955. After reading
the document and realising the ANC, despite its numerical superiority,
had been subordinated to one vote in a five-member multiracial and
trade union "Congress Alliance", Lutuli rejected the Charter but then
later accepted it partly to counter the more radical Africanist wing
whom he likened to black nazis. In 1959 the Africanists split from the
ANC over the issue of the
Freedom Charter and
Oliver Tambo 's 1958
rewriting of the ANC Constitution, founding the Pan Africanist
Congress (PAC). The PAC posed a serious challenge to the ANC until its
military wing was destroyed at Itumbi camp,
UMKHONTO WE SIZWE
In December 1961, without Lutuli's sanction,
In 1962 he was elected Rector of the University of Glasgow by the students, serving until 1965. Since he was banned from travelling to Glasgow the Luthuli Scholarship Fund was set up by the Student Representative Council to enable a black South African student to study at Glasgow University.
In 1962 he published an autobiography entitled Let My People Go.
A fourth ban, to run for five years confining Lutuli to the immediate vicinity of his home, was issued in May 1964, to run concurrently with the third ban.
In 1966, he was visited by
In 1927 he married Nokukhanya Bhengu, the granddaughter of the Zulu chief, Dhlokolo of the Ngcolosi. Seven children were born to the couple.
Statue of Albert Lutuli at Nobel Square at the Vborder:solid #aaa 1px">
* Saints portal
* ^ Note about names: Lutuli's surname is very often spelled Luthuli, as it is in his autobiography, which was prepared for publication by non-vernacular-speaking friends. But Lutuli himself preferred another spelling and signed his name without an h.
* ^ South African History Online, biography of Chief Albert John
* ^ Adams College, Historic Schools Restoration Project, accessed
30 August 2014.
* ^ Brittain 1964 , p. 197.
* ^ Amanda Porterfield, Healing in the History of Christianity,
Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 139.
* ^ "Winner of \'60 Peace Prize Is Train Victim",
* Benson, Mary (1963). Chief Albert Lutuli of South Africa. Oxford University Press. * Pillay, Gerald J. (1993). Voices of Liberation: Albert Lutuli. HSRC Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7969-1356-2 . * Wilburn, Kenneth (2014). "Albert Lutuli". In Frank N. Magill. The 20th Century Go-N: Dictionary of World Biography. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-74060-5 . * Brittain, Vera (1964). The Rebel Passion: A Short History of Some Pioneer Peacemakers. London: Allen & Unwin.